WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-zero cosmological constant

  1. The cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, F.

    1989-01-01

    Astronomical observations predict to an extremely accurate degree that the cosmological term in Einstein's equations should be zero. This conflicts with the predictions from particle theories of a non-zero cosmological term. Attempts to resolve this paradox range from arguments based on the anthropic principle to supersymmetric theories to quantum cosmological proposals. These approaches are discussed here and the history of the cosmological constant is reviewed. (author)

  2. The Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Sean M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the physics and cosmology of the cosmological constant. Focusing on recent developments, I present a pedagogical overview of cosmology in the presence of a cosmological constant, observational constraints on its magnitude, and the physics of a small (and potentially nonzero vacuum energy.

  3. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  4. Deconstructing the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Jejjala, V; Minic, D; Jejjala, Vishnu; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2003-01-01

    Deconstruction provides a novel way of dealing with the notoriously difficult ultraviolet problems of four-dimensional gravity. This approach also naturally leads to a new perspective on the holographic principle, tying it to the fundamental requirements of unitarity and diffeomorphism invariance, as well as to a new viewpoint on the cosmological constant problem. The numerical smallness of the cosmological constant is implied by a unique combination of holography and supersymmetry, opening a new window into the fundamental physics of the vacuum.

  5. Quantum torsion with non-zero standard deviation: Non-perturbative approach for cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir, E-mail: v.dzhunushaliev@gmail.com [Dept. Theor. and Nucl. Phys., KazNU, Almaty, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Institute for Basic Research, Eurasian National University, Astana, 010008 (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071 (Kyrgyzstan); Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Folomeev, Vladimir, E-mail: vfolomeev@mail.ru [Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071 (Kyrgyzstan); Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta, E-mail: jutta.kunz@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-02-12

    Cosmology with non-perturbative quantum corrections resulting from torsion is considered. It is shown that the evolution of closed, open and flat Universes is changed because of the presence of a non-zero dispersion of quantum torsion. The evolution of a Universe with quantum torsion and with one type of average curvature can be similar to the evolution of a Universe without quantum torsion and with another type of average curvature. For the description of the non-perturbative quantum torsion, a vector field approximation is applied.

  6. Scalar-tensor cosmology with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslanka, K.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with cosmological constant in the case of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model can be reduced to dynamical system of three differential equations with unknown functions H=R/R, THETA=phi/phi, S=e/phi. When new variables are introduced the system becomes more symmetrical and cosmological solutions R(t), phi(t), e(t) are found. It is shown that when cosmological constant is introduced large class of solutions which depend also on Dicke-Brans parameter can be obtained. Investigations of these solutions give general limits for cosmological constant and mean density of matter in plane model. (author)

  7. The Nature of the Cosmological Constant Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M. D.; Capistrano, A. J. S.; Monte, E. M.

    General relativity postulates the Minkowski space-time as the standard (flat) geometry against which we compare all curved space-times and also as the gravitational ground state where particles, quantum fields and their vacua are defined. On the other hand, experimental evidences tell that there exists a non-zero cosmological constant, which implies in a deSitter ground state, which not compatible with the assumed Minkowski structure. Such inconsistency is an evidence of the missing standard of curvature in Riemann's geometry, which in general relativity manifests itself in the form of the cosmological constant problem. We show how the lack of a curvature standard in Riemann's geometry can be fixed by Nash's theorem on metric perturbations. The resulting higher dimensional gravitational theory is more general than general relativity, similar to brane-world gravity, but where the propagation of the gravitational field along the extra dimensions is a mathematical necessity, rather than a postulate. After a brief introduction to Nash's theorem, we show that the vacuum energy density must remain confined to four-dimensional space-times, but the cosmological constant resulting from the contracted Bianchi identity represents a gravitational term which is not confined. In this case, the comparison between the vacuum energy and the cosmological constant in general relativity does not make sense. Instead, the geometrical fix provided by Nash's theorem suggests that the vacuum energy density contributes to the perturbations of the gravitational field.

  8. Cosmological constant as integration constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, H.-J.

    1994-08-01

    Einstein's field theory of elementary particles (Einstein 1919) yields black holes with a mass M approximately G-1 Lambda-1/2 c2 and a charge Q approximately G-1/2 Lambda-1/2 c2, their curvature radius is Lambda-1/2. Here Lambda is an integration constant of Einstein's 'trace-less' gravitation equations. The choice Lambda = G-1 h-1 c3 for this constant defines Planck ions and implies 'strong-gravity'. The choice Lambda = lambda = 3Hinf exp 2 c-2 (where Hinf means the Hubble parameter of a final de Sitter cosmos) involves 'weak-gravity' and describes an electro-vac spherical universe.

  9. Large scale geometry and evolution of a universe with radiation pressure and cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert; Coquereaux, Robert; Grossmann, Alex

    2000-01-01

    In view of new experimental results that strongly suggest a non-zero cosmological constant, it becomes interesting to revisit the Friedmann-Lemaitre model of evolution of a universe with cosmological constant and radiation pressure. In this paper, we discuss the explicit solutions for that model, and perform numerical explorations for reasonable values of cosmological parameters. We also analyse the behaviour of redshifts in such models and the description of ``very large scale geometrical features'' when analysed by distant observers.

  10. Cosmological Constant and Local Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, Jose; Mavromatos, Nick E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the linearization of Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant, by expanding the solution for the metric around a flat Minkowski space-time. We demonstrate that one can find consistent solutions to the linearized set of equations for the metric perturbations, in the Lorentz gauge, which are not spherically symmetric, but they rather exhibit a cylindrical symmetry. We find that the components of the gravitational field satisfying the appropriate Poisson equations have the property of ensuring that a scalar potential can be constructed, in which both contributions, from ordinary matter and $\\Lambda > 0$, are attractive. In addition, there is a novel tensor potential, induced by the pressure density, in which the effect of the cosmological constant is repulsive. We also linearize the Schwarzschild-de Sitter exact solution of Einstein's equations (due to a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem) in the domain between the two horizons. We manage to transform it first to a gauge in whic...

  11. Updated BBN bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry for non-zero θ13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on the cosmological lepton number from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), in light of recent evidences for a large value of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 , sin 2 θ 13 ≥0.01 at 2σ. The largest asymmetries for electron and μ, τ neutrinos compatible with 4 He and 2 H primordial yields are computed versus the neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing angles. The flavour oscillation dynamics is traced till the beginning of BBN and neutrino distributions after decoupling are numerically computed. The latter contains in general, non-thermal distortion due to the onset of flavour oscillations driven by solar squared mass difference in the temperature range where neutrino scatterings become inefficient to enforce thermodynamical equilibrium. Depending on the value of θ 13 , this translates into a larger value for the effective number of neutrinos, N eff . Upper bounds on this parameter are discussed for both neutrino mass hierarchies. Values for N eff which are large enough to be detectable by the Planck experiment are found only for the (presently disfavoured) range sin 2 θ 13 ≤0.01.

  12. Graviton fluctuations erase the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2017-10-01

    Graviton fluctuations induce strong non-perturbative infrared renormalization effects for the cosmological constant. The functional renormalization flow drives a positive cosmological constant towards zero, solving the cosmological constant problem without the need to tune parameters. We propose a simple computation of the graviton contribution to the flow of the effective potential for scalar fields. Within variable gravity, with effective Planck mass proportional to the scalar field, we find that the potential increases asymptotically at most quadratically with the scalar field. The solutions of the derived cosmological equations lead to an asymptotically vanishing cosmological ;constant; in the infinite future, providing for dynamical dark energy in the present cosmological epoch. Beyond a solution of the cosmological constant problem, our simplified computation also entails a sizeable positive graviton-induced anomalous dimension for the quartic Higgs coupling in the ultraviolet regime, substantiating the successful prediction of the Higgs boson mass within the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity.

  13. An approach to the cosmological constant problem(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Z-dot ytkow, Anna N.

    2005-01-01

    We argue that in the context of string theory a large number N of connected degenerate supersymmetric vacua will lead to a ground state for the universe with a small, non-zero cosmological constant. For concreteness, we imagine a history where quantum fluctuations in any one vacuum give an energy density ∼H 2 m pl 2 but the universe quickly cascades to a state of energy density ∼H 2 m pl 2 /N at the beginning of inflation. A similar process can occur at the electroweak and other phase transitions. The wavefunction of the universe becomes a superposition of many string vacua

  14. On special relativity with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hanying; Huang Chaoguang; Xu Zhan; Zhou Bin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate of invariant speed and length, we propose the theory of special relativity with cosmological constant SRc,R, in which the cosmological constant is linked with the invariant length. Its relation with the doubly special relativity is briefly mentioned

  15. The case for the cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I present a short overview of current observational results and theoretical models for a cosmological constant. The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (or -term) at the present epoch has to do with observations of high redshift Type Ia supernovae which suggest an accelerating universe.

  16. The case for the cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I present a short overview of current observational results and theoretical models for a cosmological constant. The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (orA-term) at the present epoch has to do with observations of high redshift Type Ia supernovae which suggest an accelerating universe.

  17. Non-Kaehler heterotic string solutions with non-zero fluxes and non-constant dilaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Marisa [Universidad del País Vasco,Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Departamento de Matemáticas,Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ivanov, Stefan [University of Sofia “St. Kl. Ohridski”,Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics,Blvd. James Bourchier 5, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Ugarte, Luis [Departamento de Matemáticas - I.U.M.A., Universidad de Zaragoza,Campus Plaza San Francisco, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vassilev, Dimiter [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131-0001 (United States)

    2014-06-12

    Conformally compact and complete smooth solutions to the Strominger system with non vanishing flux, non-trivial instanton and non-constant dilaton using the first Pontrjagin form of the (−)-connection on 6-dimensional non-Kähler nilmanifold are presented. In the conformally compact case the dilaton is determined by the real slices of the elliptic Weierstrass function. The dilaton of non-compact complete solutions is given by the fundamental solution of the Laplacian on R{sup 4}. All solutions satisfy the heterotic equations of motion up to the first order of α{sup ′}.

  18. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now.

  19. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Horatiu, E-mail: nastase@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, Sao Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Weltman, Amanda, E-mail: amanda.weltman@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2015-07-30

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  20. A natural cosmological constant from chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastase, Horatiu; Weltman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple model where the effective cosmological constant appears from chameleon scalar fields. For a Kachru–Kallosh–Linde–Trivedi (KKLT)-inspired form of the potential and a particular chameleon coupling to the local density, patches of approximately constant scalar field potential cluster around regions of matter with density above a certain value, generating the effect of a cosmological constant on large scales. This construction addresses both the cosmological constant problem (why Λ is so small, yet nonzero) and the coincidence problem (why Λ is comparable to the matter density now)

  1. Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Serrano, A. [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Bastos, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Robles-Pérez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.es [Centro de Física “Miguel Catalán”, Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estación Ecológica de Biocosmología, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellín (Spain); Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-02-12

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts.

  3. Interacting universes and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Robles-Pérez, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter it is studied the effects that an interaction scheme among universes can have in the values of their cosmological constants. In the case of two interacting universes, the value of the cosmological constant of one of the universes becomes very close to zero at the expense of an increasing value of the cosmological constant of the partner universe. In the more general case of a chain of N interacting universes with periodic boundary conditions, the spectrum of the Hamiltonian splits into a large number of levels, each of them associated with a particular value of the cosmological constant, that can be occupied by single universes revealing a collective behavior that plainly shows that the multiverse is much more than the mere sum of its parts

  4. Supersymmetric Dark Matter with a Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, J D

    1998-01-01

    Recent measurements of cosmological parameters from the microwave background radiation, type Ia supernovae, and the age of globular clusters help determine the relic matter density in the universe. It is first shown with mild cosmological assumptions that the relic matter density satisfies $\\Omega_M h^2 < 0.6$ independent of the cosmological constant and independent of the SNIa data. Including the SNIa data, the constraint becomes $\\Omega_M h^2 < 0.35$. This result is then applied to supersymmetric models motivated by generic features in supergravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. The result is an upper bound on gaugino masses within reach of the LHC and a 1.5 TeV lepton collider. Thus, cosmological considerations are beginning to limit the supersymmetric mass spectra in the experimentally verifiable range without recourse to finetuning arguments, and without assuming a zero cosmological constant.

  5. The cosmological constant and the pulsating universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangherlini, F. R.

    1991-02-01

    The author's recently described method for obtaining an upper bound for a recollapsing, closed universe with a positive cosmological constant is extended to obtain a lower bound for a negative Λ. The bounds are readily generalized to cosmologies of higher dimensions. As the radius of recollapse becomes infinite and the metric Minkowskian, the bounds shrink to zero. It is inferred that in a special relativistic theory, the cosmological term should vanish. A special relativistic proof of this is given based on requiring invariance under the "tilting" of the spacelike hypersurface. Some of the remaining problems and possible successes of the pulsating universe are also described. In the appendix, the well-known instability of the Einstein universe is briefly treated by the method used here to obtain bounds on the cosmological constant.

  6. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  7. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  8. Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Bousso, Raphael; Jordan, Stephen; Lackey, Brad

    2017-11-01

    Denef and Douglas have observed that in certain landscape models the problem of finding small values of the cosmological constant is a large instance of a problem that is hard for the complexity class NP (Nondeterministic Polynomial-time). The number of elementary operations (quantum gates) needed to solve this problem by brute force search exceeds the estimated computational capacity of the observable Universe. Here we describe a way out of this puzzling circumstance: despite being NP-hard, the problem of finding a small cosmological constant can be attacked by more sophisticated algorithms whose performance vastly exceeds brute force search. In fact, in some parameter regimes the average-case complexity is polynomial. We demonstrate this by explicitly finding a cosmological constant of order 10-120 in a randomly generated 1 09-dimensional Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Kachru landscape.

  9. Conformally invariant braneworld and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    A six-dimensional braneworld scenario based on a model describing the interaction of gravity, gauge fields and 3+1 branes in a conformally invariant way is described. The action of the model is defined using a measure of integration built of degrees of freedom independent of the metric. There is no need to fine tune any bulk cosmological constant or the tension of the two (in the scenario described here) parallel branes to obtain zero cosmological constant, the only solutions are those with zero 4D cosmological constant. The two extra dimensions are compactified in a 'football' fashion and the branes lie on the two opposite poles of the compact 'football-shaped' sphere

  10. The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  11. The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointing towards a global modification as being the most sensible option. The global nature of the cosmological constant problem is also emphasized, and as a result, the sequestering scenario is reviewed in some detail, demonstrating the cancellation of the Standard Model vacuum energy through a global modification of General Relativity.

  12. The case for the cosmological constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (orA-term) at the present epoch has to ... positive A-term leads to an increase in the luminosity distance and hence to a decline in the observed luminosity of high .... 0 leads to a longer age for the universe and could resolve the 'age problem' which has proved ...

  13. The cosmological constant and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrer, R.; Straumann, N.

    1990-01-01

    We derive a restrictive upper bound for the cosmological constant from the requirement that the formation of galaxies in a cold dark matter scenario should be compatible with the present observational limits for possible anisotropies of the microwave background. If the total density parameter Ω (including the vacuum energy) is equal to the critical value (Ω = 1), we find for the contribution Ω V of the vacuum energy density the conservative bound Ω V <0.7. (author)

  14. Cosmological constant, supersymmetry, nonassociativity, and big numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir [KazNU, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); IETP, Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2015-02-01

    The nonassociative generalization of supersymmetry is considered. It is shown that the associator of four supersymmetry generators has the coefficient ∝ ℎ/l{sub 0}{sup 2} where l0 is some characteristic length. Two cases are considered: (a) l{sub 0}{sup -2} coincides with the cosmological constant; (b) l{sub 0} is the classical radius of the electron. It is also shown that the scaled constant is of the order of 10{sup -120} for the first case and 10{sup -30} for the second case. The possible manifestation and smallness of nonassociativity is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Li, Miao, E-mail: asiahu@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: mli@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: linan@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: zhangzhh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω{sub hde} are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ{sup 2}{sub min}=426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07<Ω{sub Λ0}<0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ω{sub hde0}<0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model.

  16. Is cosmological constant needed in Higgs inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Jun Feng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of B-mode shows a very powerful constraint to theoretical inflation models through the measurement of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Higgs boson is the most likely candidate of the inflaton field. But usually, Higgs inflation models predict a small value of r, which is not quite consistent with the recent results from BICEP2. In this paper, we explored whether a cosmological constant energy component is needed to improve the situation. And we found the answer is yes. For the so-called Higgs chaotic inflation model with a quadratic potential, it predicts r≈0.2, ns≈0.96 with e-folds number N≈56, which is large enough to overcome the problems such as the horizon problem in the Big Bang cosmology. The required energy scale of the cosmological constant is roughly Λ∼(1014 GeV2, which means a mechanism is still needed to solve the fine-tuning problem in the later time evolution of the universe, e.g. by introducing some dark energy component.

  17. Positive Cosmological Constant and Quantum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix M. Lev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that quantum theory should proceed not from a spacetime background but from a Lie algebra, which is treated as a symmetry algebra. Then the fact that the cosmological constant is positive means not that the spacetime background is curved but that the de Sitter (dS algebra as the symmetry algebra is more relevant than the Poincare or anti de Sitter ones. The physical interpretation of irreducible representations (IRs of the dS algebra is considerably different from that for the other two algebras. One IR of the dS algebra splits into independent IRs for a particle and its antiparticle only when Poincare approximation works with a high accuracy. Only in this case additive quantum numbers such as electric, baryon and lepton charges are conserved, while at early stages of the Universe they could not be conserved. Another property of IRs of the dS algebra is that only fermions can be elementary and there can be no neutral elementary particles. The cosmological repulsion is a simple kinematical consequence of dS symmetry on quantum level when quasiclassical approximation is valid. Therefore the cosmological constant problem does not exist and there is no need to involve dark energy or other fields for explaining this phenomenon (in agreement with a similar conclusion by Bianchi and Rovelli.

  18. Holographic dark energy with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Nan; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the multiverse scenario, we study a heterotic dark energy model in which there are two parts, the first being the cosmological constant and the second being the holographic dark energy, thus this model is named the ΛHDE model. By studying the ΛHDE model theoretically, we find that the parameters d and Ω hde are divided into a few domains in which the fate of the universe is quite different. We investigate dynamical behaviors of this model, and especially the future evolution of the universe. We perform fitting analysis on the cosmological parameters in the ΛHDE model by using the recent observational data. We find the model yields χ 2 min =426.27 when constrained by Planck+SNLS3+BAO+HST, comparable to the results of the HDE model (428.20) and the concordant ΛCDM model (431.35). At 68.3% CL, we obtain −0.07<Ω Λ0 <0.68 and correspondingly 0.04<Ω hde0 <0.79, implying at present there is considerable degeneracy between the holographic dark energy and cosmological constant components in the ΛHDE model

  19. Implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant in higher dimensional cosmology and cosmological wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, El-Nabulsi Ahmad [Cheju National University (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Higher dimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for the cosmological constant term are analyzed. Three independent cosmological models are explored mainly: 1) In the first model, the effective cosmological constant was chosen to decay with times like {delta}{sub effective} = Ca{sup -2} + D(b/a{sub I}){sup 2} where a{sub I} is an arbitrary scale factor characterizing the isotropic epoch which proceeds the graceful exit period. Further, the extra-dimensional scale factor decays classically like b(t) approx. a{sup x}(t), x is a real negative number. 2) In the second model, we adopt in addition to {delta}{sub effective} = Ca{sup -2} + D(b/a{sub I}){sup 2} the phenomenological law b(t) = a(t)exp( -Qt) as we expect that at the origin of time, there is no distinction between the visible and extra dimensions; Q is a real number. 3) In the third model, we study a {delta} - decaying extra-dimensional cosmology with a static traversable wormhole in which the four-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime is subject to the conventional perfect fluid while the extra-dimensional part is endowed by an exotic fluid violating strong energy condition and where the cosmological constant in (3+n+1) is assumed to decays like {delta}(a) = 3Ca{sup -2}. The three models are discussed and explored in some details where many interesting points are revealed. (author)

  20. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  1. The cosmological constant in theories with finite spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, Janis

    2014-08-01

    We study the role of the cosmological constant in different theories with finite spacetime. The cosmological constant appears both as an initial condition and as a constant of integration. In the context of the cosmological constant problem a new model will be presented. This modification of general relativity generates a small, non-vanishing cosmological constant, which is radiatively stable. The dynamics of the expansion of the universe in this model will be analyzed. Eventually, we try to solve the emergent problems concerning the generation of accelerated expansion using a quintessence model of dark energy.

  2. Gravitational gauge fields and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe field theories for which the action is completely independent of the metric and connection of the space-time manifold. The metric in our approach is no more a fundamental field than a hadron field is a fundamental field in QCD. The fundamental fields in the action are O(5) gauge fields and combinations of these fields are interpreted as the metric and connection so that conventional general relativity is obtained. Remarkably, all renormalizable matter actions for scalar, spinor, and Yang-Mills gauge fields can be made metric independent. Significantly, we find a new elementary invariance of the action which implies the cosmological constant must vanish. Finally, we discuss the quantum theory resulting from these ideas

  3. On the substructure of the cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, G.; Gomez, C.; Zell, S.

    We summarize the findings of our paper arXiv:1701.08776 [hep-th]. We start by defining the quantum break-time. Once one understands a classical solution as expectation value of an underlying quantum state, it emerges as time-scale after which the true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. We apply this idea to de Sitter space. Following earlier work, we construct a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as coherent quantum state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all semi-classical calculations in de Sitter, such as thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S-matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the (1/N)-effects of back reaction to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N. We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: Older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10100 years old in its entire classical history.

  4. Higgs inflation and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The Higgs not only induces the masses of all SM particles, the Higgs, given its special mass value, is the natural candidate for the inflaton and in fact is ruling the evolution of the early universe, by providing the necessary dark energy which remains the dominant energy density. SM running couplings not only allow us to extrapolate SM physics up to the Planck scale, but equally important they are triggering the Higgs mechanism. This is possible by the fact that the bare mass term in the Higgs potential changes sign at about μ{sub 0}≅1.40 x 10{sup 16} GeV and in the symmetric phase is enhanced by quadratic terms in the Planck mass. Such a huge Higgs mass term is able to play a key role in triggering inflation in the early universe. In this article we extend our previous investigation by working out the details of a Higgs inflation scenario. We show how different terms contributing to the Higgs Lagrangian are affecting inflation. Given the SM and its extrapolation to scales μ>μ{sub 0} we find a calculable cosmological constant V(0) which is weakly scale dependent and actually remains large during inflation. This is different to the Higgs fluctuation field dependent ΔV(φ), which decays exponentially during inflation, and actually would not provide a sufficient amount of inflation. The fluctuation field has a different effective mass which shifts the bare Higgs transition point to a lower value μ'{sub 0} ≅7.7 x 10{sup 14} GeV. The vacuum energy V(0) being proportional to M{sub Pl}{sup 4} has a coefficient which vanishes near the Higgs transition point, such that the bare and the renormalized cosmological constant match at this point. The role of the Higgs in reheating and baryogenesis is emphasized.

  5. Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.

  6. Evolving Lorentzian wormholes supported by phantom matter and cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Campo, Sergio del; Minning, Paul; Salgado, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the possibility of sustaining an evolving wormhole via exotic matter made of phantom energy in the presence of a cosmological constant. We derive analytical evolving wormhole geometries by supposing that the radial tension of the phantom matter, which is negative to the radial pressure, and the pressure measured in the tangential directions have barotropic equations of state with constant state parameters. In this case the presence of a cosmological constant ensures accelerated expansion of the wormhole configurations. More specifically, for positive cosmological constant we have wormholes which expand forever and, for negative cosmological constant we have wormholes which expand to a maximum value and then recollapse. At spatial infinity the energy density and the pressures of the anisotropic phantom matter threading the wormholes vanish; thus these evolving wormholes are asymptotically vacuum Λ-Friedmann models with either open or closed or flat topologies.

  7. Implications of the Cosmological Constant for Spherically Symmetric Mass Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, scientists have made the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is increasing rather than decreasing. This acceleration leads to an additional term in Albert Einstein's field equations which describe general relativity and is known as the cosmological constant. This work explores the aftermath of a non-vanishing cosmological constant for relativistic spherically symmetric mass distributions, which are susceptible to change against Einstein's field equations. We introduce a stellar structure equation known as the Tolman-Oppenhiemer-Volkoff (TOV) equation modified for a cosmological constant, which is derived from Einstein's modified field equations. We solve this modified TOV equation for these spherically symmetric mass distributions and obtain stellar properties such as mass and radius and investigate changes that may occur depending on the value of the cosmological constant.

  8. The Turning Point for the Recent Acceleration of the Universe with a Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The turning point and acceleration expansion of the universe are investigated according to the standard cosmological theory with a non-zero cosmological constant. Choosing the Hubble constant H 0 , the radius of the present universe R 0 , and the density parameter in matter Ω M , 0 as three independent parameters, we have analytically examined the other properties of the universe such as the density parameter in dark energy, the cosmologi- cal constant, the mass of the universe, the turning point redshift, the age of the present universe, and the time-dependent radius, expansion rate, velocity, and acceleration pa- rameter of the universe. It is shown that the turning point redshift is only dependent of the density parameter in matter, not explicitly on the Hubble constant and the radius of the present universe. The universe turned its expansion from past deceleration to recent acceleration at the moment when its size was about 3 / 5 of the present size if the density parameter in matter is about 0.3 (or the turning point redshift is 0.67. The expansion rate is very large in the early period and decreases with time to approach the Hubble constant at the present time. The expansion velocity exceeds the light speed in the early period. It decreases to the minimum at the turning point and then increases with time. The minimum and present expansion velocities are determined with the independent parameters. The solution of time-dependent radius shows the universe expands all the time. The universe with a larger present radius, smaller Hubble constant, and / or smaller density parameter in matter is elder. The universe with smaller density parameter in matter accelerates recently in a larger rate but less than unity.

  9. A nonlocal approach to the cosmological constant problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Remmen, Grant N.

    2017-06-01

    We construct a model in which the cosmological constant is canceled from the gravitational equations of motion. Our model relies on two key ingredients: a nonlocal constraint on the action, which forces the spacetime average of the Lagrangian density to vanish, and a dynamical way for this condition to be satisfied classically with arbitrary matter content. We implement the former condition with a spatially constant Lagrange multiplier associated with the volume form and the latter by including a free four-form gauge field strength in the action. These two features are enough to remove the cosmological constant from the Einstein equation. The model is consistent with all cosmological and experimental bounds on modification of gravity and allows for both cosmic inflation and the present epoch of acceleration.

  10. Cosmic acceleration with a negative cosmological constant in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    We study gravitational theories with a cosmological constant and the Gauss-Bonnet curvature squared term and analyze the possibility of de Sitter expanding spacetime with a constant internal space. We find that there are two branches of the de Sitter solutions: both the curvature of the internal space and the cosmological constant are (1) positive and (2) negative. From the stability analysis, we show that the de Sitter solution of the case (1) is unstable, while that in the case (2) is stable. Namely de Sitter solution in the present system is stable if the cosmological constant is negative. We extend our analysis to the gravitational theories with higher-order Lovelock curvature terms. Although the existence and the stability of the de Sitter solutions are very complicated and highly depend on the coupling constants, there exist stable de Sitter solutions similar to the case (2). We also find de Sitter solutions with Hubble scale much smaller than the scale of a cosmological constant, which may explain a discrepancy between an inflation energy scale and the Planck scale.

  11. Critique of Coleman's Theory of the Vanishing Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    In these lectures I would like to review some of the criticisms to the Coleman worm-hole theory of the vanishing cosmological constant. In particular, I would like to focus on the most fundamental assumption that the path integral over topologies defines a probability for the cosmological constant which has the form EXP(A) with A being the Baum-Hawking-Coleman saddle point. Coleman argues that the euclideam path integral over all geometries may be dominated by special configurations which consist of large smooth "spheres" connected by any number of narrow wormholes. Formally summing up such configurations gives a very divergent expression for the path integral…

  12. Identifying and eliminating the problem with Einstein's cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Zachary

    2005-12-01

    The cosmological constant, L, was first introduced into Einstein's field equations in the early 20 th century. It was introduced as a quantity of outward-pushing energy in space that would counteract the contracting force of gravity thereby keeping the universe in a balanced and static state. Einstein willingly removed it once the universe was observed to be dynamic rather than static. However, as the decades have gone by, L has maintained its supporters and has continually been reintroduced to solve problems in cosmology. Presently, there is good reason to believe that L or something like it is indeed present in our universe. In the 1960s, in an effort to provide a physical basis for L, particle physicists turned to quantum vacuum energy and have since estimated a value for L to be ~ 10 110 erg/cm 3 , which happens to be significantly greater than its observationally constrained value of ~ 10 10 erg/cm 3 . This discrepancy of 120 orders of magnitude has come to be known as the cosmological constant problem. Any effort to resolve the inconsistency must also account for the various observations we attribute to L, such as cosmic inflation and cosmic acceleration. To date, there are two basic approaches to resolving the cosmological constant problem that we may call the Identity approach and the Eliminativist approach. The Identity approach entails that vacuum energy is responsible for all the relevant observations and the problem is to be solved by some cancellation mechanism within the internal components of the vacuum. The Eliminativist approach explicitly rejects the reality and cosmological efficacy of vacuum energy, seeks alternative explanations for the observations and eliminates the cosmological constant problem by eliminating the cosmological constant. The benefit of having a crisis between these two views at this particular stage in cosmology's history is that they can be tested against each other in an experimental situation. Whatever the outcome of the

  13. Cosmic Explosions, Life in the Universe, and the Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Tsvi; Jimenez, Raul; Cuesta, Antonio J; Simpson, Fergus; Verde, Licia

    2016-02-26

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are copious sources of gamma rays whose interaction with a planetary atmosphere can pose a threat to complex life. Using recent determinations of their rate and probability of causing massive extinction, we explore what types of universes are most likely to harbor advanced forms of life. We use cosmological N-body simulations to determine at what time and for what value of the cosmological constant (Λ) the chances of life being unaffected by cosmic explosions are maximized. Life survival to GRBs favors Lambda-dominated universes. Within a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, the likelihood of life survival to GRBs is governed by the value of Λ and the age of the Universe. We find that we seem to live in a favorable point in this parameter space that minimizes the exposure to cosmic explosions, yet maximizes the number of main sequence (hydrogen-burning) stars around which advanced life forms can exist.

  14. The cosmological constant. A small addition with a great effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, G.

    1999-01-01

    The consequences of a cosmological constant Λ to cosmological models on the one hand and to Newton's gravitational law in the weak field expansion on the other hand are discussed. In case of a negative Λ with Λ∼10 -56 cm -2 the universe is open but does not expand forever. Furthermore, its age is compatible with the age of the oldest globular clusters. On the other hand, Newton's gravitational law is modified by an additional attractive force term linearly increasing woth the distance. This term acts only over very large distances. If one assumes a value Λ∼=-10 -56 cm -2 the additional term acts for stars over a characteristic scale of about 120 pc and for galaxies over a characteristic scale of about 0.8 Mpc. A positive cosmological constant Λ∼=-10 -56 cm -2 leads to an additional repulsive force which would have prevented the existence of galaxy clusters

  15. TASI Lectures on the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2007-08-30

    The energy density of the vacuum, Lambda, is at least 60 orders of magnitude smaller than several known contributions to it. Approaches to this problem are tightly constrained by data ranging from elementary observations to precision experiments. Absent overwhelming evidence to the contrary, dark energy can only be interpreted as vacuum energy, so the venerable assumption that Lambda=0 conflicts with observation. The possibility remains that Lambda is fundamentally variable, though constant over large spacetime regions. This can explain the observed value, but only in a theory satisfying a number of restrictive kinematic and dynamical conditions. String theory offers a concrete realization through its landscape of metastable vacua.

  16. Dynamical black rings with a positive cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    We construct dynamical black ring solutions in the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell system with a positive cosmological constant and investigate the geometrical structure. The solutions describe the physical process such that a thin black ring at early time shrinks and changes into a single black hole as time increases. We also discuss the multiblack rings and the coalescence of them.

  17. On the cosmological constant in the heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, E.; Iengo, R.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the possible physical assumptions which can be made in the heterotic string theory in order to derive the vanishing of the cosmological constant within the theory of modular forms on the moduli space. It seems that more mathematical information is needed to reach a definite result. (author)

  18. A comment on technical naturalness and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a model of dynamical relaxation of the cosmological constant. Technical naturalness of the model and the present value of the vacuum energy density imply an upper bound on the supersymmetry breaking scale and the reheating temperature at the TeV scale

  19. A diagrammatic derivation of Coleman's vanishing cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Akio.

    1988-09-01

    We present an alternative derivation of Coleman's expression for cosmological constant by summing over topologies of space-time in the wormhole dominance approximation. It is pointed out that the correlation between disconnected spaces, if any, vanishes by Coleman's mechanism. (author)

  20. Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant: A Brief Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The recently observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe is a topic of intense interest. The favoured causes are the "cosmological constant" or "dark energy". The former, which appears in the Einstein equations as the term [lambda]g[subscript [mu]v], provides an extremely simple, well-defined mechanism for the acceleration. However,…

  1. The cosmological constant, branes and non-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautason, Fridhrik Freyr

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we derive an equation for the classical cosmological constant in general string compactifications by employing scaling symmetries present in string theory. We find that in heterotic string theory, a perturbatively small, but non-vanishing, cosmological constant is impossible unless non-perturbative and/or string loop corrections are taken into account. In type II string theory we show that the classical cosmological constant is given by a sum of two terms, the source actions evaluated on-shell, and a certain combination of non-vanishing fluxes integrated over spacetime. In many cases we can express the classical cosmological constant in terms of only the source contributions by exploiting two scaling symmetries. This result can be used in two ways. First one can simply predict the classical cosmological constant in a given setup without solving all equations of motion. A second application is to give constraints on the near brane behavior of supergravity fields when the cosmological constant is known. In particular we motivate that energy densities of some fields diverge in the well-known KKLT scenario for de Sitter solutions in type IIB string theory. More precisely, we show, using our results and minimal assumptions, that energy densities of the three-form fluxes diverge in the near-source region of internal space. This divergence is unusual, since these fields do not directly couple to the source, and has been interpreted as a hint of instability of the solution. In the last chapter of the thesis we discuss the worldvolume actions of exotic five-branes. Using a specific chain of T- and S-dualities in a spacetime with two circular isometries, we derive the DBI and WZ actions of the so-called 5 2 2 - and 5 2 3 -brane. These actions describe the dynamics of the branes as well as their couplings to the ten-dimensional gauge potentials. We propose a modified Bianchi identity for the non-geometric Q-flux due to one of the branes. Q-flux often appears

  2. Relaxing neutrino mass bounds by a running cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Schrempp, L.

    2007-11-15

    We establish an indirect link between relic neutrinos and the dark energy sector which originates from the vacuum energy contributions of the neutrino quantum fields. Via renormalization group effects they induce a running of the cosmological constant with time which dynamically influences the evolution of the cosmic neutrino background. We demonstrate that the resulting reduction of the relic neutrino abundance allows to largely evade current cosmological neutrino mass bounds and discuss how the scenario might be probed by the help of future large scale structure surveys and Planck data. (orig.)

  3. Exacerbating the Cosmological Constant Problem with Interacting Dark Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M C David

    2017-01-06

    Future cosmological surveys will probe the expansion history of the Universe and constrain phenomenological models of dark energy. Such models do not address the fine-tuning problem of the vacuum energy, i.e., the cosmological constant problem (CCP), but can make it spectacularly worse. We show that this is the case for "interacting dark energy" models in which the masses of the dark matter states depend on the dark energy sector. If realized in nature, these models have far-reaching implications for proposed solutions to the CCP that require the number of vacua to exceed the fine-tuning of the vacuum energy density. We show that current estimates of the number of flux vacua in string theory, N_{vac}∼O(10^{272 000}), are far too small to realize certain simple models of interacting dark energy and solve the cosmological constant problem anthropically. These models admit distinctive observational signatures that can be targeted by future gamma-ray observatories, hence making it possible to observationally rule out the anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem in theories with a finite number of vacua.

  4. Non-minimally coupled varying constants quantum cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcerzak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We consider gravity theory with varying speed of light and varying gravitational constant. Both constants are represented by non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We examine the cosmological evolution in the near curvature singularity regime. We find that at the curvature singularity the speed of light goes to infinity while the gravitational constant vanishes. This corresponds to the Newton's Mechanics limit represented by one of the vertex of the Bronshtein-Zelmanov-Okun cube [1,2]. The cosmological evolution includes both the pre-big-bang and post-big-bang phases separated by the curvature singularity. We also investigate the quantum counterpart of the considered theory and find the probability of transition of the universe from the collapsing pre-big-bang phase to the expanding post-big-bang phase

  5. Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.D.

    1979-01-01

    Progress made by this Commission over the period 1976-1978 is reviewed. Topics include the Hubble constant, deceleration parameter, large-scale distribution of matter in the universe, radio astronomy and cosmology, space astronomy and cosmology, formation of galaxies, physics near the cosmological singularity, and unconventional cosmological models. (C.F.)

  6. Quantum deformation of quantum cosmology: A framework to discuss the cosmological constant problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, S.; Capistrano, A. J. S.; Moniz, P. V.

    2017-12-01

    We endorse the context that the cosmological constant problem is a quantum cosmology issue. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the q-deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation of a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic Universe in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field. Specifically, the quantum deformed Universe is a quantized minisuperspace model constructed from quantum Heisenberg-Weyl Uq(h4) and Uq(su(1 , 1)) groups. These intrinsic mathematical features allow to establish that (i) the scale factor, the scalar field and corresponding momenta are quantized and (ii) the phase space has a non-equidistance lattice structure. On the other hand, such quantum group structure provides us a new framework to discuss the cosmological constant problem. Subsequently, we show that a ultraviolet cutoff can be obtained at 10-3 eV, i.e., at a scale much larger than the expected Planck scale. In addition, an infrared cutoff, at the size of the observed Universe, emerges from within such quantum deformation of Universe. In other words, the spectrum of the scale factor is upper bounded. Moreover, we show that the emerged cosmological horizon is a quantum sphere Sq2 or, alternatively, a fuzzy sphere SF2 which explicitly exhibits features of the holographic principle. The corresponding number of fundamental cells equals the dimension of the Hilbert space and hence, the cosmological constant can be presented as a consequence of the quantum deformation of the FLRW minisuperspace.

  7. On Semi-classical Degravitation and the Cosmological Constant Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Subodh P

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we discuss a candidate mechanism through which one might address the various cosmological constant problems. We first observe that the renormalization of gravitational couplings (induced by integrating out various matter fields) manifests non-local modifications to Einstein's equations as quantum corrected equations of motion. That is, at the loop level, matter sources curvature through a gravitational coupling that is a non-local function of the covariant d'Alembertian. If the functional form of the resulting Newton's `constant' is such that it annihilates very long wavelength sources, but reduces to $1/M^2_{pl}$ ($M_{pl}$ being the 4d Planck mass) for all sources with cosmologically observable wavelengths, we would have a complimentary realization of the degravitation paradigm-- a realization through which its non-linear completion and the corresponding modified Bianchi identities are readily understood. We proceed to consider various theories whose coupling to gravity may a priori induce no...

  8. Small cosmological constant from the QCD trace anomaly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    According to recent astrophysical observations the large scale mean pressure of our present Universe is negative suggesting a positive cosmological constant-like term. The issue of whether nonperturbative effects of self-interacting quantum fields in curved space-times may yield a significant contribution is addressed. Focusing on the trace anomaly of quantum chromodynamics, a preliminary estimate of the expected order of magnitude yields a remarkable coincidence with the empirical data, indicating the potential relevance of this effect

  9. Superconducting loop quantum gravity and the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon H.S. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Physics, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)], E-mail: stephonalexander@mac.com; Calcagni, Gianluca [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: gianluca@gravity.psu.edu

    2009-03-02

    We argue that the cosmological constant is exponentially suppressed in a candidate ground state of loop quantum gravity as a nonperturbative effect of a holographic Fermi-liquid theory living on a two-dimensional spacetime. Ashtekar connection components, corresponding to degenerate gravitational configurations breaking large gauge invariance and CP symmetry, behave as composite fermions that condense as in Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity. Cooper pairs admit a description as wormholes on a de Sitter boundary.

  10. Quantum groups and noncommutative spacetimes with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, A.; Gutiérrez-Sagredo, I.; Herranz, F. J.; Meusburger, C.; Naranjo, P.

    2017-08-01

    Noncommutative spacetimes are widely believed to model some properties of the quantum structure of spacetime at the Planck regime. In this contribution the construction of (anti-)de Sitter noncommutative spacetimes obtained through quantum groups is reviewed. In this approach the quantum deformation parameter z is related to a Planck scale, and the cosmological constant plays the role of a second deformation parameter of geometric nature, whose limit Λ → 0 provides the corresponding noncommutative Minkowski spacetimes.

  11. Compactification over coset spaces with torsion and vanishing cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batakis, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the compactification of ten-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theories over non-symmetric, six-dimensional homogeneous coset spaces with torsion. We examine the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations of motion requiring vanishing cosmological constant at ten and four dimensions and we present examples of compactifying solutions. It appears that the introduction of more than one radii in the coset space, when possible, may be mandatory for the existence of compactifying solutions. (orig.)

  12. Compactification over coset spaces with torsion and vanishing cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batakis, N.A.; Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.; Kapetanakis, D.

    1989-04-13

    We consider the compactification of ten-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theories over non-symmetric, six-dimensional homogeneous coset spaces with torsion. We examine the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations of motion requiring vanishing cosmological constant at ten and four dimensions and we present examples of compactifying solutions. It appears that the introduction of more than one radii in the coset space, when possible, may be mandatory for the existence of compactifying solutions.

  13. Direct Cryptographic Computation of the Cosmological Constant $\\Omega_\\Lambda$

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Charles Kirkham

    2012-01-01

    A direct cryptographic computation of the Cosmological Constant {\\Omega}{\\Lambda} based solely on a physically anchored prime modulus that stands in full agreement with observational data on {\\Omega}{\\Lambda} and {\\Omega}m and the conclusion of a flat universe ({\\Omega}{\\Lambda}+{\\Omega}m=1.0) is demonstrated. The simplification derives from the fact that {\\Omega}{\\Lambda} defines the symmetry point of the cryptographic system.

  14. How universe evolves with cosmological and gravitational constants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She-Sheng Xue

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With a basic varying space–time cutoff ℓ˜, we study a regularized and quantized Einstein–Cartan gravitational field theory and its domains of ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir≳0 and ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv≈4/3 of the gravitational gauge coupling g=(4/3G/GNewton. Because the fundamental operators of quantum gravitational field theory are dimension-2 area operators, the cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the squared correlation length Λ∝ξ−2. The correlation length ξ characterizes an infrared size of a causally correlate patch of the universe. The cosmological constant Λ and the gravitational constant G are related by a generalized Bianchi identity. As the basic space–time cutoff ℓ˜ decreases and approaches to the Planck length ℓpl, the universe undergoes inflation in the domain of the ultraviolet-unstable fixed point gir, then evolves to the low-redshift universe in the domain of ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv. We give the quantitative description of the low-redshift universe in the scaling-invariant domain of the ultraviolet-stable fixed point guv, and its deviation from the ΛCDM can be examined by low-redshift (z≲1 cosmological observations, such as supernova Type Ia.

  15. Linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sven; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We study the dynamical behaviour of gauge-invariant linear perturbations in spherically symmetric dust cosmologies including a cosmological constant. In contrast to spatially homogeneous FLRW models, the reduced degree of spatial symmetry causes a non-trivial dynamical coupling of gauge-invariant quantities already at first order perturbation theory and the strength and influence of this coupling on the spacetime evolution is investigated here. We present results on the underlying dynamical equations augmented by a cosmological constant and integrate them numerically. We also present a method to derive cosmologically relevant initial variables for this setup. Estimates of angular power spectra for each metric variable are computed and evaluated on the central observer's past null cone. By comparing the full evolution to the freely evolved initial profiles, the coupling strength will be determined for a best fit radially inhomogeneous patch obtained in previous works (see [1]). We find that coupling effects are not noticeable within the cosmic variance limit and can therefore safely be neglected for a relevant cosmological scenario. On the contrary, we find very strong coupling effects in a best fit spherical void model matching the distance redshift relation of SNe which is in accordance with previous findings using parametric void models.

  16. Inflationary phase in Brans-Dicke cosmology with a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marcelo Samuel

    1989-12-01

    It has been shown earlier that, for a perfect fluid, a perfect gas law of state, and the Robertson-Walker metric, an exponential phase in Brans-Dicke cosmology is possible, with both positive pressure and density, but not with the violated energy condition p = -ρ. We demonstrate in this paper that the inclusion of a cosmological constant into the theory does not change that picture. Permanent address: Departamento de Ciencias Exatas da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ceincias e Letras da FURJ, Joinville, SC 89200, Brazil.

  17. Relaxing the cosmological constant: a proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberte, Lasma [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Creminelli, Paolo; Khmelnitsky, Andrei [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Pirtskhalava, David [Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,56200, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-12-06

    We propose a technically natural scenario whereby an initially large cosmological constant (c.c.) is relaxed down to the observed value due to the dynamics of a scalar evolving on a very shallow potential. The model crucially relies on a sector that violates the null energy condition (NEC) and gets activated only when the Hubble rate becomes sufficiently small — of the order of the present one. As a result of NEC violation, this low-energy universe evolves into inflation, followed by reheating and the standard Big Bang cosmology. The symmetries of the theory force the c.c. to be the same before and after the NEC-violating phase, so that a late-time observer sees an effective c.c. of the correct magnitude. Importantly, our model allows neither for eternal inflation nor for a set of possible values of dark energy, the latter fixed by the parameters of the theory.

  18. Maximum tension: with and without a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.; Gibbons, G. W.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss various examples and ramifications of the conjecture that there exists a maximum force (or tension) in general relativistic systems. We contrast this situation with that in Newtonian gravity, where no maximum force exists, and relate it to the existence of natural units defined by constants of Nature and the fact that the Planck units of force and power do not depend on the Planck constant. We discuss how these results change in higher dimensions where the Planck units of force are no longer non-quantum. We discuss the changes that might occur to the conjecture if a positive cosmological constant exists and derive a maximum force bound using the Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole.

  19. Implications of a positive cosmological constant for general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    Most of the literature on general relativity over the last century assumes that the cosmological constant Λ is zero. However, by now independent observations have led to a consensus that the dynamics of the universe is best described by Einstein’s equations with a small but positive Λ . Interestingly, this requires a drastic revision of conceptual frameworks commonly used in general relativity, no matter how small Λ is. We first explain why, and then summarize the current status of generalizations of these frameworks to include a positive Λ , focusing on gravitational waves.

  20. On Vanishing Two Loop Cosmological Constants in Nonsupersymmetric Strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, S

    1998-10-22

    It has recently been suggested that in certain special nonsupersymmetric type II string compactifications, at least the first two perturbative contributions to the cosmological constant Lambda vanish. Support for perturbative vanishing beyond 1-loop (as well as evidence for the absence of some nonperturbative contributions) has come from duality arguments. There was also a direct 2-loop computation which was incomplete; in this note we explain the deficiency of the previous 2-loop calculation and discuss the complete 2-loop computation in two different models. The corrected analysis yields a vanishing 2-loop contribution to Lambda in these models.

  1. Modified arctan-gravity model mimicking a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2014-03-01

    A novel theory of F(R) gravity with the Lagrangian density L =[R-(b/β)arctan(βR)]/(2κ2) is analyzed. Constant curvature solutions of the model are found, and the potential of the scalar field and the mass of a scalar degree of freedom in Einstein's frame are derived. The cosmological parameters of the model are calculated, which are in agreement with the PLANCK data. Critical points for the de Sitter phase and the matter dominated epoch of autonomous equations are obtained and studied.

  2. Implications of a positive cosmological constant for general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    Most of the literature on general relativity over the last century assumes that the cosmological constant [Formula: see text] is zero. However, by now independent observations have led to a consensus that the dynamics of the universe is best described by Einstein's equations with a small but positive [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, this requires a drastic revision of conceptual frameworks commonly used in general relativity, no matter how small [Formula: see text] is. We first explain why, and then summarize the current status of generalizations of these frameworks to include a positive [Formula: see text], focusing on gravitational waves.

  3. Topological structure of the vacuum, cosmological constant and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharth, B. G.; Das, A.; Das, C. R.; Laperashvili, L. V.; Nielsen, H. B.

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we present a theory of cosmological constant and dark energy (DE), based on the topological structure of the vacuum. The multiple point principle (MPP) is reviewed. It demonstrates the existence of the two vacua into the SM. The Froggatt-Nielsen’s prediction of the top-quark and Higgs masses is given in the assumption that there exist two degenerate vacua in the SM. This prediction was improved by the next-order calculations. We also considered Sidharth’s theory of cosmological constant based on the noncommutative geometry of the Planck scale space-time, what gives an extremely small DE density providing the accelerating expansion of the Universe. Theory of two degenerate vacua — the Planck scale phase and electroweak (EW) phase — is also reviewed, topological defects in these vacua are investigated, also the Compton wavelength phase suggested by Sidharth is discussed. A general theory of the phase transition and the problem of the vacuum stability in the SM is reviewed. Assuming the existence of a new scalar S bound state 6t + 6t¯, earlier predicted by Froggatt, Nielsen and Laperashvili, we try to provide the vacuum stability in the SM and exact accuracy of the MPP.

  4. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the Causal Entropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-05-01

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, the principle asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach-weighting by the number of"observers per baryon" -- is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  5. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the CausalEntropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-02-20

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, it asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach--weighting by the number of ''observers per baryon''--is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  6. Nonsingular electrovacuum solutions with dynamically generated cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, E.I., E-mail: guendel@bgumail.bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física Teórica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia – CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: drubiera@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Vasihoun, M., E-mail: maharyw@gmail.com [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-11-04

    We consider static spherically symmetric configurations in a Palatini extension of General Relativity including R{sup 2} and Ricci-squared terms, which is known to replace the central singularity by a wormhole in the electrovacuum case. We modify the matter sector of the theory by adding to the usual Maxwell term a nonlinear electromagnetic extension which is known to implement a confinement mechanism in flat space. One feature of the resulting theory is that the nonlinear electric field leads to a dynamically generated cosmological constant. We show that with this matter source the solutions of the model are asymptotically de Sitter and possess a wormhole topology. We discuss in some detail the conditions that guarantee the absence of singularities and of traversable wormholes.

  7. Gravity with a cosmological constant from rational curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics,University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-16

    We give a new formula for all tree-level correlators of boundary field insertions in gauged N=8 supergravity in AdS{sub 4}; this is an analogue of the tree-level S-matrix in anti-de Sitter space. The formula is written in terms of rational maps from the Riemann sphere to twistor space, with no reference to bulk perturbation theory. It is polynomial in the cosmological constant, and equal to the classical scattering amplitudes of supergravity in the flat space limit. The formula is manifestly supersymmetric, independent of gauge choices on twistor space, and equivalent to expressions computed via perturbation theory at 3-point (MHV)-bar and n-point MHV. We also show that the formula factorizes and obeys BCFW recursion in twistor space.

  8. On globally static and stationary cosmologies with or without a cosmological constant and the dark energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of spatially averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies in classical general relativity, effective Einstein equations govern the regional and the global dynamics of averaged scalar variables of cosmological models. A particular solution may be characterized by a cosmic equation of state. In this paper, it is pointed out that a globally static averaged dust model is conceivable without employing a compensating cosmological constant. Much in the spirit of Einstein's original model we discuss consequences for the global, but also for the regional properties of this cosmology. We then consider the wider class of globally stationary cosmologies that are conceivable in the presented framework. All these models are based on exact solutions of the averaged Einstein equations and provide examples of cosmologies in an out-of-equilibrium state, which we characterize by an information-theoretical measure. It is shown that such cosmologies preserve high-magnitude kinematical fluctuations and so tend to maintain their global properties. The same is true for a Λ-driven cosmos in such a state despite exponential expansion. We outline relations to inflationary scenarios and put the dark energy problem into perspective. Here, it is argued, on the grounds of the discussed cosmologies, that a classical explanation of dark energy through backreaction effects is theoretically conceivable, if the matter-dominated universe emerged from a non-perturbative state in the vicinity of the stationary solution. We also discuss a number of caveats that furnish strong counter arguments in the framework of structure formation in a perturbed Friedmannian model

  9. Galaxy Formation Efficiency and the Multiverse Explanation of the Cosmological Constant with EAGLE Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Luke A.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2018-04-01

    Models of the very early universe, including inflationary models, are argued to produce varying universe domains with different values of fundamental constants and cosmic parameters. Using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code from the EAGLE collaboration, we investigate the effect of the cosmological constant on the formation of galaxies and stars. We simulate universes with values of the cosmological constant ranging from Λ = 0 to Λ0 × 300, where Λ0 is the value of the cosmological constant in our Universe. Because the global star formation rate in our Universe peaks at t = 3.5 Gyr, before the onset of accelerating expansion, increases in Λ of even an order of magnitude have only a small effect on the star formation history and efficiency of the universe. We use our simulations to predict the observed value of the cosmological constant, given a measure of the multiverse. Whether the cosmological constant is successfully predicted depends crucially on the measure. The impact of the cosmological constant on the formation of structure in the universe does not seem to be a sharp enough function of Λ to explain its observed value alone.

  10. The smallnes of the cosmological constant and the principle of naturalness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.J.; Wang, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of inflationary cosmology, they are given temperature-dependent values of the cosmological constant lambda, the value lambda(2.7 K) of which is compatible with the present observational upper limit. It is found that the smallness of lambda is theoretically as well as phenomenologically natural

  11. Quantized cosmological constant in 1+1 dimensional quantum gravity with coupled scalar matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, Jan; Zonetti, Simone, E-mail: Jan.Govaerts@uclouvain.be, E-mail: Simone.Zonetti@uclouvain.be [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique (IRMP), Universite catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-09-21

    A two-dimensional matter-coupled model of quantum gravity is studied in the Dirac approach to constrained dynamics in the presence of a cosmological constant. It is shown that after partial fixing to the conformal gauge, the requirement of a quantum realization of the conformal algebra for physical quantum states of the fields naturally constrains the cosmological constant to take values in a well-determined and mostly discrete spectrum. Furthermore, the contribution of the quantum fluctuations of the single dynamical degree of freedom in the gravitational sector, namely the conformal mode, to the cosmological constant is negative, in contrast to the positive contributions of the quantum fluctuations of the matter fields, possibly opening an avenue towards addressing the cosmological constant problem in a more general context.

  12. A positive cosmological constant in string theory through AdS/CFT wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2001-01-01

    There are two important examples of physical systems which violate the strong energy condition: Universes (like, it would seem, our own) with a positive cosmological constant, and wormholes. We suggest that a positive cosmological constant can be reconciled with string theory by considering wormholes in string backgrounds. This is argued in two directions: first, we show that brane-worlds with positive cosmological constants give rise to bulk singularities which are best resolved by embedding the brane-world in an AdS/CFT wormhole; and second, for the simplest kind of wormhole in an asymptotically AdS space, we show that the IR stability of the matter needed to keep the wormhole open requires the presence of a brane-world. UV stability conditions then forbid a negative cosmological constant on the brane-world

  13. Ground State of the Universe and the Cosmological Constant. A Nonperturbative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Qureshi, Babar

    2016-02-12

    The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant and time. This result provides a new perspective on the relation between time, the cosmological constant, and vacuum energy.

  14. Nonlocal modified Einstein's field equation and geometric origin of a small cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    We show that the description of the spacetime in terms of backward-forward extension of its corresponding metric leads to the geometric origin of a small cosmological constant. The nonlocal cosmological constant appears in the Einstein's field equation and its mathematical expression depends on the nonlocal metric, Ricci scalar and the infinitesimal nonlocal parameter introduced in the theory. The modified theory has interesting consequences in FRW cosmology, mainly a nonsingular universe, the occurrence of a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe and an early universe dominated by a negative energy density and a positive pressure. Our model can explain the acceleration of the universe without a fine-tuned cosmological constant Λ.

  15. Emergence of the product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh; Joe, Anton; Singh, Parampreet

    2015-01-01

    The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski–Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to Einstein’s field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski–Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the ‘charged’ Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be interpreted as an anti Bertotti–Robinson spacetime with a cosmological constant. These spacetimes are ‘charged’ in the sense that the energy–momentum tensor that satisfies Einstein’s field equations is formally the same as the one for the uniform electromagnetic field, albeit it has a purely quantum geometric origin. The asymptotic spacetimes also have an emergent cosmological constant which is different in magnitude, and sometimes even its sign, from the cosmological constant in the Kantowski–Sachs and the interior of higher genus black hole metrics. With a fine tuning of the latter cosmological constant, we show that ‘uncharged’ Nariai, and anti Bertotti–Robinson spacetimes with a vanishing emergent cosmological constant can also be obtained. (paper)

  16. Newton law corrections and instabilities in f(R) gravity with the effective cosmological constant epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2007-01-01

    We consider class of modified f(R) gravities with the effective cosmological constant epoch at the early and late universe. Such models pass most of solar system tests as well they satisfy to cosmological bounds. Despite their very attractive properties, it is shown that one realistic class of such models may lead to significant Newton law corrections at large cosmological scales. Nevertheless, these corrections are small at solar system as well as at the future universe. Another realistic model with acceptable Newton law regime shows the matter instability

  17. Resummed Quantum Gravity Prediction for the Cosmological Constant and Constraints on SUSY GUTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. F. L.

    2014-03-01

    We use our resummed quantum gravity approach to Einstein's general theory of relativity in the context of the Planck scale cosmology formulation of Bonanno and Reuter to estimate the value of the cosmological constant as ρΛ = (0.0024 ev)4. We show that the closeness of this estimate to experiment constrains susy GUT models. Work supported in part by DoE grant DE-FG02-09ER41600 and by the CERN TH Unit.

  18. Cosmological constant from a deformation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Garattini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the Wheeler–DeWitt equation modified by a deformation of the second quantized canonical commutation relations. Such modified commutation relations are induced by a Generalized Uncertainty Principle. Since the Wheeler–DeWitt equation can be related to a Sturm–Liouville problem where the associated eigenvalue can be interpreted as the cosmological constant, it is possible to explicitly relate such an eigenvalue to the deformation parameter of the corresponding Wheeler–DeWitt equation. The analysis is performed in a Mini-Superspace approach where the scale factor appears as the only degree of freedom. The deformation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation gives rise to a Cosmological Constant even in absence of matter fields. As a Cosmological Constant cannot exist in absence of the matter fields in the undeformed Mini-Superspace approach, so the existence of a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant is a direct consequence of the deformation by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle. In fact, we are able to demonstrate that a non-vanishing Cosmological Constant exists even in the deformed flat space. We also discuss the consequences of this deformation on the big bang singularity.

  19. Generalized gravitational S-duality and the cosmological constant problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Ulrich

    2005-05-01

    We study S-duality transformations that mix the Riemann tensor with the field strength of a 3-form field. The dual of an (A)dS spacetime—with arbitrary curvature—is seen to be flat Minkowski spacetime if the 3-form field has vanishing field strength before the duality transformation. It is discussed whether matter could couple to the dual metric, related to the Riemann tensor after a duality transformation. This possibility is supported by the facts that the Schwarzschild metric can be obtained as a suitable contraction of the dual of a Taub-NUT-AdS metric, and that metrics describing FRW cosmologies can be obtained as duals of theories with matter in the form of torsion.

  20. One hundred years of the cosmological constant: from "superfluous stunt" to dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2018-03-01

    We present a centennial review of the history of the term known as the cosmological constant. First introduced to the general theory of relativity by Einstein in 1917 in order to describe a universe that was assumed to be static, the term fell from favour in the wake of the discovery of the expanding universe, only to make a dramatic return in recent times. We consider historical and philosophical aspects of the cosmological constant over four main epochs; (i) the use of the term in static cosmologies (both Newtonian and relativistic): (ii) the marginalization of the term following the discovery of cosmic expansion: (iii) the use of the term to address specific cosmic puzzles such as the timespan of expansion, the formation of galaxies and the redshifts of the quasars: (iv) the re-emergence of the term in today's Λ-CDM cosmology. We find that the cosmological constant was never truly banished from theoretical models of the universe, but was marginalized by astronomers for reasons of convenience. We also find that the return of the term to the forefront of modern cosmology did not occur as an abrupt paradigm shift due to one particular set of observations, but as the result of a number of empirical advances such as the measurement of present cosmic expansion using the Hubble Space Telescope, the measurement of past expansion using type SN Ia supernovae as standard candles, and the measurement of perturbations in the cosmic microwave background by balloon and satellite. We give a brief overview of contemporary interpretations of the physics underlying the cosmic constant and conclude with a synopsis of the famous cosmological constant problem.

  1. Scalar potential from de Sitter brane in 5D and effective cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masato

    2004-01-01

    We derive the scalar potential in zero mode effective action arising from a de Sitter brane embedded in five dimensions with bulk cosmological constant Λ. The scalar potential for a scalar field canonically normalized is given by the sum of exponential potentials. In the case of Λ = 0 and Λ > 0, we point out that the scalar potential has an unstable maximum at the origin and exponentially vanishes for large positive scalar field. In the case of Λ < 0, the scalar potential has an unstable maximum at the origin and a local minimum. It is shown that the positive cosmological constant in dS brane is reduced by negative potential energy of scalar at minimum and that effective cosmological constant depends on a dimensionless quantity. Furthermore, we discuss the fate of our universe including the potential energy of the scalar. (author)

  2. How to obtain a cosmological constant from small exotic R4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten; Król, Jerzy

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we determine the cosmological constant as a topological invariant by applying certain techniques from low dimensional differential topology. We work with a small exotic R4 which is embedded into the standard R4. Any exotic R4 is a Riemannian smooth manifold with necessary non-vanishing curvature tensor. To determine the invariant part of such curvature we deal with a canonical construction of R4 where it appears as a part of the complex surface K 3 # CP(2) bar. Such R4's admit hyperbolic geometry. This fact simplifies significantly the calculations and enforces the rigidity of the expressions. In particular, we explain the smallness of the cosmological constant with a value consisting of a combination of (natural) topological invariant. Finally, the cosmological constant appears to be a topologically supported quantity.

  3. Cosmological constant problem and renormalized vacuum energy density in curved background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki

    2017-06-01

    The current vacuum energy density observed as dark energy ρdarksimeq 2.5×10-47 GeV4 is unacceptably small compared with any other scales. Therefore, we encounter serious fine-tuning problem and theoretical difficulty to derive the dark energy. However, the theoretically attractive scenario has been proposed and discussed in literature: in terms of the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy density can be expressed as ρvacuumsimeq m2H2 where m is the mass of the scalar field and rather dynamical in curved spacetime. However, there has been no rigorous proof to derive this expression and there are some criticisms about the physical interpretation of the RG running cosmological constant. In the present paper, we revisit the RG running effects of the cosmological constant and investigate the renormalized vacuum energy density in curved spacetime. We demonstrate that the vacuum energy density described by ρvacuumsimeq m2H2 appears as quantum effects of the curved background rather than the running effects of cosmological constant. Comparing to cosmological observational data, we obtain an upper bound on the mass of the scalar fields to be smaller than the Planck mass, m lesssim MPl.

  4. Thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of Born-Infeld black holes with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Hernando; Quevedo, María N.; Sánchez, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate a class of spherically symmetric Born-Infeld black holes which contains the mass, electric charge, Born-Infeld parameter and the cosmological constant as physical parameters. We show that for the mass to be an extensive thermodynamic variable, it is necessary to consider the cosmological constant and the Born-Infeld parameter as thermodynamic variables as well. We analyze the properties of such a thermodynamic system, explore the range of values where the system is thermodynamically well-defined, and the phase transition structure. In addition, we show that the equilibrium manifold in the context of geometrothermodynamics reproduces correctly the thermodynamic properties of this black hole class.

  5. Teichmueller motion of (2+1)-dimensional gravity with the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Soda, Jiro.

    1989-08-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a cosmological constant is studied in the ADM canonical formalism. Adopting the York's time slice, we completely solve the initial-value problem and the time evolution equations with an initial spacelike 2-surface being a closed Riemann surface of genus zero and one. The result in a torus case is that the Teichmueller parameters for the torus follow a geodesic in the Teichmueller space but its motion asymptotically stops due to the presence of the cosmological constant. (author)

  6. Influence of the cosmological constant on gravitational lensing in small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The cosmological constant Λ affects gravitational lensing phenomena. The contribution of Λ to the observable angular positions of multiple images and to their amplification and time delay is here computed through a study of the weak deflection limit of the equations of motion in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric. Because of Λ the unresolved images are slightly demagnified, the radius of the Einstein ring decreases, and the time delay increases. The effect is however negligible for near lenses. In the case of a null cosmological constant, we provide some updated results on lensing by a Schwarzschild black hole

  7. Deflation of the cosmological constant associated with inflation and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the fine-tuning problem of the cosmological constant, we propose a simple model with the vacuum energy non-minimally coupled to the inflaton field. In this model, the vacuum energy decays to the inflaton during pre-inflation and inflation eras, so that the cosmological constant effectively deflates from the Planck mass scale to a much smaller one after inflation and plays the role of dark energy in the late-time of the universe. We show that our deflationary scenario is applicable to arbitrary slow-roll inflation models. We also take two specific inflation potentials to illustrate our results.

  8. The fermion propagator in cosmological spaces with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koksma, J.F.; Prokopec, T.

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the fermion propagator in Friedmann–Lemaˆıtre–Robertson– Walker (FLRW) spacetimeswith constant deceleration q = −1, = −H˙ /H2 for excited states. For fermions whose mass is generated by a scalar field through a Yukawa coupling m = gYφ, we assume φ ∝α H. We first solve the mode functions

  9. Bianchi type I universe in brane world scenario with non-zero Weyl tensor of the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)

    2017-09-15

    In the paper, we present exact solutions of gravitational field equations for an anisotropic brane with a Bianchi type I universe with perfect fluid having non-vanishing Weyl tensor of the bulk. It is assumed that the thermodynamic pressure bears a linear relation with the energy density. For a particular non-zero value of the pressure the solutions are obtained in an exact analytic form with and without the cosmological constant for a Bianchi type I universe. The relevant physical quantities associated with the evolution of the universe are also derived in the two cases. (orig.)

  10. Renormalization-group running of the cosmological constant and the fate of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guberina, B.; Horvat, R.; Stefancic, H.

    2003-01-01

    For a generic quantum field theory we study the role played by the renormalization-group (RG) running of the cosmological constant (CC) in determining the ultimate fate of the universe. We consider the running of the CC of generic origin (the vacuum energy of quantum fields and the potential energy of classical fields), with the RG scale proportional to the (total energy density)1/4 as the most obvious identification. Starting from the present-era values for cosmological parameters we demonstrate how the running can easily provide a negative cosmological constant, thereby changing the fate of the universe, at the same time rendering compatibility with critical string theory. We also briefly discuss the recent past in our scenario

  11. Supersymmetry, Cosmological Constant and Inflation: Towards a fundamental cosmic picture via “running vacuum”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of a century from the proposal of General relativity by Einstein, I attempt to tackle some open issues in modern cosmology, via a toy but non-trivial model. Specifically, I would like to link together: (i the smallness of the cosmological constant today, (ii the evolution of the universe from an inflationary era after the bigbang till now, and (iii local supersymmetry in the gravitational sector (supergravity with a broken spectrum at early eras, by making use of the concept of the “running vacuum” in the context of a simple toy model of four-dimensional N = 1 supergravity. The model is characterised by dynamically broken local supersymmetry, induced by the formation of gravitino condensates in the early universe. As I will argue, there is a Starobinsky-type inflationary era characterising the broken supersymmetry phase in this model, which is compatible with the current cosmological data, provided a given constraint is satisfied among some tree-level parameters of the model and the renormalised cosmological constant of the de Sitter background used in the analysis. Applying the “running vacuum” concept, then, to the effective field theory at the exit of inflation, makes a smooth connection (in cosmic time with the radiation dominance epoch and subsequently with the current era of the Universe, characterised by a small (but dominant cosmological-constant contribution to the cosmic energy density. In this approach, the smallness of the cosmological constant today is attributed to the failure (due to quantum gravity non-perturbative effects of the aforementioned constraint.

  12. Euler-form actions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arik, M.; Dereli, T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the conditions of the vanishing cosmological constant and the presence of gravity and vector gauge fields in a D-dimensional non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory based on a dimensionally continued 2N-dimensional Euler-form action. It is shown that these conditions can be satisfied only for D = 2N+3. .AE

  13. Contribution of the cosmological constant to the relativistic bending of light revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang; Ishak, Mustapha

    2007-01-01

    We study the effect of the cosmological constant Λ on the bending of light by a concentrated spherically symmetric mass. Contrarily to previous claims, we show that, when the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry is taken into account, Λ does indeed contribute to the bending

  14. The Planck era with a negative cosmological constant and cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monerat, G.A.; Filho, L.G. Ferreira; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Correa Silva, E.V.; Neves, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the present Letter, we consider the DeBroglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and cosmic strings. We compute Bohm's trajectories and quantum potentials for a quantity related to the scale factor.

  15. Cosmological constant in the Bianchi type-I-modified Brans–Dicke ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    start with the Robertson–Walker line element and the energy tensor of a perfect fluid. The scalar field φ is now ... Introduction. As is well known, Einstein originally introduced the cosmological constant in order to obtain a static model of the Universe, because the large scale recession of the galaxies, i.e., the expansion of the ...

  16. The fermion propagator in cosmological spaces with constant deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koksma, Jurjen F; Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: J.F.Koksma@uu.n, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-21

    We calculate the fermion propagator in Friedmann-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes with constant deceleration q=epsilon-1, epsilon=-H-dot/H{sup 2} for excited states. For fermions whose mass is generated by a scalar field through a Yukawa coupling m = g{sub Y}phi, we assume phi approx H. We first solve the mode functions by splitting the spinor into a direct product of helicity and chirality spinors. We also allow for non-vacuum states. We normalize the spinors using a consistent canonical quantization and by requiring orthogonality of particle and anti-particle spinors. We apply our propagator to calculate the one-loop effective action and renormalize using dimensional regularization. Since the Hubble parameter is now treated dynamically, this paves the way to study the dynamical backreaction of fermions on the background spacetime.

  17. Measuring the cosmological constant through the Lyman-alpha forest using the Alcock-Paczynski test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ching

    An important topic in cosmology is the determination of the energy densities of the major components of the Universe---OB, O DM and OΛ. Among these, the cosmological constant OΛ, which associates with the vacuum energy of our universe, draws specific attentions for its importance in fundamental particle physics. The Lyalpha forest QSO spectra are observationally available from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 4. Recently the concept of performing the Alcock-Paczynski test on the Lyalpha forest to determine the cosmological constant has been proposed. This motivates us to develop a methodology incorporating sophisticated cosmological hydrodynamics simulations including these effects to implement the AP test and to perform an accurate measurement on the cosmological constant O Λ. To manipulate the data from paired QSO spectra with different angular separations, we propose an explicit method based on the maximum likelihood estimation. We use this method to implement the AP test and demonstrate the whole procedure based on our numerical simulations. Using mock pair spectra, we estimate that more than 40 pairs are required to derive an accurate value of OΛ due to the impact of cosmic variance. The degeneracy of other cosmological parameters is an important topic for this project. We examine two other parameters, sigma8 and n, the initial power spectrum amplitude and index, whose value are not consistently derived through other means. We conclude that when the uncertainties of these two parameters are around 10%--20%, the resulting bias in O Λ is less than 10%. Using a small sample of currently available QSO pairs, we have derived OΛ = 0.65+0.39-1.16 . Our preliminary result encourges us to take further steps on this project.

  18. a Unified Dark Energy Model from a Vanishing Speed of Sound with Emergent Cosmological Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando

    2014-11-01

    The problem of the cosmic acceleration is here revisited by using the fact that the adiabatic speed of sound can be assumed to be negligible small. Within the context of general relativity, the total energy budget is recovered under the hypothesis of a vanishing speed of sound by assuming the existence of one fluid only. We find a cosmological model which reproduces the main results of the ΛCDM paradigm at late-times, showing an emergent cosmological constant, which is not at all related with the vacuum energy term. As a consequence, the model presented here behaves as a unified dark energy (DE) model.

  19. Quintessential inflation from a variable cosmological constant in a 5D vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, Agustin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    We explore an effective 4D cosmological model for the universe where the variable cosmological constant governs its evolution and the pressure remains negative along all the expansion. This model is introduced from a 5D vacuum state where the (space-like) extra coordinate is considered as noncompact. The expansion is produced by the inflaton field, which is considered as nonminimally coupled to gravity. We conclude from experimental data that the coupling of the inflaton with gravity should be weak, but variable in different epochs of the evolution of the universe

  20. Unified brane gravity: Cosmological dark matter from a scale dependent Newton constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwich, Ilya; Davidson, Aharon

    2009-01-01

    We analyze, within the framework of unified brane gravity, the weak-field perturbations caused by the presence of matter on a 3-brane. Although deviating from the Randall-Sundrum approach, the masslessness of the graviton is still preserved. In particular, the four-dimensional Newton force law is recovered, but serendipitously, the corresponding Newton constant is shown to be necessarily lower than the one which governs Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. This has the potential to puzzle out cosmological dark matter. A subsequent conjecture concerning galactic dark matter follows.

  1. Earth’s gravity and the cosmological constant: a worked example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J A M

    2016-01-01

    The cosmological constant regained the attention of the scientific community following the recent discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Consequently, interest in the subject increased amongst the public such that it now often appears in the classroom and popular science publications. The purpose of this article is to use basic concepts of Newtonian mechanics, like dynamics, kinetic energy and potential energy diagrams, in a scenario where the cosmological constant’s action, considered as being an inertial force driven by the accelerated expansion of the Universe, could counteract Earth’s gravity. The effect that the cosmological constant might have near the Earth’s surface is discussed showing how everyday life would change. This is done in such a way that makes it accessible to students in their first year of college. Finally, the modern interpretation of the cosmological constant, associated with the existence of dark energy, is briefly discussed along with upper limit estimations for its value based on the anthropic principle. (paper)

  2. Acceleration-enlarged symmetries in nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant TH1"-->

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukierski, J.; Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2008-05-01

    By considering the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter geometry one obtains the nonrelativistic space-time with a cosmological constant and Newton Hooke (NH) symmetries. We show that the NH symmetry algebra can be enlarged by the addition of the constant acceleration generators and endowed with central extensions (one in any dimension (D) and three in D=(2+1)). We present a classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian framework for constructing models quasi-invariant under enlarged NH symmetries that depend on three parameters described by three nonvanishing central charges. The Hamiltonian dynamics then splits into external and internal sectors with new noncommutative structures of external and internal phase spaces. We show that in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant the system reduces to the one, which possesses acceleration-enlarged Galilean symmetries.

  3. Regular nonminimal magnetic black holes in spacetimes with a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P. S.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2016-01-01

    We consider new regular exact spherically symmetric solutions of a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant and a gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type. The most interesting solutions found are black holes with metric and curvature invariants that are regular everywhere, i.e., regular black holes. We set up a classification of the solutions according to the number and type of horizons. The structure of these regular black holes is characterized by four specific features: a small cavity in the neighborhood of the center, a repulsion barrier off the small cavity, a distant equilibrium point, in which the metric function has a minimum, and a region of Newtonian attraction. Depending on the sign and value of the cosmological constant, the solutions are asymptotically de Sitter (dS), asymptotically flat, or asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS).

  4. Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.

  5. Academic Training Lectures | The Cosmological Constant Problem | 12-13 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Please note that the next series of Academic Training Lectures will take place on the 12 and 13 November. The lectures will be given by Antonio Padilla (University of Nottingham, UK). The Cosmological Constant Problem (1/2) on Thursday, 12 November from 11:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/453187/ The Cosmological Constant Problem (2/2) on Friday, 13 November from 11:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. https://indico.cern.ch/event/453188/ at CERN, Council Chamber (503-1-001)  Description: I will review the cosmological constant problem as a serious challenge to our notion of naturalness in Physics. Weinberg’s no go theorem is worked through in detail. I review a number of proposals possibly including Linde's universe multiplication, Coleman's wormholes, the fat graviton, and SLED, to name a few. Large distance modifications of gravity are also discussed, with causality considerations pointi...

  6. The Cosmological Constant and Domain Walls in Orientifold Field Theories and N=1 Gluodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss domain walls and vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in N=1 gluodynamics and in non-supersymmetric large N orientifold field theories which have been recently shown to be planar equivalent (in the boson sector) to N=1 gluodynamics. A relation between the vanishing force between two parallel walls and vanishing cosmological constant is pointed out. This relation may explain why the cosmological constant vanishes in the orientifold field theory at leading order although the hadronic spectrum of this theory does not contain fermions in the limit N-->infinity. The cancellation is among even and odd parity bosonic contributions, due to NS-NS and R-R cancellations in the annulus amplitude of the underlying string theory. We use the open-closed string channel duality to describe interaction between the domain walls which is interpreted as the exchange of composite ``dilatons'' and ``axions'' coupled to the walls. Finally, we study some planar equivalent pairs in which both theories in the parent...

  7. Unification of cosmology and the second law of thermodynamics. Proposal for solving the cosmological constant and inflation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Holger B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    2006-01-01

    We seek to unify the second law of thermodynamics with other physical laws, or, at least to find a law underlying the second law of thermodynamics. Assuming no fine tuning, using a random Hamiltonian, we argue just from the equations of motion - without the second law - that entropy cannot first increase and then decrease except with the rather strict restriction S large ≤ S small1 + S small2 . Here S large is the large' entropy in the intermediate era, while S small1 and S small2 are the entropies at certain times before and after the S large era. From this theorem asserting that there can exist no strong maximum for the entropy, we argue that an S 1 cyclic time model world could have entropy that varies by at most a factor of two and would not be phenomenologically realistic. With an open ended time axis (-∞, ∞)=R, some law underlying the second law of thermodynamics is needed if the entropy is not maximal (i.e. that heat death having y occurred at the start). We derive such a law behind the second law - or a unification of the second law with other laws - by assigning a probability weight P for finding the world/system in various places in phase space. In such a model, P is almost unified with the rest as P=exp(-2S Im ), with S Im being the imaginary part of the action. We quite naturally derive the second law for practical purposes, a Big Bang with two-sided time directions, and find that there is a need for a Hamiltonian density with a well-defined bottom. Assuming that the cosmological constant is a dynamical variable in the sense that it is counted as on 'initial condition', we even solve in our model the cosmological constant problem without using the anthropic principle. (author)

  8. Bianchi type-I magnetized cosmological models for the Einstein-Boltzmann equation with the cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayissi, Raoul Domingo, E-mail: raoulayissi@yahoo.fr; Noutchegueme, Norbert, E-mail: nnoutch@yahoo.fr [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2015-01-15

    Global solutions regular for the Einstein-Boltzmann equation on a magnetized Bianchi type-I cosmological model with the cosmological constant are investigated. We suppose that the metric is locally rotationally symmetric. The Einstein-Boltzmann equation has been already considered by some authors. But, in general Bancel and Choquet-Bruhat [Ann. Henri Poincaré XVIII(3), 263 (1973); Commun. Math. Phys. 33, 83 (1973)], they proved only the local existence, and in the case of the nonrelativistic Boltzmann equation. Mucha [Global existence of solutions of the Einstein-Boltzmann equation in the spatially homogeneous case. Evolution equation, existence, regularity and singularities (Banach Center Publications, Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Science, 2000), Vol. 52] obtained a global existence result, for the relativistic Boltzmann equation coupled with the Einstein equations and using the Yosida operator, but confusing unfortunately with the nonrelativistic case. Noutchegueme and Dongho [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 2979 (2006)] and Noutchegueme, Dongho, and Takou [Gen. Relativ. Gravitation 37, 2047 (2005)], have obtained a global solution in time, but still using the Yosida operator and considering only the uncharged case. Noutchegueme and Ayissi [Adv. Stud. Theor. Phys. 4, 855 (2010)] also proved a global existence of solutions to the Maxwell-Boltzmann system using the characteristic method. In this paper, we obtain using a method totally different from those used in the works of Noutchegueme and Dongho [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, 2979 (2006)], Noutchegueme, Dongho, and Takou [Gen. Relativ. Gravitation 37, 2047 (2005)], Noutchegueme and Ayissi [Adv. Stud. Theor. Phys. 4, 855 (2010)], and Mucha [Global existence of solutions of the Einstein-Boltzmann equation in the spatially homogeneous case. Evolution equation, existence, regularity and singularities (Banach Center Publications, Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Science, 2000), Vol. 52] the

  9. Newton-Hooke spacetimes, Hpp-waves and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G W; Patricot, C E

    2003-01-01

    We show explicitly how the Newton-Hooke groups N ± 10 act as symmetries of the equations of motion of non-relativistic cosmological models with a cosmological constant. We give the action on the associated non-relativistic spacetimes M ± 4 and show how these may be obtained from a null reduction of five-dimensional homogeneous pp-wave Lorentzian spacetimes M ± 5 . This allows us to realize the Newton-Hooke groups and their Bargmann-type central extensions as subgroups of the isometry groups of M ± 5 . The extended Schroedinger-type conformal group is identified and its action on the equations of motion given. The non-relativistic conformal symmetries also have applications to time-dependent harmonic oscillators. Finally we comment on a possible application to Gao's generalization of the matrix model

  10. A Solution to Cosmological Constant, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Avtar-Singh, S C

    2004-01-01

    The observed spontaneity in nature, specifically the spontaneous decay of particles, has been mathematically treated in the formulation of a Gravity Nullification model (GNM). GNM is combined with the classical gravitation model and the general theory of relativity to model the universe expansion. This model eliminates singularities in the existing Big Bang model of the universe, predicts effects of gravity on the observed mass evolution, dark matter/energy, and accelerated expansion of the universe. GNM provides a physical understanding of the shortcomings of the Big Bang model such as the Cosmological Constant problems, puzzles of dark matter or dark energy without the need for the incredible inflation scenario involving a “superluminal expansion” of the universe in its early evolution. A mathematical expression is derived for the Anti-gravity Cosmological parameter including the effects of mass and gravity. A good agreement is seen with the recent observations of the universe behavior.

  11. Inflation, the Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation, the ”inflaton”, is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl’s differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel dynamical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2) L ⊗ U(1) Y as well as on the conformal groups of spacetime Weyl’s transformations is analyzed within the framework of a general-relativistic, co-covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An ”Effective Cosmological Potential”: Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: {V}{{Λ }}\\equiv {M}{{Λ }}2 via the ”mass reduction parameter”: \\zeta \\equiv \\sqrt{\\frac{|{V}eff|}{|{V}{{Λ }}|}}, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a ”free parameter” by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the geometrical mean: {M}H\\propto \\sqrt{{M}eff× {M}P} of the Planck mass, MP and of the mass {M}eff\\equiv \\sqrt{|{V}eff|} which accounts for the measured Cosmological Constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The experimental result obtained by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at CERN in the year 2012: MH = 125.09(GeV/c 2) leads by our theory to a value: Meff ~ 3.19 · 10-6(eV/c 2). The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards the resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the ”Cosmological Constant Paradox”.

  12. What ξ? Cosmological constraints on the non-minimal coupling constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orest Hrycyna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In dynamical system describing evolution of universe with the flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker symmetry filled with barotropic dust matter and non-minimally coupled scalar field with a constant potential function an invariant manifold of the de Sitter state is used to obtain exact solutions of the reduced dynamics. Using observational data coming from distant supernovae type Ia, the Hubble function H(z measurements and information coming from the Alcock–Paczyński test we find cosmological constraints on the non-minimal coupling constant ξ between the scalar curvature and the scalar field. For all investigated models we can exclude negative values of this parameter at the 68% confidence level. We obtain constraints on the non-minimal coupling constant consistent with condition for conformal coupling of the scalar field in higher dimensional theories of gravity.

  13. The varying cosmological constant: a new approximation to the Friedmann equations and universe model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztaş, Ahmet M.; Dil, Emre; Smith, Michael L.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the time-dependent nature of the cosmological constant, Λ, of the Einstein Field Equation (EFE). Beginning with the Einstein-Hilbert action as our fundamental principle we develop a modified version of the EFE allowing the value of Λ to vary as a function of time, Λ(t), indirectly, for an expanding universe. We follow the evolving Λ presuming four-dimensional space-time and a flat universe geometry and present derivations of Λ(t) as functions of the Hubble constant, matter density, and volume changes which can be traced back to the radiation epoch. The models are more detailed descriptions of the Λ dependence on cosmological factors than previous, allowing calculations of the important parameters, Ωm and Ωr, to deep lookback times. Since we derive these without the need for extra dimensions or other special conditions our derivations are useful for model evaluation with astronomical data. This should aid resolution of several difficult problems of astronomy such as the best value for the Hubble constant at present and at recombination.

  14. Gravitational Waves from Isolated Systems: Surprising Consequences of a Positive Cosmological Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2016-02-05

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant Λ, however tiny. In particular a generalization of Einstein's 1918 quadrupole formula that would allow a positive Λ is not yet available. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the Λ>0 generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, nonlinear general relativity.

  15. Cosmic no-hair theorem with a varying cosmological constant on brane scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, S

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have studied cosmic no-hair theorem for homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi models with a varying cosmological constant (LAMBDA) in Randall-Sundrum braneworld-type scenarios. The matter fields are confined over the 3-brane onto which the five-dimensional Weyl tensor has a non-vanishing projection. The variation of LAMBDA is taken to be the recently proposed form of Vishwakarma and its generalization. In the first case, the universe will isotropize after power-law inflation while there is exponential expansion in the second case.

  16. Hamiltonian dynamics and gauge symmetry for three-dimensional Palatini theory with cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante, Alberto; Tzompantzi, Omar Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    A pure Dirac’s framework for 3D Palatini’s theory with cosmological constant is performed. By considering the complete phase space, we find out the full structure of the constraints, and their corresponding algebra is computed explicitly. We report that in order to obtain a well defined algebra among the constraints, the internal group corresponds to SO(2,1). In addition, we obtain the extended action, the extended Hamiltonian, the gauge symmetry, and the Dirac brackets of the theory. Finally, we compare our results with those reported in the literature

  17. N=1 supergravity with a cosmological constant and the AdS group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, P.; Campo, S. del; Cataldo, M.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the supersymmetric extension of the Stelle-West formalism permits the construction of an action for (3+1)-dimensional N=1 supergravity with a cosmological constant genuinely invariant under the OSp(4/1). Since the action is invariant under the supersymmetric extension of the AdS group, the supersymmetry algebra closes off shell without the need for auxiliary fields. The limit case m→0, i.e., (3+1)-dimensional N=1 supergravity, invariant under the Poincare supergroup is also discussed

  18. The background Friedmannian Hubble constant in relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology and the age of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Mourier, Pierre; Buchert, Thomas; Ostrowski, Jan J.

    2017-02-01

    Context. In relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology, structure formation couples to average cosmological expansion. A conservative approach to modelling this assumes an Einstein-de Sitter model (EdS) at early times and extrapolates this forward in cosmological time as a "background model" against which average properties of today's Universe can be measured. Aims: This modelling requires adopting an early-epoch-normalised background Hubble constant . Methods: Here, we show that the ΛCDM model can be used as an observational proxy to estimate rather than choose it arbitrarily. We assume (I) an EdS model at early times; (II) a zero dark energy parameter; (III) bi-domain scalar averaging-division of the spatial sections into over- and underdense regions; and (iv) virialisation (stable clustering) of collapsed regions. Results: We find km s-1/ Mpc (random error only) based on a Planck ΛCDM observational proxy. Conclusions: Moreover, since the scalar-averaged expansion rate is expected to exceed the (extrapolated) background expansion rate, the expected age of the Universe should be much younger than Gyr. The maximum stellar age of Galactic bulge microlensed low-mass stars (most likely: 14.7 Gyr; 68% confidence: 14.0-15.0 Gyr) suggests an age of about a Gyr older than the (no-backreaction) ΛCDM estimate.

  19. Supersymmetry, Cosmological Constant and Inflation: Towards a fundamental cosmic picture via "running vacuum"

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of a century from the proposal of General relativity by Einstein, I attempt to tackle some open issues in modern cosmology, via a toy but non-trivial model. Specifically, I would like to link together: (i) the smallness of the cosmological constant today, (ii) the evolution of the universe from an inflationary era after the big-bang till now, and (iii) local supersymmetry in the gravitational sector (supergravity) with a broken spectrum at early eras, by making use of the concept of the "running vacuum" in the context of a simple toy model of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. The model is characterised by dynamically broken local supersymmetry, induced by the formation of gravitino condensates in the early universe. As I will argue, there is a Starobinsky-type inflationary era characterising the broken supersymmetry phase in this model, which is compatible with the current cosmological data, provided a given constraint is satisfied among some tree-level parameters of the model and the renorma...

  20. Gravitational Lorentz violations and adjustment of the cosmological constant in asymmetrically warped spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, C.; Erlich, J.; Grojean, C.

    2001-06-01

    We investigate spacetimes in which the speed of light along flat 4D sections varies over the extra dimensions due to different warp factors for the space and the time coordinates (``asymmetrically warped'' spacetimes). The main property of such spaces is that while the induced metric is flat, implying Lorentz invariant particle physics on a brane, bulk gravitational effects will cause apparent violations of Lorentz invariance and of causality from the brane observer's point of view. An important experimentally verifiable consequence of this is that gravitational waves may travel with a speed different from the speed of light on the brane, and possibly even faster. We find the most general spacetimes of this sort, which are given by AdS-Schwarzschild or AdS-Reissner-Nordström black holes, assuming the simplest possible sources in the bulk. Due to the gravitational Lorentz violations these models do not have an ordinary Lorentz invariant effective description, and thus provide a possible way around Weinberg's no-go theorem for the adjustment of the cosmological constant. Indeed we show that the cosmological constant may relax in such theories by the adjustment of the mass and the charge of the black hole. The black hole singularity in these solutions can be protected by a horizon, but the existence of a horizon requires some exotic energy densities on the brane. We investigate the cosmological expansion of these models and speculate that it may provide an explanation for the accelerating Universe, provided that the timescale for the adjustment is shorter than the Hubble time. In this case the accelerating Universe would be a manifestation of gravitational Lorentz violations in extra dimensions.

  1. The hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant problem in the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegerlehner, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We argue that the SM in the Higgs phase does not suffer form a ''hierarchy problem'' and that similarly the ''cosmological constant problem'' resolves itself if we understand the SM as a low energy effective theory emerging from a cut-off medium at the Planck scale. We discuss these issues under the condition of a stable Higgs vacuum, which allows to extend the SM up to the Planck length. The bare Higgs boson mass then changes sign below the Planck scale, such the the SM in the early universe is in the symmetric phase. The cut-off enhanced Higgs mass term as well as the quartically enhanced cosmological constant term trigger the inflation of the early universe. The coefficients of the shift between bare and renormalized Higgs mass as well as of the shift between bare and renormalized vacuum energy density exhibit close-by zeros at some point below the Planck scale. The zeros are matching points between short distance and the renormalized low energy quantities. Since inflation tunes the total energy density to take the critical value of a flat universe Ω tot =ρ tot /ρ crit =Ω Λ +Ω matter +Ω radiation =1 it is obvious that Ω Λ today is of order Ω tot given that 1>Ω matter , Ω radiation >0, which saturate the total density to about 26 % only, the dominant part being dark matter(21%).

  2. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liebscher, Dierck-Ekkehard

    2005-01-01

    Cosmology deals with the current state of thinking about the basic questions at the center of the field of cosmology. More emphasis than usual is put on the connections to related domains of science, such as geometry, relativity, thermodynamics, particle physics, and - in particular - on the intrinsic connections between the different topics. The chapters are illustrated with many figures that are as exact as currently possible, e.g. in the case of geometry and relativity. Readers acquire a graduate-level knowledge of cosmology as it is required to understand the cosmological impact of their particular research topics, as well as an introduction into the current research in the field.

  3. Effect of a cosmological constant on propagation of vacuum polarized photons in stationary spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2015-06-01

    Consideration of vacuum polarization in quantum electrodynamics may affect the momentum dispersion relation for photons for a non-trivial background, due to the appearance of curvature dependent terms in the effective action. We investigate the effect of a positive cosmological constant on this at one-loop order for stationary -vacuum spacetimes. To the best of our knowledge, so far it only has been shown that affects the propagation in a time dependent black hole spacetime. Here we consider the static de Sitter cosmic string and the Kerr-de Sitter spacetime to show that there might occur a non-vanishing effect due to for physical polarizations. The consistency of these results with the polarization sum rule is discussed.

  4. Effect of a cosmological constant on propagation of vacuum polarized photons in stationary spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav [University of Crete, Department of Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Heraklion (Greece)

    2015-06-15

    Consideration of vacuum polarization in quantum electrodynamics may affect the momentum dispersion relation for photons for a non-trivial background, due to the appearance of curvature dependent terms in the effective action. We investigate the effect of a positive cosmological constant Λ on this at one-loop order for stationary Λ-vacuum spacetimes. To the best of our knowledge, so far it only has been shown that Λ affects the propagation in a time dependent black hole spacetime. Here we consider the static de Sitter cosmic string and the Kerr-de Sitter spacetime to show that there might occur a non-vanishing effect due to Λ for physical polarizations. The consistency of these results with the polarization sum rule is discussed. (orig.)

  5. More on non-supersymmetric asymmetric orbifolds with vanishing cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yuji; Wada, Taiki

    2016-01-01

    We explore various non-supersymmetric type II string vacua constructed based on asymmetric orbifolds of tori with vanishing cosmological constant at the one loop. The string vacua we present are modifications of the models studied in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2016)184, of which orbifold group is just generated by a single element. We especially focus on two types of modifications: (i) the orbifold twists include different types of chiral reflections not necessarily removing massless Rarita-Schwinger fields in the 4-dimensional space-time, (ii) the orbifold twists do not include the shift operator. We further discuss the unitarity and stability of constructed non-supersymmetric string vacua, with emphasizing the common features of them.

  6. Sinks in the landscape, Boltzmann brains and the cosmological constant problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends a recent investigation of the string theory landscape (Ceresole et al 2006 Phys. Rev. D 74 086010), where it was found that the decay rate of de Sitter (dS) vacua to a collapsing space with a negative vacuum energy can be quite large. The parts of space that experience a decay to a collapsing space, or to a Minkowski vacuum, never return back to dS space. The channels of irreversible vacuum decay serve as sinks for the probability flow. The existence of such sinks is a distinguishing feature of the string theory landscape. We describe relations between several different probability measures for eternal inflation taking into account the existence of the sinks. The local (comoving) description of the inflationary multiverse suffers from the so-called Boltzmann brain (BB) problem unless the probability of the decay to the sinks is sufficiently large. We show that some versions of the global (volume-weighted) description do not have this problem even if one ignores the existence of the sinks. We argue that if the number of different vacua in the landscape is large enough, the anthropic solution of the cosmological constant problem in the string landscape scenario should be valid for a broad class of the probability measures which solve the BB problem. If this is correct, the solution of the cosmological constant problem may be essentially measure-independent. Finally, we describe a simplified approach to the calculations of anthropic probabilities in the landscape, which is less ambitious but also less ambiguous than other methods. To the memory of Eugene Feinberg, who was trying to make a bridge between science, philosophy and art.

  7. Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycyna, Orest [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: orest.hrycyna@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.

  8. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This is a uniquely comprehensive and detailed treatment of the theoretical and observational foundations of modern cosmology, by a Nobel Laureate in Physics. It gives up-to-date and self contained accounts of the theories and observations that have made the past few decades a golden age of cosmology. - ;This book is unique in the detailed, self-contained, and comprehensive treatment that it gives to the ideas and formulas that are used and tested in modern cosmological research. It divides into two parts, each of which provides enough material for a one-semester graduate course. The first part

  9. Revisiting the decoupling effects in the running of the Cosmological Constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipin, Oleg; Melic, Blazenka [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-09-15

    We revisit the decoupling effects associated with heavy particles in the renormalization group running of the vacuum energy in a mass-dependent renormalization scheme. We find the running of the vacuum energy stemming from the Higgs condensate in the entire energy range and show that it behaves as expected from the simple dimensional arguments meaning that it exhibits the quadratic sensitivity to the mass of the heavy particles in the infrared regime. The consequence of such a running to the fine-tuning problem with the measured value of the Cosmological Constant is analyzed and the constraint on the mass spectrum of a given model is derived. We show that in the Standard Model (SM) this fine-tuning constraint is not satisfied while in the massless theories this constraint formally coincides with the well known Veltman condition. We also provide a remarkably simple extension of the SM where saturation of this constraint enables us to predict the radiative Higgs mass correctly. Generalization to constant curvature spaces is also given. (orig.)

  10. Revisiting the decoupling effects in the running of the Cosmological Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, Oleg; Melic, Blazenka

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the decoupling effects associated with heavy particles in the renormalization group running of the vacuum energy in a mass-dependent renormalization scheme. We find the running of the vacuum energy stemming from the Higgs condensate in the entire energy range and show that it behaves as expected from the simple dimensional arguments meaning that it exhibits the quadratic sensitivity to the mass of the heavy particles in the infrared regime. The consequence of such a running to the fine-tuning problem with the measured value of the Cosmological Constant is analyzed and the constraint on the mass spectrum of a given model is derived. We show that in the Standard Model (SM) this fine-tuning constraint is not satisfied while in the massless theories this constraint formally coincides with the well known Veltman condition. We also provide a remarkably simple extension of the SM where saturation of this constraint enables us to predict the radiative Higgs mass correctly. Generalization to constant curvature spaces is also given. (orig.)

  11. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    2015-01-01

    In these lectures I review the present status of the so-called Standard Cosmological Model, based on the hot Big Bang Theory and the Inflationary Paradigm. I will make special emphasis on the recent developments in observational cosmology, mainly the acceleration of the universe, the precise measurements of the microwave background anisotropies, and the formation of structure like galaxies and clusters of galaxies from tiny primordial fluctuations generated during inflation.

  12. Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorio, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.

  13. Perspectives on Constraining a Cosmological Constant-Type Parameter with Pulsar Timing in the Galactic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Independent tests aiming to constrain the value of the cosmological constant Λ are usually difficult because of its extreme smallness ( Λ ≃ 1 × 10 - 52 m - 2 , or 2 . 89 × 10 - 122 in Planck units . Bounds on it from Solar System orbital motions determined with spacecraft tracking are currently at the ≃ 10 - 43 – 10 - 44 m - 2 ( 5 – 1 × 10 - 113 in Planck units level, but they may turn out to be optimistic since Λ has not yet been explicitly modeled in the planetary data reductions. Accurate ( σ τ p ≃ 1 – 10 μ s timing of expected pulsars orbiting the Black Hole at the Galactic Center, preferably along highly eccentric and wide orbits, might, at least in principle, improve the planetary constraints by several orders of magnitude. By looking at the average time shift per orbit Δ δ τ ¯ p Λ , an S2-like orbital configuration with e = 0 . 8839 , P b = 16 yr would permit a preliminarily upper bound of the order of Λ ≲ 9 × 10 - 47 m - 2 ≲ 2 × 10 - 116 in Planck units if only σ τ p were to be considered. Our results can be easily extended to modified models of gravity using Λ -type parameters.

  14. Linking light scalar modes with a small positive cosmological constant in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wong, Sam S. C.

    2017-06-01

    Based on the studies in Type IIB string theory phenomenology, we conjecture that a good fraction of the meta-stable de Sitter vacua in the cosmic stringy landscape tend to have a very small cosmological constant Λ when compared to either the string scale M S or the Planck scale M P , i.e., Λ ≪ M S 4 ≪ M P 4 . These low lying de Sitter vacua tend to be accompanied by very light scalar bosons/axions. Here we illustrate this phenomenon with the bosonic mass spectra in a set of Type IIB string theory flux compactification models. We conjecture that small Λ with light bosons is generic among de Sitter solutions in string theory; that is, the smallness of Λ and the existence of very light bosons (may be even the Higgs boson) are results of the statistical preference for such vacua in the landscape. We also discuss a scalar field ϕ 3 /ϕ 4 model to illustrate how this statistical preference for a small Λ remains when quantum loop corrections are included, thus bypassing the radiative instability problem.

  15. Towards (3+1 gravity through Drinfel'd doubles with cosmological constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ballesteros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the generalisation to (3+1 dimensions of a quantum deformation of the (2+1 (Anti-de Sitter and Poincaré Lie algebras that is compatible with the conditions imposed by the Chern–Simons formulation of (2+1 gravity. Since such compatibility is automatically fulfilled by deformations coming from Drinfel'd double structures, we believe said structures are worth being analysed also in the (3+1 scenario as a possible guiding principle towards the description of (3+1 gravity. To this aim, a canonical classical r-matrix arising from a Drinfel'd double structure for the three (3+1 Lorentzian algebras is obtained. This r-matrix turns out to be a twisted version of the one corresponding to the (3+1 κ-deformation, and the main properties of its associated noncommutative spacetime are analysed. In particular, it is shown that this new quantum spacetime is not isomorphic to the κ-Minkowski one, and that the isotropy of the quantum space coordinates can be preserved through a suitable change of basis of the quantum algebra generators. Throughout the paper the cosmological constant appears as an explicit parameter, thus allowing the (flat Poincaré limit to be straightforwardly obtained.

  16. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, S Brian; Ramos, M P Machado

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,

  17. Using the generalised invariant formalism: a class of conformally flat pure radiation metrics with a negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, S Brian [Department of Mathematics, Linkoepings Universitet Linkoeping, S-581 83 (Sweden); Ramos, M P Machado [Departamento de Matematica para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Azurem 4800-058 Guimaraes, Universidade do Minho (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We demonstrate an integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism by obtaining a subclass of conformally flat pure radiation spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant. The method used is a development of the methods used earlier for pure radiation spacetimes of Petrov types O and N respectively. This subclass of spacetimes turns out to have one degree of isotropy freedom, so in this paper we have extended the integration procedure for the generalised invariant formalism to spacetimes with isotropy freedom,.

  18. Non-singular spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant: IV. Stationary black hole solutions with matter fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściel, Piotr T.; Delay, Erwann; Klinger, Paul

    2018-02-01

    We use an elliptic system of equations with complex coefficients for a set of complex-valued tensor fields as a tool to construct infinite-dimensional families of non-singular stationary black holes, real-valued Lorentzian solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-scalar fields-Yang–Mills–Higgs–Chern–Simons-f(R) equations with a negative cosmological constant. The families include an infinite-dimensional family of solutions with the usual AdS conformal structure at conformal infinity.

  19. Gravity with free initial conditions: A solution to the cosmological constant problem testable by CMB B -mode polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2017-10-01

    In standard general relativity the universe cannot be started with arbitrary initial conditions, because four of the ten components of the Einstein's field equations (EFE) are constraints on initial conditions. In the previous work it was proposed to extend the gravity theory to allow free initial conditions, with a motivation to solve the cosmological constant problem. This was done by setting four constraints on metric variations in the action principle, which is reasonable because the gravity's physical degrees of freedom are at most six. However, there are two problems about this theory; the three constraints in addition to the unimodular condition were introduced without clear physical meanings, and the flat Minkowski spacetime is unstable against perturbations. Here a new set of gravitational field equations is derived by replacing the three constraints with new ones requiring that geodesic paths remain geodesic against metric variations. The instability problem is then naturally solved. Implications for the cosmological constant Λ are unchanged; the theory converges into EFE with nonzero Λ by inflation, but Λ varies on scales much larger than the present Hubble horizon. Then galaxies are formed only in small Λ regions, and the cosmological constant problem is solved by the anthropic argument. Because of the increased degrees of freedom in metric dynamics, the theory predicts new non-oscillatory modes of metric anisotropy generated by quantum fluctuation during inflation, and CMB B -mode polarization would be observed differently from the standard predictions by general relativity.

  20. The variability of the gravitational constant and the mass-energy conservation in the Dirac cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybak, M.; Krygier, B.; Krempec-Krygier, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble-Sandage diagrams for the Dirac cosmology have been discussed in the case of the modified dependence of luminosity upon the gravitational parameter G and mass. It is shown that the observational data for galaxies and the brightest quasars can be explained by the Dirac cosmology with the reasonably chosen changes of the gravitational parameter and of mass with the time. 41 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  1. On exponential cosmological type solutions in the model with Gauss-Bonnet term and variation of gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchuk, V.D.; Kobtsev, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    A D-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss.Bonnet term is considered. When an ansatz with diagonal cosmological type metrics is adopted, we find solutions with an exponential dependence of the scale factors (with respect to a @gsynchronous-like@h variable) which describe an exponential expansion of @gour@h 3-dimensional factor space and obey the observational constraints on the temporal variation of effective gravitational constant G. Among them there are two exact solutions in dimensions D = 22, 28 with constant G and also an infinite series of solutions in dimensions D ≥ 2690 with the variation of G obeying the observational data. (orig.)

  2. Non-zero total correlation means non-zero quantum correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Lin; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the super quantum discord based on weak measurements. The super quantum discord is an extension of the standard quantum discord defined by projective measurements and also describes the quantumness of correlations. We provide some equivalent conditions for zero super quantum discord by using quantum discord, classical correlation and mutual information. In particular, we find that the super quantum discord is zero only for product states, which have zero mutual information. This result suggests that non-zero correlations can always be detected using the quantum correlation with weak measurements. As an example, we present the assisted state-discrimination method.

  3. A model for time-dependent cosmological constant and its consistency with the present Friedmann universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barcelos-Neto, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salim, J M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-06-07

    We use a model where the cosmological term can be related to the chiral gauge anomaly of a possible quantum scenario of the initial evolution of the universe. We show that this term is compatible with the Friedmann behaviour of the present universe.

  4. Comment on 'Quantization of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Cervantes, Mayra; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2007-01-01

    The quantization of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the presence of a negative cosmological constant was used in a recent paper to conclude that there are solutions that avoid singularities (big bang-big crunch) at the quantum level. We show that a proper study of their model does not indicate that it prevents the occurrence of singularities at the quantum level, in fact the quantum probability of such event is larger than the classical one. Our numerical simulations based on the powerful variational sinc collocation method (VSCM) also show that the precision of the results of that paper is much lower than the 20 significant digits reported by the authors

  5. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-11-13

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU (2) L ⊗ U (1) Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An 'effective cosmological potential': V eff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: [Formula: see text] via the 'mass reduction parameter': [Formula: see text], a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a 'free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass [Formula: see text] which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕ ρ -particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological 'critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the ϕ ρ -excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of V eff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the 'Cosmological Constant Paradox' (here referred to as the ' Λ -Paradox'). Indeed, our 'universal' theory offers a resolution of the Λ -Paradox

  6. The Higgs field and the resolution of the Cosmological Constant Paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of space-time Weyl's transformations is analysed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An `effective cosmological potential': Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: via the `mass reduction parameter': , a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a `free parameter' by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass which accounts for the measured cosmological constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The non-integrable application of Weyl's geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a φρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an an optimum candidate for dark matter. On the basis of previous cosmic microwave background results our theory leads, in the condition of cosmological `critical density', to the assessment of the average energy content of the φρ-excitation. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the `Cosmological Constant Paradox' (here referred to as the `Λ-Paradox'). Indeed, our `universal' theory offers a resolution of the Λ-Paradox for all exponential inflationary potentials: VΛ(T,φ)∝e-nφ, and for all

  7. The Accelerating Universe: Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario

    2000-12-01

    Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." -Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." -Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." -John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." -Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

  8. The cosmological constant as an eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian constraint in a varying speed of light theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo [Univ. degli Studi di Bergamo, Dalmine (Italy). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Sciences; I.N.F.N., Sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia [Tomsk State Pedagogical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Complutense Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    In the framework of a Varying Speed of Light theory, we study the eigenvalues associated with the Wheeler-DeWitt equation representing the vacuum expectation values associated with the cosmological constant. We find that the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric is completely equivalent to a Sturm-Liouville problem provided that the related eigenvalue and the cosmological constant be identified. The explicit calculation is performed with the help of a variational procedure with trial wave functionals related to the Bessel function of the second kind K{sub ν}(x). After having verified that in ordinary General Relativity no eigenvalue appears, we find that in a Varying Speed of Light theory this is not the case. Nevertheless, instead of a single eigenvalue, we discover the existence of a family of eigenvalues associated to a negative power of the scale. A brief comment on what happens at the inflationary scale is also included. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The quantum Higgs field and the resolution of the cosmological constant paradox in the Weyl-geometrical Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martini, Francesco

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl’s differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved spacetime. Within this novel geometrical scenario, the standard electroweak theory of leptons based on the SU(2)L⊗U(1)Y as well as on the conformal groups of spacetime Weyl’s transformations is analyzed within the framework of a general-relativistic, conformally-covariant scalar-tensor theory that includes the electromagnetic and the Yang-Mills fields. A Higgs mechanism within a spontaneous symmetry breaking process is identified and this offers formal connections between some relevant properties of the elementary particles and the dark energy content of the Universe. An “effective cosmological potential”: Veff is expressed in terms of the dark energy potential: |VΛ| via the “mass reduction parameter”: |ζ|≡|Veff||VΛ|, a general property of the Universe. The mass of the Higgs boson, which is considered a “free parameter” by the standard electroweak theory, by our theory is found to be proportional to the mass MU≡|Veff| which contributes to the measured Cosmological Constant, i.e. the measured content of vacuum-energy in the Universe. The nonintegrable application of the Weyl’s geometry leads to a Proca equation accounting for the dynamics of a ϕρ-particle, a vector-meson proposed as an optimum candidate for Dark Matter. The peculiar mathematical structure of Veff offers a clue towards a very general resolution in 4-D of a most intriguing puzzle of modern quantum field theory, the “cosmological constant paradox”(here referred to as: “Λ-paradox”). Indeed, our “universal” theory offers a resolution of the “Λ-paradox” for all exponential inflationary potentials: VΛ(ϕ)∝e‑nϕ, and for all linear superpositions of these potentials, where n belongs to the mathematical set of the “real numbers”. An explicit

  10. First cosmological constraints combining Planck with the recent gravitational-wave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    The recent observations of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic emission produced by the merger of the binary neutron-star system GW170817 have opened the possibility of using standard sirens to constrain the value of the Hubble constant. While the reported bound of H0=7 0-8+12 at 68% C.L. is significantly weaker than those recently derived by observations of Cepheid variables, it does not require any form of cosmic distance ladder and can be considered as complementary and, in principle, more conservative. Here we combine, for the first time, the new measurement with the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations in a 12 parameter extended Λ CDM scenario, where the Hubble constant is weakly constrained from CMB data alone and bound to a low value H0=5 5-20+7 km /s /Mpc at 68% C.L. We point out that the non-Gaussian shape of the GW170817 bound makes lower values of the Hubble constant in worse agreement with observations than what is expected from a Gaussian form. The inclusion of the new GW170817 Hubble constant measurement therefore significantly reduces the allowed parameter space, improving the cosmological bounds on several parameters as the neutrino mass, curvature, and dark energy equation of state.

  11. The graviton one-loop effective action in cosmological space-times with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the quantum Friedmann equations which include one-loop vacuum fluctuations due to gravitons and scalar field matter in a FLRW background with constant ¼ H_ =H2. After several field redefinitions, to remove the mixing between the gravitational and matter degrees of freedom, we can

  12. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... from neither of the two objectives are characterized by uniformly distributed energy density. However, simple iterations with the goal of obtaining uniform energy density show that the strength is favored by this approach. These observations leads to a rejection of the objectives of compliance...... and discussed in detail for different combinations of non-zero prescribed support displacements and design independent loads....

  13. Neutrino Mass Models: Impact of non-zero reactor angle

    OpenAIRE

    King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk neutrino mass models are reviewed and the impact of a non-zero reactor angle and other deviations from tri-bimaximal mixing are discussed. We propose some benchmark models, where the only way to discriminate between them is by high precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

  14. Low-redshift effects of local structure on the Hubble parameter in presence of a cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Antonio Enea [University of Crete, Department of Physics and CCTP, Heraklion (Greece); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Vallejo, Sergio Andres [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia)

    2016-04-15

    In order to estimate the effects of a local structure on the Hubble parameter we calculate the low-redshift expansion for H(z) and (δH)/(H) for an observer at the center of a spherically symmetric matter distribution in the presence of a cosmological constant. We then test the accuracy of the formulas comparing them with fully relativistic non-perturbative numerical calculations for different cases for the density profile. The low-redshift expansion we obtain gives results more precise than perturbation theory since it is based on the use of an exact solution of Einstein's field equations. For larger density contrasts the low-redshift formulas accuracy improves respect to the perturbation theory accuracy because the latter is based on the assumption of a small density contrast, while the former does not rely on such an assumption. The formulas can be used to take into account the effects on the Hubble expansion parameter due to the monopole component of the local structure. If the H(z) observations will show deviations from the ΛCDM prediction compatible with the formulas we have derived, this could be considered an independent evidence of the existence of a local inhomogeneity, and the formulas could be used to determine the characteristics of this local structure. (orig.)

  15. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Future, massive large-scale structure survey have been presented and approved.On the theory side, a significant effort has bene devoted to achieve better modeling of small scale clustering that is of cosmological non-linearities. As a result it has become clear that forthcoming cosmological data have enough statitsical power to detect the effect of non-zero neutrino mass (even at the lower mass scale limit imposed by oscillations) and to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale.Cosmological data can also constrain the numb...

  16. Global embedding of D-dimensional black holes with a cosmological constant in Minkowskian spacetimes: Matching between Hawking temperature and Unruh temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Nuno Loureiro; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the matching between the Hawking temperature of a large class of static D-dimensional black holes and the Unruh temperature of the corresponding higher dimensional Rindler spacetime. In order to accomplish this task we find the global embedding of the D-dimensional black holes into a higher dimensional Minkowskian spacetime, called the global embedding Minkowskian spacetime procedure (GEMS procedure). These global embedding transformations are important on their own, since they provide a powerful tool that simplifies the study of black hole physics by working instead, but equivalently, in an accelerated Rindler frame in a flat background geometry. We discuss neutral and charged Tangherlini black holes with and without cosmological constant, and in the negative cosmological constant case, we consider the three allowed topologies for the horizons (spherical, cylindrical/toroidal, and hyperbolic)

  17. Search for sterile neutrinos in holographic dark energy cosmology: Reconciling Planck observation with the local measurement of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Ming; He, Dong-Ze; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin

    2017-08-01

    We search for sterile neutrinos in the holographic dark energy cosmology by using the latest observational data. To perform the analysis, we employ the current cosmological observations, including the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum data from the Planck mission, the baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, the type Ia supernova data, the redshift space distortion measurements, the shear data of weak lensing observation, the Planck lensing measurement, and the latest direct measurement of H0 as well. We show that, compared to the Λ CDM cosmology, the holographic dark energy cosmology with sterile neutrinos can relieve the tension between the Planck observation and the direct measurement of H0 much better. Once we include the H0 measurement in the global fit, we find that the hint of the existence of sterile neutrinos in the holographic dark energy cosmology can be given. Under the constraint of the all-data combination, we obtain Neff=3.76 ±0.26 and mν,sterile eff0 in the holographic dark energy cosmology is at the 2.75 σ level and the massless or very light sterile neutrino is favored by the current observations.

  18. Cosmological constant and late transient acceleration of the universe in the Horava-Witten heterotic M-theory on S1/Z2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yungui; Wang Anzhong; Wu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Orbifold branes are studied in the framework of the 11-dimensional Horava-Witten heterotic M-theory. It is found that the effective cosmological constant can be easily lowered to its current observational value by the mechanism of large extra dimensions. The domination of this constant over the evolution of the universe is only temporary. Due to the interaction of the bulk and the branes, the universe will be in its decelerating expansion phase again in the future, whereby all problems connected with a far future de Sitter universe are resolved

  19. The mechanical first law of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant and its application to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Miho; Tomimatsu, Akira; Saida, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of the mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of an asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant which possess a black hole and cosmological event horizons. This paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of the conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives an abstract form of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of this formalism, we derive the MFL of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of the SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities: the mass parameter, the total area of the two horizons and the volume enclosed by the two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of the SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of the SdS black hole evaporation process: the mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, a generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.

  20. Beta Function Quintessence Cosmological Parameters and Fundamental Constants I: Power and Inverse Power Law Dark Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rodger I.

    2018-04-01

    This investigation explores using the beta function formalism to calculate analytic solutions for the observable parameters in rolling scalar field cosmologies. The beta function in this case is the derivative of the scalar ϕ with respect to the natural log of the scale factor a, β (φ )=d φ /d ln (a). Once the beta function is specified, modulo a boundary condition, the evolution of the scalar ϕ as a function of the scale factor is completely determined. A rolling scalar field cosmology is defined by its action which can contain a range of physically motivated dark energy potentials. The beta function is chosen so that the associated "beta potential" is an accurate, but not exact, representation of the appropriate dark energy model potential. The basic concept is that the action with the beta potential is so similar to the action with the model potential that solutions using the beta action are accurate representations of solutions using the model action. The beta function provides an extra equation to calculate analytic functions of the cosmologies parameters as a function of the scale factor that are that are not calculable using only the model action. As an example this investigation uses a quintessence cosmology to demonstrate the method for power and inverse power law dark energy potentials. An interesting result of the investigation is that the Hubble parameter H is almost completely insensitive to the power of the potentials and that ΛCDM is part of the family of quintessence cosmology power law potentials with a power of zero.

  1. Consistent implementation of non-zero-range terms into hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Scott

    2017-10-01

    Non-zero-range interactions are often incorporated into mean field theories through gradient terms. Here, a formalism is developed to incorporate such terms into hydrodynamics. These terms alter expressions for the entropy, chemical potential, temperature, and the stress-energy tensor. The formalism respects local conservation of energy, charge, and entropy. The formalism leads to static solutions where the temperature, chemical potential, and hydrodynamic acceleration all vanish, even when the density profile might be nonuniform. Profiles for a phase boundary and for correlation functions are calculated to illustrate the gradient modifications for various thermodynamic quantities. Also, for hydrodynamic calculations that add thermal noise to generate density-density correlations of the desired strength, an additional noise term is derived so that, at equilibrium, correlations are generated with both the correct size and length scale.

  2. Thermodynamic constraints on a varying cosmological-constant-like term from the holographic equipartition law with a power-law corrected entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Nobuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    A power-law corrected entropy based on a quantum entanglement is considered to be a viable black-hole entropy. In this study, as an alternative to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, a power-law corrected entropy is applied to Padmanabhan's holographic equipartition law to thermodynamically examine an extra driving term in the cosmological equations for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe at late times. Deviations from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy generate an extra driving term (proportional to the α th power of the Hubble parameter, where α is a dimensionless constant for the power-law correction) in the acceleration equation, which can be derived from the holographic equipartition law. Interestingly, the value of the extra driving term in the present model is constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. From the thermodynamic constraint, the order of the driving term is found to be consistent with the order of the cosmological constant measured by observations. In addition, the driving term tends to be constantlike when α is small, i.e., when the deviation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is small.

  3. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  4. More on the initial singularity problem in gravity's rainbow cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadi, M.; Nozari, K.; Sepangi, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using a one-dimensional minisuperspace model with a dimensionless ratio E/E_{Pl}, we study the initial singularity problem at the quantum level for the closed rainbow cosmology with a homogeneous, isotropic classical space-time background. We derive the classical Hamiltonian within the framework of Schutz's formalism for an ideal fluid with a cosmological constant. We characterize the behavior of the system at the early stages of the universe evolution through analyzing the relevant shapes for the potential sector of the classical Hamiltonian for various matter sources, each separately modified by two rainbow functions. We show that for both rainbow universe models presented here, there is the possibility of eliminating the initial singularity by forming a potential barrier and static universe for a non-zero value of the scale factor. We investigate their quantum stability and show that for an energy-dependent space-time geometry with energies comparable with the Planck energy, the non-zero value of the scale factor may be stable. It is shown that under certain constraints the rainbow universe model filled with an exotic matter as a domain wall fluid plus a cosmological constant can result in a non-singular harmonic universe. In addition, we demonstrate that the harmonically oscillating universe with respect to the scale factor is sensitive to E/E_{Pl} and that at high energies it may become stable quantum mechanically. Through a Schrödinger-Wheeler-De Witt equation obtained from the quantization of the classical Hamiltonian, we also extract the wave packet of the universe with a focus on the early stages of the evolution. The resulting wave packet supports the existence of a bouncing non-singular universe within the context of gravity's rainbow proposal.

  5. On the Occurrence of Mass Inflation for the Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar Field System with a Cosmological Constant and an Exponential Price Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João L.; Girão, Pedro M.; Natário, José; Silva, Jorge Drumond

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we study the spherically symmetric characteristic initial data problem for the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system with a positive cosmological constant in the interior of a black hole, assuming an exponential Price law along the event horizon. More precisely, we construct open sets of characteristic data which, on the outgoing initial null hypersurface (taken to be the event horizon), converges exponentially to a reference Reissner-Nördstrom black hole at infinity. We prove the stability of the radius function at the Cauchy horizon, and show that, depending on the decay rate of the initial data, mass inflation may or may not occur. In the latter case, we find that the solution can be extended across the Cauchy horizon with continuous metric and Christoffel symbols in {L^2_{loc}} , thus violating the Christodoulou-Chruściel version of strong cosmic censorship.

  6. Multiple Limit Point Bifurcation for Fredholm Operators of Non-Zero Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    jno.Cme El FREDHOLM OPERATORS OF NON-ZERO INDEX Justif icatio* R. R. Huilqol Di~ztri! -t cn Technical Summary Report #2662 Av 1 r ity Codes March 1984...nmber.) Fredhoim operators, non-zero index, bifurcation, limit point 20. ABSTRACT (Contima. an rover oido it neoeepy me Idenify by Nlook MuMbo) Using

  7. Solar System constraints on massless scalar-tensor gravity with positive coupling constant upon cosmological evolution of the scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity modify general relativity by introducing a scalar field that couples nonminimally to the metric tensor, while satisfying the weak-equivalence principle. These theories are interesting because they have the potential to simultaneously suppress modifications to Einstein's theory on Solar System scales, while introducing large deviations in the strong field of neutron stars. Scalar-tensor theories can be classified through the choice of conformal factor, a scalar that regulates the coupling between matter and the metric in the Einstein frame. The class defined by a Gaussian conformal factor with a negative exponent has been studied the most because it leads to spontaneous scalarization (i.e. the sudden activation of the scalar field in neutron stars), which consequently leads to large deviations from general relativity in the strong field. This class, however, has recently been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study whether this remains the case when the exponent of the conformal factor is positive, as well as in another class of theories defined by a hyperbolic conformal factor. We find that in both of these scalar-tensor theories, Solar System tests are passed only in a very small subset of coupling parameter space, for a large set of initial conditions compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis. However, while we find that it is possible for neutron stars to scalarize, one must carefully select the coupling parameter to do so, and even then, the scalar charge is typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the negative-exponent case. Our study suggests that future work on scalar-tensor gravity, for example in the context of tests of general relativity with gravitational waves from neutron star binaries, should be carried out within the positive coupling parameter class.

  8. Cosmology, physics of particles and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent trend, already noted in the previous activity report, is the cross-fertilization between cosmology and high-energy physics, with some twenty research articles at this interface in the last 2 years. Results are presented along 3 main directions. 1) Cosmology and astro-particle physics. One may quote among others: the idea that dark matter may not be as weakly interacting as previously thought; a general study of the growth of small perturbations in the context of higher-dimensional theories; a possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological constant through violation of Lorentz invariance in the gravity sector. In the field of observational cosmology, a 3-point correlation has been detected for the first time using gravitational lensing experiments. 2) Particle physics beyond the standard model. New developments in this field are triggered by progress on both experimental and theoretical sides. The first unambiguous observation of neutrino oscillations implies that neutrinos have non-zero masses. The constraints imposed by existing data on models based on the seesaw mechanism have been studied. The 'de-construction' of supersymmetric theories, inspired by recent advances in higher-dimensional theories, leads to a parameter-free prediction for the mass of the Higgs boson. 3) Strong interactions. Experiments at Hera have triggered new studies of hadronic interactions in the regime of high parton densities, which is also the high-energy limit for QCD: the phenomenon of 'parton saturation' is expected to occur. QCD calculations have been applied to various observables: jet physics, diffractive processes at Hera and in collider experiments, and multiplicity correlations in phase space. (A.C.)

  9. Cosmology, physics of particles and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A recent trend, already noted in the previous activity report, is the cross-fertilization between cosmology and high-energy physics, with some twenty research articles at this interface in the last 2 years. Results are presented along 3 main directions. 1) Cosmology and astro-particle physics. One may quote among others: the idea that dark matter may not be as weakly interacting as previously thought; a general study of the growth of small perturbations in the context of higher-dimensional theories; a possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological constant through violation of Lorentz invariance in the gravity sector. In the field of observational cosmology, a 3-point correlation has been detected for the first time using gravitational lensing experiments. 2) Particle physics beyond the standard model. New developments in this field are triggered by progress on both experimental and theoretical sides. The first unambiguous observation of neutrino oscillations implies that neutrinos have non-zero masses. The constraints imposed by existing data on models based on the seesaw mechanism have been studied. The 'de-construction' of supersymmetric theories, inspired by recent advances in higher-dimensional theories, leads to a parameter-free prediction for the mass of the Higgs boson. 3) Strong interactions. Experiments at Hera have triggered new studies of hadronic interactions in the regime of high parton densities, which is also the high-energy limit for QCD: the phenomenon of 'parton saturation' is expected to occur. QCD calculations have been applied to various observables: jet physics, diffractive processes at Hera and in collider experiments, and multiplicity correlations in phase space. (A.C.)

  10. Higgs Physics and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad

  11. Wormholes and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-10-01

    We review Coleman's wormhole mechanism for the vanishing of the cosmological constant. We find a discouraging result that wormholes much bigger than the Planck size are generated. We also consider the implications of the wormhole theory for cosmology. 7 refs., 2 figs

  12. The quenched limit of lattice QCD at non-zero baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of gluons in the background of static quark sources. In order to do so we formulate the quenched limit of QCD at non-zero baryon number. A first numerical analysis of this system shows that it undergoes a smooth deconfining transition. We find evidence for a region of coexisting phases that becomes broader with increasing baryon number density. Although the action is in our formulation explicitly Z(3) symmetric the Polyakov loop expectation value becomes non-zero already in the low temperature phase. It indicates that the heavy quark potential stays finite at large distances, i.e. the string between static quarks breaks at non-zero baryon number density already in the hadronic phase

  13. Generalized quantization scheme for two-person non-zero sum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a generalized quantization scheme for non-zero sum games which can be reduced to the two existing quantization schemes under an appropriate set of parameters. Some other important situations are identified which are not apparent in the two existing quantization schemes

  14. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  15. S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    a reduction of the S-parameter in the physically relevant region of small external momenta for any non-zero chemical potential and T. In particular, the S-parameter vanishes at small m/T, where m is the mass of the fermions, due to the finite extent of the temporal direction. Our results are directly...

  16. Cosmology: From Hubble to HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1997-03-01

    The Hubble constant sets the size and age of the Universe, and, together with independent determinations of the age, provides a consistency check of the standard cosmology. The Hubble constant also provides an important test of our most attractive paradigm for extending the standard cosmology, inflation and cold dark matter.

  17. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  18. Cosmological applications in Kaluza—Klein theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Gamal, G. L. Nashed; Nowaya, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    The field equations of Kaluza—Klein (KK) theory have been applied in the domain of cosmology. These equations are solved for a flat universe by taking the gravitational and the cosmological constants as a function of time t. We use Taylor's expansion of cosmological function, Λ(t), up to the first order of the time t. The cosmological parameters are calculated and some cosmological problems are discussed.

  19. Cosmology Then and Now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    In this talk a brief survey has been carried out on the development of cosmology from the days Leopold Infeld was active in the field up to the present. Attention in particular is paid to the history of our knowledge of Hubble's expansion, of the cosmological constant, of the average density of matter and its distribution, and of the related issue of possible types of matter in the Universe. (author)

  20. Regions of stability with unequal saturation limits and non-zero set point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.; Shrivastava, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Constraints on the magnitudes of control variables limit the region where open-loop unstable systems can be stabilized using feedback control. Variations in regions of stability with unequal control saturation limits and non-zero set points are illustrated for single-input unstable linear systems which have one or two unstable eigenvalues. The regions of stability for saddle-point- and unstable-node-type singularities increase with the increase in one of the saturation limits, but they become invariant when the larger control limit exceeds a certain value; the stability regions vanish for non-zero set-points that saturate the controls. The unstable-focus-type singularity exhibits strikingly different characteristics. These results suggest guidelines for obtaining desired stability regions for different types of singularities.

  1. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    test chiral perturbation theory (χPT) and are thereby extrapolated to the physical point and the continuum. The final result in units of the hadronic radius r 0 is left angle r 2 π right angle phys /r 0 2 =1.87( +12 -10 )( +4 -15 ) or left angle r π 2 right angle phys =0.473( +30 -26 )( +10 -38 )(10) fm, which agrees well with the results from other measurements in LQCD and experiment. Note, that this is the first continuum extrapolated result for the charge radius from LQCD which has been extracted from measurements of the form factor in the region of small q 2 . The order of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD and the associated transition temperature are the last unknown features of the phase diagram at zero chemical potential. The two possible scenarios are a second order transition in the O(4)-universality class or a first order transition. Since direct simulations in the chiral limit are not possible the transition can only be investigated by simulating at non-zero quark mass with a subsequent chiral extrapolation, guided by the universal scaling in the vicinity of the critical point. The thesis presents the setup and first results from a study on this topic. The study provides the ideal platform to test the potential and limits of todays simulation algorithms at finite temperature. The results from a first scan at a constant zero-temperature pion mass of about 290 MeV are promising, and it appears that simulations down to physical quark masses are feasible. Of particular relevance for the order of the chiral transition is the strength of the anomalous breaking of the U A (1) symmetry at the transition point. It can be studied by looking at the degeneracies of the correlation functions in scalar and pseudoscalar channels. For the temperature scan reported in this thesis the breaking is still pronounced in the transition region and the symmetry becomes effectively restored only above 1.16 T C . The thesis also provides an extensive

  2. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-11-22

    radius are used to test chiral perturbation theory (χPT) and are thereby extrapolated to the physical point and the continuum. The final result in units of the hadronic radius r{sub 0} is left angle r{sup 2}{sub π} right angle {sup phys}/r{sub 0}{sup 2}=1.87({sup +12}{sub -10})({sup +4}{sub -15}) or left angle r{sub π}{sup 2} right angle {sup phys}=0.473({sup +30}{sub -26})({sup +10}{sub -38})(10) fm, which agrees well with the results from other measurements in LQCD and experiment. Note, that this is the first continuum extrapolated result for the charge radius from LQCD which has been extracted from measurements of the form factor in the region of small q{sup 2}. The order of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD and the associated transition temperature are the last unknown features of the phase diagram at zero chemical potential. The two possible scenarios are a second order transition in the O(4)-universality class or a first order transition. Since direct simulations in the chiral limit are not possible the transition can only be investigated by simulating at non-zero quark mass with a subsequent chiral extrapolation, guided by the universal scaling in the vicinity of the critical point. The thesis presents the setup and first results from a study on this topic. The study provides the ideal platform to test the potential and limits of todays simulation algorithms at finite temperature. The results from a first scan at a constant zero-temperature pion mass of about 290 MeV are promising, and it appears that simulations down to physical quark masses are feasible. Of particular relevance for the order of the chiral transition is the strength of the anomalous breaking of the U{sub A}(1) symmetry at the transition point. It can be studied by looking at the degeneracies of the correlation functions in scalar and pseudoscalar channels. For the temperature scan reported in this thesis the breaking is still pronounced in the transition region and

  3. A stringy alternative to inflation: The cosmological slingshot scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germani, Cristiano; Grandi, Nicolas; Kehagias, Alex

    2006-12-01

    We propose a cosmological model where the universe is a probe brane moving in a warped throat on a Calabi-Yau space. A non-zero angular momentum in transverse space results in a turning point in the probe brane trajectory, and leads to a bouncing cosmology as experienced by an observer living on the brane, with a decelerated contraction followed by an accelerating expansion and with no cosmic singularity. Although the number of e-foldings is low (less than 2), standard cosmological problems are solved in our model. Moreover, due to the non-zero angular momentum of the brane, there is no bing-bang singularity. Finally, density perturbations are calculated in the model and the result is a flat spectrum with spectral index n ∼ 1 and slightly red-shifted in compatibility with WMAP data. (author)

  4. KiDS-450: testing extensions to the standard cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudaki, Shahab; Mead, Alexander; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; de Jong, Jelte; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Klaes, Dominik; Köhlinger, Fabian; Kuijken, Konrad; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We test extensions to the standard cosmological model with weak gravitational lensing tomography using 450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). In these extended cosmologies, which include massive neutrinos, non-zero curvature, evolving dark energy, modified gravity and running of the scalar spectral index, we also examine the discordance between KiDS and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements from Planck. The discordance between the two data sets is largely unaffected by a more conservative treatment of the lensing systematics and the removal of angular scales most sensitive to non-linear physics. The only extended cosmology that simultaneously alleviates the discordance with Planck and is at least moderately favoured by the data includes evolving dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state (in the form of the w0 - wa parametrization). In this model, the respective S_8=σ _8√{Ω m/0.3} constraints agree at the 1σ level, and there is 'substantial concordance' between the KiDS and Planck data sets when accounting for the full parameter space. Moreover, the Planck constraint on the Hubble constant is wider than in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and in agreement with the Riess et al. (2016) direct measurement of H0. The dark energy model is moderately favoured as compared to ΛCDM when combining the KiDS and Planck measurements, and marginalized constraints in the w0-wa plane are discrepant with a cosmological constant at the 3σ level. KiDS further constrains the sum of neutrino masses to 4.0 eV (95% CL), finds no preference for time or scale-dependent modifications to the metric potentials, and is consistent with flatness and no running of the spectral index.

  5. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  6. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AT NON-ZERO CHEMICAL POTENTIAL. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Creutz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center hosted its 19th workshop April 27th through May 1, 1999. The topic was Numerical Algorithms at Non-Zero Chemical Potential. QCD at a non-zero chemical potential (non-zero density) poses a long-standing unsolved challenge for lattice gauge theory. Indeed, it is the primary unresolved issue in the fundamental formulation of lattice gauge theory. The chemical potential renders conventional lattice actions complex, practically excluding the usual Monte Carlo techniques which rely on a positive definite measure for the partition function. This ''sign'' problem appears in a wide range of physical systems, ranging from strongly coupled electronic systems to QCD. The lack of a viable numerical technique at non-zero density is particularly acute since new exotic ''color superconducting'' phases of quark matter have recently been predicted in model calculations. A first principles confirmation of the phase diagram is desirable since experimental verification is not expected soon. At the workshop several proposals for new algorithms were made: cluster algorithms, direct simulation of Grassman variables, and a bosonization of the fermion determinant. All generated considerable discussion and seem worthy of continued investigation. Several interesting results using conventional algorithms were also presented: condensates in four fermion models, SU(2) gauge theory in fundamental and adjoint representations, and lessons learned from strong; coupling, non-zero temperature and heavy quarks applied to non-zero density simulations

  7. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  8. Parity doubling structure of nucleon at non-zero density in the holographic mean field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bing-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our recent work in which we develope the holographic mean field approach to study the dense baryonic matter in a bottom-up holographic QCD model including baryons and scalar mesons in addition to vector mesons. We first show that, at zero density, the rate of the chiral invariant mass of nucleon is controlled by the ratio of the infrared boundary values of two baryon fields included in the model. Then, at non-zero density, we find that the chiral condensate decreases with the increasing density indicating the partial restoration of the chiral symmetry. Our result shows that the more amount of the proton mass comes from the chiral symmetry breaking, the faster the effective nucleon mass decrease with density.

  9. Density response function in a non-zero temperature Bose-Einstein Condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Shohei

    Density collective excitation and single particle excitation are interesting in a Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs). Those are coupled thanks to the BEC and these phonon velocity are common in those two spectrum, which is not seen other system. Furthermore, multi-particle excitations in the density response function have been extensively studied in the context of liquid helium. In this talk, I present the feature of the density response function and spectral function in a non-zero temperature BEC within the random-phase approximation, assuming the ultra-cold quantum gases with a contact interaction not liquid helium including maxon and roton dispersion. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K17774.

  10. Non-Zero Mean PDF Solution of Nonlinear Oscillators Due to Poisson White Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, G. K.; Iu, V. P.; Zhu, H. T.; Kou, K. P.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a solution procedure for the PDF solution of the response of nonlinear oscillators under Poisson white noise. The exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method is employed to fulfill this task. A van der Pol oscillator and a Duffing oscillator are further investigated in the case of nonzero mean response, respectively. When the polynomial order n increases to 6, the result of the EPC method is in good agreement with the simulation, particularly in the tail region of the PDF. The analysis shows that the non-zero mean PDF is not symmetrically distributed about its mean unlike the case of the zero-mean PDF. The numerical analysis also shows that the result obtained with the EPC method (n = 2) is same as that from equivalent linearization method with which the result differs significantly from the simulation result.

  11. Einstein and modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabell, R.

    1979-01-01

    Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)

  12. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  13. Observational cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic

  14. The variation of the fine-structure constant from disformal couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruck, Carsten van; Mifsud, Jurgen [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Nunes, Nelson J., E-mail: c.vandebruck@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: jmifsud1@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: njnunes@fc.ul.pt [Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-12-01

    We study a theory in which the electromagnetic field is disformally coupled to a scalar field, in addition to a usual non-minimal electromagnetic coupling. We show that disformal couplings modify the expression for the fine-structure constant, α. As a result, the theory we consider can explain the non-zero reported variation in the evolution of α by purely considering disformal couplings. We also find that if matter and photons are coupled in the same way to the scalar field, disformal couplings itself do not lead to a variation of the fine-structure constant. A number of scenarios are discussed consistent with the current astrophysical, geochemical, laboratory and the cosmic microwave background radiation constraints on the cosmological evolution of α. The models presented are also consistent with the current type Ia supernovae constraints on the effective dark energy equation of state. We find that the Oklo bound in particular puts strong constraints on the model parameters. From our numerical results, we find that the introduction of a non-minimal electromagnetic coupling enhances the cosmological variation in α. Better constrained data is expected to be reported by ALMA and with the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs such as PEPSI, ESPRESSO, and ELT-HIRES. Furthermore, an expected increase in the sensitivity of molecular and nuclear clocks will put a more stringent constraint on the theory.

  15. Analytic two-loop results for self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with one non-zero mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L.

    1999-01-01

    For a large class of two-loop self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with only one non-zero mass (m) and the vertices also with only one non-zero external momentum squared (q 2 ) the first few expansion coefficients are calculated by the large mass expansion. This allows us to 'guess' the general structure of these coefficients and to verify them in terms of certain classes of 'basis elements', which are essentially harmonic sums. Since for this case with only one non-zero mass the large mass expansion and the Taylor series in terms of q 2 are identical, this approach yields analytic expressions of the Taylor coefficients, from which the diagram can be easily evaluated numerically in a large domain of the complex q 2 -plane by well known methods. It is also possible to sum the Taylor series and present the results in terms of polylogarithms

  16. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouri, Alexandra, E-mail: koulouri@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster, Einsteinstrasse 62, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Brookes, Mike [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Rimpiläinen, Ville [Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Malmedyweg 15, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field. - Highlights: • Vector tomography is used to reconstruct electric fields generated by dipole

  17. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  18. Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Akrami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.

  19. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  20. Gravitational instabilities of the cosmic neutrino background with non-zero lepton number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a cosmic neutrino background that carries non-zero lepton charge develops gravitational instabilities. Fundamentally, these instabilities are related to the mixed gravity-lepton number anomaly. We have explicitly computed the gravitational Chern–Simons term which is generated quantum-mechanically in the effective action in the presence of a lepton number asymmetric neutrino background. The induced Chern–Simons term has a twofold effect: (i gravitational waves propagating in such a neutrino background exhibit birefringent behaviour leading to an enhancement/suppression of the gravitational wave amplitudes depending on the polarisation, where the magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the lepton asymmetry; (ii Negative energy graviton modes are induced in the high frequency regime, which leads to very fast vacuum decay producing, e.g., positive energy photons and negative energy gravitons. From the constraint on the present radiation energy density, we obtain an interesting bound on the lepton asymmetry of the universe.

  1. Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabholkar, Atish, E-mail: atish@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP-UNESCO, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2016-09-10

    Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.

  2. Modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)

  3. Neutrino cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.

  4. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures offer a self-contained review of the role of neutrinos in cosmology. The first part deals with the question 'What is a neutrino.' and describes in a historical context the theoretical ideas and experimental discoveries related to the different types of neutrinos and their properties. The basic differences between the Dirac neutrino and the Majorana neutrino are pointed out and the evidence for different neutrino 'flavours', neutrino mass, and neutrino oscillations is discussed. The second part summarizes current views on cosmology, particularly as they are affected by recent theoretical and experimental advances in high-energy particle physics. Finally, the close relationship between neutrino physics and cosmology is brought out in more detail, to show how cosmological constraints can limit the various theoretical possibilities for neutrinos and, more particularly, how increasing knowledge of neutrino properties can contribute to our understanding of the origin, history, and future of the Universe. The level is that of the beginning graduate student. (orig.)

  5. (Lack of) Cosmological evidence for dark radiation after Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Mortlock, Daniel J; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2013-01-01

    We use Bayesian model comparison to determine whether extensions to Standard-Model neutrino physics -- primarily additional effective numbers of neutrinos and/or massive neutrinos -- are merited by the latest cosmological data. Given the significant advances in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations represented by the Planck data, we examine whether Planck temperature and CMB lensing data, in combination with lower redshift data, have strengthened (or weakened) the previous findings. We conclude that the state-of-the-art cosmological data do not show evidence for deviations from the standard cosmological model (which has three massless neutrino families). This does not mean that the model is necessarily correct -- in fact we know it is incomplete as neutrinos are not massless -- but it does imply that deviations from the standard model (e.g., non-zero neutrino mass) are too small compared to the current experimental uncertainties to be inferred from cosmological data alone.

  6. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  7. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    We give an introduction into quantum cosmology with emphasis on its conceptual parts. After a general motivation we review the formalism of canonical quantum gravity on which discussions of quantum cosmology are usually based. We then present the minisuperspace Wheeler--DeWitt equation and elaborate on the problem of time, the imposition of boundary conditions, the semiclassical approximation, the origin of irreversibility, and singularity avoidance. Restriction is made to quantum geometrodyn...

  8. Current cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The knowledge is summed up of contemporary cosmology on the universe and its development resulting from a great number of highly sensitive observations and the application of contemporary physical theories to the entire universe. The questions are assessed of mass density in the universe, the structure and origin of the universe, its baryon asymmetry and the quantum explanation of the origin of the universe. Physical problems are presented which should be resolved for the future development of cosmology. (Ha)

  9. Dielectric waveguide with transverse index variation that support a zero group velocity mode at a non-zero longitudinal wavevector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Mihai; Joannopoious, John D.; Fink, Yoel; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui

    2005-06-21

    Optical components including a laser based on a dielectric waveguide extending along a waveguide axis and having a refractive index cross-section perpendicular to the waveguide axis, the refractive index cross-section supporting an electromagnetic mode having a zero group velocity for a non-zero wavevector along the waveguide axis.

  10. Viscous Friedman cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of Friedman models with bulk viscosity in the plane ''Hubble's constant'' - energy density is presented. The general conclusions are: viscosity leads to intense energy production - energy density increases in spite of expansion; if the above result be regarded as non-physical, the bulk viscosity can produce cosmological models without the initial singularity only for flat universes; the results do not essentially depend on the equation of state. (author)

  11. Higgs cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-03-06

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Higgs cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and other results from the Large Hadron Collider have confirmed the standard model of particle physics as the correct theory of elementary particles and their interactions up to energies of several TeV. Remarkably, the theory may even remain valid all the way to the Planck scale of quantum gravity, and therefore it provides a solid theoretical basis for describing the early Universe. Furthermore, the Higgs field itself has unique properties that may have allowed it to play a central role in the evolution of the Universe, from inflation to cosmological phase transitions and the origin of both baryonic and dark matter, and possibly to determine its ultimate fate through the electroweak vacuum instability. These connections between particle physics and cosmology have given rise to a new and growing field of Higgs cosmology, which promises to shed new light on some of the most puzzling questions about the Universe as new data from particle physics experiments and cosmological observations become available. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs cosmology'.

  13. Nonlinear backreaction in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen Roland

    This thesis, based on two papers by Green and Wald, investigates the problem of nonlinear backreaction in cosmology. We first analyze the problem in a general context by developing a new, mathematically precise framework for treating the effects of nonlinear phenomena occurring on small scales in general relativity. Our framework requires the metric to be close to a background metric (not necessarily a cosmological metric), but allows arbitrarily large stress-energy fluctuations on small scales. We prove that, within our framework, if the matter stress-energy tensor satisfies the weak energy condition (i.e., positivity of energy density in all frames), then the only effect that small-scale inhomogeneities can have on the background metric is to provide an effective stress-energy tensor that is traceless and satisfies the weak energy condition itself—corresponding to the presence of gravitational radiation. In particular, nonlinear effects produced by small-scale inhomogeneities cannot mimic the effects of dark energy. We also develop perturbation theory off of the background metric. We derive an equation for the long-wavelength part of the leading order deviation of the metric from the background metric, which contains the usual terms occurring in linearized perturbation theory plus additional contributions from the small-scale inhomogeneities. Next, we apply our framework to the cosmological context, specializing our background metric to be of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker form. We demonstrate that, in the case of dust matter, a cosmological constant, and vanishing spatial curvature (i.e., our universe today), Newtonian gravity alone provides a good global description of an inhomogeneous general relativistic cosmology, even when there is significant nonlinear dynamical behavior at small scales. Namely, we find a relatively straightforward dictionary—which is exact at the linearized level—that maps Newtonian dust cosmologies into general

  14. Cosmology and the Bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York

    2006-04-01

    The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.

  15. Modified geodetic brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2012-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications provided by the geodetic brane gravity action corrected by an extrinsic curvature brane term, describing a codimension-1 brane embedded in a 5D fixed Minkowski spacetime. In the geodetic brane gravity action, we accommodate the correction term through a linear term in the extrinsic curvature swept out by the brane. We study the resulting geodetic-type equation of motion. Within a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric, we obtain a generalized Friedmann equation describing the associated cosmological evolution. We observe that, when the radiation-like energy contribution from the extra dimension is vanishing, this effective model leads to a self-(non-self)-accelerated expansion of the brane-like universe in dependence on the nature of the concomitant parameter β associated with the correction, which resembles an analogous behaviour in the DGP brane cosmology. Several possibilities in the description for the cosmic evolution of this model are embodied and characterized by the involved density parameters related in turn to the cosmological constant, the geometry characterizing the model, the introduced β parameter as well as the dark-like energy and the matter content on the brane. (paper)

  16. Solitons in relativistic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, J.

    1988-08-01

    The application to the construction of solitonic cosmologies in General Relativity of the Inverse Scattering Technique of Belinskii an Zakharov is analyzed. Three improvements to the mentioned technique are proposed: the inclusion of higher order poles in the scattering matrix, a new renormalization technique for diagonal metrics and the extension of the technique to include backgrounds with material content by means of a Kaluza-Klein formalism. As a consequence of these improvements, three new aspects can be analyzed: a) The construction of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models which can mimic the formation of halos and voids, due to the presence of a material content. The new renormalization technique allows to construct an exact perturbation theory. b) The analysis of the dynamics of models with cosmological constant (inflationary models) and their perturbations. c) The study of interaction of gravitational solitonic waves on material backgrounds. Moreover, some additional works, connected with the existance of 'Crack of doom' type singularities in Kaluza-Klein cosmologies, stochastic perturbations in inflationary universes and inflationary phase transitions in rotating universes are described. (Author) [es

  17. Deconstructing cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...

  18. No hair theorem for inhomogeneous cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    We show that under very general conditions any inhomogeneous cosmological model with a positive cosmological constant, that can be described in a synchronous reference system will tend asymptotically in time towards the de Sitter solution. This is shown to be relevant in the context of inflationary models as it makes inflation very weakly dependent on initial conditions. 8 refs

  19. Planck 2015 results: XIII. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    is constrained to w =-1.006 ± 0.045, consistent with the expected value for a cosmological constant. The standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the best-fit Planck base ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We also constraints...

  20. Quintessence, Cosmic Coincidence, and the Cosmological Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatev, I.; Wang, L.; Steinhardt, P.J.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that a large fraction of the energy density of the Universe has negative pressure. One explanation is vacuum energy density; another is quintessence in the form of a scalar field slowly evolving down a potential. In either case, a key problem is to explain why the energy density nearly coincides with the matter density today. The densities decrease at different rates as the Universe expands, so coincidence today appears to require that their ratio be set to a specific, infinitesimal value in the early Universe. In this paper, we introduce the notion of a open-quotes tracker field,close quotes a form of quintessence, and show how it may explain the coincidence, adding new motivation for the quintessence scenario. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Determination of cosmological parameters: An introduction for non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hubble expansion; cosmological constant; supernova. PACS Nos 3.50 Kk; 04.20 Cv; 04.40 Dy. 1. Introduction. In this conference on neutrino physics, I have been asked to talk about the determination of cosmological parameters. The reason for this, obviously, is the potential importance of neutrinos for cosmology. They can ...

  2. Partial rip scenario - a cosmology with a growing cosmological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefancic, H.

    2004-01-01

    A cosmology with the growing cosmological term is considered. If there is no exchange of energy between vacuum and matter components, the requirement of general covariance implies the time dependence of the gravitational constant G. Irrespectively of the exact functional form of the cosmological term growth, the universe ends in a de Sitter regime with a constant asymptotic Λ, but vanishing G. Although there is no divergence of the scale factor in finite time, such as in the 'Big Rip' scenario, gravitationally bound systems eventually become unbound. In the case of systems bound by non-gravitational forces, there is no unbounding effect, as the asymptotic Λ is insufficiently large to disturb these systems

  3. Neutrino cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmological data are reviewed, questioning whether the universe may be open and dominated by neutrinos and gravitons rather than by baryons. The thermal history of the Lepton Era is investigated incorporating the effects of neutral currents, additional neutrinos, and a small neutrino mass. In the canonical version of Big Bang cosmology (equal numbers of neutrinos and antineutrinos), and neutrino number and energy density is, like that of photons, gravitationally insignificant unless the neutrino has a small mass (approximately 10 eV). The neutrino sea can be cosmologically significant if it is degenerate (so that the net leptonic or muonic charge is nonzero) with approximately 7 x 10 5 neutrinos (or antineutrinos) per cm 3 . This density homogeneously spread out is still so low that even the most energetic cosmic ray protons will not be stopped, even if neutral currents exist with the usual weak strength. It these degenerate neutrinos have a small mass (approximately 0.5 eV), they will condense into degenerate neutrino superstars of the size and mass of galactic clusters. If neutral currents make the (eν) (eν) coupling five times greater than what it is in V - A theory, nucleosynthesis commences a little earlier than conventionally assumed. This increases the cosmological He 4 abundance predicted only slightly from Y = 0.27 to Y = 0.29. An appendix reviews the effect of neutral currents on neutrino processes in stars. (author)

  4. Mathematical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, G F R

    1993-01-01

    Many topics were covered in the submitted papers, showing much life in this subject at present. They ranged from conventional calculations in specific cosmological models to provocatively speculative work. Space and time restrictions required selecting from them, for summarisation here; the book of Abstracts should be consulted for a full overview.

  5. Relativistic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastero-Gil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)

  6. Lorentzian quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbrugge, Job; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    We argue that the Lorentzian path integral is a better starting point for quantum cosmology than its Euclidean counterpart. In particular, we revisit the minisuperspace calculation of the Feynman path integral for quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant. Instead of rotating to Euclidean time, we deform the contour of integration over metrics into the complex plane, exploiting Picard-Lefschetz theory to transform the path integral from a conditionally convergent integral into an absolutely convergent one. We show that this procedure unambiguously determines which semiclassical saddle point solutions are relevant to the quantum mechanical amplitude. Imposing "no-boundary" initial conditions, i.e., restricting attention to regular, complex metrics with no initial boundary, we find that the dominant saddle contributes a semiclassical exponential factor which is precisely the inverse of the famous Hartle-Hawking result.

  7. Cosmology of a charged universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A charged intergalactic (and intragalactic) medium of this kind could contain enough energy to be of cosmological importance. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the decleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been much more rapid than in conventional ''big bang'' cosmologies, too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3 K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe, a condition of special significance in certain cosmological theories

  8. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  9. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  10. Cosmology from quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2015-02-04

    It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.

  11. Course of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desert, F.-Xavier

    2004-01-01

    After an introduction comprising some definitions, an historical overview, and a discussion of the paradoxical Universe, this course proposes a presentation of fundamental notions and theories, i.e. the restrained relativity and the universal gravitation. The next part addresses the general relativity with the following notions: space-time metrics and principle of generalised covariance, basics of tensor analysis, geodesics, energy-pulse tensor, curvature, Einstein equations, Newtonian limit, Schwarzschild metrics, gravitational waves, gravitational redshift. The next part addresses the standard cosmology with the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations of the evolution of the Universe. The Universe expansion is then addressed: distances and horizons, Hubble law, determination of the Hubble constant. The next chapter deals with the constituents of the Universe: light matter, baryonic dark matter, black matter, supernovae, Universe acceleration and black energy. Then comes the nuclear evolution of the Universe: thermodynamics of the primordial Universe, the matter-antimatter asymmetry, from quarks to atoms, cosmic abundance, neutron cosmological background, matter-radiation equality, cosmo-chronology or the age of the Universe. The next chapter addresses the cosmological background at 3 K: sky electromagnetic spectrum, measurement of CMB anisotropies, interpretation of anisotropies, growth of perturbations. The last chapter addresses the quantum field theory and inflation: paradoxes of the standard Big Bang, the simple inflation, noticeable consequences

  12. Inflation and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate an interplay between elementary particle physics, quantum cosmology and inflation. These results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. In particular, we discuss relations between the stochastic approach to inflationary cosmology and the approaches based on the investigation of the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the universe. We argue that neither of these wave functions can be used for a complete description of the inflationary universe, but in certain cases they can be used for a description of some particular stages of inflation. It is shown that if the present vacuum energy density ρ υ exceeds some extremely small critical value ρ c (ρ c ∼ 10 -107 ) g cm -3 for chaotic inflation in the theory 1/2m 2 φ 2 ), then the lifetime of mankind in the inflationary universe should be finite, even though the universe as a whole will exist without end. A possible way to justify the anthropic principle in the context of the baby universe theory and to apply it to the evaluation of masses of elementary particles, of their coupling constants and of the vacuum energy density is also discussed. (author)

  13. Islands in the Λ-sea: An alternative cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourish; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2005-04-01

    We propose an alternative cosmological model in which our observable Universe is an island in a cosmological constant sea. Initially the Universe is filled with cosmological constant of the currently observed value but is otherwise empty. In this eternal or semieternal de Sitter spacetime, we show that local quantum fluctuations (upheavals) can violate the null energy condition and create islands of matter. The perturbation spectra of quantum fields other than that responsible for the upheaval, are shown to be scale invariant. With further cosmic evolution the island disappears and the local Universe returns to its initial cosmological constant dominated state.

  14. How fabulous is Fab 5 cosmology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2013-01-01

    Extended gravity origins for cosmic acceleration can solve some fine tuning issues and have useful characteristics, but generally have little to say regarding the cosmological constant problem. Fab 5 gravity can be ghost free and stable, have attractor solutions in the past and future, and possess self tuning that solves the original cosmological constant problem. Here we show however it does not possess all these qualities at the same time. We also demonstrate that the self tuning is so powerful that it not only cancels the cosmological constant but also all other energy density, and we derive the scalings of its approach to a renormalized de Sitter cosmology. While this strong cancellation is bad for the late universe, it greatly eases early universe inflation

  15. How fabulous is Fab 5 cosmology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Eric V., E-mail: evlinder@lbl.gov [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics and Berkeley Lab, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Extended gravity origins for cosmic acceleration can solve some fine tuning issues and have useful characteristics, but generally have little to say regarding the cosmological constant problem. Fab 5 gravity can be ghost free and stable, have attractor solutions in the past and future, and possess self tuning that solves the original cosmological constant problem. Here we show however it does not possess all these qualities at the same time. We also demonstrate that the self tuning is so powerful that it not only cancels the cosmological constant but also all other energy density, and we derive the scalings of its approach to a renormalized de Sitter cosmology. While this strong cancellation is bad for the late universe, it greatly eases early universe inflation.

  16. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  17. Religion, theology and cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.

  18. Cosmological Solutions of Tensor–Vector Theories of Gravity by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cent of total content of the present Universe consists of dark energy. Cosmological constant is the simplest candidate for dark energy. In the standard theory the cold dark matter model with cosmological constant CDM describe an effective epoch. Therefore assuming spatial flatness, the predicted cosmic history is given by.

  19. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portugal, R.; Soares, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    We analyse a class of cosmological models in magnetohydrodynamic regime extending and completing the results of a previous paper. The material content of the models is a perfect fluid plus electromagnetic fields. The fluid is neutral in average but admits an electrical current which satisfies Ohm's law. All models fulfil the physical requirements of near equilibrium thermodynamics and can be favourably used as a more realistic description of the interior of a collapsing star in a magnetohydrodynamic regime with or without a magnetic field. (author)

  1. Astrophysical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs

  2. Superstring Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John; Kounnas, Costas [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique - LPT, Ecole Normale Superieure - ENS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Partouche, Herve; Bourliot, Francois [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    In a string theory framework, one may unambiguously compute the free-energy density including the vacuum energy, in backgrounds with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. For certain classes of models, the resulting back-reaction induces a cosmological evolution which mimics a radiation dominated expansion. The supersymmetry breaking scale is attracted to the temperature scale and the internal moduli may be stabilized at points of enhanced symmetry. Finally the expansion may go through several higher dimensional phases, before the final attraction to a four dimensional evolution. (authors)

  3. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  4. Cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and X-ray cluster after Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian-Wei; Cai, Rong-Gen; Guo, Zong-Kuan [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Bin, E-mail: jwhu@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: guozk@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: hu@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    We investigate constraints on cosmological parameters in three 8-parameter models with the summed neutrino mass as a free parameter, by a joint analysis of CCCP X-ray cluster data, the newly released Planck CMB data as well as some external data sets including baryon acoustic oscillation measurements from the 6dFGS, SDSS DR7 and BOSS DR9 surveys, and Hubble Space Telescope H{sub 0} measurement. We find that the combined data strongly favor a non-zero neutrino masses at more than 3σ confidence level in these non-vanilla models. Allowing the CMB lensing amplitude A{sub L} to vary, we find A{sub L} > 1 at 3σ confidence level. For dark energy with a constant equation of state w, we obtain w < −1 at 3σ confidence level. The estimate of the matter power spectrum amplitude σ{sub 8} is discrepant with the Planck value at 2σ confidence level, which reflects some tension between X-ray cluster data and Planck data in these non-vanilla models. The tension can be alleviated by adding a 9% systematic shift in the cluster mass function.

  5. Cosmological production of noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Robert B.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the pair creation of noncommutative black holes in a background with a positive cosmological constant. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution. By varying the mass and the cosmological constant parameters, we find several spacetimes compatible with the new solution: positive-mass spacetimes admit one cosmological horizon and two, one, or no black hole horizons, while negative-mass spacetimes have just a cosmological horizon. These new black holes share the properties of the corresponding asymptotically flat solutions, including the nonsingular core and thermodynamic stability in the final phase of the evaporation. As a second step we determine the action which generates the matter sector of gravitational field equations and we construct instantons describing the pair production of black holes and the other admissible topologies. As a result we find that for current values of the cosmological constant the de Sitter background is quantum mechanically stable according to experience. However, positive-mass noncommutative black holes and solitons would have plentifully been produced during inflationary times for Planckian values of the cosmological constant. As a special result we find that, in these early epochs of the Universe, Planck size black holes production would have been largely disfavored. We also find a potential instability for production of negative-mass solitons.

  6. Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.

  7. Averaging in cosmological models

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The averaging problem in cosmology is of considerable importance for the correct interpretation of cosmological data. We review cosmological observations and discuss some of the issues regarding averaging. We present a precise definition of a cosmological model and a rigorous mathematical definition of averaging, based entirely in terms of scalar invariants.

  8. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  9. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  10. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    2002-01-01

    The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.

  11. Cosmological model with macroscopic spin fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Szydlowski, Marek; Krawiec, Adam

    2003-01-01

    We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model with some exotic perfect fluid with spin known as the Weyssenhoff fluid. The possibility that the dark energy may be described in part by the Weyssenhoff fluid is discussed. The observational constraint coming from supernovae type Ia observations is established. This result indicates that, whereas the cosmological constant is still needed to explain current observations, the model with spin fluid is admissible. For high redshifts $z ...

  12. Constraints on cosmological parameters in power-law cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Sarita; Singh, J.K.; Altaibayeva, A.; Myrzakulov, R.; Shahalam, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine observational constraints on the power law cosmology; essentially dependent on two parameters H 0 (Hubble constant) and q (deceleration parameter). We investigate the constraints on these parameters using the latest 28 points of H(z) data and 580 points of Union2.1 compilation data and, compare the results with the results of ΛCDM . We also forecast constraints using a simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey. Our studies give better insight into power law cosmology than the earlier done analysis by Kumar [arXiv:1109.6924] indicating it tuning well with Union2.1 compilation data but not with H(z) data. However, the constraints obtained on and i.e. H 0 average and q average using the simulated data set for the future JDEM, supernovae survey are found to be inconsistent with the values obtained from the H(z) and Union2.1 compilation data. We also perform the statefinder analysis and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard ΛCDM model as q → −1. Finally, we observe that although the power law cosmology explains several prominent features of evolution of the Universe, it fails in details

  13. Peculiar Relations in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U.V.S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the expanding cosmic Hubble volume, the Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. T he product of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘cosmic critical density’ can be called the ‘Hubble mass ’. Based on this cosmic mass unit, the authors noticed three peculiar semi empirical applications. With these applications it is possible to say that in atomic and nuclear physics, there exists a cos- mological physical variable. By observing its rate of change, the future cosmic accel- eration can be verified, time to time Hubble’s constant can be estimated and finally a unified model of the four cosmological interactions can be developed.

  14. The Hubble Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H 0 values of around 72-74 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with typical errors of 2-3 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s -1 Mpc -1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s -1 Mpc -1 . The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  15. Concordance cosmology without dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Gábor; Dobos, László; Beck, Róbert; Szapudi, István; Csabai, István

    2017-07-01

    According to the separate universe conjecture, spherically symmetric sub-regions in an isotropic universe behave like mini-universes with their own cosmological parameters. This is an excellent approximation in both Newtonian and general relativistic theories. We estimate local expansion rates for a large number of such regions, and use a scale parameter calculated from the volume-averaged increments of local scale parameters at each time step in an otherwise standard cosmological N-body simulation. The particle mass, corresponding to a coarse graining scale, is an adjustable parameter. This mean field approximation neglects tidal forces and boundary effects, but it is the first step towards a non-perturbative statistical estimation of the effect of non-linear evolution of structure on the expansion rate. Using our algorithm, a simulation with an initial Ωm = 1 Einstein-de Sitter setting closely tracks the expansion and structure growth history of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. Due to small but characteristic differences, our model can be distinguished from the ΛCDM model by future precision observations. Moreover, our model can resolve the emerging tension between local Hubble constant measurements and the Planck best-fitting cosmology. Further improvements to the simulation are necessary to investigate light propagation and confirm full consistency with cosmic microwave background observations.

  16. Friedman's cosmological views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two Friedman's cosmological papers (1922, 1924) and his own interpretation of the obtained results are briefly reviewed. Discussion follows of Friedman's role in the early development of relativistic cosmology. 18 refs. (author)

  17. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, Kerstin E.

    2016-12-20

    Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.

  18. Hans Ertel and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, W.; Treder, H.-J.

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with Hans Ertel's contribution to fundamental cosmological problems and with the irrelerance to geophysics. Ertl's studies arc related to Einstein's relativistic physics, Eddington's large numbers in cosmology, and to other problems.

  19. M-theory moduli space and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, R.; Alwis, S.P. de; Novak, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    We conduct a systematic search for a viable string or M-theory cosmology, focusing on cosmologies that include an era of slow-roll inflation, after which the moduli are stabilized and the Universe is in a state with an acceptably small cosmological constant. We observe that the duality relations between different cosmological backgrounds of string or M-theory moduli space are greatly simplified, and that this simplification leads to a truncated moduli space within which possible cosmological solutions lie. We review some known challenges to four dimensional models in the ''outer,'' perturbative, region of moduli space, and use duality relations to extend them to models of all of the (compactified) perturbative string theories and 11D supergravity, including brane world models. We conclude that cosmologies restricted to the outer region are not viable, and that the most likely region of moduli space in which to find realistic cosmology is the 'central', nonperturbative region, with coupling and compact volume both of order unity, in string units

  20. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, the research of the members of our group has spanned virtually all the topics at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: inflationary Universe scenarios, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on particle properties, ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics, quantum field theory in curved space-time, cosmology with extra dimensions, superstring cosmology, neutrino astronomy with large, underground detectors, and the formation of structure in the Universe

  1. Introduction to Superstring Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Kounnas, Costas

    2010-01-01

    This is a summary of lectures in superstring cosmology given by the author at the CORFU 2009 School and Workshops "Theory - Cosmology - Phenomenology", Corfu Institute, Greece, Sept 6-13, 2009. These lectures are based on some recent developments and ideas, in the framework of superstring theory, concerning the evolution and structure of the universe in (i) the very early "non-geometric"' cosmological era, (ii) the intermediate "radiation-like" era and (iii) the late time cosmological era cha...

  2. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  3. Cosmology with Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Lapuente, P.

    2003-01-01

    This review gives an update of the cosmological use of SNe Ia and the progress made in testing their properties from the local universe to high-z. The cosmological road from high-z supernovae down to Galactic SNe Ia is followed in search of the answer to standing questions on their nature and their validity as cosmological indicators.

  4. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.

  5. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Cosmology and particle physics have enjoyed a useful relationship over the entire histories of both subjects. Today, ideas and techniques in cosmology are frequently used to elucidate and constrain theories of elementary particles. These lectures give an elementary overview of the essential elements of cosmology, which is necessary to understand this relationship.

  6. Everyone's guide to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1991-01-01

    The main concepts of cosmology are discussed, and some of the misconceptions are clarified. The features of big bang cosmology are examined, and it is noted that the existence of the cosmic background radiation provides welcome confirmation of the big bang theory. Calculations of relative abundances of the elements conform with observations, further strengthening the confidence in the basic ideas of big bang cosmology

  7. String effective actions and cosmological stability of scalar potentials

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Quiros, Mariano

    1992-01-01

    The cosmology of the string effective action, including one loop string threshold corrections, is analyzed for static compactifications. The stability of the minima of a general supersymmetry breaking potential is studied in the presence of radiation. In particular, it is shown that the radiation bath makes the minima with negative cosmological constant unstable.

  8. Standard electromagnetically driven cosmology coupled with fermionic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M. M. C., E-mail: mmcmello@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC Santo André (Brazil); Klippert, R., E-mail: klippert@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá Av. BPS 1303 Pinheirinho, 37500-903, Itajubá (Brazil)

    2015-03-10

    Dirac fermions and electromagnetic fields are considered as the source of gravitation in the framework of standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. It is shown that all solutions for the scale-factor a(t) are non-singular, provided the cosmological constant Λ is set to be less than the positive inverse of a quantum scale.

  9. Regular and Chaotic Regimes in Scalar Field Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Toporensky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A transient chaos in a closed FRW cosmological model with a scalar field is studied. We describe two different chaotic regimes and show that the type of chaos in this model depends on the scalar field potential. We have found also that for sufficiently steep potentials or for potentials with large cosmological constant the chaotic behavior disappears.

  10. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study an anisotropic Bianchi-I universe in the presence of a phantom field and a cosmological constant. Cosmological solutions are obtained when the kinetic energy of the phantom field is of the order of anisotropy and dominates over the potential energy of the field. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the ...

  11. Slinky evolution of domain wall brane cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, Avihay; Davidson, Aharon; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2012-12-01

    Invoking an initial symmetry between the time t and some extra spatial dimension y, we discuss a novel scenario where the dynamical formation of the 4 dimensional brane and its cosmological evolution are induced simultaneously by a common t↔y symmetry breaking mechanism. The local maximum of the underlying scalar potential is mapped onto a “watershed” curve in the (t,y) plane; the direction tangent to this curve is identified as the cosmic time, whereas the perpendicular direction serves locally as the extra spatial dimension. Special attention is devoted to the so-called slinky configurations, whose brane cosmology is characterized by a decaying cosmological constant along the watershed curve. Such a slinky solution is first constructed within a simplified case where the watershed is constrained by y=0. The physical requirements for a slinky configuration to generate a realistic model of cosmological evolution are then discussed in a more elaborated framework.

  12. Primordial nucleosynthesis: A cosmological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Kajino, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Kusakabe, M.; Cheoun, M.-K.

    2014-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the test-ing ground upon which all cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the first few minutes of cosmic expansion and in particular during the important radiation-dominated epoch. These lectures review the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We will then review the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measure-ments are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we summarize the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field

  13. The chiral critical line of $N_{f}=2+1$ QCD at ero and non-zero baryon density

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2007-01-01

    We present numerical results for the location of the chiral critical line at finite temperature and zero and non-zero baryon density for QCD with N_f=2+1 flavours of staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent N_t=4. For degenerate quark masses, we compare our results obtained with the exact RHMC algorithm with earlier, inexact R-algorithm results and find a reduction of 25% in the critical quark mass, for which the first order phase transition changes to a smooth crossover. Extending our analysis to non-degenerate quark masses, we map out the chiral critical line up to the neighbourhood of the physical point, which we confirm to be in the crossover region. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at a strange quark mass of ~500 MeV. Finally, we investigate the shift of the critical line with finite baryon density, by simulating with an imaginary chemical potential for which there is no sign problem. We observe this shift to be very small or, conversely, the critical endpoint \\mu^c(m_{u,d},m_s...

  14. Quantum Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W

  15. The Philosophy of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O

  16. Holographic cosmology and its relevant degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawid, Richard

    1999-01-01

    We reconsider the options for cosmological holography. We suggest that a global and time-symmetric version of the Fischler-Susskind bound is the most natural generalization of the holographic bound encountered in AdS and De Sitter space. A consistent discussion of cosmological holography seems to imply an understanding of the notion of ''number of degrees of freedom'' that deviates from its simple definition as the entropy of the current state. The introduction of a more adequate notion of degree of freedom makes the suggested variation of the Fischler-Susskind bound look like a stringent and viable bound in all 4-dimensional cosmologies without a cosmological constant

  17. Type Ia Supernovae: Their Origin and Possible Applications in Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Iwamoto, Koichi; Kishimoto, Nobuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric evidence indicates that Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the thermonuclear explosions of accreting white dwarfs. However, the progenitor binary systems and hydrodynamical models for SNe Ia are still controversial. The relatively uniform light curves and spectral evolution of SNe Ia have led to their use as a standard candle for determining cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant, the density parameter, and the cosmological constant. Recent progress in...

  18. Cosmology or Catastrophe? A non-minimally coupled scalar in an inhomogeneous universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputa, Paweł; Haque, Sheikh Shajidul; Olson, Joseph; Underwood, Bret

    2013-01-01

    A non-minimally coupled scalar field can have, in principle, a negative effective Planck mass squared which depends on the scalar field. Surprisingly, an isotropic and homogeneous cosmological universe with a non-minimally coupled scalar field is perfectly smooth as the rolling scalar field causes the effective Planck mass to change sign and pass through zero. However, we show that any small deviations from homogeneity diverge as the effective Planck mass vanishes, with catastrophic consequences for the cosmology. The physical origin of the divergence is due to the presence of non-zero scalar anisotropic stress from the non-minimally coupled scalar field. Thus, while the homogeneous and isotropic cosmology appears surprisingly sensible when the effective Planck mass vanishes, inhomogeneities tell a different story. (paper)

  19. Astrophysics, cosmology and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief survey is given of some topics in astrophysics and cosmology, with special emphasis on the inter-relation between the properties of the early Universe and recent ideas in high energy physics, and on simple order-of-magnitude arguments showing how the scales and dimensions of cosmic phenomena are related to basic physical constants. (orig.)

  20. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  1. Cosmological models in the generalized Einstein action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, A.I.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied the evolution of the Universe in the generalized Einstein action of the form R + β R 2 , where R is the scalar curvature and β = const. We have found exact cosmological solutions that predict the present cosmic acceleration. These models predict an inflationary de-Sitter era occurring in the early Universe. The cosmological constant (Λ) is found to decay with the Hubble constant (H) as, Λ ∝ H 4 . In this scenario the cosmological constant varies quadratically with the energy density (ρ), i.e., Λ ∝ ρ 2 . Such a variation is found to describe a two-component cosmic fluid in the Universe. One of the components accelerated the Universe in the early era, and the other in the present era. The scale factor of the Universe varies as a ∼ t n = 1/2 in the radiation era. The cosmological constant vanishes when n = 4/3 and n =1/2. We have found that the inclusion of the term R 2 mimics a cosmic matter that could substitute the ordinary matter. (author)

  2. Finite canonical measure for nonsingular cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2011-01-01

    The total canonical (Liouville-Henneaux-Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart) measure is finite for completely nonsingular Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker classical universes with a minimally coupled massive scalar field and a positive cosmological constant. For a cosmological constant very small in units of the square of the scalar field mass, most of the measure is for nearly de Sitter solutions with no inflation at a much more rapid rate. However, if one restricts to solutions in which the scalar field energy density is ever more than twice the equivalent energy density of the cosmological constant, then the number of e-folds of rapid inflation must be large, and the fraction of the measure is low in which the spatial curvature is comparable to the cosmological constant at the time when it is comparable to the energy density of the scalar field. The measure for such classical FLRWΛ-φ models with both a big bang and a big crunch is also finite. Only the solutions with a big bang that expand forever, or the time-reversed ones that contract from infinity to a big crunch, have infinite measure

  3. Dark energy cosmologies for codimension-two branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwindt, Jan-Markus; Wetterich, Christof

    2005-01-01

    A six-dimensional universe with two branes in the 'football-shaped' geometry leads to an almost realistic cosmology. We describe a family of exact solutions with time-dependent characteristic size of internal space. After a short inflationary period the late cosmology is either of quintessence type or turns to a radiation-dominated Friedmann universe where the cosmological constant appears as a free integration constant of the solution. The radiation-dominated universe with relativistic fermions is analyzed in detail, including its dimensional reduction

  4. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  5. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  6. Inflation and quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this article a review of the present status of inflationary cosmology is given. We start with a discussion of the simplest version of the chaotic inflation scenario. Then we discuss some recent develoments in the inflationary cosmology, including the theory of a self-reproducing inflationary universe (eternal chaotic inflation). We do it with the help of stochastic approach to inflation. The results obtained within this approach are compared with the results obtained in the context of Euclidean quantum cosmology. (WL)

  7. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  8. Supersymmetry and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersymmetry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; supersymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT signals; inflation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosynthesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with speculations about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface

  9. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2003-01-01

    The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,

  10. Axions in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of the cosmological constraints on the axion mass is re-examined. It is argued that in the context of inflationary cosmology the constraint m a > or approx.10 -5 eV can be avoided even when the axion perturbations produced during inflation are taken into account. It is shown also that in most axion models the effective parameter f a rapidly changes during inflation. This modifies some earlier statements concerning isothermal perturbations in the axion cosmology. A hybrid inflation scenario is proposed which combines some advantages of chaotic inflation with specific features of new and/or extended inflation. Its implications for the axion cosmology are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  12. Bianchi type-V anisotropic cosmological models in certain theories of gravitation with perfect fluid distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. U. M.; Vinutha, T.; Vijaya Shanthi, M.; Sree Devi Kumari, G.

    2008-09-01

    Exact Bianchi type-V cosmological models are presented in Einstein’s theory of gravitation with cosmological constant Λ in case of perfect fluid distribution. Also obtained Bianchi type-V cosmological models in a scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986) in case of perfect fluid distribution using and without using negative constant deceleration parameter. Some physical and geometrical properties of the models are also discussed.

  13. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  14. New ekpyrotic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scenario of the early universe that contains a pre-big bang ekpyrotic phase. By combining this with a ghost condensate, the theory explicitly violates the null energy condition without developing any ghostlike instabilities. Thus the contracting universe goes through a nonsingular bounce and evolves smoothly into the expanding post-big bang phase. The curvature perturbation acquires a scale-invariant spectrum well before the bounce in this scenario. It is sourced by the scale-invariant entropy perturbation engendered by two ekpyrotic scalar fields, a mechanism recently proposed by Lehners et al. Since the background geometry is nonsingular at all times, the curvature perturbation remains nearly constant on superhorizon scales. It emerges from the bounce unscathed and imprints a scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations in the matter-radiation fluid at the onset of the hot big bang phase. The ekpyrotic potential can be chosen so that the spectrum has a red tilt, in accordance with the recent data from WMAP. As in the original ekpyrotic scenario, the model predicts a negligible gravity wave signal on all observable scales. As such ''new ekpyrotic cosmology'' provides a consistent and distinguishable alternative to inflation to account for the origin of the seeds of large-scale structure

  15. The Graceful Exit in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cartier, C.; Madden, R.

    2000-01-01

    We re-examine the graceful exit problem in the pre-big bang scenario of string cosmology, by considering the most general time-dependent classical correction to the Lagrangian with up to four derivatives. By including possible forms for quantum loop corrections we examine the allowed region of parameter space for the coupling constants which enable our solutions to link smoothly the two asymptotic low-energy branches of the pre-big bang scenario, and observe that these solutions can satisfy recently proposed entropic bounds on viable singularity free cosmologies.

  16. Cosmology of a covariant Galilean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-09-10

    We study the cosmology of a covariant scalar field respecting a Galilean symmetry in flat space-time. We show the existence of a tracker solution that finally approaches a de Sitter fixed point responsible for cosmic acceleration today. The viable region of model parameters is clarified by deriving conditions under which ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of scalar and tensor perturbations are absent. The field equation of state exhibits a peculiar phantomlike behavior along the tracker, which allows a possibility to observationally distinguish the Galileon gravity from the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant.

  17. Formation of black holes in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.Z.; Li, M.

    1985-07-01

    The formation of black holes in quantum cosmology scheme has been discussed by means of calculating the wave function of the universe with a black hole, which is described by a Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric. We showed that the average radius of the Schwarzschild black holes formed in the process of the birth of the universe is about lsub(p) 6 H 2 /a 3 , where lsub(p) is the Planck length Λ=3H 2 is the cosmological constant and a is the radius of the universe when it enters into classical era. (author)

  18. Perspectives in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.

  19. Developments in inflationary cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inflationary cosmology continues to develop in many interesting directions. Infla- tion remains the most compelling explanation to the cosmological puzzles, in other words the horizon and flatness problems [1]. Its appeal is both the simplicity of the solution, essentially kinematic, and its realizability from quantum field theory.

  20. New Challenges for Cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weygaert, Rien; van Albada, Tjeerd S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed account of the ways in which a square kilometer array could further cosmological research. Observational and theoretical studies of the large scale structure and morphology of the local universe are reviewed against the potential capabilities of a new generation telescope. Cosmological

  1. The encyclopedia of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barkana, Rennan; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Kim, Jihn E; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cosmology, in four volumes, is a major, long-lasting, seminal reference at the graduate student level, laid out by the most prominent, respected researchers in the general field of Cosmology. These volumes will be a comprehensive review of the most important concepts and current status in the field, covering both theory and observation.

  2. Cosmological Implications of Geometrothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, O.; Quevedo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We use the formalism of Geometrothermodynamics to derive a series of fundamental equations for thermodynamic systems. It is shown that all these fundamental equations can be used in the context of relativistic cosmology to derive diverse scenarios which include the standard cosmological model, a unified model for dark energy and dark matter, and an effective inflationary model.

  3. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The authors describe the connection between cosmology and particle physics in an introductory way. In this connection the big bang theory and unified gauge models of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions are considered. Furthermore cosmological nucleosynthesis is discussed in this framework, and the problem of cosmic neutrinos is considered with special regards to its rest mass. (HSI).

  4. Astroparticle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Smirnov, A.Yu.; Thompson, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this volume a wide spectrum of topics of modern astroparticle physics, such as neutrino astrophysics, dark matter of the universe, high energy cosmic rays, topological defects in cosmology, γ-ray bursts, phase transitions at high temperatures, is covered. The articles written by top level experts in the field give a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art of modern cosmology

  5. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  7. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  9. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  10. Symplectic method in quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E. V. Correa; Monerat, G. A.; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Neves, C.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we study the quantum cosmology description of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a generic perfect fluid and a cosmological constant, which may be positive or negative. We work in Schutz's variational formalism and the three-dimensional spatial sections may have positive, negative, or zero constant curvature. If one uses the scale factor and its canonically conjugated momentum as the phase space variables that describe the geometrical sector of these models, one obtains Wheeler-DeWitt equations with operator ordering ambiguities. In order to avoid those ambiguities and simplify the quantum treatment of the models, we follow references [Edesio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 38, 1609 (2006).][Edesio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Phys. Rev. D 78, 023504 (2008).] and introduce new phase space variables. We explicitly demonstrate, using the symplectic method, that the transformation leading from the old set of variables to the new one is canonical.

  11. Symplectic method in quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E. V. Corrêa; Monerat, G. A.; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Neves, C.; Filho, L. G. Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    In the present work, we study the quantum cosmology description of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models in the presence of a generic perfect fluid and a cosmological constant, which may be positive or negative. We work in Schutz’s variational formalism and the three-dimensional spatial sections may have positive, negative, or zero constant curvature. If one uses the scale factor and its canonically conjugated momentum as the phase space variables that describe the geometrical sector of these models, one obtains Wheeler-DeWitt equations with operator ordering ambiguities. In order to avoid those ambiguities and simplify the quantum treatment of the models, we follow references [Edésio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 38, 1609 (2006).GRGVA80001-770110.1007/s10714-006-0333-y][Edésio M. Barbosa, Jr. and Nivaldo A. Lemos, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 78, 023504 (2008).10.1103/PhysRevD.78.023504] and introduce new phase space variables. We explicitly demonstrate, using the symplectic method, that the transformation leading from the old set of variables to the new one is canonical.

  12. A taste of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)

  13. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  14. Is there a fundamental cosmological dipole?

    CERN Document Server

    Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2014-01-01

    Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statistical isotropy are being accumulated. After reviewing these hints, I focus on four cosmologically observed axes which appear to be either marginally consistent or in conflict with the standard ΛCDM isotropic and homogeneous cosmology. These axes are abnormally aligned with each other and include: (a) The Fine Structure Constant α Dipole (b) the Dark Energy Dipole (c) the Dark Velocity Flow and (d) the CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry. I also discuss a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) that has the potential to explain the existence and alignment of these axes. The model is based on the recent formation of a global monopole with Hubble scale core by an O(3) symmetric scalar field, non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism.

  15. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological...... parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find...... that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly...

  16. The cosmological constant Λ in connection with structured energy in form of matter. Design of a general quantization with Mach's thought as governing principle; Die kosmologische Konstante Λ im Zusammenhang mit strukturierter Energie in Form von Materie. Entwurf einer allgemeinen Quantisierung mit dem Machschen Gedanken als Leitprinzip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Klaus W.

    2015-07-01

    Can we the indeed so controverse worlds of our cosmos, which is seemingly partitioned in the microcosm of the elementary particles and the macrocosm of the stars, present in a unified system? It is shown that such a description seems really possible. For this the formalism of quantum mechanics is occupied with other concepts, without these to modify itself. The considerations culminate in a new formulation of uncertainty relations only in the position space. Basing on an automatically set assignment for the momentum and the energy of a fundamental object to its special variables an amalgation of the cosmological constant and the gravitational constant with the existence of common matter. We find with an approximation about the proton mass, its trichotomy as well its resonances. This as solution of a quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem. In the study of the eigenfunctions a necessarity for the introduction of new coupling strengths results, which are similar to the strong force.Casually an extension also to astronomical problems follows. The essential difference to the problem of the particle masses is only the missing of an electric charge. There arises in consequence a rescaling of the invariant necessary for the compliance of the above axioms from the Planck mass for the microscopic particle until the residuum 2M for astronomical objects. The eigenvalues of 2M were determined and these compared with new results for the dynamics of cosmic structures. From the quantizations a mass difference between galaxies and clusters of themself follows as observed. Also the value for the fundamental parameter a{sub 0} of the so-called modified Newton dynamics can be calculated and indeed without violating the equivalence principle. It consists of a combination only of known natural constants and derived quantum numbers. The base is also here the wave function.

  17. Constraining dynamical neutrino mass generation with cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koksbang, S.M.; Hannestad, S., E-mail: koksbang@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-09-01

    We study models in which neutrino masses are generated dynamically at cosmologically late times. Our study is purely phenomenological and parameterized in terms of three effective parameters characterizing the redshift of mass generation, the width of the transition region, and the present day neutrino mass. We also study the possibility that neutrinos become strongly self-interacting at the time where the mass is generated. We find that in a number of cases, models with large present day neutrino masses are allowed by current CMB, BAO and supernova data. The increase in the allowed mass range makes it possible that a non-zero neutrino mass could be measured in direct detection experiments such as KATRIN. Intriguingly we also find that there are allowed models in which neutrinos become strongly self-interacting around the epoch of recombination.

  18. General brane cosmologies and their global spacetime structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcock, Peter; Charmousis, Christos; Gregory, Ruth

    2000-11-01

    Starting from a completely general standpoint, we find the most general brane-universe solutions for a 3-brane in a five-dimensional spacetime. The brane can border regions of spacetime with or without a cosmological constant. Making no assumptions other than the usual cosmological symmetries of the metric, we prove that the equations of motion form an integrable system, and find the exact solution. The cosmology is indeed a boundary of a (class II) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, or a Minkowski (class I) spacetime. We analyse the various cosmological trajectories focusing particularly on those bordering vacuum spacetimes. We find, not surprisingly, that not all cosmologies are compatible with an asymptotically flat spacetime branch. We comment on the role of the radion in this picture.

  19. Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) are usually studied incorporating either holonomy corrections, where the Ashtekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue, or inverse-volume corrections coming from the eigenvalues of the inverse-volume operator. In this paper we will develop an alternative approach to calculate cosmological perturbations in LQC based on the fact that, holonomy corrected LQC in the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel F(T) gravity (teleparallel LQC). The main idea of our approach is to mix the simple bounce provided by holonomy corrections in LQC with the non-singular perturbation equations given by F(T) gravity, in order to obtain a matter bounce scenario as a viable alternative to slow-roll inflation. In our study, we have obtained an scale invariant power spectrum of cosmological perturbations. However, the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations is of order 1, which does not agree with the current observations. For this reason, we suggest a model where a transition from the matter domination to a quasi de Sitter phase is produced in order to enhance the scalar power spectrum

  20. Remarks on Dimensional Reduction of Multidimensional Cosmological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Uwe; Zhuk, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Multidimensional cosmological models with factorizable geometry and their dimensional reduction to effective four-dimensional theories are analyzed on sensitivity to different scalings. It is shown that a non-correct gauging of the effective four-dimensional gravitational constant within the dimensional reduction results in a non-correct rescaling of the cosmological constant and the gravexciton/radion masses. The relationship between the effective gravitational constants of theories with different dimensions is discussed for setups where the lower dimensional theory results via dimensional reduction from the higher dimensional one and where the compactified space components vary dynamically.

  1. String-inspired cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wands, David

    2002-01-01

    I discuss cosmological models either derived from, or inspired by, string theory or M-theory. In particular, I discuss solutions in the low-energy effective theory and the role of the dilaton, moduli and antisymmetric form fields in the dimensionally reduced effective action. The pre-big-bang model is an attempt to use cosmological solutions to make observational predictions. I then discuss the effective theory of gravity found in recent braneworld models where we live on a 3-brane embedded in a five-dimensional spacetime and how the study of cosmological perturbations may enable us to test these ideas

  2. Neutrino properties from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non......-standard interactions, can also be probed using observations of cosmic structure. Here, I review the current status of cosmological bounds on neutrino properties and discuss the potential of future observations, for example by the recently approved EUCLID mission, to precisely measure neutrino properties....

  3. Cosmological evolution with brane-bulk energy exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Tetradis, N; Tomaras, T N; Zarikas, V

    2003-01-01

    The consequences for the brane cosmological evolution of energy exchange between the brane and the bulk are analysed in detail, in the context of a non-factorizable background geometry with vanishing effective cosmological constant on the brane. A rich variety of brane cosmologies is obtained, depending on the precise mechanism of energy transfer, the equation of state of brane-matter and the spatial topology. An accelerating era is generically a feature of our solutions. In the case of low-density flat universe more dark matter than in the conventional FRW picture is predicted. Spatially compact solutions are found to delay their recollapse.

  4. Kantowski--Sachs cosmological models as big-bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of a nonzero cosmological constant Λ, we classify the anisotropic cosmological models of the Kantowski--Sachs type by means of the quantities epsilon 2 0 , q 0 , summation 0 corresponding, respectively, to the relative root-mean-square deviation from isotropy, the deceleration parameter, and the density parameter of the perfect fluid at a given time t = t 0 . We obtain for Λ>0 a set of big-bang models of zero measure as well as a set of cosmological models of nonzero measure evolving toward the de Sitter solution

  5. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Krasnov, V.O., E-mail: krasnoff@icmp.lviv.ua

    2017-04-15

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  6. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  7. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  8. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  9. Cosmology and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.

    2008-06-01

    Exploring cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales offers valuable insight on the human role in global evolution. New dimensions of research await cognitive psychology and consciousness.

  10. Mirror fermions and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg

    1984-07-01

    Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)

  11. Astrophysics and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J

    2000-01-01

    These notes are intended as an introductory course for experimental particle physicists interested in the recent developments in astrophysics and cosmology. I will describe the standard Big Bang theory of the evolution of the universe, with its successes and shortcomings, which will lead to inflationary cosmology as the paradigm for the origin of the global structure of the universe as well as the origin of the spectrum of density perturbations responsible for structure in our local patch. I will present a review of the very rich phenomenology that we have in cosmology today, as well as evidence for the observational revolution that this field is going through, which will provide us, in the next few years, with an accurate determination of the parameters of our standard cosmological model.

  12. Inflationary cosmology from quantum conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Freie Universitaet Berlin, ITP, Berlin (Germany); Kleinert, Hagen [Freie Universitaet Berlin, ITP, Berlin (Germany); Scardigli, Fabio [American University of the Middle East, Department of Mathematics, College of Engineering, P.O. Box 220, Dasman (Kuwait); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Matematica, Milan (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    We analyze the functional integral for quantum conformal gravity and show that, with the help of a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation, the action can be broken into a local quadratic-curvature theory coupled to a scalar field. A one-loop effective-action calculation reveals that strong fluctuations of the metric field are capable of spontaneously generating a dimensionally transmuted parameter which, in the weak-field sector of the broken phase, induces a Starobinsky-type f(R)-model with a gravi-cosmological constant. A resulting non-trivial relation between Starobinsky's parameter and the gravi-cosmological constant is highlighted and implications for cosmic inflation are briefly discussed and compared with the recent PLANCK and BICEP2 data. (orig.)

  13. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  14. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  15. Cosmological Models and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lars

    Principles in the form of heuristic guidelines or generally accepted dogma play an important role in the development of physical theories. In particular, philosophical considerations and principles figure prominently in the work of Albert Einstein. As mentioned in the talk by Jiří Bičák at this conference, Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, an essential step on the road to general relativity, during his time in Prague 1911-1912. In this talk, I would like to discuss some aspects of cosmological models. As cosmology is an area of physics where "principles" such as the "cosmological principle" or the "Copernican principle" play a prominent role in motivating the class of models which form part of the current standard model, I will start by comparing the role of the equivalence principle to that of the principles used in cosmology. I will then briefly describe the standard model of cosmology to give a perspective on some mathematical problems and conjectures on cosmological models, which are discussed in the later part of this paper.

  16. Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors. (orig.)

  17. Higher dimensional homogeneous cosmology in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ρ´tµ and p p´tµ, we have obtained exact solutions for cosmological models in higher-dimension based on Lyra geometry. Depending on the form of metric chosen, the model is similar to FRW type. The explicit solutions of the scale factor are found via the assumption of an equation of state p mρ, where m is a constant. Some.

  18. Cosmological Distortions in Redshift Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, Barbara S.

    1995-05-01

    The long-sought value of q_0, the deceleration parameter, remains elusive. One method of finding q_0 is to measure the distortions of large scale structure in redshift space. If the Hubble constant changes with time, then the mapping between redshift space and real space is nonlinear, even in the absence of peculiar motions. When q_0 > -1, structures in redshift space will be distorted along the line of sight; the distortion is proportional to (1 + q_0 ) z in the limit that the redshift z is small. The cosmological distortions at z is difficult to measure the shape of a void when the fingers of God are poking into it. The cosmological distortions at z ~ 1 can be found by measuring the correlation function of quasars as a function of redshift and of angle relative to the line of sight. Finding q_0 by measuring distortions in redshift space, like the classical methods of determining q_0, is simple and elegant in principle but complicated and messy in practice.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  20. Quintom cosmology: Theoretical implications and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yifu; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, Mohammad R.; Xia Junqing

    2010-01-01

    We review the paradigm of quintom cosmology. This scenario is motivated by the observational indications that the equation-of-state of dark energy across the cosmological constant boundary is mildly favored, although the data are still far from being conclusive. As a theoretical setup we introduce a no-go theorem existing in quintom cosmology, and based on it we discuss the conditions for the equation-of-state of dark energy realizing the quintom scenario. The simplest quintom model can be achieved by introducing two scalar fields with one being quintessence and the other phantom. Based on the double-field quintom model we perform a detailed analysis of dark energy perturbations and we discuss their effects on current observations. This type of scenario usually suffers from a manifest problem due to the existence of a ghost degree-of-freedom, and thus we review various alternative realizations of the quintom paradigm. The developments in particle physics and string theory provide potential clues indicating that a quintom scenario may be obtained from scalar systems with higher derivative terms, as well as from non-scalar systems. Additionally, we construct a quintom realization in the framework of braneworld cosmology, where the cosmic acceleration and the phantom divide crossing result from the combined effects of the field evolution on the brane and the competition between four- and five-dimensional gravity. Finally, we study the outsets and fates of a universe in quintom cosmology. In a scenario with null energy condition violation one may obtain a bouncing solution at early times and therefore avoid the Big Bang singularity. Furthermore, if this occurs periodically, we obtain a realization of an oscillating universe. Lastly, we comment on several open issues in quintom cosmology and their connection to future investigations.

  1. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludman, S.

    2006-05-15

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  2. Growth of matter perturbation in quintessence cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulki, Fargiza A. M.; Wulandari, Hesti R. T.

    2017-01-01

    Big bang theory states that universe emerged from singularity with very high temperature and density, then expands homogeneously and isotropically. This theory gives rise standard cosmological principle which declares that universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scales. However, universe is not perfectly homogeneous and isotropic on small scales. There exist structures starting from clusters, galaxies even to stars and planetary system scales. Cosmological perturbation theory is a fundamental theory that explains the origin of structures. According to this theory, the structures can be regarded as small perturbations in the early universe, which evolves as the universe expands. In addition to the problem of inhomogeneities of the universe, observations of supernovae Ia suggest that our universe is being accelerated. Various models of dark energy have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration, one of them is cosmological constant. Because of several problems arise from cosmological constant, the alternative models have been proposed, one of these models is quintessence. We reconstruct growth of structure model following quintessence scenario at several epochs of the universe, which is specified by the effective equation of state parameters for each stage. Discussion begins with the dynamics of quintessence, in which exponential potential is analytically derived, which leads to various conditions of the universe. We then focus on scaling and quintessence dominated solutions. Subsequently, we review the basics of cosmological perturbation theory and derive formulas to investigate how matter perturbation evolves with time in subhorizon scales which leads to structure formation, and also analyze the influence of quintessence to the structure formation. From analytical exploration, we obtain the growth rate of matter perturbation and the existence of quintessence as a dark energy that slows down the growth of structure formation of the universe.

  3. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t ∼ 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs

  4. FIRST-YEAR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY-II SUPERNOVA RESULTS: HUBBLE DIAGRAM AND COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Vanderplas, Jake; Cinabro, David; Marriner, John; Davis, Tamara M.; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Holtzman, Jon; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Zheng Chen; Bassett, Bruce; Elson, Ed; Bender, Ralf; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 V = 2.18 ± 0.14 stat ± 0.48 syst , and find that the intrinsic distribution of host-galaxy extinction is well fitted by an exponential function, P(A V ) = exp(-A V /τ V ), with τ V = 0.334 ± 0.088 mag. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and a compilation of Nearby SN Ia measurements. A new feature in our analysis is the use of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of all surveys to account for selection biases, including those from spectroscopic targeting. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and Ω M , assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. We also consider constraints upon Ω M and Ω Λ for a cosmological constant model (ΛCDM) with w = -1 and non-zero spatial curvature. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = -0.76 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.11(syst), Ω M = 0.307 ± 0.019(stat) ± 0.023(syst) using MLCS2K2 and w = -0.96 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.12(syst), Ω M = 0.265 ± 0.016(stat) ± 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST SNe. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame U band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift

  5. On the cosmological gravitational waves and cosmological distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinski, V. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.

    2018-03-01

    We show that solitonic cosmological gravitational waves propagated through the Friedmann universe and generated by the inhomogeneities of the gravitational field near the Big Bang can be responsible for increase of cosmological distances.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most

  7. Quark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Fields, B.; Thomas, D.

    1992-01-01

    The possible implications of the quark-hadron transition for cosmology are explored. Possible surviving signatures are discussed. In particular, the possibility of generating a dark matter candidate such as strange nuggets or planetary mass black holes is noted. Much discussion is devoted to the possible role of the transition for cosmological nucleosynthesis. It is emphasized that even an optimized first order phase transition will not significantly alter the nucleosynthesis constraints on the cosmological baryon density nor on neutrino counting. However, it is noted that Be and B observations in old stars may eventually be able to be a signature of a cosmologically significant quark-hadron transition. It is pointed out that the critical point in this regard is whether the observed B/Be ratio can be produced by spallation processes or requires cosmological input. Spallation cannot produce a B/Be ratio below 7.6. A supporting signature would be Be and B ratios to oxygen that greatly exceed galactic values. At present, all data is still consistent with a spallagenic origin

  8. On the Holographic Bound in Newtonian Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Isidro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The holographic principle sets an upper bound on the total (Boltzmann entropy content of the Universe at around 10 123 k B ( k B being Boltzmann’s constant. In this work we point out the existence of a remarkable duality between nonrelativistic quantum mechanics on the one hand, and Newtonian cosmology on the other. Specifically, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics has a quantum probability fluid that exactly mimics the behaviour of the cosmological fluid, the latter considered in the Newtonian approximation. One proves that the equations governing the cosmological fluid (the Euler equation and the continuity equation become the very equations that govern the quantum probability fluid after applying the Madelung transformation to the Schroedinger wavefunction. Under the assumption that gravitational equipotential surfaces can be identified with isoentropic surfaces, this model allows for a simple computation of the gravitational entropy of a Newtonian Universe. In a first approximation, we model the cosmological fluid as the quantum probability fluid of free Schroedinger waves. We find that this model Universe saturates the holographic bound. As a second approximation, we include the Hubble expansion of the galaxies. The corresponding Schroedinger waves lead to a value of the entropy lying three orders of magnitude below the holographic bound. Current work on a fully relativistic extension of our present model can be expected to yield results in even better agreement with empirical estimates of the entropy of the Universe.

  9. Arthur E. Haas, His Life and Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the life and scientific development of Arthur E. Haas, from his early career as young, ambitious Jewish-Austrian scientist at the University of Vienna to his later career in exile at the University of Notre Dame. Haas is known for his early contributions to quantum physics and as the author of several textbooks on topics of modern physics. During the last decade of his life, he turned his attention to cosmology. In 1935 he emigrated from Austria to the United States. There he assumed, on recommendation of Albert Einstein, a faculty position at the University of Notre Dame. He continued his work on cosmology and tried to establish relationships between the mass of the universe and the fundamental cosmological constants to develop concepts for the early universe. Together with Georges Lemaître he organized in 1938 the first international conference on cosmology, which drew more than one hundred attendants to Notre Dame. Haas died in February 1941 after suffering a stroke during a visit in Chicago.

  10. MassiveNuS: cosmological massive neutrino simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Bird, Simeon; Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Hill, J. Colin; Haiman, Zoltán; Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Petri, Andrea; Spergel, David N.

    2018-03-01

    The non-zero mass of neutrinos suppresses the growth of cosmic structure on small scales. Since the level of suppression depends on the sum of the masses of the three active neutrino species, the evolution of large-scale structure is a promising tool to constrain the total mass of neutrinos and possibly shed light on the mass hierarchy. In this work, we investigate these effects via a large suite of N-body simulations that include massive neutrinos using an analytic linear-response approximation: the Cosmological Massive Neutrino Simulations (MassiveNuS). The simulations include the effects of radiation on the background expansion, as well as the clustering of neutrinos in response to the nonlinear dark matter evolution. We allow three cosmological parameters to vary: the neutrino mass sum Mν in the range of 0–0.6 eV, the total matter density Ωm, and the primordial power spectrum amplitude As. The rms density fluctuation in spheres of 8 comoving Mpc/h (σ8) is a derived parameter as a result. Our data products include N-body snapshots, halo catalogues, merger trees, ray-traced galaxy lensing convergence maps for four source redshift planes between zs=1–2.5, and ray-traced cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps. We describe the simulation procedures and code validation in this paper. The data are publicly available at http://columbialensing.org.

  11. Reasoning by analogy: attempts to solve the cosmological constant paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Rafael A.; Zee, A.

    2010-01-01

    Talk given by one of us (A. Zee) at Murray Gell-Mann's 80th Birthday Celebration held in Singapore, February 2010. Based on R. A. Porto and A. Zee, Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 065006 (2010) [arXiv:0910.3716 [hep-th

  12. Reasoning by Analogy:. Attempts to Solve the Cosmological Constant Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Rafael A.; Zee, A.

    2011-11-01

    Talk given by one of us (A. Zee) at Murray Gell-Mann's 80th Birthday Celebration held in Singapore, February 2010. Based on R. Porto and A. Zee, Class. Quant. Grav. 27, 065006 (2010) [arXiv:0910.3716 [hep-th

  13. Graviton excitations and Lorentz-Violating gravity with cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldo, J.L.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Moraes, L.M. de [CBPF, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Urca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sasaki, C.A.G. [UERJ, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Estruturas Matematicas, Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Vasquez Otoya, V.J., E-mail: victor@if.uff.b [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Gragoata, 24210-310, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-24

    Motivated by the interest raised by the problem of Lorenz-symmetry violating gauge theories in connection with gravity models, this contribution sets out to provide a general method to systematically study the excitation spectrum of gravity actions which include a Lorentz-symmetry breaking Chern-Simons-type action term for the spin connection. A complete set of spin-type operators is found which accounts for the (Lorentz) violation parameter to all orders and graviton propagators are worked out in a number of different situations.

  14. The mass of the graviton and the cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Novello, M

    2003-01-01

    We show that the graviton has a mass in an anti-de Sitter (LAMBDA < 0) background given by m sup 2 sub g = -2/3 LAMBDA. This is precisely the fine-tuning value required for the perturbed gravitational field to maintain its two degrees of freedom. (letter to the editor)

  15. Cosmology with Nilpotent Superfields

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Linde, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We discuss N=1 supergravity inflationary models based on two chiral multiplets, the inflaton and the goldstino superfield. Using superconformal methods for these models, we propose to replace the unconstrained chiral goldstino multiplet by the nilpotent one associated with non-linearly realized supersymmetry of the Volkov-Akulov type. In the new cosmological models, the sgoldstino is proportional to a bilinear combination of fermionic goldstinos. It does not acquire any vev, does nor require stabilization, and does not affect the cosmological evolution. We explain a universal relation of these new models to kappa-symmetric super-Dp-brane actions. This modification significantly simplifies a broad class of the presently existing inflationary models based on supergravity and string theory, including the simplest versions of chaotic inflation, the Starobinsky model, a broad class of cosmological attractors, the Higgs inflation, and much more. In particular, this is a step towards a fully supersymmetric version o...

  16. Notes on Hadza cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanes, Thea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects...... are intimately linked to women and to aspects of the social and cosmological identity of the individual makers. one object is a materi- alisation of the woman’s name and it leads to an examination by interview of naming practices more generally. Naming a child gives it a spirit and places the child in a strong...... of ethnographic research indicating the potential and need for further examination of the power and role of objects in Hadza society. Keywords: Hadza, epeme, ritual, cosmology, power objects...

  17. The philosophy of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.

  18. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  19. Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darabi, F., E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu; Mousavi, M., E-mail: mousavi@azaruniv.edu

    2016-10-10

    In a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) space–time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger–Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle–Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.

  20. Cosmology and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.

  1. Horizons of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p

  2. Exploring Cosmology with Supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue

    distribution of strong gravitational lensing is developed. For Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia), the rate is lower than core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). The rate of SNe Ia declines beyond z 1:5. Based on these reasons, we investigate a potential candidate to measure cosmological distance: GRB......-SNe. They are a subclass of CC SNe. Light curves of GRB-SNe are obtained and their properties are studied. We ascertain that the properties of GRB-SNe make them another candidate for standardizable candles in measuring the cosmic distance. Cosmological parameters M and are constrained with the help of GRB-SNe. The first...

  3. Relativistic Cosmology Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity

  4. Cosmology without a beginning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Most of the puzzles with standard big bang cosmology can be avoided if the big bang is NOT identified with the beginning of time. The short-distance cutoff and duality symmetries of superstring theory suggest a new (so-called pre-big bang) cosmology in which the birth of our Universe is the result of a long classical evolution characterized by a gravitational instability. I will motivate and describe this heretical scenario and compare its phenomenological implications with those of ortodox (post-big bang) inflation.

  5. Adventures in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.

  6. An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, John [Department of Applied Mathematics, University/newline of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2007-04-07

    specialized to the Robertson-Walker geometry and the FL models. The rest of part II, two lengthy chapters, deals with two classes of solutions of Einstein's field equations that represent spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, and that contain the FL models as a special case. Parts of these two chapters are based on Krasinski's book on inhomogeneous cosmologies, with the difference that the present work does not attempt to be comprehensive, but instead provides clear derivations of the most important results. A potential reader may ask how this book differs from other texts on general relativity. It is unique in a number of respects. First is the authors' emphasis on spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, i.e. models that do not satisfy the cosmological principle. The authors appear to have reservations about the almost universal preference in the cosmological community for working within the framework of the FL models, combined with the inflationary scenario in the very early universe, and these reservations motivate the above emphasis. They remind the reader that the FL models are based on the cosmological principle, which has a philosophical rather than a physical status, since it cannot be directly tested by observation. In other words, observations alone do not uniquely select the FL models. Moreover the interpretation of cosmological observations depends on the choice of the underlying spacetime geometry. For example, there is ambiguity in inferring the spatial distribution of matter from redshift measurements. The authors discuss in some detail the work of Kurki-Suonio and Liang to illustrate this point. They also refer to Celerier who shows that the high redshift type Ia supernovae observations are compatible with a Lemaitre-Tolman model with zero cosmological constant, i.e. these observations do not imply that the universe is accelerating if one considers models more general than the FL models, in contrast to the usual interpretation. The

  7. Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of

  8. Bianchi Type-I cosmological mesonic stiff fluid models in Lyra's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Based on the cosmological principle, Einstein introduced the cosmological constant into his field equations in order to obtain a static model of the Universe since ... momentum tensor Tij is not conserved in Lyra's geometry. ... are respectively the energy–momentum tensors corresponding to perfect fluid and.

  9. Locally-rotationally-symmetric Bianchi type-V cosmology in general ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A spatially homogeneous locally-rotationally-symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered with a perfect fluid in general relativity. We present two types of cosmologies (power-law and exponential forms) by using a law of variation for the mean Hubble parameter that yields a constant value for ...

  10. Locally-rotationally-symmetric Bianchi type-V cosmology in general ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A spatially homogeneous locally-rotationally-symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-V cosmological model is considered with a perfect fluid in general relativity. We present two types of cosmologies (power-law and exponential forms) by using a law of variation for the mean Hubble parameter that yields a constant value for the ...

  11. Correspondence between n- and m-dimensional inflationary cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Alberto A.; Garcia-Quiroz, Alberto; Cataldo, Mauricio; Campo, Sergio del

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that, from any n-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology determined for a single scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, one can construct its m-dimensional counterpart, under the assumption of a common time coordinate and a structurally invariant scale factor for both spacetimes, by means of a simple algebraic correspondence relating gravitational constants and scalar field structural functions. If the considered cosmologies are supplemented with a perfect fluid, fitting a wide class of state equations of the form p+ρ=γf(ρ), then any n-dimensional FRW cosmology, coupled to a perfect fluid and a scalar field, possesses an m-dimensional counterpart, and vice versa. In particular, these assertions hold for single scalar field inflation models. A theorem on this respect is demonstrated. Various families of solutions are explicitly given and exhibit their correspondence with 3+1 cosmological spacetimes

  12. Introduction to big bang nucleosynthesis and modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kajino, Toshitaka

    Primordial nucleosynthesis remains as one of the pillars of modern cosmology. It is the testing ground upon which many cosmological models must ultimately rest. It is our only probe of the universe during the important radiation-dominated epoch in the first few minutes of cosmic expansion. This paper reviews the basic equations of space-time, cosmology, and big bang nucleosynthesis. We also summarize the current state of observational constraints on primordial abundances along with the key nuclear reactions and their uncertainties. We summarize which nuclear measurements are most crucial during the big bang. We also review various cosmological models and their constraints. In particular, we analyze the constraints that big bang nucleosynthesis places upon the possible time variation of fundamental constants, along with constraints on the nature and origin of dark matter and dark energy, long-lived supersymmetric particles, gravity waves, and the primordial magnetic field.

  13. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  14. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  15. Cosmology of modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baojiu; Barrow, John D.; Mota, David F.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the cosmology where some function f(G) of the Gauss-Bonnet term G is added to the gravitational action to account for the late-time accelerating expansion of the universe. The covariant and gauge invariant perturbation equations are derived with a method which could also be applied to general f(R,R ab R ab ,R abcd R abcd ) gravitational theories. It is pointed out that, despite their fourth-order character, such f(G) gravity models generally cannot reproduce arbitrary background cosmic evolutions; for example, the standard ΛCDM paradigm with Ω DE =0.76 cannot be realized in f(G) gravity theories unless f is a true cosmological constant because it imposes exclusionary constraints on the form of f(G). We analyze the perturbation equations and find that, as in the f(R) model, the stability of early-time perturbation growth puts some constraints on the functional form of f(G), in this case ∂ 2 f/∂G 2 <0. Furthermore, the stability of small-scale perturbations also requires that f not deviate significantly from a constant. These analyses are illustrated by numerically propagating the perturbation equations with a specific model reproducing a representative ΛCDM cosmic history. Our results show how the f(G) models are highly constrained by cosmological data

  16. High Resolution TPM Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guohong

    1995-01-01

    studied several variations of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) type. The standard CDM model, although with many known problems, is treated to compare with the previous simulations. The low density models with and without a cosmological constant are of special interest because they give better fit to the large scale structure and much observational evidence implies that Omega_0 < 1.. With our high resolution simulations, we are specially interested to study the structure of the objects from different cosmological models. The slopes of the dark halo density profiles from different models are only slightly different from each other, with a broad distribution within each model. All the models can successfully produce flat rotation curves for dark halos. We find the biggest difference in the cluster structure among various models is the predicted X-ray core radius. The standard CDM model predicts bigger X-ray core radius than the low density models, but all the models predicts smaller core radius than that from X-ray observations. We find the low density models can produce significant substructures in X-ray clusters to be in agreement with observations, while the X-ray clusters in the standard CDM model are known to have abundant substructures.

  17. f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2016-10-01

    Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations-or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more suitable

  18. Cosmological billiards and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buyl, S.; Paulot, L.; Henneaux, M.; Julia, B.

    2004-01-01

    We show how the properties of the cosmological billiards provide useful information (spacetime dimension and p-form spectrum) on the oxidation endpoint of the oxidation sequence of gravitational theories. We compare this approach to the other available methods: GL(n,R) subgroups and the superalgebras of dualities. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Summary of cosmology workshop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Summary of cosmology workshop consistent with data. Concordant results are also obtained from the formation of large-scale structures in the universe by combining the exquisite measurements of the angular spectrum of CMB anisotropy with recent measurements of the power spectrum of density perturbation from large ...

  20. Excessive extrapolations in cosmology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2016), s. 270-280 ISSN 0202-2893 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : cosmology * friedmann equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289316030105

  1. Cosmological Parameters 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Joel R.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmological parameters that I emphasize are the age of the universe $t_0$, the Hubble parameter $H_0 \\equiv 100 h$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, the average matter density $\\Omega_m$, the baryonic matter density $\\Omega_b$, the neutrino density $\\Omega_\

  2. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman- systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims ...

  3. Cosmological dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2011-01-01

    In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...

  4. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  5. Holography for cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, P.; Skenderis, K.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a holographic description of four-dimensional single-scalar inflationary universes, and show how cosmological observables, such as the primordial power spectrum, are encoded in the correlation functions of a three-dimensional quantum field theory (QFT). The holographic description

  6. Tachyon field in cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    requirements. For a viable model we require fine tuning of parameters comparable to that in ACDM or in quintessence models. For the exponential potential, the accelerated phase is followed by a phase with a(t) o t2/3 thus eliminating a future horizon. Keywords. Cosmology; tachyon field; dark energy; structure formation.

  7. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures

  8. Tachyon field in cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report is based on a recent work in collaboration with Bagla and Padmanabhan. [1]. In this paper, we construct cosmological models with homogeneous tachyon matter [2] to provide the dark energy component which drives acceleration of the universe (for a recent review of dark energy models, see [3]). We assume that.

  9. On the cosmological problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed to understand cosmology as a non-local physics. Non-local methods, when developed from locally performed observations, imply a considerable extrapolation, which in turn is possible without some unverifiable assumptions. Cosmology is, therefore, not only a science on the Universe but also about assumptions that render such a science possible. As far as theoretical aspects of cosmology are concerned, cosmology can be treated as a theory of the space of all solutions to Einstein's field equations (called the ensemble of universes). The very distinction is touched upon between solutions of differential equations, expressing laws of nature, and boundary conditions identifying particular instances of the law's operation. Both observational and theoretical studies demonstrate that our Universe occupies a distinguished position within the ensemble of universes. This fact remains in a close relationship with the existence and developing of structures in the Universe. Possible philosophies aimed at justifying or neutralizing our distinguished situation in the ensemble of universes are discussed at some length. 60 refs. (author)

  10. Cosmology with rolling tachyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    765-770. Cosmology with rolling tachyon. M sAMIa, PRAVABATI CHINGANGBAMb and TABIsH QUREsHIb. aInter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind,. Pune 411 007, India. bDepartment of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India. *On leave from Jamia Millia Islamia, ...

  11. Culture and Children's Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…

  12. On Antimatter and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, C J

    1961-02-24

    A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.

  13. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field. ... Sachs cosmological models with a time-dependent displacement field and have made a comparative study of the .... We have four independent equations above, viz. (12), (15), (17) and (20) for five.

  14. An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, John

    2007-01-01

    -Walker geometry and the FL models. The rest of part II, two lengthy chapters, deals with two classes of solutions of Einstein's field equations that represent spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, and that contain the FL models as a special case. Parts of these two chapters are based on Krasinski's book on inhomogeneous cosmologies, with the difference that the present work does not attempt to be comprehensive, but instead provides clear derivations of the most important results. A potential reader may ask how this book differs from other texts on general relativity. It is unique in a number of respects. First is the authors' emphasis on spatially inhomogeneous cosmological models, i.e. models that do not satisfy the cosmological principle. The authors appear to have reservations about the almost universal preference in the cosmological community for working within the framework of the FL models, combined with the inflationary scenario in the very early universe, and these reservations motivate the above emphasis. They remind the reader that the FL models are based on the cosmological principle, which has a philosophical rather than a physical status, since it cannot be directly tested by observation. In other words, observations alone do not uniquely select the FL models. Moreover the interpretation of cosmological observations depends on the choice of the underlying spacetime geometry. For example, there is ambiguity in inferring the spatial distribution of matter from redshift measurements. The authors discuss in some detail the work of Kurki-Suonio and Liang to illustrate this point. They also refer to Celerier who shows that the high redshift type Ia supernovae observations are compatible with a Lemaitre-Tolman model with zero cosmological constant, i.e. these observations do not imply that the universe is accelerating if one considers models more general than the FL models, in contrast to the usual interpretation. The authors also give a critique of the cosmological

  15. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  16. Black holes, cosmology and extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bronnikov, Kirill A

    2013-01-01

    Assuming foundational knowledge of special and general relativity, this book guides the reader on issues surrounding black holes, wormholes, cosmology, and extra dimensions. Its first part is devoted to local strong field configurations (black holes and wormholes) in general relativity and the most relevant of alternative theories: scalar-tensor, f(R) and multidimensional theories. The second part is on cosmology, including inflation and a unified description of the whole evolution of the universe. The third part concerns multidimensional theories of gravity and contains a number of original results obtained by the authors. Expository work is conducted for a mechanism of symmetries and fundamental constants formation, while the original approach to nonlinear multidimensional gravity that is able to construct a unique perspective describing different phenomena is highlighted. Much of the content is new in book publications, because it was previously found only in journal publications, e.g. regarding regular bl...

  17. Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, Yurij; Teerikorpi, Pekka

    The book guides the reader (astronomer, physicist, university student) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific enterprise to find out the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and material contents. The authors draw from their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character: - idiosyncratic features of the "cosmic laboratory" - Malmquist bias in determination of cosmic distances - theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - crucial tests checking the reality of space expansion - methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - usefulness of fractal as a model to describe the large-scale structure - new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model

  18. Nonlinear growth of structure in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Zarija

    2008-06-01

    vast majority of halos (80-85%) appear as isolated objects, allowing for an accurate mapping between the two main mass definitions (friends-of-friends and spherical overdensity). Based on results from Monte Carlo realizations of ideal Navarro-Frenk-White halos and N-body simulations we provide a mass mapping formula. Furthermore, investigation of non-isolated, bridged halos, reveals that the fraction of these halos and their satellite mass distribution is cosmology dependent, and can be expressed in a cosmology universal form. Third, we turn to the spatial distribution of halos, which serves as a 'biased' mass tracer. While this bias is scale dependent, at large distances it asymptotes to a constant value. We show that commonly used, heuristic approach to relating the mass function to the bias (peak-background split) clearly fails at the accuracy we are interested in (bias as a function of mass. This formula fit well not only our data, but the current state of the art simulation data (Millenium simulation). Finally, we present the results of a comparison between 10 different cosmology codes. These include virtually all major codes used today, and more importantly, they completely cover the range of numerical algorithms used in cosmological N-body simulations. For the mass function, the matter power spectrum, and halo profiles -- the most important statistics for this thesis - - codes agree at less then 10% over wide dynamic ranges. This robustness gives us additional confidence in our numerical results.

  19. WHEPP-X: Report of the working group on cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. The three main problems that were discussed at some length by the group during the course of the workshop were (i) canceling a `large' cosmological constant, (ii) non-Gaussianities in inflationary models and (iii) stability of interacting ...

  20. The general class of Bianchi cosmological models with dark energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early. Universe while it behaves as a cosmological constant at the late time. Chaplygin gas [20,21] is one of the candidates of the dark energy models to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The Chaplygin gas obeys an equation of state p = −A1/ρ ...

  1. Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model in the presence of bulk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-06

    Sep 6, 2016 ... coefficient of shear viscosity is considered as proportional to the scale of expansion in the model. Also some physical and geometrical properties of the model are discussed. Keywords. Cylindrically symmetric space–time; viscous fluid; variable cosmological constant. PACS Nos 98.80.Es; 04.20.jb; 04.20.−q.

  2. Brane cosmologies without orbifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hael; Holdom, Bob

    2000-11-01

    We study the dynamics of branes in configurations where (1) the brane is the edge of a single anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and (2) the brane is the surface of a vacuum bubble expanding into a Schwarzschild or AdS-Schwarzschild bulk. In both cases we find solutions that resemble the standard Robertson-Walker cosmologies, although, in the latter, the evolution can be controlled by a mass parameter in the bulk metric. We also include a term in the brane action for the scalar curvature. This term adds a contribution to the low-energy theory of gravity which does not need to affect the cosmology, but which is necessary for the surface of the vacuum bubble to recover four-dimensional gravity.

  3. Fundamentals of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, James

    2009-01-01

    The book is aimed at astrophysics students and professional physicists who wish to understand the basics of cosmology and general relativity as well as the observational foundations of the LambdaCDM model of the Universe. The book provides a self-contained introduction to general relativity that is based on the homogeneity and isotropy of the local universe. The simplicity of this space allows general relativity to be presented in a very elementary manner while laying the foundation for the treatment of more complicated problems. The new edition presents the most recent observations, including those of CMB anisotropies by WMAP and of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations by SDSS. Future observational and theoretical challenges for the understanding of dark energy and dark matter are discussed. From 1st edition reviews: "The book provides a comprehensive and thorough explication of current cosmology at a level appropriate for a beginning graduate student or an advanced and motivated undergraduate. ... This is an extrem...

  4. Massive neutrinos and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discussed the importance of the consequences of a nonzero neutrino rest mass on cosmology, perhaps, first recognized by Gershtein and Zeldovich, after the discover of the 3-K microwave background radiation MBR. Since the first works on the primordial synthesis of 4 He, it has been known that additional neutrino species increase the rate of expansion of the universe during the epoch of the primordial nucleosynthesis, which increases the yield of 4 He. Combining the results of the theory with astronomical measurements of the 4 He abundance and the estimate of the mass density of MBR, Shvartsman suggested the upper limit on the mass density of all relativistic matter at that epoch: ρ rel ≤ 5ρ MBR which eventually became the upper limit for the number of neutrino species: N ν ≤ 7. At that time, the constraints based on cosmological arguments were much stronger than one based on laboratory experiments

  5. Quantum cosmology. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantum cosmology is to quantum gravity what the Bohr model is to the full quantum mechanical description of the hydrogen atom. In quantum cosmology one attempts to give a quantum-mechanical meaning to classical solutions of general relativity. This is discussed in this chapter. The approach is illustrated by quantizing only the conformal degree of freedom of the gravitational field, in particular the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. And, as in the hydrogen atom, the classical singularity of general relativity is avoided and one has analogous stationary states in the quantum Universe. The chapter ends with a model of the fundamental role that the Planck length may play as the universal cutoff in all field theories, thus ridding the theory of ultra-violet divergences. Two appendices introduce field theory in the Schroedinger representation and the Schroedinger equation for quantum gravity, namely the Wheeler-De Wit equation. (author). 38 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Quantum cosmology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In quantum cosmology, one applies quantum physics to the whole universe. While no unique version and no completely well-defined theory is available yet, the framework gives rise to interesting conceptual, mathematical and physical questions. This review presents quantum cosmology in a new picture that tries to incorporate the importance of inhomogeneity. De-emphasizing the traditional minisuperspace view, the dynamics is rather formulated in terms of the interplay of many interacting 'microscopic' degrees of freedom that describe the space-time geometry. There is thus a close relationship with more-established systems in condensed-matter and particle physics even while the large set of space-time symmetries (general covariance) requires some adaptations and new developments. These extensions of standard methods are needed both at the fundamental level and at the stage of evaluating the theory by effective descriptions.

  7. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.

  8. Supersymmetric GUTs and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1982-06-01

    By examining the behaviour of supersymmetric GUTs in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near the superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUTs. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry breaking scale a la Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out. Further constraint on model building appears if global R invariance is employed to resolve the strong CP problem. (author)

  9. Sterile neutrinos in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, Kevork N.

    2017-11-01

    Sterile neutrinos are natural extensions to the standard model of particle physics in neutrino mass generation mechanisms. If they are relatively light, less than approximately 10 keV, they can alter cosmology significantly, from the early Universe to the matter and radiation energy density today. Here, we review the cosmological role such light sterile neutrinos can play from the early Universe, including production of keV-scale sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates, and dynamics of light eV-scale sterile neutrinos during the weakly-coupled active neutrino era. We review proposed signatures of light sterile neutrinos in cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data. We also discuss keV-scale sterile neutrino dark matter decay signatures in X-ray observations, including recent candidate ∼3.5 keV X-ray line detections consistent with the decay of a ∼7 keV sterile neutrino dark matter particle.

  10. Inflationary f (R Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a simple procedure to reconstruct f ( R -gravity models from exact cosmological solutions of the Einstein field equations with a non-interacting classical scalar field-and-radiation background. From the type of inflationary scenario we are interested in, we show how the potential functions can be obtained. We then show how an f ( R gravitational Lagrangian density that mimics the same cosmological expansion as the scalar field-driven inflation of general relativity (GR can be reconstructed. As a demonstration, we calculate the slow-roll parameters (the spectral index n s and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and compare these to the Planck data.

  11. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)

  12. Cosmology, inflation, and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; Fischler, W.; Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric grand unified models based on the Witten-O'Raifeartaigh potential are discussed. In particular we study the development of the phase transition in the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. We find that in realistic models where light fields feel supersymmetry breaking only through coupling to massive fields, e.g., the Geometric Hierarchy model, the universe does not inflate or reheat. Thus, the standard cosmological flatness, monopole, and horizon problems remain. In addition, we find that the transition is never completed, in the sense that the universe remains dominated by coherent Higgs field energy, resulting in an apparent matter dominated universe with Ω greater than or equal to 10 30

  13. Cosmological Tests of Gravity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.

  14. A Time-Dependent Λ and G Cosmological Model Consistent with Cosmological Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kantha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing constant Λ-G cosmological model agrees with observational evidence including the observed red shift, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN, and the current rate of acceleration. It assumes that matter contributes 27% to the current density of the universe, with the rest (73% coming from dark energy represented by the Einstein cosmological parameter Λ in the governing Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations, derived from Einstein’s equations of general relativity. However, the principal problem is the extremely small value of the cosmological parameter (~10−52 m2. Moreover, the dark energy density represented by Λ is presumed to have remained unchanged as the universe expanded by 26 orders of magnitude. Attempts to overcome this deficiency often invoke a variable Λ-G model. Cosmic constraints from action principles require that either both G and Λ remain time-invariant or both vary in time. Here, we propose a variable Λ-G cosmological model consistent with the latest red shift data, the current acceleration rate, and BBN, provided the split between matter and dark energy is 18% and 82%. Λ decreases (Λ~τ-2, where τ is the normalized cosmic time and G increases (G~τn with cosmic time. The model results depend only on the chosen value of Λ at present and in the far future and not directly on G.

  15. Multiverses and physical cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, G. F. R.; Kirchner, U.; Stoeger, W. R.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of a multiverse -- an ensemble of universes -- has received increasing attention in cosmology, both as the outcome of the originating process that generated our own universe, and as an explanation for why our universe appears to be fine-tuned for life and consciousness. Here we carefully consider how multiverses should be defined, stressing the distinction between the collection of all possible universes, and ensembles of really existing universes that are essential for an anthropic ...

  16. Integrable scalar cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fré, P.; Sorin, A.S.; Trigiante, M.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether the integrable one-field cosmologies classified in a previous paper by Fré, Sagnotti and Sorin can be embedded as consistent one-field truncations into Extended Gauged Supergravity or in N=1 supergravity gauged by a superpotential without the use of D-terms is addressed in this paper. The answer is that such an embedding is very difficult and rare but not impossible. Indeed, we were able to find two examples of integrable models embedded in supergravity in this way. Both examples are fitted into N=1 supergravity by means of a very specific and interesting choice of the superpotential W(z). The question whether there are examples of such an embedding in Extended Gauged Supergravity remains open. In the present paper, relying on the embedding tensor formalism we classified all gaugings of the N=2 STU model, confirming, in the absence on hypermultiplets, the uniqueness of the stable de Sitter vacuum found several years ago by Fré, Trigiante and Van Proeyen and excluding the embedding of any integrable cosmological model. A detailed analysis of the space of exact solutions of the first supergravity-embedded integrable cosmological model revealed several new features worth an in-depth consideration. When the scalar potential has an extremum at a negative value, the Universe necessarily collapses into a Big Crunch notwithstanding its spatial flatness. The causal structure of these Universes is quite different from that of the closed, positive curved, Universe: indeed, in this case the particle and event horizons do not coincide and develop complicated patterns. The cosmological consequences of this unexpected mechanism deserve careful consideration

  17. Topics in inflationary cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.

    1986-04-01

    Several aspects of inflationary cosmologies are discussed. An introduction to the standard hot big bang cosmological model is reviewed, and some of the problems associated with it are presented. A short review of the proposals for solving the cosmological conundrums of the big bang model is presented. Old and the new inflationary scenarios are discussed and shown to be unacceptable. Some alternative scenarios especially those using supersymmetry are reviewed briefly. A study is given of inflationary models where the same set of fields that breaks supersymmetry is also responsible for inflation. In these models, the scale of supersymmetry breaking is related to the slope of the potential near the origin and can thus be kept low. It is found that a supersymmetry breaking scale of the order of the weak breaking scale. The cosmology obtained from the simplest of such models is discussed in detail and it is shown that there are no particular problems except a low reheating temperature and a violation of the thermal constraint. A possible solution to the thermal constraint problem is given by introducing a second field, and the role played by this second field in the scenario is discussed. An alternative mechanism for the generation of baryon number within the framework of supergravity inflationary models is studied using the gravitational couplings of the heavy fields with the hidden sector (the sector which breaks supersymmetry). This mechanism is applied to two specific models - one with and one without supersymmetry breaking. The baryon to entropy ratio is found to be dependent on parameters which are model dependent. Finally, the effect of direct coupling between the two sectors on results is related, 88 refs., 6 figs

  18. Matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, R.

    1974-09-01

    The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented

  19. Supersymmetric inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Altaba, M.

    1986-06-01

    An action is presented, within the framework of supergravity unification, which satisfies all experimental and cosmological constraints. In intermediate scale, around 10 10 - 10 11 GeV, arises from a critical examination of inflation, supersymmetry breaking, fermion masses, proton decay, baryogenesis, and electroweak breaking - including neutrino oscillations and CP violation. Careful consideration is given to some relevant calculations. 86 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2005-01-01

    I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.

  1. Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquin, J.-L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)

  2. Greek Cosmology and Cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    The structure, composition, and long-term history of the cosmos were prominent topics in many ancient Greek philosophical systems. Philosophers and philosophically informed astronomers differed over whether the cosmos was finite or infinite, eternal or transient, and composed of discrete particles or continuous, homogeneous elements. The Aristotelian cosmology preferred by astronomers following Ptolemy assumed a finite, spherical shell of eternally unalterable matter enclosing a terrestrial globe composed of earth, water, air, and fire.

  3. Redshift remapping and cosmic acceleration in dark-matter-dominated cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtak, Radosław; Prada, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    The standard relation between the cosmological redshift and cosmic scalefactor underlies cosmological inference from virtually all kinds of cosmological observations, leading to the emergence of the Λ cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. This relation is not a fundamental theory and thus observational determination of this function (redshift remapping) should be regarded as an insightful alternative to holding its standard form in analyses of cosmological data. Here we present non-parametric reconstructions of redshift remapping in dark-matter-dominated models and constraints on cosmological parameters from a joint analysis of all primary cosmological probes including the local measurement of the Hubble constant, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), Planck observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (temperature power spectrum) and cosmic chronometers. The reconstructed redshift remapping points to an additional boost of redshift operating in late epoch of cosmic evolution, but affecting both low-redshift observations and the CMB. The model predicts a significant difference between the actual Hubble constant, h = 0.48 ± 0.02, and its local determination, hobs = 0.73 ± 0.02. The ratio of these two values coincides closely with the maximum expansion rate inside voids formed in the corresponding open cosmological model with Ωm = 0.87 ± 0.03, whereas the actual value of the Hubble constant implies the age of the Universe that is compatible with the Planck ΛCDM cosmology. The model with redshift remapping provides excellent fits to all data and eliminates recently reported tensions between the PlanckΛCDM cosmology, the local determination of the Hubble constant and the BAO measurements from the Ly α forest of high-redshift quasars.

  4. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich selected galaxy clusters at 148 GHz from three seasons of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Battaglia, Nicholas [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fowler, Joseph W., E-mail: mhasse@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: hiltonm@ukzn.ac.za, E-mail: marriage@pha.jhu.edu [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    show that constraints from SZ data are limited by uncertainty in the scaling relation parameters rather than sample size or measurement uncertainty. We next add in seven clusters from the ACT Southern survey, including their dynamical mass measurements, which are based on galaxy velocity dispersions and thus are independent of the gas physics. In combination with WMAP7 these data simultaneously constrain the scaling relation and cosmological parameters, yielding 68% confidence ranges described by σ{sub 8} = 0.829 ± 0.024 and Ω{sub m} = 0.292 ± 0.025.. We consider these results in the context of constraints from CMB and other cluster studies. The constraints arise mainly due to the inclusion of the dynamical mass information and do not require strong priors on the SZ scaling relation parameters. The results include marginalization over a 15% bias in dynamical masses relative to the true halo mass. In an extension to ΛCDM that incorporates non-zero neutrino mass density, we combine our data with WMAP7, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation data, and Hubble constant measurements to constrain the sum of the neutrino mass species to be Σ{sub ν}m{sub ν} < 0.29 eV (95% confidence limit)

  5. Cosmology and astroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called open-quote open-quote crisis close-quote close-quote (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Cosmology and astroparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighborhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure formation in the Universe and section 8 to the possibility of detection of the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy. In the relevant sections recent developments are included, such as several so called ''crisis'' (the age crisis, the cluster baryon crisis and the nucleosynthesis crisis), and the MACHO events that may constitute the first detection of dark matter in the halo of our galaxy

  7. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Parameterization of cosmological scale factor during inflationary times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The inflationary period is modeled by generating a cosmological function, lambda(t), that depends on a period of exponential growth followed by a period of exponential decay. The model is equivalent to a single thermodynamic phase change and exhibits all the required features of an inflationary period such as exponential growth of the scale factor plus a natural relaxation (graceful exit) of lambda to the present day cosmological constant. After constraining the model to conditions imposed, by the inflationary hypothesis, a numerical computation is performed over the time period from the Planck time to the beginning of the radiation era. As a result of the constraints on the model, the presence of a very large negative Planckian cosmological constant was found. It was also found that the present-day value of this function, albeit small, is nevertheless positive. Using this model, the growth of the cosmological scale factor R(lambda) was found as a parameterized function of the cosmological function. It is shown that the numerical integration is greatly simplified if the multivalued function is solved. Not only does this greatly simplify the calculation, it shows that the parameterization of the scale factor in terms of the cosmological function is useful. Results are presented in a series of graphs. How the model could be related to either a Grand Unified theory or a quantum mechanical model of inflation in terms of the rate of production and decay of a (massive) X particle created by the initial instability of the vacuum at the planck time is discussed. It is further suggested that the cosmological function provides direct information about the decay rate (and hence the mass) of this X particle

  9. Testing cosmology with galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    2011-01-01

    PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory and cosmo......PASCOS 2011 will be held in Cambridge UK. The conference will be hosted by the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (DAMTP) at the Mathematical Sciences site in the University of Cambridge. The aim of the conference is to explore and develop synergies between particle physics, string theory...... and cosmology. There will be an emphasis on timely interdisciplinary topics: • critical tests of inflationary cosmology • advances in fundamental cosmology • applications of string theory (AdS/CMT) • particle and string phenomenology • new experimental particle physics results • and cosmological probes...

  10. Hubble Parameter Corrected Interactions in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    character opening a room for different kinds of manipulations. In this paper we will consider a modification of an interaction Q, where we accept that interaction parameter b1 (order of unity in Q=3Hb1ρ is time dependent and presented as a linear function of Hubble parameter H of the form b0+btH, where b and b0 are constants. We consider two different models including modified Chaplygin gas and polytropic gas which have bulk viscosity. Then, we investigate problem numerically and analyze behavior of different cosmological parameters concerning fluids and behavior of the universe.

  11. Starobinsky cosmological model in Palatini formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland); Borowiec, Andrzej [Wroclaw University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    We classify singularities in FRW cosmologies, which dynamics can be reduced to the dynamical system of the Newtonian type. This classification is performed in terms of the geometry of a potential function if it has poles. At the sewn singularity, which is of a finite scale factor type, the singularity in the past meets the singularity in the future. We show that such singularities appear in the Starobinsky model in f(R) = R + γR{sup 2} in the Palatini formalism, when dynamics is determined by the corresponding piecewise-smooth dynamical system. As an effect we obtain a degenerate singularity. Analytical calculations are given for the cosmological model with matter and the cosmological constant. The dynamics of model is also studied using dynamical system methods. From the phase portraits we find generic evolutionary scenarios of the evolution of the universe. For this model, the best fit value of Ω{sub γ} = 3γH{sub 0}{sup 2} is equal 9.70 x 10{sup -11}. We consider a model in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We show that after transition to the Einstein frame we obtain both the form of the potential of the scalar field and the decaying Lambda term. (orig.)

  12. Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-10-29

    We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...

  13. Particles and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, Igor

    1993-01-01

    When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO

  14. An Intriguing Cosmological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulick, John

    2018-01-01

    The proposed model provides: 1 A predicted cosmological distribution of galaxies that requires no Dark Energy; 2 An observationally confirmed prediction that the historical location for the peak number of quasars, star formation rate, and Gamma Ray Bursts will occur at a red shift factor of z =2; 3 And other predictions. The “Galactic Horizon Model” is described by geometrically defined sets of interacting spatial relationships. 1 “Observable Space” is the reference structure from which we measure the Universe. 2 Observable Space is expanding relative to an “Absolute Space”. 3 The expansion of Observable Space does not stop at the “boundary of galaxies” but occurs incrementally at the atomic scale of observation. “Running the clock backwards”, never has all the galaxies in the Universe compressed into a singularity. 4 Initially, the streams of matter that form galaxies are extremely dense and very close to each other. 5 Gravitational interaction between the new galaxies causes randomized “peculiar” motions that results in randomized Doppler Effects that are added or subtracted to the Cosmological Red Shift. 6 The intensity of gravitational interaction and the kinetic velocity of galaxies diminish over Cosmological time. 7 A model predicted temporal delay defines with the entrance of galaxies into the universe, introduces a “Galactic Horizon” and establishes the location of the Cosmic Background Radiation 8 An additional spatial frame of reference called “Inertial Space” contains the kinematically averaged position of the galaxies. It is from our perspective of Inertial Space that gives the appearance of an expanding Universe. 9 The model results from combining the spatial-temporal field relationships defined in two previous papers (“A Multidimensional Geometric Expansion of Spacetime” [1] and “Could the Inertia and Energy Content of Matter Diminish Over Cosmological Time?” [2]). The apparent spatial location of a galaxy over

  15. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  16. The contrasting roles of Planck's constant in classical and quantum theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2018-04-01

    We trace the historical appearance of Planck's constant in physics, and we note that initially the constant did not appear in connection with quanta. Furthermore, we emphasize that Planck's constant can appear in both classical and quantum theories. In both theories, Planck's constant sets the scale of atomic phenomena. However, the roles played in the foundations of the theories are sharply different. In quantum theory, Planck's constant is crucial to the structure of the theory. On the other hand, in classical electrodynamics, Planck's constant is optional, since it appears only as the scale factor for the (homogeneous) source-free contribution to the general solution of Maxwell's equations. Since classical electrodynamics can be solved while taking the homogenous source-free contribution in the solution as zero or non-zero, there are naturally two different theories of classical electrodynamics, one in which Planck's constant is taken as zero and one where it is taken as non-zero. The textbooks of classical electromagnetism present only the version in which Planck's constant is taken to vanish.

  17. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS WITH A NON-ZERO TORQUE BOUNDARY CONDITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-20

    A stellar-mass black hole (BH) surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) has been discussed in a number of works as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is widely believed that NDAF cannot liberate enough energy for bright GRBs. However, these works have been based on the assumption of a “no torque” boundary condition, which is invalid when the disk is magnetized. In this paper, we present both numerical and analytical solutions for NDAFs with non-zero boundary stresses and reexamine their properties. We find that an NDAF with such a boundary torque can be powerful enough to account for those bright short GRBs, energetic long GRBs, and ultra-long GRBs. The disk becomes viscously unstable, which makes it possible to interpret the variability of GRB prompt emission and the steep decay phase in the early X-ray afterglow. Finally, we study the gravitational waves radiated from a processing BH-NDAF. We find that the effects of the boundary torque on the strength of the gravitational waves can be ignored.

  18. Inverse scattering transform and soliton solutions for square matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-zero boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinari, Barbara; Demontis, Francesco; Li, Sitai; Horikis, Theodoros P.

    2018-04-01

    The inverse scattering transform (IST) with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is developed for an m × m matrix nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation which, in the case m = 2, has been proposed as a model to describe hyperfine spin F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with either repulsive interatomic interactions and anti-ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-defocusing case), or attractive interatomic interactions and ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-focusing case). The IST for this system was first presented by Ieda et al. (2007) , using a different approach. In our formulation, both the direct and the inverse problems are posed in terms of a suitable uniformization variable which allows to develop the IST on the standard complex plane, instead of a two-sheeted Riemann surface or the cut plane with discontinuities along the cuts. Analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions and scattering data, symmetries, properties of the discrete spectrum, and asymptotics are derived. The inverse problem is posed as a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the eigenfunctions, and the reconstruction formula of the potential in terms of eigenfunctions and scattering data is provided. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is analyzed in detail in the 2 × 2 self-focusing case, including some special solutions not previously discussed in the literature.

  19. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  20. An introduction to modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Liddle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation

  1. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  2. Towards a resolution of the cosmological singularity in non-local higher derivative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Tirthabir [Department of Physics, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN 56301 U.S.A (United States); Koivisto, Tomi [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: tbiswas@loyno.edu, E-mail: T.S.Koivisto@uu.nl, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    One of the greatest problems of standard cosmology is the Big Bang singularity. Previously it has been shown that non-local ghostfree higher-derivative modifications of Einstein gravity in the ultra-violet regime can admit non-singular bouncing solutions. In this paper we study in more details the dynamical properties of the equations of motion for these theories of gravity in presence of positive and negative cosmological constants and radiation. We find stable inflationary attractor solutions in the presence of a positive cosmological constant which renders inflation geodesically complete, while in the presence of a negative cosmological constant a cyclic universe emerges. We also provide an algorithm for tracking the super-Hubble perturbations during the bounce and show that the bouncing solutions are free from any perturbative instability.

  3. Cosmological Consequences of String Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, Ben

    2005-12-15

    Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.

  4. Analysis of Scalar Field Cosmology with Phase Space Deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Payan, Sinuhe; Mena, E.; Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2014-01-01

    Phase space deformations on scalar field cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. The effects of the deformation are studied in the “C-frame” and the “NC-frame.” In order to remove the ambiguities of working on different frames, a new principle is introduced. When we impose that both frames should be physically equivalent, we conclude that the only possibility for this model, is to have an effective cosmological constant Λ eff ≥0. Finally we bound the parameter space for θ and β.

  5. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.

  6. Loop Quantum Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-4.

  7. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.

  8. Quintessential brane cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, K.E.; Vazquez-Mozo, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We study a class of braneworlds where the cosmological evolution arises as the result of the movement of a three-brane in a five-dimensional static dilatonic bulk, with and without reflection symmetry. The resulting four-dimensional Friedmann equation includes a term which, for a certain range of the parameters, effectively works as a quintessence component, producing an acceleration of the universe at late times. Using current observations and bounds derived from big-bang nucleosynthesis, we estimate the parameters that characterize the model

  9. Inflationary Axion Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-09-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.

  10. Cosmology in antiquity

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil

  11. Constraining entropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Tomi S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zumalacárregui, Miguel, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@uu.nl, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: miguelzuma@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICC-IEEC), University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    It has been recently proposed that the interpretation of gravity as an emergent, entropic phenomenon might have nontrivial implications to cosmology. Here several such approaches are investigated and the underlying assumptions that must be made in order to constrain them by the BBN, SneIa, BAO and CMB data are clarified. Present models of inflation or dark energy are ruled out by the data. Constraints are derived on phenomenological parameterizations of modified Friedmann equations and some features of entropic scenarios regarding the growth of perturbations, the no-go theorem for entropic inflation and the possible violation of the Bekenstein bound for the entropy of the Universe are discussed and clarified.

  12. Inflationary axion cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Wilczek, F.

    1991-01-01

    If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 -6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, θ 1 approx-lt[m a /10 -6 eV 0.59 .] We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative

  13. Cosmological models - in which universe do we live

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartvigsen, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A general discussion of the present state of cosmological models is introduced with a brief presentation of the expanding universe theory, the red shift and Hubble's Law. Hubble's Constant lies between 30 and 105 km/sec/Mpc, and a value of 55 km/sec/Mpc is assumed in this article. The arguments for the big bang and steady state theories are presented and the reasons for the present acceptance of the former given. Friedmann models are briefly discussed and 'universe density', rho, and 'space curvature',k, and the 'cosmological constant', Λ, are presented. These are shown on the Stabell-Refsdal diagram and the density parameter, sigma 0 , and the retardation parameter, q 0 , are related to Hubble's Constant. These parameters are then discussed and their values restricted such that the part of the Stabell-Refsdal diagram which is of interest may be defined. (JIW)

  14. Cosmological effects of a class of fluid dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carturan, Daniela; Finelli, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    We study the impact of a generalized Chaplygin gas as a candidate for dark energy on density perturbations and on cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The generalized Chaplygin gas is a fluid component with an exotic equation of state p=-A/ρ α (a polytropic gas with negative constant and exponent). Such a component interpolates in time between dust and a cosmological constant, with an intermediate behavior as p=A 1/(1+α) +αρ. Perturbations of this fluid are stable on small scales but behave in a very different way with respect to standard quintessence. Moreover, a generalized Chaplygin gas could also represent an archetypal example of the phenomenological unified models of dark energy and dark matter. The results presented here show how CMB anisotropies and density perturbations in this class of models differ from those of a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant

  15. Elastic constants of diamond from molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guangtu; Van Workum, Kevin; Schall, J David; Harrison, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    The elastic constants of diamond between 100 and 1100 K have been calculated for the first time using molecular dynamics and the second-generation, reactive empirical bond-order potential (REBO). This version of the REBO potential was used because it was redesigned to be able to model the elastic properties of diamond and graphite at 0 K while maintaining its original capabilities. The independent elastic constants of diamond, C 11 , C 12 , and C 44 , and the bulk modulus were all calculated as a function of temperature, and the results from the three different methods are in excellent agreement. By extrapolating the elastic constant data to 0 K, it is clear that the values obtained here agree with the previously calculated 0 K elastic constants. Because the second-generation REBO potential was fit to obtain better solid-state force constants for diamond and graphite, the agreement with the 0 K elastic constants is not surprising. In addition, the functional form of the second-generation REBO potential is able to qualitatively model the functional dependence of the elastic constants and bulk modulus of diamond at non-zero temperatures. In contrast, reactive potentials based on other functional forms do not reproduce the correct temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The second-generation REBO potential also correctly predicts that diamond has a negative Cauchy pressure in the temperature range examined

  16. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  17. Introduction to gravity and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauneau, L.

    1988-09-01

    Relativity principles, equivalence principles, and the general covariance principle are introduced. Curved space analysis via tensor calculus and absolute differential calculus is outlined. Einstein's equations are presented. The Schwarzschild solution; tests of general relativity; and black holes are discussed. Application of general relativity to cosmology is considered. The Standard Model of cosmology and its extensions are reviewed

  18. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Je-An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  19. Quantum Gravity Effects in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Je-An; Pyo Kim, Sang; Shen, Che-Min

    2018-01-01

    Within the geometrodynamic approach to quantum cosmology, we studied the quantum gravity effects in cosmology. The Gibbons-Hawking temperature is corrected by quantum gravity due to spacetime fluctuations and the power spectrum as well as any probe field will experience the effective temperature, a quantum gravity effect.

  20. Neutrino physics and precision cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen

    2016-01-01

    I review the current status of structure formation bounds on neutrino properties such as mass and energy density. I also discuss future cosmological bounds as well as a variety of different scenarios for reconciling cosmology with the presence of light sterile neutrinos....

  1. Modified General Relativity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.

    1997-10-01

    Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.

  2. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, ...

  3. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if a proper initial condition, viz., inflation is imposed on the very early universe. Various types of inflationary cosmologies are being considered and the string cosmology is one. It is generally believed that the very early universe underwent phase transitions, which gave rise to topologically stable structures; of particular ...

  4. On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions ...

  5. Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sriramkumar, L

    2012-01-01

    This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.

  6. Quantum cosmology and Eddington's large cosmic numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.

    1994-07-01

    A theory that contains three fundamental constants from which one can build length, time, and mass (or force) etalons satisfies with that a necessary criterion of a “universal unified field theory.” In order to interpret such a theory physically, one has to translate it into the Galilei-Newtonian language. This leads to classical “pictures” whose compatibility is ensured by introducing appropriate measurement-theoretical principles which imply corresponding uncertainty relations. In this paper we compare different (mainly gravitational) theories from the point of view of the fundamental constants underlying each case, and of the respective uncertainty relations. Assuming Eddington's hypothesis of large cosmic numbers, it is argued in particular that in quantized general relativity one arrives at less stringent limitations on cosmology than in other conceivable approaches satisfying the principle of minimal coupling. These limitations, however, are in all cases strong enough to bar the way to quantum cosmology. Instead one is led to a Diophantean concept.

  7. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n + 1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n + 1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n + 1 dimensional model and the 3 + 1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology. (orig.)

  8. Making maps of cosmological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a fast algorithm to diagnose any directional dependence in the cosmological parameters by calculating maps of local cosmological parameter estimates and their joint errors. The technique implements a fast quadratic estimator technique based on Wiener filtering and convolution of the sky with a patch shape. It uses only three map-resolution spherical harmonic transforms per parameter and applies to any data set with full sky or a partial sky coverage. We apply this method to Planck SMICA-2015 and obtain fluctuation map for six cosmological parameters. Our estimate shows that the Planck data is consistent with a single global value of the cosmological parameters and is not influenced by any severe local contaminations. This method is applicable also to other angular or 3D data sets of future missions to scrutinize any local variation in the cosmological parameters.

  9. Did Cosmology Trigger the Origin of the Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, H.-J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    It is a matter of curious coincidence that the Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago around the same epoch that the Friedmann-Lemaitre (FL) universe became -dominated or dark-energy-dominated, where is the cosmological constant. This observation was made in the context of known gravitational anomalies that affect spacecraft orbits during planetary flyby's and the Pioneer anomaly, both possibly having connections with cosmology. In addition, it has been known for some time that the Universe is not only expanding but accelerating as well. Hence one must add the onset of cosmological acceleration in the FL universe as having a possible influence on the origin of the Solar System. These connections will now be examined in greater detail.

  10. Gibbons-Hawking temperature corrected by quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Je-An; Kim, Sang Pyo; Shen, Che-Min

    We explore a quantum cosmology description of the de Sitter (dS) radiation and its back-reaction to a dS space, inherent in the wave function of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for pure gravity with a cosmological constant. We first investigate the quantum Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmological model and then consider the possible effects of inhomogeneities of the universe on the dS radiation. In both the cases we obtain the modified Friedmann equation, including the back-reaction from spacetime fluctuations, and the quantum-corrected Gibbons-Hawking (GH) temperature. It is shown that the quantum correction increases the GH temperature with the increment characterized by the ratio of the dS scale to the Planck scale.

  11. Cosmological α-attractors and de Sitter landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalisi, Marco

    2015-12-01

    We provide a unified description of cosmological α-attractors and late-time acceleration, in excellent agreement with the latest Planck data. Our construction involves two superfields playing distinctive roles: one is the dynamical field and its evolution determines inflation and dark energy, the other is nilpotent and responsible for a landscape of vacua and supersymmetry breaking. We prove that the attractor nature of the theory is enhanced when combining the two sectors: cosmological attractors are very stable with respect to any possible value of the cosmological constant and, interestingly, to any generic coupling of the inflationary sector with the field responsible for uplifting. Finally, as related result, we show how specific couplings generate an arbitrary inflaton potential in a supergravity framework with varying Kähler curvature.

  12. Gravitational waves during inflation in presence of a decaying cosmological parameter from a 5D vacuum theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Martinez, Silvina Paola; Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We study gravitational waves generated during the inflationary epoch in presence of a decaying cosmological parameter on a 5D geometrical background which is Riemann flat. Two examples are considered, one with a constant cosmological parameter and the second with a decreasing one

  13. Cosmology and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    Microbes swarming on a sand grain planet or integral complex organisms evolving consciousness at the forefront of cosmic evolution? How is our new cosmology contributing to redefining who we see ourselves to be at the edge of the 21^st century, as globalization and capitalism speed forward? How is the evolution of stardust and the universe offering new paradigms of process and identity regarding the role, function and emergence of life in space-time? What are the cultural and philosophical questions that are arising and how might astronomy be contributing to the creation of new visions for cooperation and community at a global scale? What is the significance of including astronomy in K-12 education and what can it offer youth regarding values in light of the present world situation? Exploring our new cosmological concepts and the emergence of life at astronomical scales may offer much of valuable orientation toward reframing the human role in global evolution. Considering new insight from astrobiology each diverse species has a definitive role to play in the facilitation and functioning of the biosphere. Thus the question may arise: Is there any sort of ethic implied by natural science and offered by our rapidly expanding cosmic frontier?

  14. Cosmology and cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss some issues that arise in the attempt to understand what rich clusters of galaxies might teach us about cosmology. First, the mean mass per galaxy in a cluster, if applied to all bright galaxies, yields a mean mass density ∼ 30 percent of the critical Einstein-de Sitter value. Is this because the mass per galaxy is biased low in clusters, or is there in a low density universe? Second, what is the sequence of creation? There are theories in which protoclusters form before galaxies, or after, or the two are more or less coeval. Third, can clusters have formed by gravitational instability out of Gaussian primeval density fluctuations? Or do the observations point to the non-Gaussian perturbations to be expected from cosmic strings, or explosions, or even some variants of inflation? These issues depend on a fourth: do we know the gross physical properties of clusters well enough to use them as constraints on cosmology? I argue that some are too well established to ignore. Their implications for the other issues are not so clear, but progress can be seen. (author)

  15. Supernova Cosmology Without Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth; Scolnic, Daniel; Kessler, Rick; Rykoff, Eli; Rozo, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Present and future supernovae (SN) surveys face several challenges: the ability to acquire redshifts of either the SN or its host galaxy, the ability to classify a SN without a spectrum, and unknown relations between SN luminosity and host galaxy type. We present here a new approach that addresses these challenges. From the large sample of SNe discovered and measured by the Dark Energy Survey (DES), we cull the sample to only supernovae (SNe) located in luminous red galaxies (LRGs). For these galaxies, photometric redshift estimates are expected to be accurate to a standard deviation of 0.02x(1+z). In addition, only Type Ia Supernovae are expected to exist in these galaxies, thereby providing a pure SNIa sample. Furthermore, we can combine this high-redshift sample with a low-redshift SN sample of only SNe located in LRGs, thereby producing a sample that is less sensitive to host galaxy relations because the host galaxy demographic is consistent across the redshift range. We find that the current DES sample has ~250 SNe in LRGs, a similar amount to current SNIa samples used to measure cosmological parameters. We present our method to produce a photometric-only Hubble diagram and measure cosmological parameters. Finally, we discuss systematic uncertainties from this approach, and forecast constraints from this method for LSST, which should have a sample roughly 200 times as large.

  16. Cosmology with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This volume makes explicit use of the synergy between cosmology and high energy physics, for example, supersymmetry and dark matter, or nucleosynthesis and the baryon-to-photon ratio. In particular the exciting possible connection between the recently discovered Higgs scalar and the scalar field responsible for inflation is explored.The recent great advances in the accuracy of the basic cosmological parameters is exploited in that no free scale parameters such as h appear, rather the basic calculations are done numerically using all sources of energy density simultaneously. Scripts are provided that allow the reader to calculate exact results for the basic parameters. Throughout MATLAB tools such as symbolic math, numerical solutions, plots and 'movies' of the dynamical evolution of systems are used. The GUI package is also shown as an example of the real time manipulation of parameters which is available to the reader.All the MATLAB scripts are made available to the reader to explore examples of the uses of ...

  17. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  18. Towards a new cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2005-01-01

    After having recalled that the Platonist and Aristotelian views were the basis of cosmology during the Antiquity and the Middle-Age, the author indicates that these views have been put into question again by Copernicus, Giordano Bruno, Kepler, Galileo and others whose works resulted in Newton physics. The author then follows and comments this history with the emergence of contemporary physics (relativistic and quantum physics) and new concepts for matter, space and time, light, energy, and the Universe with a relativistic cosmology. After having commented these last issues, the author evokes how new results confirmed big-bang models. He also outlines problems to be solved or addressed: observations related to the hidden mass, issue of unification, technological issues to obtain information about what went on more than 13 billions years ago. The author comments the issue of other universes, and issues regarding science, metaphysics and religion raised by these theoretical developments. He also comments the emergence of new physics (supersymmetry, quantum gravity)

  19. Topics in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(100 4 ) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects

  20. Particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    This series of lectures is about the role of particle physics in physical processes that occurred in the very early stages of the bug gang. Of particular interest is the role of particle physics in determining the evolution of the early Universe, and the effect of particle physics on the present structure of the Universe. The use of the big bang as a laboratory for placing limits on new particle physics theories will also be discussed. Section 1 reviews the standard cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis. Section 2 reviews the decoupling of weakly interacting particles in the early Universe, and discusses neutrino cosmology and the resulting limits that may be placed on the mass and lifetime of massive neutrinos. Section 3 discusses the evolution of the vacuum through phase transitions in the early Universe and the formation of topological defects in the transitions. Section 4 covers recent work on the generation of the baryon asymmetry by baryon-number violating reactions in Grand Unified Theories, and mentions some recent work on baryon number violation effects at the electroweak transition. Section 5 is devoted to theories of cosmic inflation. Finally, Section 6 is a discussion of the role of extra spatial dimensions in the evolution of the early Universe. 78 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs