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Sample records for non-verbal interaction style

  1. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  2. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Music can be seen as a social skilled practice, since the creation of good music is the result of a group effort. According to current literature, communication through non-verbal cues is an important factor in securing a good performance, since it allows musicians to correct each other without...... the music should be played and the intention to communicate through non-verbal interaction, which allows them to achieve their desire and improve the performance on-the-fly. The BDI model has proven useful in synthesising information and it is believed that this scientific-rational model will bring benefits...... interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  3. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  4. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. PMID:27080219

  5. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lima Alcântara

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56% and were males (n=26; 63.4%. There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain.

  6. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of Non-Verbal Social Interactions within Intensive Mathematics Intervention Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age…

  8. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  9. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  10. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic pr

  11. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  12. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  13. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  14. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  15. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A non-verbal turing test: Differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich J Pfeiffer; Bert Timmermans; Gary Bente; Kai Vogeley; Leonhard Schilbach

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to ...

  17. A non-verbal Turing test: differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Timmermans, Bert; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character's gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate) or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete.

  18. A non-verbal Turing test: differentiating mind from machine in gaze-based social interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich J Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons' gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character's gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete.

  19. A Non-Verbal Turing Test: Differentiating Mind from Machine in Gaze-Based Social Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Ulrich J.; Timmermans, Bert; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    In social interaction, gaze behavior provides important signals that have a significant impact on our perception of others. Previous investigations, however, have relied on paradigms in which participants are passive observers of other persons’ gazes and do not adjust their gaze behavior as is the case in real-life social encounters. We used an interactive eye-tracking paradigm that allows participants to interact with an anthropomorphic virtual character whose gaze behavior is responsive to where the participant looks on the stimulus screen in real time. The character’s gaze reactions were systematically varied along a continuum from a maximal probability of gaze aversion to a maximal probability of gaze-following during brief interactions, thereby varying contingency and congruency of the reactions. We investigated how these variations influenced whether participants believed that the character was controlled by another person (i.e., a confederate) or a computer program. In a series of experiments, the human confederate was either introduced as naïve to the task, cooperative, or competitive. Results demonstrate that the ascription of humanness increases with higher congruency of gaze reactions when participants are interacting with a naïve partner. In contrast, humanness ascription is driven by the degree of contingency irrespective of congruency when the confederate was introduced as cooperative. Conversely, during interaction with a competitive confederate, judgments were neither based on congruency nor on contingency. These results offer important insights into what renders the experience of an interaction truly social: Humans appear to have a default expectation of reciprocation that can be influenced drastically by the presumed disposition of the interactor to either cooperate or compete. PMID:22096599

  20. Overcoming Unintelligibility in Aphasia: The Impact of Non-Verbal Interactive Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Jack S.; Wilson, Brent T.; Simmons-Mackie, Nina N.; Tetnowski, John A.

    2008-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous research, this report focuses on the wide range of gestures employed by an individual with aphasia to overcome instances of unintelligibility and re-establish intelligibility. The gestures observed are woven seamlessly into the fabric of the interactions and range from deictic to metaphorical or symbolic in nature.…

  1. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  2. Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  3. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy.

  4. On the Embedded Cognition of Non-verbal Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... that are communicated through non-verbal modalities....

  5. Examining Peer Acceptance in Verbal and Non-Verbal Interaction during Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Implications for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of peer acceptance in a study investigating the interactions of pairs of disabled and non-disabled pupils working together on computer-based tasks in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. Twenty dyads of pupils were observed and videotaped while working together at the computer. Data analyses were based on the…

  6. Verbal and non-verbal samples from a TV interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faria Dalacorte Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the analysis of verbal and non-verbal elements displayed by the participants of the interview TV program Roda Viva. The study also focuses on the investigation of the possible influences of such effects on the social and interactional process during the TV show. The structure of the program includes the main interviewer, Marilia Gabriela, the guest, in this case, the actor Wagner Moura, and other journalists that are all seated around the guest. The study reveals that, throughout the conversation, overlaps and raising tone of voice, produced especially by the main interviewer, occur in relevant moments of the interview, possibly to collaborate with the guest, who exhibited a lot of hesitations in what would be considered a non-preferred topic. These strategies may also reveal a unique marc of Marilia Gabriela’s conversational style.

  7. Non-verbal Behavior in English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金花; 付雪芬

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reveals the non-verbal behavior and then further emphasizes the important of body behavior which can be used in class frequently under the classification of the non-verbal behavior. By analyzing the important role of non-verbal behavior plays in communication, the paper discusses the specific and important part that non-verbal behavior serves, especially in foreign language teaching. The paper concludes that non-verbal behavior can perform as a relation maintainer, a structure maker, and a content container. The further suggestions for teacher to facilitate are proposed.

  8. Non-verbal communication in human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Babkina, Nadezda

    2011-01-01

    Effective non-verbal communication, communication through body language, is one of the fundamental prerequisites for successful manager's performance. The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the importance of nonverbal communication in human resource management and, on the example of management style and nonverbal communication of two the most successful managers in the world of information and communication technologies, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, to formulate basic recommendatio...

  9. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  10. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  11. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  12. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six non-ve

  13. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  14. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  16. Non Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Differences between American (Anglo) and Latin American cultures, particularly the culture of Puerto Rico, in the area of non-verbal communication (NVC) are examined in this work. Specific contrasts in language and kinesic patterns between the two cultures are illustrated in descriptions of communicative gestures employed by Puerto Ricans in the…

  17. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  18. [Non-verbal learning disabilities: developmental dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2007-11-01

    Dyspraxia is a non verbal neuropsychological dysfunction still unrecognized but which can generate scholar learning and behavioural disabilities. We propose, at first time, to do a state of art with the various terminologies and typologies which lead to put together clumsiness, motor coordination disorder and the different types of dyspraxia. Then, we will bring an integrative model and clinical data in children with developmental dyspraxia, allowing a better pointing, to make a diagnostic and then we suggest some advices for remediations.

  19. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  20. Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Aldred, Catherine; Wigham, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Barlow, Katherine; McConachie, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Parent synchrony has been shown to be developmentally important for the growth of communication skills in young children with autism. Understanding individual-differences in parent synchrony and other associated features of dyadic interaction therefore presents as an important step toward the goal of appreciating how and why some parent-child dyads come to adopt more optimal interaction styles, while for others, parent interaction is more asynchronous and less developmentally facilitative. Within the large, well-characterized Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) cohort, baseline parent-child interaction samples were coded for three key aspects of dyadic interaction style; - Parent Synchrony, Child Initiation, and Shared Attention. We explored associations among these measures, demographic characteristics and standardized child assessment scores. While various child factors were associated with each of the interaction measures, very few associations were observed with parent/familial factors. Child language age-equivalence was a significant positive predictor of variation in each interaction measure, while child repetitive symptoms predicted reduced Shared Attention. The three interaction measures were moderately positively inter-related. In the context of childhood autism, variation in dyadic interaction style appears to be driven more by child language and repetitive behaviors than age, social-communication symptoms and non-verbal ability. Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study.

  1. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  2. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    A growing uneasiness among users with the experience of current product user interfaces mounts pressure on interaction designers to innovate user interface conventions. In previous research we have shown that a study of the history of product interaction triggers a broader discussion of interaction...... qualities among designers in a team, and that the naming of interaction styles helps establish an aesthetics of interaction design. However, that research focused on one particular product field, namely industrial controllers, and it was yet to be proven, if interaction styles do have generic traits across...... a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  4. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    cues frequently reveal the intention of the sender of the information and reflect his/her emotional reactions. Based on the obtained results of this study, it is recommended that attention to non-verbal communication skills can make a positive change in the future of a student's life. It seems necessary for the teachers to practice and learn effective communication skills, especially for those who always interact with a large group of students. One of the factors contributing to the success or failure of students is the quality of the relationship and how the teacher builds this relationship with students. Especially, it is more effective for students who are more responsive to human relations and communication skills. Finally, it is recommended that the teachers should improve their communication skills to have better communication with their audience. The authorities are recommended to help improve the teachers' level of communication skills through holding training courses.

  5. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal cues frequently reveal the intention of the sender of the information and reflect his/her emotional reactions. Based on the obtained results of this study, it is recommended that attention to non-verbal communication skills can make a positive change in the future of a student’s life. It seems necessary for the teachers to practice and learn effective communication skills, especially for those who always interact with a large group of students. One of the factors contributing to the success or failure of students is the quality of the relationship and how the teacher builds this relationship with students. Especially, it is more effective for students who are more responsive to human relations and communication skills. Finally, it is recommended that the teachers should improve their communication skills to have better communication with their audience. The authorities are recommended to help improve the teachers’ level of communication skills through holding training courses. PMID:28367460

  6. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  7. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  8. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  9. Non-verbal Context in the Teaching of EFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal context in foreign language learning and teaching .The first part introduces the development of the context theory. The second part covers the relevance of context to language learning. The last part recommends some ways to use non-verbal context in the teaching of EFL.

  10. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  11. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  12. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  13. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  14. Software Style and Interaction around the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anthony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study at a secondary school in Glasgow (Scotland) in which teacher-pupil and pupil-pupil pairs of users collaboratively used eight commercial educational software programs, four related to mathematics and four to English language teaching, to determine whether software style affects patterns of interactions. (23 references) (LRW)

  15. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Cristina Viana; Shiratori, Kaneji

    2005-01-01

    The present study is linked to the Center for Researching and Testing in Nursing at the Nursing School Alfredo Pinto - UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  17. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    regularly just as technical skills need to be trained. Simulation training provides healthcare professionals the opportunity to put both verbal and non-verbal communication in focus, in order to improve patient safety. Non-verbal communication plays a decisive role in the interaction between the trauma team members, and so both verbal and non-verbal communication should be in focus in trauma team training. This is even more important for inexperienced leaders, since vague non-verbal communication reinforces ambiguity and can lead to errors.

  18. Comparing non-verbal vocalisations in conversational speech corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvain, Jürgen; Truong, Khiet P.; Devillers, L.; Schuller, B.; Batliner, A.; Rosso, P.; Douglas-Cowie, E.; Cowie, R.; Pelachaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conversations do not only consist of spoken words but they also consist of non-verbal vocalisations. Since there is no standard to define and to classify (possible) non-speech sounds the annotations for these vocalisations differ very much for various corpora of conversational speech. There seems to

  19. Non-verbal Means in Cross-cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Mazhitaeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the non-verbal means of communication which are significant factors of cross-cultural communication. Authors dwell on the features of kinetic components of speech and confirm the idea that language is universal in its basis and national according to different ways of expression.

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  1. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  2. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja-Brita Robins Wahlin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines non-verbal (design and verbal (phonemic and semantic fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD. An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods: Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16 or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16. Results: The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion: The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes.

  3. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and i

  4. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  5. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  6. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR = 95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships.

  7. [Syntactic awareness: probable correlations with central coherence and non-verbal intelligence in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Cristina de Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate syntactic awareness, central coherence, non-verbal intelligence, social and communication development, interests and behavior of children with autistic spectrum disorders and to examine their probable correlations. Participants were ten subjects diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, eight male and two female, with ages between 4 years e 9 months and 13 years and 4 months (mean age 9 years), who used oral language for communication. The following tests were used: Syntactic Awareness Test - Adapted (Prova de Consciência Sintática - Adaptada), Computerized jigsaw puzzles with picture and background and only with background; and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices - Special Scale. Subjects' parents answered the protocol Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). The children with autism presented syntactic awareness performance similar to that of 6-year-old children with typical development. Sixty percent of the subjects showed non-verbal intelligence at a superior or average level. There were no correlations between the performances in syntactic awareness and the other tested variables. There was no relationship between the performance in syntactic awareness and the results related to central coherence, non-verbal intelligence and social interaction deficits, difficulties in communication and restrict patterns interests of subjects with autism. The results suggest that these children seem to follow the development pattern of typically developing 6-year-old children in syntactic awareness abilities, only delayed.

  8. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions.

  9. Propagation style controls lava-snow interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B R; Belousov, A; Belousova, M

    2014-12-16

    Understanding interactions between volcanic eruptions and the cryosphere (a.k.a. glaciovolcanism) is important for climate reconstructions as well as for hazard mitigation at ice-clad volcanoes. Here we present unique field observations of interactions between snowpack and advancing basaltic lava flows during the 2012-13 eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Our observations show that lava-snow heat transfer is slow, and that styles of lava propagation control snowpack responses. 'A'a and sheet lava flows advance in a rolling caterpillar-track motion on top of the rigid, snowpack substrate with minor lava-snow interaction. In contrast, pahoehoe lava propagates by inflation of lobes beneath/inside the snowpack, producing rigorous lava-snow interaction via meltwater percolation down into the incandescent lava causing production of voluminous steam, rapid surface cooling and thermal shock fragmentation. The textures produced by pahoehoe-snowpack interactions are distinctive and, where observed at other sites, can be used to infer syn-eruption seasonality and climatic conditions.

  10. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  11. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  12. The Silent Language of Fingers and Hands-The Role of Finger and Hand Motions in Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2013-01-01

    This paper engages in the discussion about nonverbal intercultural communication from the perspective of hand and finger gestures, probing into the functions of non-verbal cues in cross-cultural interaction, talking over two different attitudes to⁃ward gestures, and giving a detailed analysis about the silent language of some specific gestures with fingers and hands in different cultures.

  13. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  14. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain.

  15. Pragmatic Failure in inter-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兑艳霞; 刘凯歌

    2006-01-01

    近年来.随着跨文化交际的日趋频繁,语用失误引起了国内外语语言学家的重视.国内外很多学者对语用失误进行了一系列的研究.其中以Jenny Thomas的研究成果为代表.然而,这些语用失误的定义及分类一般都因忽略了非语言交际而存在局限.本文章阐释了跨文化中的非语言交际语用失误,并分析其理论根源,在此基础上提出克服跨文化非语言交际语用失误的对策.%With the increasing development of intercultural communication between cultures,pragmatic failure has recent caught the attention of linguists and language teachers both at home and abroad. But the usual definition and classification of pragmatic failure has its limitations because of its neglect of nonverbal communication. The present thesis is intended to explore pragmatic failure in intercultural non-verbal communication,analyzing the root causes of intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure, offering the strategic approaches to avoid intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure.

  16. How physician electronic health record screen sharing affects patient and doctor non-verbal communication in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Young, Henry N; Chewning, Betty; Montague, Enid

    2015-03-01

    Use of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary-care exam rooms changes the dynamics of patient-physician interaction. This study examines and compares doctor-patient non-verbal communication (eye-gaze patterns) during primary care encounters for three different screen/information sharing groups: (1) active information sharing, (2) passive information sharing, and (3) technology withdrawal. Researchers video recorded 100 primary-care visits and coded the direction and duration of doctor and patient gaze. Descriptive statistics compared the length of gaze patterns as a percentage of visit length. Lag sequential analysis determined whether physician eye-gaze influenced patient eye gaze, and vice versa, and examined variations across groups. Significant differences were found in duration of gaze across groups. Lag sequential analysis found significant associations between several gaze patterns. Some, such as DGP-PGD ("doctor gaze patient" followed by "patient gaze doctor") were significant for all groups. Others, such DGT-PGU ("doctor gaze technology" followed by "patient gaze unknown") were unique to one group. Some technology use styles (active information sharing) seem to create more patient engagement, while others (passive information sharing) lead to patient disengagement. Doctors can engage patients in communication by using EHRs in the visits. EHR training and design should facilitate this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cultivation of College Students’Ability in Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳琳

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, students’non-verbal communicative competence is neglected by themselves as well as the teachers. In this paper a research is done to analyze the causes of students’non-verbal communicative failure. And some suggestions are given to cultivate students’ability in cross-cultural non-verbal Communication The students’enhanced communicative competence will help them avoid non-verbal communicative failure and communicate effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural communi⁃cation.

  18. The Role of Parenting Styles and Teacher Interactional Styles in Children's Reading and Spelling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…

  19. The Role of Parenting Styles and Teacher Interactional Styles in Children's Reading and Spelling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…

  20. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  1. The use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of "transformed social interactions." This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA.

  2. INTERACTION ASPECTS OF DOMINANT STYLES: OF TEACHING AND OF AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PETRE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement. Teaching style is the expression (form of expression of preferred behavioral modalities who return with some regularity in the work of teacher (E.Geissler, Purpose of Study. The intention of this paper is to identify a pattern of expression interact between two dimensions-professional of primary school teachers: the dominant teaching style and the dominant authority type of each teacher. I opted for a classification according to the particular act of communication: emotional-improvising style, emotional-methodical style, rational-improvising style and rational-methodical style. Methods. To identify the dominant teaching style was built a questionnaire consisting of 16 questions. The second questionnaire was proposed for a self-evaluative kind of authority expressed in the daily professional work. To identify the dominant type of authority were updated two classifications: traditional axis authoritarian - democratic - laissez-faire and a classification inspired by John RP French and B. Raven expert authority, rewards, position and personal. In this investigation were involved 30 teachers for primary education. Findings and Results. Exists a moderate correlation between rational-improvising style and authoritarian and position styles of authority. Also, indicates significant statistical connection between rational-improviser teaching style and authoritarian, democratic and expert teacher’s authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between rational-methodical style and personal authority. The indexes of correlation indicates significant statistical link between emotional-improvisational style teaching styles and reward and expert authority. The indexes indicate statistical connections moderate correlation between emotional-style improvisation and styles of authority laissez-faire, and his model.

  3. Mainland Chinese Parenting Styles and Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying

    2005-01-01

    Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…

  4. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  5. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  6. Altruists are trusted based on non-verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Naganawa, Takuya; Yamauchi, Shinsaku; Yamagata, Noriko; Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko

    2009-12-23

    The identification of altruists based on non-verbal cues might offer a solution to the problem of subtle cheating. Previous studies have indicated that the ability to discriminate altruists from non-altruists emerges during evolution. However, behavioural differences with regard to social exchanges involving altruists and non-altruists have not been studied. We investigated differences in responses to videotaped altruists and non-altruists with the Faith Game. Participants tended to entrust real money to altruists more than to non-altruists, providing strong evidence that cognitive adaptations evolve as counter-strategies to subtle cheating.

  7. Annotating Non-verbal Behaviours in Informal Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...

  8. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  9. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders.

  10. Interactive Approach to Negotiating Styles Dependent on Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grabowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was of a theoretical character and aimed at presenting various descriptions of the interactions between all possible pairs of four well-known negotiating styles dependent on personality traits. Methodology: This study was based on analysis of the interactions as well as authors’ experiences from their observations and analyses on human behaviors during numerous negotiations and roleplay exercises arranged at the courses for practitioners. The stress was put on analyzing the interactions occurring between people representing both different and the same negotiating styles. Findings: The attempt at describing such interactions was successful and promising for farther research. The concept constitutes a useful tool for analyzing human behavioral aspects of different types of business negotiations, within the process of their planning, conduct and evaluation. Nevertheless, the concept will be a subject of subsequent authors’ research, focusing on its improvement mainly by searching more precise features of negotiating styles and interactions between them. Practical implications: The concept can be applied to analyze many real negotiation situations as well as within the experiment to be arranged by the authors to examine those interactions within the hundreds of pairs of negotiators solving particular case studies. Thus the description of such interactions can be treated as a specifc hypothesis. Originality: In general, the suggestion for solving complex, diffcult and essential issues of negotiating styles was presented but was rarely investigated in the literature on negotiations. In particular, an original concept of describing the interactions between those styles was suggested,.

  11. Influence of individual learning styles in online interaction: a case for dynamic frequently asked questions (DFAQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'ambi, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Although current literature on learning styles shows that matching a teacher’s instructional style with the learning styles of students affects performance in a classroom environment, little is known about the influence of learning styles in online interaction. The paper argues that students’ individual learning styles influences how students interact online and that rather than adapt to user’s learning styles, online environments tend to force behavior change on users’ learning styles. The p...

  12. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  13. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (A)symmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    OpenAIRE

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predica...

  14. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  15. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Kathi J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, and b determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM, a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material; non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read; tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs; Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read. To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else. Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2, relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8 and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P

  16. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also

  17. Two-Year-Olds Are Vigilant of Others' Non-Verbal Cues to Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Susan A. J.; Akmal, Nazanin; Frampton, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from three experiments provide the first evidence that children, at least as young as age two, are vigilant of others' non-verbal cues to credibility, and flexibly use these cues to facilitate learning. Experiment 1 revealed that 2- and 3-year-olds prefer to learn about objects from someone who appears, through non-verbal cues, to be…

  18. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  19. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  20. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  1. Young children's understanding of markedness in non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may 'mark' their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing gesture--as special, and so search for a not-so-obvious referent. We set up the context of cleaning up and then pointed to an object. Three-year-olds inferred that the adult intended the pointing gesture to indicate that object, and so cleaned it up. However, when the adult marked her pointing gesture (with exaggerated facial expression) they took the object's hidden contents or a hidden aspect of it as the intended referent. Two-year-olds' appreciation of such marking was less clear-cut. These results demonstrate that markedness is not just a linguistic phenomenon, but rather something concerning the pragmatics of intentional communication more generally.

  2. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

  3. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  4. Análise da comunicação verbal e não-verbal de crianças com deficiencia visual durante interação com a mãe Analysis of the verbal and non-verbal communication of children with visual impairment during interaction with their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    blind children, with low vision capacity and children with normal vision and, therefore, to analyze the particularities of the maternal communication during the interaction within free and planned contexts. Six children participated in the study: two blind; two with low vision capacity and; two with normal vision, who were selected from specific criteria. Two recordings of each were carried out in the familiar environment: free and planned situations. The analysis was performed by means of functional characterization of the verbal and non-verbal communication of the children with their mothers. The data showed that the verbal communicative resources were predominant in both free and planned situations. Overall, the results of this study indicate that although there were particularities during its use, the language of the visual impairment children does not present deficit in relation to the one of those with normal vision. Moreover, the mothers of the blind children and with low vision capacity used strategies such as descriptions of the environment, indications and localization of objects during their interactions that favored their performance.

  5. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  6. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  7. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  8. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  9. Virtual Team Leadership: The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Laura A.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and communication media on team interaction styles and outcomes. Teams communicated through one of the following three ways: (a) face-to-face, (b) desktop videoconference, or (c) text-based chat. Results indicated that transformational and transactional…

  10. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...

  12. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  13. Old and recent approaches to the problem of non-verbal conceptual disorders in aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-04-01

    From the first research on aphasia, it has been shown that, in addition to verbal communication disorders, aphasic patients often have difficulty on non-verbal cognitive tasks, which can actually be solved without the use of language. In this survey, I will discuss in a historical perspective the different interpretations provided by classical and contemporary authors to explain this puzzling observation. First, I will take into account the different positions of classical authorities on this topic, starting from the first debates (mainly based on anatomo-clinical observations) on the organisation of language in the brain. Then, I will attempt to summarize the work of authors who have tackled this complex issue more recently, in systematic investigations using methods drawn from experimental psychology, to clarify the meaning of non-verbal cognitive disorders in aphasia. Finally, in the last part of the survey, I will discuss the interpretation of proponents of the 'semantic hub' hypothesis who have tried to analyse and explain the differences between the non-verbal semantic defects of patients with semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. The hypothesis which assumes that most non-verbal cognitive disorders observed in aphasic patients are due to a preverbal conceptual disorder, which cannot be attributed to a loss of semantic representations but rather to a defect in their controlled retrieval, seems substantially confirmed. Nevertheless, two main issues must still be clarified. The first is that some of the non-verbal cognitive defects of aphasic patients seem due to the negative influence of language disturbances on abstract non-verbal cognitive activities, rather than to a preverbal conceptual disorder. The second issue concerns the exact nature and the neuroanatomical correlates of the defective controlled retrieval of unimpaired conceptual representations, which should subsume most of the non-verbal cognitive disorders of aphasic patients.

  14. Verbal and non-verbal behavior of doctors and patients in primary care consultations - how this relates to patient enablement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowska, Teresa; Zhang, Wenjuan; Griffiths, Frances; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between observable patient and doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors and the degree of enablement in consultations according to the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) (a patient-reported consultation outcome measure). We analyzed 88 recorded routine primary care consultations. Verbal and non-verbal communications were analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and the Medical Interaction Process System, respectively. Consultations were categorized as patient- or doctor-centered and by whether the patient or doctor was verbally dominant using the RIAS categorizations. Consultations that were regarded as patient-centered or verbally dominated by the patient on RIAS coding were considered enabling. Socio-emotional interchange (agreements, approvals, laughter, legitimization) was associated with enablement. These features, together with task-related behavior explain up to 33% of the variance of enablement, leaving 67% unexplained. Thus, enablement appears to include aspects beyond those expressed as observable behavior. For enablement consultations should be patient-centered and doctors should facilitate socio-emotional interchange. Observable behavior included in communication skills training probably contributes to only about a third of the factors that engender enablement in consultations. To support patient enablement in consultations, clinicians should focus on agreements, approvals and legitimization whilst attending to patient agendas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  16. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  17. Typology of gay consumers' interaction styles on complaining propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric D; Ro, Heejung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a typology of gay male consumers based on self-concept variables related to social interactions. Openness about sexual orientation, collective self-esteem, stigma-consciousness, and negative evaluation were used to identify clusters of gay male consumers. An initial test sample (n = 125) suggested a three-cluster solution, and a validation sample (n = 247) established reproducibility of the proposed typology. Three clusters with distinct interaction styles emerged: "confident gay," "diffident gay," and "guarded gay." Additionally, the usefulness of the typology is demonstrated by comparing the clusters on the basis of complaining propensity. Typologies of each cluster and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  19. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  20. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  1. "Communication by impact" and other forms of non-verbal communication: a review of transference, countertransference and projective identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, M W

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try and understand what is happening between psychiatrist and patient. The importance of being aware of the subtleties of this interaction is argued, as are the roles of phenomena such as transference, counter-transference and projective identification. The workings and use of these phenomena are explored as central in the doctor-patient interaction, as well as the consequences of failure to utilize and understand these phenomena. The author reviews - amongst others - the work of the analysts Casement, Gabbard, Goldstein, Ogden and Symington.

  2. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  3. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  4. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  5. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  6. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  7. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  8. The Importance of Non Verbal Behavior in Giving Instructions to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alan; Blane, Maureen

    1985-01-01

    A study of 16 mother-child pairs found that parents' non-verbal behaviors affect child compliance with parental requests. Five behaviors were investigated: distance from child; mother's body orientation; eye contact; tone of voice; and mother's orientation toward objects involved in the instruction. Parent training clinics should recognize the…

  9. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  10. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  11. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of sch

  12. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  13. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  14. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  15. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  16. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  17. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  18. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  19. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvemen

  20. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  1. Actor and Partner Effects of Adolescents' Romantic Working Models and Styles on Interactions with Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined how adolescents' and their romantic partners' romantic working models and relational styles were related to their interactions with each other. Sixty-five couples (M age=18.1 years) were observed interacting. Romantic working models were assessed in interviews about their romantic experiences; romantic styles were…

  2. A Synthesis of the Procedural and Declarative Styles of Interactive Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedijk, Freek

    2012-01-01

    We propose a synthesis of the two proof styles of interactive theorem proving: the procedural style (where proofs are scripts of commands, like in Coq) and the declarative style (where proofs are texts in a controlled natural language, like in Isabelle/Isar). Our approach combines the advantages of the declarative style - the possibility to write formal proofs like normal mathematical text - and the procedural style - strong automation and help with shaping the proofs, including determining the statements of intermediate steps. Our approach is new, and differs significantly from the ways in which the procedural and declarative proof styles have been combined before in the Isabelle, Ssreflect and Matita systems. Our approach is generic and can be implemented on top of any procedural interactive theorem prover, regardless of its architecture and logical foundations. To show the viability of our proposed approach, we fully implemented it as a proof interface called miz3, on top of the HOL Light interactive theor...

  3. Introducing PrEmo2: New directions for the non-verbal measurement of emotion in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurans, G.F.G.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-verbal emotion self-report methods have flourished in the last 10 years. We present the theoretical basis underlying non-verbal self-report, review available tools, and discuss perspectives for further progress in measurement practices in design-oriented emotion research. We describe a new quest

  4. Effectiveness of Teacher’s Non-verbal Communication in English Class-rooms of Primary Schools in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔燕

    2013-01-01

    While there is a lot of research in non-verbal communication, a limited of studies are about the situation in primary schools in Chinese context. In this paper, I will argue for the relationship between teacher ’s non-verbal communication and stu⁃dent’s learning interests in primary school.

  5. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  6. Non-verbal behaviour of patients with schizophrenia in medical consultations--a comparison with depressed patients and association with symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; McCabe, Rosemarie; Hassan, Imren; Barnes, Thomas R E; Priebe, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch psychiatrist Rümke introduced the notion that patients with schizophrenia could be recognised intuitively by an experienced psychiatrist, naming the process as the 'praecox feeling'. This feeling may reflect aspects of the non-verbal behaviour of patients as shown in a medical consultation. The aim of this study was to test whether aspects of the initial non-verbal behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and depression in medical consultations differ and are associated with symptom levels in each group. The first 2 min of videotaped outpatient consultations with 78 patients (39 each with schizophrenia and depression) were analysed by researchers who were masked to the diagnosis and symptom levels of the patients. Non-verbal behaviour was assessed using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom levels were rated by independent researchers on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. The 2 diagnostic groups showed significant differences on 1 out of 6 aspects of non-verbal communication, with patients with schizophrenia exhibiting more 'flight' behaviour, i.e. more looking down or away, crouching and freezing. Within the group of patients with schizophrenia, more 'flight' and less 'assertion' were associated with higher symptom levels. Initial 'flight' behaviour of patients in medical consultations may be specific for schizophrenia and associated with the symptoms of that illness. Such behaviour might indicate an avoidance of potentially adverse communication, and future research should investigate whether it can also be identified in everyday social interactions other than medical consultations. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  8. Interactional style and nonverbal meaning: Mazahua children learning how to be separate-but-together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Paradise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Young children’s experience with nonverbally organized social interaction constitutes a primary kind of enculturation. As they acquire the ability to participate in everyday interactions, they simultaneously learn the cultural meanings embedded in them. This article describes the acquisition by Mazahua children of a separate-but-together interactional style. An appreciation of the nonverbal meanings involved an further our understanding of the nature of culturally defined interactional styles and their impact on school learning.

  9. Interaction of Hypertext Forms and Global Versus Sequential Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunser, Andreas; Jirasko, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the relevance of the distinction between sequential and global learners in the context of learning with hypertext was investigated. Learners with global learning style were expected to produce better results when learning with hypertext, whereas learners with sequential learning style should profit from a structural aid in form of a…

  10. Relationships between symbolic play, functional play, verbal and non-verbal ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention.

  11. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  12. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have...

  13. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  14. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery.

  15. Islamic fashion, media debates and styles of interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    Currently, in Copenhagen streets as in many other European cities an increasing diversity in the style of clothing which appeals to believing and fashion conscious Muslim women can be observed. These styles I loosely term Islamic fashion, i.e. a style of clothing that seeks to appear attractive...... and at the same time to match an Islamic moral code or aesthetics. In a Danish context, I argue, these disagreements have a bearing on strategies of Muslim women in terms of relations vis-à-vis the non-Muslim majority population. The debate among Muslims is seconded by a media debate on Islam and again like...

  16. An Interaction of Learning and Teaching Styles Influencing Mathematic Achievements of Ninth-Grade Students: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles and study the effects and interaction effects of learning styles and teaching styles on mathematics achievements. The subjects were 3,382 ninth-grade students and 110 mathematic teachers. The main results revealed that most students were…

  17. An Interaction of Learning and Teaching Styles Influencing Mathematic Achievements of Ninth-Grade Students: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles and study the effects and interaction effects of learning styles and teaching styles on mathematics achievements. The subjects were 3,382 ninth-grade students and 110 mathematic teachers. The main results revealed that most students were categorized…

  18. An Interaction of Learning and Teaching Styles Influencing Mathematic Achievements of Ninth-Grade Students: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles and study the effects and interaction effects of learning styles and teaching styles on mathematics achievements. The subjects were 3,382 ninth-grade students and 110 mathematic teachers. The main results revealed that most students were categorized…

  19. Asperger syndrome: how does it relate to non-verbal learning disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryburn, B; Anderson, V; Wales, R

    2009-03-01

    The syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) is associated with prominent non-verbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, against a background of relatively intact verbal abilities. Asperger syndrome is one of the several developmental disorders for which Byron Rourke has claimed that almost all the signs and symptoms of NLD are present. This study investigated the claim utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests that were found to be sensitive to NLD in the original learning disordered populations used to describe the syndrome. Children aged between 8 and 14 were recruited to form two groups: (1) children with Asperger syndrome (N=14) and (2) normal healthy schoolchildren (N=20). By contrast to the main principle outlined in the NLD model, children with Asperger syndrome did not display a relative difficulty with spatial- or problem-solving tasks; indeed, they displayed significantly higher performance on some non-verbal tasks in comparison with verbal tasks. It was only in relation to their high levels of psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, which are also predicted on the basis of their psychiatric diagnosis, that the children with Asperger syndrome were clearly consistent with the NLD model in this study. These results raise questions about the relevance of the syndrome of NLD for children with Asperger syndrome.

  20. Evaluating medical students' non-verbal communication during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Shimizu, Teruo; Yano, Eiji

    2006-12-01

    Non-verbal communication (NVC) in medical encounters is an important method of exchanging information on emotional status and contextualising the meaning of verbal communication. This study aimed to assess the impact of medical students' NVC on interview evaluations by standardised patients (SPs). A total of 89 medical interviews in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for post-clerkship medical students were analysed. All interviews were videotaped and evaluated on 10 non-verbal behaviour items. In addition, the quality of the interview content was rated by medical faculty on 5 items and the interview was rated by SPs on 5 items. The relationships between student NVC and SP evaluation were examined by multivariate regression analyses controlling for the quality of the interview content. Standardised patients were likely to give higher ratings when students faced them directly, used facilitative nodding when listening to their talk, looked at them equally when talking and listening, and spoke at a similar speed and voice volume to them. These effects of NVC remained significant after controlling for the quality of the interview content. This study provided evidence of specific non-verbal behaviours of doctors that may have additional impacts on the patient's perception of his or her visit, independently of the interview content. Education in basic NVC should be incorporated into medical education alongside verbal communication.

  1. Non-verbal development of children with deafness with and without cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Emilie; Narbona, Juan; Manrique, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    Deprivation of sensory input affects neurological development. Our objective was to explore clinically the role of hearing in development of sensorimotor integration and non-verbal cognition. The study involved 54 children (15 males, 839 females; 5 to 9 years old) with severe or profound bilateral prelocutive deafness but without neurological or cognitive impairment. Of these, 25 had received an early cochlear implant (CIm). Patients were compared with 40 children with normal hearing. All were given a battery of non-verbal neuropsychological tests and a balance test, and were timed for simple and complex movement of limbs. Deafness, whether treated by CIm or not, resulted in a delay in development of complex motor sequences and balance. Lack of auditory input was also associated with lower, but non-pathological, scores in visual gnoso-praxic tasks and sustained attention. Such differences were not observed in children with CIm. Hearing contributes to clinical development of spatial integration, motor control, and attention. An early CIm enables good verbal development and might also improve non-verbal capacities.

  2. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  3. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  4. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2017-01-20

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (Mage  = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were observed in a limited-resource task and a group conversation task, and negative and positive group interactional styles were assessed. Multilevel modeling indicated that membership in groups that were higher on school misconduct predicted greater school misconduct only when the groups were high on negative or low on positive interactional style. Results suggest that negative laughter and a coercive interactional style may intensify group effects on children's misconduct.

  5. Non-verbal Communication and Foreign Language Teaching%非言语交际与外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳

    2010-01-01

    本文通过分析言语交际与非言语交际的关系,非言语交际在外语教学中的主要表现以及实现非言语交际在外语教学中重要作用的主要途径,揭示了在外语教学中非言语交际的重要性不容忽视.%By analyzing the relationship between verbal communication and non-verbal communication ,as well as the important role that non-verbal communication plays in foreign language teaching, this paper discusses the content and method of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching. And the equal stress should be laid to both verbal communication and non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching.

  6. Family Interaction and Cognitive Style: Power Around the Dinner Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Albert S.; Dreyer, Cecily A.

    Research was conducted to study environmental factors associated with the development of cognitive style in children. The hypothesis was that the parents of field-independent children grant them more autonomy and power than do parents of field-dependent children. The sample consisted of 38 white, middle-class kindergartners, 19 boys and 19 girls,…

  7. Gaze Aversion during Social Style Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa; Riby, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    During face-to-face interactions typically developing individuals use gaze aversion (GA), away from their questioner, when thinking. GA is also used when individuals with autism (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) are thinking during question-answer interactions. We investigated GA strategies during face-to-face social style interactions with…

  8. The Association between Parental Interaction Style and Children's Joint Engagement in Families with Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephanie Y.; Elder, Lauren; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between parental interaction style (responsive vs directive) and child-initiated joint engagement within caregiver-child interactions with toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Method: Videotaped interactions of 85 toddler-caregiver dyads were coded for child engagement and both parental…

  9. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  10. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure

  11. [Evaluation of intelligence with non-verbal tests in aphasic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A

    1979-09-01

    Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics.

  12. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-VERBAL BARRIERS TO ENGLISH LISTENING COMPREHENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper explains,with concrete examples,that the non-verbal barriers also obstruct students’correct understanding of listening materials,and ana-lyzes the problems resulting from students lack of cul-tural knowledge of the target language.Suggestionsare offered to help students have a better understand-ing by introducing the origin of English words,intro-ducing the cultural traits of native speakers,theircustoms and introduce the relative cultural knowledgeto promote students’comprehension of the target lan-guage.

  14. Interaction of Depth Probes and Style of Depiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. van Doorn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of stylistic differences on the nature of pictorial spaces as they appear to an observer when looking into a picture. Four pictures chosen from diverse styles of depiction were studied by 2 different methods. Each method addresses pictorial depth but draws on a different bouquet of depth cues. We find that the depth structures are very similar for 8 observers, apart from an idiosyncratic depth scaling (up to a factor of 3. The differences between observers generalize over (very different pictures and (very different methods. They are apparently characteristic of the person. The differences between depths as sampled by the 2 methods depend upon the style of the picture. This is the case for all observers except one.

  15. Factors influencing the processing of visual information from non-verbal communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenya; Shibata, Sanae; Seiji, Shimosato; Mori, Chizuru; Shioe, Kunihiko

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the relationship between observational behavior and the observers' result assumptions, using a contained diagram that includes significant non-verbal information, such as gestures. The ability of care workers to assess a patient's mental status on the basis of non-verbal information would be considered an important skill necessary to understanding patient condition. One hundred and eleven subjects were asked to take a test exploring two types of psychological status, and their eye movements were monitored during testing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships among eye movements, individual personalities, and test results. In stimulus 1, the neuroticism of the personality was determined. In stimulus 2, openness was determined in the range of eye movement. There is a relationship between the total length of eye fixation time and the answer time at the eye fixation point. Although there was no significant influence found in stimulus 1, the openness still tended to influence the eye fixation point. The eye fixation point increased among those people with high openness scores. It was theorized that they attempted to obtain information from the stimulus being provided.

  16. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  17. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters, in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword vs. low (real word phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex. Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

  18. Coaching in style: A sequential analysis of interpersonal styles in coach-client interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ianiro, P.M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - Despite calls for studying interaction processes in coaching, little is known about the link between coach-client interactions and coaching success. In particular, interpersonal behavior in coaching remains unexplored, although it is considered highly relevant to social relationships and

  19. Coaching in style: A sequential analysis of interpersonal styles in coach-client interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ianiro, P.M.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - Despite calls for studying interaction processes in coaching, little is known about the link between coach-client interactions and coaching success. In particular, interpersonal behavior in coaching remains unexplored, although it is considered highly relevant to social relationships and i

  20. The Influence of Parenting Style and Child Temperament on Child-Parent-Dentist Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Pparenting style on the effortful control trait (Pparent style on the child negative affectivity (PParenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.

  1. Teacher’s Interaction Styles during Sociodramatic Play that Promote Reading and Writing among Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Excelsa C. Tongson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to help understand a teacher’s facilitation of reading and writing during sociodramatic play among Filipino preschoolers. It describes how Filipino preschool teachers demonstrate redirecting and extending style interactions as they participate during sociodramatic play. It also identifies the ways by which the teacher provided print-rich environments in the dramatic play area to promote early reading and writing among Filipino children with ages ranging from four years old to f ive years old and 11 months. Five female teachers from four schools in Quezon City that adopt the play curriculum based on a set of criteria were studied. Each teacher was interviewed regarding play, her role, and how she prepares the dramatic play area. She was observed for 10 consecutive school days. The teachers’ interaction styles were classified as either extending or redirecting. Four of the f ive teachers demonstrated at varying degrees both extending and redirecting styles as they participated in the children’s sociodramatic play. The interaction style of the teacher revealed her ability to perform within the context of the play and the ways she assisted children in performing reading and writing activities. The considerable increase in the frequency of children’s literacy activities during sociodramatic play could be attributed to the combination of extending style interaction and the integration of literacy materials in the dramatic play area.

  2. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  3. Relations between parents' interactive style in dyadic and triadic play and toddlers' symbolic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Feldman, R; Namdari-Weinbaum, I; Spitzer, S; Tyano, S

    2005-10-01

    Play has a major role in the evaluation and treatment of young children referred to mental health clinicians. The present study examined parental correlates of preschoolers' symbolic play during dyadic and triadic play interactions. Boys' play contained more aggressive themes, and girls' contained more nurturing themes. Mothers displayed more caring themes during play with both sons and daughters, and fathers displayed more repair and construction themes. Mothers' and fathers' facilitative- creative interaction style in dyadic play predicted the level of the child's symbolic play. Co-parenting style marked by cooperation and autonomy predicted symbolic play during a triadic family session. Child intelligence predicted symbolic play beyond the parent's style during triadic but not dyadic interactions. The findings have implications for early intervention directed at increasing symbolic play in young children.

  4. 非言语交际与大学英语教学%Non-verbal communication and college English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锋萍

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an essential part of all human communication. It is also of special significance to college English teaching. This paper introduces the concept, categories, functions of non-verbal communication, and proposes views on how to make full use of non-verbal communication to promote English teaching.%非言语交际是人类交际活动中的重要组成部分。对于大学英语教学也具有特殊的意义。本文阐述了非言语交际的概念、分类和作用,对如何在课堂上充分应用非言语交际来促进教学活动提出了自己的看法和见解。

  5. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    Full Text Available Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  6. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  7. 非言语交际与功能对等翻译%Non-verbal Communication and functional equivalence translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友军

    2011-01-01

    翻译是一种跨文化交际活动,非言语符号作为非言语交流方式,在人类交际中起着极其重要的作用。因而,如何积极有效地处理非言语符号英汉互译的跨文化因素以及其功能对等问题是一个值得重视的研究课题。本论文将从功能对等角度全面地探讨解决翻译过程中遇到的非言语翻译问题,探讨译者如何合理地处理原文中的非言语符号信息,如何在译文中用言语描述出在原文文化中非言语符号所拥有的信息功能和所负载的文化涵义。%Translation is a cross-cultural communication activity,non-verbal symbols as non-verbal communication plays an important role in human communication.Thus,It is a worthy research topic on how to actively and effectively deal with cross-cultural factors and their functions of non-verbal symbol translation.This paper will be fully try to encounter and solve the problem of the non-verbal translation from the perspective of the functional equivalence,explore how to rationally use the original information in the non-verbal symbols,using acurate words to describe the the original culture meaning of non-verbal symbols and its information function.

  8. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  9. Regarding gender relations: Gender identity or gender interaction styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses sorne assumptions from the social determinism in the construction of gender roles, gender-typed identities, and gender relarions inequities. Ir is proposed that gender sryles of interaction are relatively invariant forms or dispositions related ro specific contexts of social interaction. Iris not enough ro say that socialization factors such as the family, school, mass media, and rhe inirial social group relations generare a typed gender identity or gender seggregation, b...

  10. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that…

  11. Social Interaction Style of Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative differences in social interaction style exist "within" the autism spectrum. In this study we examined whether these differences are associated with (1) the severity of autistic symptoms and comorbid disruptive behavior problems, (2) the child's psycho-social health, and (3) executive functioning and perspective taking skills. The…

  12. Analyzing Conceptual Gains in Introductory Calculus with Interactively-Engaged Teaching Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between an instructional style called Interactive-Engagement (IE) and gains on a measure of conceptual knowledge called the Calculus Concept Inventory (CCI). The data comes from two semesters of introductory calculus courses (Fall 2010 and Spring 2011), consisting of a total of 482 students from the…

  13. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that interaction…

  14. Predictors of Change in Stress, Interaction Styles, and Depression in Parents of Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchio, Jennie S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of change in parental stress (including parent and child factors), depression, and interaction style in parents of toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), exposed to two types of early intervention (EI) programs, PLAY and Community Standard (CS). This study utilized secondary data of…

  15. The Role of Therapist Communication Style in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschell, Amy D.; Capage, Laura C.; Bahl, Alisa B.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of therapist characteristics on maternal compliance and satisfaction was examined with a parent-training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Participants were 45 mothers with children between the ages of 24 and 83 months. Each mother was taught components of PCIT using one of three therapist communication styles: (1)…

  16. Addictions Counselors' Credibility: The Impact of Interactional Style, Recovery Status, and Nonverbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of addictions counselors' interactional style (confrontational vs. motivational), recovery status (recovering vs. nonrecovering), and nonverbal behavior (facilitative vs. neutral) on 116 clients' perceptions of addictions counselor credibility was examined in a fully crossed factorial design. Significant results were found, and…

  17. Sex Differences in Interaction Style as a Product of Perceived Sex Differences in Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Karten, Stephen J.

    Males' and females' interaction styles were observed while they worked in four-person, mixed-sex groups on a discussion task. In some groups, members were only given information about each others' names and gender. Under these conditions, males were perceived higher in competence than females. Further, males were found to engage in a greater…

  18. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  19. The Effect of Adult Interactive Style on the Spontaneous Communication of Young Children with Autism at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effect of adult interactive style on children's communication. The aim of this study, written by Lila Kossyvaki, Glenys Jones and Karen Guldberg, all from the University of Birmingham, was to explore the effects of adult interactive style on children's spontaneous communication. The study used an action…

  20. Getting the Message: Intuition and Reflexivity in Professional Interpretations of Non-Verbal Behaviours in People with Profound Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelvin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the current challenges facing nurses and other professionals who care for people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities. This particularly vulnerable group of service users often rely on a repertoire of non-verbal behaviours to communicate their needs and wishes. These challenges include the requirements of…

  1. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  2. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  3. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  4. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A network meta-analysis on the effects of non-verbal therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Bocking, Claudi L.H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomize

  5. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, L. A.; Nauta, M. H.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomize

  6. Decoding of non-Verbal Behaviors in Rooye Mahe Khodavand Ra Beboos (Kiss the Lovely Face of God Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A razi

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen’s theory of classification and behavior analysis in two fields of decoding and practice. The results of this study show that non-verbal communication often plays the role of complement of verbal communication in advancement of narrative and it has an important role in personification and increases the representational potential of fiction.

  7. Verbal and non-verbal behavior of doctors and patients in primary care consultations - how this relates to patient enablement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlikowska, T.; Zhang, W.; Griffiths, F.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between observable patient and doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors and the degree of enablement in consultations according to the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) (a patient-reported consultation outcome measure). METHODS: We analyzed 88 recorded routine p

  8. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  9. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  10. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour and patient perception of communication in primary care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Gashi, Shkelzen; Bikker, Annemieke; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have assessed the importance of a broad range of verbal and non-verbal consultation behaviours. To explore the relationship of observer ratings of behaviours of videotaped consultations with patients' perceptions. Observational study in general practices close to Southampton, Southern England. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour was rated by independent observers blind to outcome. Patients competed the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS; primary outcome) and questionnaires addressing other communication domains. In total, 275/360 consultations from 25 GPs had useable videotapes. Higher MISS scores were associated with slight forward lean (an 0.02 increase for each degree of lean, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002 to 0.03), the number of gestures (0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15), 'back-channelling' (for example, saying 'mmm') (0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.2), and social talk (0.29, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.54). Starting the consultation with professional coolness ('aloof') was helpful and optimism unhelpful. Finishing with non-verbal 'cut-offs' (for example, looking away), being professionally cool ('aloof'), or patronising, ('infantilising') resulted in poorer ratings. Physical contact was also important, but not traditional verbal communication. These exploratory results require confirmation, but suggest that patients may be responding to several non-verbal behaviours and non-specific verbal behaviours, such as social talk and back-channelling, more than traditional verbal behaviours. A changing consultation dynamic may also help, from professional 'coolness' at the beginning of the consultation to becoming warmer and avoiding non-verbal cut-offs at the end. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  11. Inquiry style interactive virtual experiments: a case on circular motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Shaona; Wang Xiaojun; Xiao Hua [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Han Jing; Pelz, Nathaniel; Peng Liangyu; Bao Lei, E-mail: xiaoh@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lbao@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Interest in computer-based learning, especially in the use of virtual reality simulations is increasing rapidly. While there are good reasons to believe that technologies have the potential to improve teaching and learning, how to utilize the technology effectively in teaching specific content difficulties is challenging. To help students develop robust understandings of correct physics concepts, we have developed interactive virtual experiment simulations that have the unique feature of enabling students to experience force and motion via an analogue joystick, allowing them to feel the applied force and simultaneously see its effects. The simulations provide students learning experiences that integrate both scientific representations and low-level sensory cues such as haptic cues under a single setting. In this paper, we introduce a virtual experiment module on circular motion. A controlled study has been conducted to evaluate the impact of using this virtual experiment on students' learning of force and motion in the context of circular motion. The results show that the interactive virtual experiment method is preferred by students and is more effective in helping students grasp the physics concepts than the traditional education method such as problem-solving practices. Our research suggests that well-developed interactive virtual experiments can be useful tools in teaching difficult concepts in science.

  12. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  13. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  14. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher’s teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. PMID:27175053

  15. Exploring the style-technique interaction in extractive summarization of broadcast news

    OpenAIRE

    Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Christensen, Heidi; Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we seek to explore the interaction between the style of a broadcast news story and its summarization technique. We report the performance of three different summarization techniques on broadcast news stories, which are split into planned speech and spontaneous speech. The initial results indicate that some summarization techniques work better for the documents with spontaneous speech than for those with planned speech. Even for human beings some documents are inherently difficul...

  16. Non-verbal Communication and Communicative Understanding of the Liturgy and Liturgical Signs ... in the Light of Charles Sanders Peirce’s Theory of Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Krajnc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human person as a “triadic” creature needs ritual at all three levels − physical, psychological and spiritual − of his or her being. At the physical level, ritual serves as support for a healthier life-style. At the psychological level, ritual regulates intrapersonal and interpersonal communicatio. At the level of spirituality, it places him or her in the context of transcendence and “recent aims” and both individually and communally gives meaning to human life. Therefore, the author of the paper first This paper starts by considering the human person as a ritual creature that already with his body requires certain ritual acts and various forms of non- verbal communication. In the central part of the discussion, the author focuses on Peirce’s theory of signs and presents it as one model suitable for understanding and explaining liturgical signs. This is an interesting understanding of religious signs, which encourages an interpretative relationship between the human person and the liturgy, its signs and contents.

  17. Evaluation of non-verbal cognitive function in infants with severe hearing impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyu Wang; Xiaoming Li; Li Zhao; Jianhong Li; Yuxia Pan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between hearing impairment and verbal developmental deficits in infants has become a hotspot in research, focusing on improving hearing and promoting verbal development. However, language is only one element of cognition. There are other elements of non-verbal cognitive deficits in infants with hearing impairment.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the differences in gross motor, fine motor, adaptability, and behavioral development between infants with severe hearing impairment and ordinary children of the same age. DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two infants with hearing impairment, who received treatment in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital from February to December 2007, were confirmed to suffer from severe (or extremely severe) sensorineural deafness by auditory brain-stem response (ABR) and were recruited for this study. The infants comprised 30 males and 22 females. Among them, 18 were aged 0-1 year, 18 were aged 1-2 years, and 16 were aged 2-3 years. An additional 60 individuals, aged 0-3 years, who received developmental monitoring simultaneously, and were confirmed to have normal hearing and verbal ability, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 31 males and 29 females: 20 were 0.05). The behavioral developmental quotient was significantly less in hearing-impaired infants compared to control infants, who were between 1 and 2 years of age (P < 0.05). The development quotients of fine motor and behavioral development were significantly less in hearing-impaired infants than in control infants, who were 2-3 years of age (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Compared to control infants, severe hearing-impaired infants have a lower behavioral developmental quotient after 1 year and a lower fine motor developmental quotient after 2 years of age.

  18. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  19. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  20. Towards a physiological signal-based access solution for a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    To find physiologically arousing stimuli and labile physiological channels in a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple congenital disabilities, who did not have a reliable means of communication. The client was repeatedly presented with visual and audiovisual stimuli, representing variations of six contextual factors over three sessions in a one month period. For each stimulus, reactions were detected in the client's four peripheral autonomic nervous system signals using a rule-based classification algorithm. During the presentation of audiovisual stimuli, the number of physiological reactions significantly differed from that observed in baseline (χ(2) = 3.93, p = 0.0476). Aural stimuli articulated in an unfamiliar voice, and aural stimuli containing anticipatory patterns were also physiologically arousing. Fingertip temperature was the client's most labile physiological signal. The results of this case study suggest that physiological data may complement caregiver acumen in deciphering the reactions of non-verbal clients with severe and multiple disabilities.

  1. Non-verbal communication method based on a biochemical marker for people with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Takeda, K; Onishi, M; Deguchi, M; Higashi, T

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a novel non-verbal communication method for people with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) based on a biochemical marker, salivary amylase. The physical and psychological status of 10 people with SMID was quantitatively evaluated using a hand-held salivary amylase activity monitor. Each patient needed daily gastric and/or bronchial tube exchanges and these medical procedures were thought to cause severe distress and pain. Salivary amylase activity and heart rate were simultaneously measured during 32 medical procedures. The medical procedures resulted in a significant mean increase for individuals of 70% in salivary amylase activity. The increase in salivary amylase activity was more than four-fold that observed for heart rate. The structural equation modelling analysis also demonstrated a significant correlation between pain and salivary amylase activity. Our data indicate that salivary amylase activity might be used as a non-verbal method of assessing pain in people with SMID.

  2. Non-verbal communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; O'Connor-Fenelon, Maureen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with an intellectual disability is then comprehensively examined in light of existing literature. Issues including knowledge of the person with intellectual disability, mismatch of communication ability, and knowledge of communication arose as predominant themes. A critical review of the importance of communication in nursing practice follows. The paucity of literature relating to intellectual disability nursing and non-verbal communication clearly indicates a need for research.

  3. Treating Depressive Symptoms in Psychosis: A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Steenhuis

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing a non-verbal intervention to a control condition in patients with psychotic disorders, whilst measuring depressive symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome, were included. The quality of studies was assessed using the 'Clinical Trials Assessment Measure for psychological treatments' (CTAM scale. Cohen's d was calculated as a measure of effect size. Using a Network Meta-analysis, both direct and indirect evidence was investigated.10 RCTs were included, of which three were of high quality according to the CTAM. The direct evidence demonstrated a significant effect on the reduction in depressive symptoms relative to treatment as usual (TAU, in favor of overall non-verbal therapy (ES: -0.66, 95% C.I. = -0.88, -0.44 and music therapy (ES: -0.59, 95% C.I. = -0.85, -0.33. Combining both direct and indirect evidence, yoga therapy (ES: -0.79, 95% C.I. = -1.24, -0.35 had a significant effect on depressive symptoms, and occupational therapy (ES: 1.81, 95% C.I. = 0.81, 2.81 was less effective, relative to TAU. Exercise therapy did not show a significant effect on depressive symptoms in comparison to TAU (ES: -0.02 95% C.I. = -0.67, 0.62. Due to inconsistency of study evidence, the indirect effects should be interpreted cautiously.Non-verbal therapies appear to be effective in reducing depressive symptomatology in psychotic disorders, in particular music therapy and yoga therapy.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  5. Non-Verbal Episodic Memory Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasias are Highly Predictive of Underlying Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Flanagan, Emma; Leyton, Cristian E; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic distinction of primary progressive aphasias (PPA) remains challenging, in particular for the logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (naPPA) variants. Recent findings highlight that episodic memory deficits appear to discriminate these PPA variants from each other, as only lvPPA perform poorly on these tasks while having underlying amyloid pathology similar to that seen in amnestic dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most memory tests are, however, language based and thus potentially confounded by the prevalent language deficits in PPA. The current study investigated this issue across PPA variants by contrasting verbal and non-verbal episodic memory measures while controlling for their performance on a language subtest of a general cognitive screen. A total of 203 participants were included (25 lvPPA; 29 naPPA; 59 AD; 90 controls) and underwent extensive verbal and non-verbal episodic memory testing, with a subset of patients (n = 45) with confirmed amyloid profiles as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B and PET. The most powerful discriminator between naPPA and lvPPA patients was a non-verbal recall measure (Rey Complex Figure delayed recall), with 81% of PPA patients classified correctly at presentation. Importantly, AD and lvPPA patients performed comparably on this measure, further highlighting the importance of underlying amyloid pathology in episodic memory profiles. The findings demonstrate that non-verbal recall emerges as the best discriminator of lvPPA and naPPA when controlling for language deficits in high load amyloid PPA cases.

  6. Exploring the benefits of a computer-based language intervention programme for non-verbal children with autism.

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    An exploratory study to investigate the performance of six non-verbal children with autism on a computer touch-screen based language intervention programme with a focus related improvements in comprehension abilities. Children were trained to criterion on successive levels of a sentence production game starting with two-word combinations and progressing to a maximum of four, with animated events as feedback. Comprehension probes were administered at specific points using material direct f...

  7. Non-verbal behaviors in counseling%心理咨询中的非言语行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春晓; 江光荣; 林秀彬

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviors are defined as behaviors without linguistic content.As an art of interpersonal communication,psychological counseling emphasizes the use of non-verbal behaviors.Existing researches have demonstrated that appropriate non-verbal behaviors could enhance the counseling process.On the other hand,inappropriate non-verbal behaviors have impeded the counseling process.By reviewing previous studies,main problems in this field were summarized as follows:1) lack of empirical research;2) limited to counseling process research;as well as 3) monotonous research methods which lead to stagnation of research.There is a call for a breakthrough in this field,and methods from other relevant fields may help to eliminate the bottleneck.%非言语行为一般指不包含语言内容的人际交流行为.心理咨询作为人际沟通的一门艺术,非常强调非言语行为的重要性.已有研究发现心理咨询中的非言语行为在咨询师和当事人的互动中对咨询有促进作用,同时咨询师不当的非言语行为也会阻碍心理咨询.总结前人研究发现心理咨询中非言语行为的研究现状存在实证研究不足、孤立于咨询进程进行研究等问题,并且研究方法较为单一.如果要突破目前的研究瓶颈,需要借鉴其他领域的研究方法.

  8. How verbs and non-verbal categories navigate the syntax/semantics interface: insights from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Rawlins, Kyle; Rapp, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    We report on two individuals with acquired language impairment who made thematic role confusion errors in both comprehension and production. Their confusions were remarkably specific, affecting the roles associated with spatial prepositions ("The box is in the bag" confused with The bag is in the box) and adjectival comparatives ("The glove is darker than the hat" confused with The hat is darker than the glove) but not the roles associated with verbs (e.g., in The woman helps the man). Additional results showed that the confusions did not arise from spatial deficits, deficits affecting the semantics of spatial terms and adjectives, or difficulties with spatial and comparative relationships. Interestingly, the selective deficits are well-explained by linguistic theories that propose that non-verbal lexical categories, when used as predicates, depend on special mechanisms and structures for linking their thematic roles to syntactic argument structures. These are the first neuropsychological results to show that thematic role assignment is supported by distinct brain mechanisms for verbal and non-verbal lexical categories. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the linguistic knowledge associated with verbal vs. non-verbal word classes and of the conditions under which these forms of knowledge support sentence processing.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Verbal and Non-Verbal Mental Activity Components Regarding the Young People with Different Intellectual Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Revenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper maintains that for developing the educational pro- grams and technologies adequate to the different stages of students’ growth and maturity, there is a need for exploring the natural determinants of intel- lectual development as well as the students’ individual qualities affecting the cognition process. The authors investigate the differences of the intellect manifestations with the reference to the gender principle, and analyze the correlations be- tween verbal and non-verbal components in boys and girls’ mental activity depending on their general intellect potential. The research, carried out in Si- berian State Automobile Road Academy and focused on the first year stu- dents, demonstrates the absence of gender differences in students’ general in- tellect levels; though, there are some other conformities: the male students of different intellectual levels show the same correlation coefficient of verbal and non-verbal intellect while the female ones have the same correlation only at the high intellect level. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the need for the integral ap- proach to raising students’ mental abilities considering the close interrelation between the verbal and non-verbal component development. The teaching materials should stimulate different mental qualities by differentiating the educational process to develop students’ individual abilities. 

  10. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  11. Measuring verbal and non-verbal communication in aphasia: reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W Mieke E; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive communication partner. To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test and discuss its clinical value. The Scenario Test was administered to 122 persons with aphasia after stroke and to 25 non-aphasic controls. Analyses were performed for the entire group of persons with aphasia, as well as for a subgroup of persons unable to communicate verbally (n = 43). Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-judge, and intra-judge reliability) and validity (internal validity, convergent validity, known-groups validity) and sensitivity to change were examined using standard psychometric methods. The Scenario Test showed high levels of reliability. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96; item-rest correlations = 0.58-0.82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.98) were high. Agreement between judges in total scores was good, as indicated by the high inter- and intra-judge reliability (ICC = 0.86-1.00). Agreement in scores on the individual items was also good (square-weighted kappa values 0.61-0.92). The test demonstrated good levels of validity. A principal component analysis for categorical data identified two dimensions, interpreted as general communication and communicative creativity. Correlations with three other instruments measuring communication in aphasia, that is, Spontaneous Speech interview from the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), and Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI), were moderate to strong (0.50-0.85) suggesting good convergent validity. Group differences were observed between persons with aphasia and non-aphasic controls

  12. Construction and validation of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, Jacob Arie; Tellegen, Peter Johannes

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis the construction and validation of the SON-R 5,5-17 is described, the recent revision of the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test. The SON-R is an individual test of (non-verbal) intelligence for children in the ages of 51/2 to 17 years. The test was published in 1989 with an e

  13. 谈护患之间的语言及非语言沟通%Discussion on Verbal and Non-verbal Communication be-tween Nurses and Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文从语言性沟通交流和非语言性沟通交流两个方面介绍了护患之间沟通交流的方式,为高职护理专业的学生在护患沟通交流方面提供了一定的理论知识。%This paper introduces the communication styles be-tween nurses and patients from such two aspects as verbal com-munication and non-verbal communication, aiming to provide certain theoretical knowledge for higher vocational nursing stu-dents in the nurse-patient communication.

  14. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  15. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  16. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal, e investigar a prevalência de assimetria inter-hemisférica neste grupo populacional. Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças e adolescentes encaminhados para uma avaliação interdisciplinar, com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem e que receberam diagnóstico interdisciplinar de transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal. As variáveis avaliadas foram prevalência por sexo, sistema de ensino, hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais e respectivas prevalências, prevalência de condições em relação à amostra total, prevalência geral do transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal

  17. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  18. Nurses' Perception of Necessary Factors in Gaining Consent from Patients: Verbal-mediated Communication and Non-verbal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Kenji; Mizuko, Manabu; KANEMITSU, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This research analyzed factors necessary for obtaining consent from the patient as perceived by nurses. Explaining things to patients and listening to the patient's voice were defined as factors of verbal-mediated communication. The attitude toward patients (such as nods, making eye contact) and the tone of voice were defined as factors of non-verbal communication. A questionnaire survey was administered to nurses (n=142) (Mean age=30.2, SD=8.7) in December, 2007. The respondents were asked t...

  19. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  20. On the Cultivation of Non -verbal Communicative Competence for Japanese Majors%论日语专业学生非语言交际能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹阳

    2014-01-01

    当今外语教学研究的结果进一步明确了语言教学中互为关联的两个能力,即语言能力和非语言交际能力。而现在的日语专业教学现状应该说不容乐观。虽然近年来日语专业教育对日语表达能力的重视程度日益提高,但往往只停留在对日常用语和“说”日语的训练与练习上,学生运用日语进行跨文化交际的能力并没有真正得以提高。这其中,对非语言交际能力培养的疏忽是一个重要原因。所以,对日语专业学生非语言交际能力的培养已是当务之急。%The research results of modern foreign language teaching further point out two interactive competences in language teaching ,that is ,language competence and non -verbal communicative compe-tence .At present ,Japanese major teaching is beyond optimism .While Japanese major education has paid more attention to Japanese communicative competence ,the attention is mainly fixed on everyday language ,spoken drills and exercises .Thus ,intercultural communicative competence by using Japanese hasn’t been improved .The negligence for the cultivation of non -verbal communicative competence is a main factor ,so the cultivation of non-verbal communicative competence for Japanese majors is urgent . The article attempts to prove the point based on the teaching practice of everyday Japanese teaching .

  1. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  2. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  3. Finding the right interactional temperature: do colder patients need more warmth in physician communication style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Gaëtan; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Being aware of which communication style should be adopted when facing more difficult patients is important for physicians; it can help prevent patient reactions of dissatisfaction, mistrust, or non-adherence that can be detrimental to the process of care. Past research suggests that less agreeable patients are especially critical towards, and reactive to, their physician's communication style, compared to more agreeable patients. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that less agreeable patients would react more negatively than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness (i.e., warmth, friendliness) in the physicians, in terms of satisfaction with the physician, trust in the physician, and determination to adhere to the treatment. Thirty-six general practitioners (20 men/16 women) working in their own practice in Switzerland were filmed while interacting with 69 patients (36 men/33 women) of different ages (M = 50.7; SD = 18.19; range: 18-84) and presenting different medical problems (e.g., back pain, asthma, hypertension, diabetes). After the medical interview, patients filled in questionnaires measuring their satisfaction with the physician, their trust in the physician, their determination to adhere to the treatment, and their trait of agreeableness. Physician affiliativeness was coded on the basis of the video recordings. Physician gender and dominance, patient gender and age, as well as the gravity of the patient's medical condition were introduced as control variables in the analysis. Results confirmed our hypothesis for satisfaction and trust, but not for adherence; less agreeable patients reacted more negatively (in terms of satisfaction and trust) than agreeable patients to lower levels of affiliativeness in their physicians. This study suggests that physicians should be especially attentive to stay warm and friendly with people low in agreeableness because those patients' satisfaction and trust might be more easily lowered by a cold

  4. The effect of Danquah Communication System (DanCS) boards on maladaptive behaviours among individuals with severe intellectual impairment and non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, S A; Mate-Kole, C C; Zehr, R T

    1996-06-01

    There is evidence that some individuals with severe intellectual impairment who are non-verbal may, out of frustration, display such inappropriate behaviour as aggression and self-injury as a means of communicating their needs to caregivers. The purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive augmented communication device and to teach individuals with multiple impairment to use this method to communicate their needs in order to reduce their aggressive behaviours. The Dan Communication System (DanCS) symbol boards were therefore designed with computerized voice interface to help the individuals communicate to caregivers by means of audio and visual signs. A working DanCS board has been successfully developed and can now be mass produced by a manufacturer. The DanCS board is illustrated and described. A measurement device called the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) that focused on three target behaviours; pressing of symbols, control of aggression, and social interaction with caregivers, was used to evaluate progress in the participating subjects (N = 30). Results showed that the multiply impaired individuals in the study significantly improved in all the targeted behaviours through the use of the DanCS. Details of the study are reported.

  5. 从非言语行为看中日文化的异同%China-Japan Cultural Differences in Non-verbal Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯璜莹; 何艺娇

    2014-01-01

    人的行为有言语行为和非言语行为,非语言行为是人们日常生活中经常存在的表现。要表达同一种意思的时候,国家不同,所使用的非言语行为就不一样。理解两国的非言语行为对中日两国人民之间的交流是很重要的。弄清两国的非言语行为特点,有利于跨文化交流,跨越文化障碍,有利于加强两国人民的理解和交流。%Human behaviors have verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Non-verbal behavior is often present in people's daily life performance. The use of non-verbal behavior is not the same to express the same kind of meaning in different countries. Understanding non-verbal behavior between the two peoples is very important for the exchange. Clarifying the characteristics of non-verbal behavior of the two countries is conducive to cross-cultural barriers, and helps strengthen understanding and exchanges between two peoples.

  6. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  7. Elementary analysis on non-verbal communication between Darcy and Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice%试析《傲慢与偏见》中达西与伊丽莎白之间的非语言交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战丽莉; 崔戈

    2012-01-01

    In Pride and Prejudice, the love affair between Darcy and Elizabeth undoubtedly stands out among the four love affairs depicted in the novel. This article illustrates the interaction between Darcy and Elizabeth from the perspec- tive of non-verbal communication, and at the same time displays the role performed by non-verbal means at different stages of their interaction.%小说《傲慢与偏见》描述了四个恋情,而达西与伊丽莎白之间的恋情无疑是最引人注目的。从非语言交际角度分析了达西与伊丽莎白之间的交往过程,展示了交往过程中不同阶段的非语言交际及其所扮演的角色和发挥的作用。

  8. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  9. Politeness in the Non-verbal Communication between Chinese and Americans%中美非言语交际中的礼貌问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日

    2011-01-01

    Studies about politeness mainly focus on verbal communication, but neglect non-verbal communication. This paper tries to give some helpful advice about intercultural non-verbal communication by analyzing the different opinions about what is polite in non-verbal communication between Chinese culture and American culture.%有关礼貌问题的研究大多注重的是言语交际,往往忽视了非言语交际中的礼貌问题.本文通过对有关中美非言语交际中怎么做才是礼貌的这个问题的探讨,以期能够对人们在中美跨文化交际时有所帮助.

  10. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings.

  11. Sex differences in the ability to recognise non-verbal displays of emotion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Voyer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of sex differences in humans' ability to accurately recognise non-verbal emotional displays. Studies of relevance were those that required explicit labelling of discrete emotions presented in the visual and/or auditory modality. A final set of 551 effect sizes from 215 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed a small overall advantage in favour of females on emotion recognition tasks (d=0.19). However, the magnitude of that sex difference was moderated by several factors, namely specific emotion, emotion type (negative, positive), sex of the actor, sensory modality (visual, audio, audio-visual) and age of the participants. Method of presentation (computer, slides, print, etc.), type of measurement (response time, accuracy) and year of publication did not significantly contribute to variance in effect sizes. These findings are discussed in the context of social and biological explanations of sex differences in emotion recognition.

  12. Word Searches: On the Use of Verbal and Non-Verbal Resources during Classroom Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties in children are typically characterized by search behaviours such as silence, circumlocution, repetition, and empty words. Yet, how children's word searches are constructed (including gesture, gaze, and prosody) and the actions accomplished during interaction have not yet been researched. In this study, 8-year-old Ciara…

  13. Implementing Verbal and Non-Verbal Activities in an Intercultural Collaboration Project for English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kiyomi; Hirotani, Maki

    2015-01-01

    Technological development offers language teachers a myriad of options for collaborative activities. Learners, in turn, benefit from increased opportunities to interact with people who can speak their target language. Research has previously highlighted the importance of developing learners' intercultural competence through such activities. The…

  14. Interaction of Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Andries, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), utilizing a sample of Iranian parents of children with and without ADHD. Results indicate significant relationships between ADHD and parenting styles. There is a negative relationship between having an ADHD child and applying authoritative…

  15. The role of the prefrontal cortex in familiarity and recollection processes during verbal and non-verbal recognition memory: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Semenza, Carlo; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2010-08-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have documented the involvement of the frontal lobes in recognition memory. However, the precise nature of prefrontal contributions to verbal and non-verbal memory and to familiarity and recollection processes remains unclear. The aim of the current rTMS study was to investigate for the first time the role of the DLPFC in encoding and retrieval of non-verbal and verbal memoranda and its contribution to recollection and familiarity processes. Recollection and familiarity processes were studied using the ROC and unequal variance signal detection methodologies. We found that rTMS delivered over left and right DLPFC at encoding resulted in material specific laterality effects with a disruption of recognition of verbal and non-verbal memoranda. Interestingly, rTMS over DLPFCs at encoding significantly affected both recollection and familiarity. However, at retrieval rTMS did not affect recollection and familiarity. Our results suggest that DLPFC has a degree of functional specialisation and plays an important role in the encoding of verbal and non-verbal memoranda.

  16. Anger and happiness in virtual teams: emotional influences of text and behavior on others' affect in the absence of non-verbal cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cheshin; A. Rafaeli; N. Bos

    2011-01-01

    Emotions carry social influence, as evident by emotion contagion - an unconscious process attributed to mimicking of non-verbal cues. We investigate whether emotion contagion can occur in virtual teams; specifically, the emotional influence of text-based and behavior-based cues on participants’ emot

  17. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  18. [Comparative analysis of spatial EEG organization on models of non-verbal divergent and convergent thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviderskaia, N E; Antonov, A G; Butneva, L S

    2007-01-01

    Features of neurophysiological organization of two main thinking types playing different roles in creative processes, i.e., divergent and convergent were studied with participation of 30 right-handed male subjects at the age from 30 to 50 years. Two tests were presented: (1) creation of many visual images on the basis of two simple geometrical figures (the model of divergent thinking) and (2) classification of a figure element with one of the offered standard samples (convergent thinking). The number of created images or correctly classified elements for five minutes served a criterion of performance productivity. It was found that performance of the divergent test with high productivity (as compared to low productivity) was characterized by a greater increase in non-linear interactions between the cortical potentials, especially in the axis right frontal--left occipital areas. At the same time, under conditions of high productivity, the number of active narrow-frequency spectral-coherent EEG bands increased. The data confirm the notion of neurophysiological organization of creative processes, according to which creative processes require the intensification of retrieval operations (both conscious and unconscious), based on extensive interhemispheric interaction and involvement of a system of EEG coherent structures oscillating with different frequencies.

  19. A comparison of processing load during non-verbal decision-making in two individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Suleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A growing body of evidence suggests people with aphasia (PWA can have impairments to cognitive functions such as attention, working memory and executive functions.(1-5 Such cognitive impairments have been shown to negatively affect the decision-making (DM abilities adults with neurological damage. (6,7 However, little is known about DM abilities of PWA.(8 Pupillometry is “the measurement of changes in pupil diameter”.(9;p.1 Researchers have reported a positive relationship between processing load and phasic pupil size (i.e., as processing load increases, pupil size increases.(10 Thus pupillometry has the potential to be a useful tool for investigating processing load during DM in PWA. AIMS The primary aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of using pupillometry during a non-verbal DM task with PWA. The secondary aim was to explore non-verbal DM performance in PWA and determine the relationship between DM performance and processing load using pupillometry. METHOD DESIGN. A single-subject case-study design with two participants was used in this study. PARTICIPANTS. Two adult males with anomic aphasia participated in this study. Participants were matched for age and education. Both participants were independent, able to drive, and had legal autonomy. MEASURES. PERFORMANCE ON A DM TASK. We used a computerized risk-taking card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT as our non-verbal DM task.(11 In the IGT, participants made 100 selections (via eye gaze from four decks of cards presented on the computer screen with the goal of maximizing their overall hypothetical monetary gain. PROCESSING LOAD. The EyeLink 1000+ eye tracking system was used to collect pupil size measures while participants deliberated before each deck selection during the IGT. For this analysis, we calculated change in pupil size as a measure of processing load. RESULTS P1. P1 made increasingly advantageous decisions as the task progressed (Fig.1. When

  20. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to "Owner Warmth," "Owner Social Support," and "Owner Control." Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in "Owner Warmth" and in "Owner Social Support" and higher in "Owner Control" than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in "Owner Control" scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in "Owner Social Support" scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in "Owner Warmth," as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  1. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  2. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  3. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Maternal Stress and Mother-Child Interaction Style Amon the Mothers of Cerebral Palsy Children – A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Rani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between parenting stress and mother-child interaction style among the mothers of cerebral palsy children. Methods: The study was conducted in Samvedna Trust for handicapped in the Allahabad city. A purposive sample of 38 children with cerebral palsy within the age group of 5- 12 years was selected. Parenting stress was measured by using Parenting Stress Index Short-Forem (Abidin, 1995 Mother-child interactions were videotaped for 7 minutes during an unstructured play and was rated on three dimensions of responsiveness, affect and directive-ness, which are the subscales of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS, Mahoney 1992. Qualitative analysis was used to study the relationship. Each mother-child dyad was observed separately for the quality of interactions demonstrated in relation to mothers’ stress level in each dyad. Results: The findings from this qualitative analysis suggested that the mothers who were experiencing a high stress level were found to be less effective during interaction. This means that mothers were less responsive to their child‘s behavior and actions; exhibited less warmth, enjoyment and approval of the child during interaction; and more controlling than the mothers who were not under much stress. Conclusion: Strong association between parenting stress and interaction style suggests the need for the therapists to develop and implement interventions to enhance the quality of mother-child interaction along with other rehabilitation services provided to these children with cerebral palsy.

  5. Measurement of cognitive performance in computer programming concept acquisition: interactive effects of visual metaphors and the cognitive style construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, E

    2000-01-01

    An innovative research program was devised to investigate the interactive effect of instructional strategies enhanced with text-plus-textual metaphors or text-plus-graphical metaphors, and cognitive style on the acquisition of programming concepts. The Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) program (Riding,1991) was used to establish the participants' cognitive style. The QUEST Interactive Test Analysis System (Adams and Khoo,1996) provided the cognitive performance measuring tool, which ensured an absence of error measurement in the programming knowledge testing instruments. Therefore, reliability of the instrumentation was assured through the calibration techniques utilized by the QUEST estimate; providing predictability of the research design. A means analysis of the QUEST data, using the Cohen (1977) approach to size effect and statistical power further quantified the significance of the findings. The experimental methodology adopted for this research links the disciplines of instructional science, cognitive psychology, and objective measurement to provide reliable mechanisms for beneficial use in the evaluation of cognitive performance by the education, training and development sectors. Furthermore, the research outcomes will be of interest to educators, cognitive psychologists, communications engineers, and computer scientists specializing in computer-human interactions.

  6. Research in non verbal communication: a paradigma for the analysis of kinesic behavior of political leaders and for the determination of its strategic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María HERNÁNDEZ HERRARTE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a proposal of a methodology for the analysis of non verbal behaviour of a series of political representatives constantly exposed to the media. The proposal is intended to contribute to the progress of knowledge of kinesic behaviour (gestures, postures and ways having as a main purpose the evaluation through descriptive analysis, of attitudes and feelings of politicians. It is comprised of a theoretical background where the non verbal communication and the kinesic behaviour definitions are detailed together with their constituent elements, and a methodology where the whole process is explained through content analysis: categorization, sampling, encoding and finally, a proposal of analysis card. with this work one tries to facilitate a methodological useful tool to all those experts been interested in the research of the meaning of the corporal communication of the political leaders transmitted across the media of social communication.

  7. On Non-verbal Communication in the English Class%谈英语课堂中的非言语交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巍

    2014-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important component of communicative behavior. In the English class, the teachers should adopt non-verbal communication appropriately so as to achieve the purpose of stimulating students' enthusiasm about English learning, strengthening the communication between themselves and students and having a good teaching effect.%非言语交际是交际行为的一个重要组成部分。在英语课堂教学中,教师可以恰当地运用非言语交际来提高学生的学习积极性,加强师生的交流,从而达到良好的教学效果。

  8. 非语言沟通:一种独特的人际沟通方式%Non-verbal Communication:A Unique Interpersonal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓; 江玲雅; 史逸华

    2015-01-01

    As a unique method of interpersonal communication, non-verbal communication plays an important role in doctor-patient relationship. This paper analyzed the causes of intense doctor-patient relationship from the perspective of non-verbal communication based on two typical cases and put forward solutions and suggestions.%作为一种独特的人际沟通方式,非语言沟通在医患关系中发挥着非常重要的作用。本文结合医院两个典型案例,从非语言沟通的视角入手,分析由此产生医患关系紧张的原因,并提出相应的对策、建议。

  9. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. While Part 1 outlined the study background, context and methodology along with the overarching, multi-dimensional category of 'familiarity/knowing the person', the current article critically discusses the themes and subthemes encapsulated in this category. Each theme is considered in the light of current policies, strategies and philosophies shaping the provision of services to people with an intellectual disability in Ireland. The results suggest that the RNID is ideally located and key to supporting the implementation of these policies and strategies due to their highly developed and proficient skill set as well as experience of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally.

  10. Impaired Spatial Category Representations in Williams Syndrome; an investigation of the mechanistic contributions of non-verbal cognition and spatial language performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kate Farran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: provide a precise characterisation of spatial category representations in Williams syndrome (WS; to determine the nature of the mechanistic contributions from spatial language performance and non-verbal cognition to spatial category representations in WS; and to explore the stability of spatial category representations in WS using error analysis. Spatial category representation was assessed across nine spatial categories (In, On, Under, In Front, Behind, Above, Below, Left and Right using an odd-one-out task. The performance of individuals with WS (N=24; 12;00 years; months to 30;07 years; months was compared to data from typically developing children aged four to seven years (N=75, published in Farran & Atkinson (2016. The WS group performed at the level of typical 4- and 5-year-olds. Despite this low level of ability, they demonstrated typical variation in their representation of easier to harder spatial categories, in line with the spatial category representation model (Farran & Atkinson, 2016. Error analysis of broad category understanding (i.e. category understanding which includes non-prototypical category members, however, showed that errors reflected fewer guess responses than expected by chance in the WS group only, which could suggest strategic responding in this group. Developmental trajectory analyses demonstrated a significant contributing influence of both non-verbal mental age and spatial language in the TD group. For the WS group, non-verbal mental age significantly contributed to spatial category representations, whilst the contributing influence of spatial language ability was marginally significant. With reference to level of ability, spatial category representations in the WS group were consistently lower than would be expected for non-verbal mental age, but on a par with their (low spatial language mental age. Spatial category representations in WS are discussed with reference to their

  11. Impaired Spatial Category Representations in Williams Syndrome; an Investigation of the Mechanistic Contributions of Non-verbal Cognition and Spatial Language Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K; Atkinson, Lauren; Broadbent, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: provide a precise characterisation of spatial category representations in Williams syndrome (WS); to determine the nature of the mechanistic contributions from spatial language performance and non-verbal cognition to spatial category representations in WS; and to explore the stability of spatial category representations in WS using error analysis. Spatial category representation was assessed across nine spatial categories (In, On, Under, In Front, Behind, Above, Below, Left, and Right) using an odd-one-out task. The performance of individuals with WS (N = 24; 12;00 years;months to 30;07 years;months) was compared to data from typically developing children aged four to 7 years (N = 75), published in Farran and Atkinson (2016). The WS group performed at the level of typical 4- and 5-year-olds. Despite this low level of ability, they demonstrated typical variation in their representation of easier to harder spatial categories, in line with the spatial category representation model (Farran and Atkinson, 2016). Error analysis of broad category understanding (i.e., category understanding which includes non-prototypical category members), however, showed that errors reflected fewer guess responses than expected by chance in the WS group only, which could suggest strategic responding in this group. Developmental trajectory analyses demonstrated a significant contributing influence of both non-verbal mental age and spatial language ability in the TD group. For the WS group, non-verbal mental age significantly contributed to spatial category representations, whilst the contributing influence of spatial language ability was marginally significant. With reference to level of ability, spatial category representations in the WS group were consistently lower than would be expected for non-verbal mental age, but on a par with their (low) spatial language mental age. Spatial category representations in WS are discussed with reference to their

  12. 应聘者非言语信息对面试官评分的影响:解释、测量和控制%The impact of applicant's non-verbal information on interviewer's rating:Explanation, measurement and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 徐建平

    2016-01-01

    Applicant's non-verbal information is an important factor affecting the interviewer's rating accuracy in structural interview.Several theories,such as Social Interaction Theory and Dramaturgy Theory from the perspective of the interviewer,Social Influence Theory and Interdependence Theory from the perspective of the applicant,have been trying to explain the impact of applicant's non-verbal information on interviewer's rating.In addition to the traditional self-report questionnaire,some of the emerging computer recognition technologies have also been used to measure the non-verbal information.Some actions should be taken to eliminate the impact of non-verbal information on the accuracy of the interviewer's rating before,during and after an interview.Future research can be based on machine learning and big data analysis,to explore the impact mechanism of non-verbal information on interviewer's rating in structural interview and construct a new theory to explain the impact on the rating process.%应聘者非言语信息是影响结构化面试中面试官准确评分的一个重要因素.社会互动理论和拟剧论从面试官角度,社会影响理论和相互依赖理论从应聘者角度分别解释了非言语信息对面试官评分的影响.对非言语信息的测量,除了传统的自陈式问卷,一些新兴的计算机识别技术也被使用.为了消除非言语信息对面试评分准确性的影响,通常会从面试前、面试中和面试后三个阶段对其进行控制.未来可以基于机器学习和大数据分析,探索非言语信息对结构化面试评分的影响,建构新的理论以解释影响过程.

  13. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to “Owner Warmth,” “Owner Social Support,” and “Owner Control.” Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in “Owner Warmth” and in “Owner Social Support” and higher in “Owner Control” than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in “Owner Control” scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in “Owner Social Support” scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in “Owner Warmth,” as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety. PMID:28066298

  14. Sandplay therapy in non verbal behavior of visitors%沙盘游戏治疗中来访者非言语行为初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂莉娜; 蔡宝鸿

    2014-01-01

    沙盘游戏治疗,又称为非言语心理治疗,非言语的交流过程有着极其重要作用。来访者的面部表情,眼神,身体姿态,空间距离以及治疗过程中所伴随的生理反应等非言语信息,沙盘分析师应当给予关注和记录。对来访者非言语行为进行观察时,应注意综合各方面信息,进行准确分析判断。%The Sandplay therapy, also called non verbal psychotherapy, has the extremely important role in the process of non verbal communication. The visitor's eyes, facial expressions, body posture, the space distance and treatment in the physiological reaction of nonverbal information, analysts should be given attention and record table. Non verbal behaviour of the visitors were observed when, should pay attention to the various aspects of information, accurate analysis and judgement.

  15. 讯问犯罪嫌疑人过程中的非语言沟通技巧%Non-verbal Communication Skills in Interrogating Criminal Suspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马李芬

    2012-01-01

    Alongside with the usage of interrogate language,investigators should also make analysis of non-verbal information from criminal suspects and perfect adoption of it,because non-verbal language have distinct effect and sometimes even indispensable in interrogating.Investigators could use non-verbal communication skills to convey information to criminal suspects to confess.%侦查人员在讯问犯罪嫌疑人的过程中,除了巧妙运用讯问语言外,还应当准确地对犯罪嫌疑人的非语言信息进行解读并且恰如其分地运用非语言,因为非语言在讯问沟通过程中同样具有举足轻重的作用,有时甚至可以产生讯问语言无法替代的功效,侦查人员可以利用它向犯罪嫌疑人传递有利于促使他们如实陈述的信息。

  16. A Study of Interactions among Ambiguity Tolerance, Classroom Work Styles, and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary investigation of the inter-relationships between English learners' tolerance for ambiguity, their classroom work styles, and their level of English proficiency. The study population comprised 46 English as a foreign language (EFL) students attending a technical college in Taiwan. The findings indicated that a…

  17. Women's Sport Leadership Styles as the Result of Interaction between Feminine and Masculine Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Light, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of research focusing on women in the business sector using a transformational model of leadership that identifies the ways in which they lead yet little is known about the style of leadership women practise in sport. In attempting to redress this oversight in the literature, this article draws on data from a larger study to…

  18. Inferring Learning Style from the Way Students Interact with a Computer User Interface and the WWW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David Adrian; Bergasa-Suso, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Recent significant advances in automatically predicting user learning styles are described. The system works with new client-based systems that filter Web pages and provide easy, structured, focused, and controlled access to the Internet. A first system called iLessons was embedded within Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 and provided teachers with…

  19. 跨文化视域下的非言语交流探析%On Non-verbal Communication of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娣

    2015-01-01

    非言语( NOV)语言在交流过程中起着重要的作用,它可使人们在无意识情形下传递自己真实的情感。非言语交流( NVC)可分为四种基本类型:体态语、副语言、环境语和对象语。非言语交流具有一定的文化载体,中西方文化存在着较为明显的差异。跨文化视角下的非言语交流探究,能够帮助人们更好地理解和运用非言语交流手段,尽量避免跨文化交流中不应有的障碍,增进不同文化与语言背景下人们的相互理解,提高交流水平。%Non-verbal ( NOV) language plays a significant part in communication, which gives away people’s true feelings without their awareness. Non-verbal communication ( NVC) is roughly divided into four groups:body lan-guage, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. NOV is the carrier of a certain culture and there is great difference between Chinese and western culture. Cultural comparison is of great help to the communi-cation for the people from different nations, with which we will have a better understanding on non-verbal communi-cation to avoid the problems in cross cultural communication.

  20. Application of non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing%非语言性沟通在儿科护理工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate application effect by non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing. Methods A total of children patients were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 40 cases in each group. The control group received conventional pediatric nursing, and the experimental group received pediatric nursing with non-verbal communication. Comparison was made on satisfaction degree in both groups through questionnaire filled by parents. Results The experimental group had obviously higher satisfaction degree than the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Implement of non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing can build good nurse-patient relationship. This method can improve children’s cooperation for carrying out pediatric nursing, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.%目的:探讨非语言性沟通在儿科护理中的应用效果。方法80例儿科患儿,随机分为对照组和实验组,各40例。对照组采用儿科常规护理,实验组采用非语言性沟通儿科护理,患儿出院后由患儿父母填写满意度调查表,比较两组的满意度调查结果。结果实验组的满意度明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在儿科护理中,实施非语言性沟通能够建立良好的护患关系,有利于儿科护理工作的展开,使患儿更好的配合治疗,临床可推广应用。

  1. Non-verbal Communication and Sino-Japan Cross-Cultural Communication%非言语交际与中日跨文化交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳成

    2011-01-01

    非言语交际是跨文化交际的重要组成部分,与言语交际互为补充,相辅相成。非言语交际包括诸多要素,并受到民族文化背景的影响与制约。受古代日本相对封闭的村落社会结构与言灵思想的影响,日语的非言语交际非常发达。在中日跨文化交际过程中,必须重视非言语交际的重要作用,尤其要注意把握好交际过程中的各种非言语要素,中日间对于同一非言语要素的不同理解,以及日方对于某些非言语要素的独特解读。%As an important part of cross-cultural communication,non-verbal communication complements verbal.It consists of various kinds of elements and is constrained by ethnic cultural background.Due to relatively closed village settlement and admiration of lingual spells,non-verbal communication in Japanese grows rich.Therefore,it should be laid an emphasis in Sino-Japan cross-cultural communication,especially on the following three aspects: a good command of various elements,different decoding of the same non-verbal element between Chinese and Japanese people,and Japanese specific decoding of some certain elements.

  2. 跨文化交际中的非言语交际%On Non-verbal Communication in Cross-cultural Com-munication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛梅

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal communication, an important means to pass information and express feelings, complements mutually with verbal communication and plays an important role in cross-cultural communication. However, non-verbal communi-cation has not been paid enough attention and has been neglected for a long time. Misunderstanding on nonverbal communication leads to the failure of the communication and affects the quality of communication. The essay analyzes the differences of non-verbal communication in cross-cultural communication from several as-pects, such as gestures, facial expressions and visual behaviors, so as to improve people's sensitivity and quality of the cross-cul-tural communication.%在跨文化交际中,非言语交际是人们传递信息、表达情感的一个重要手段,与语言交际互为补充,在跨文化交际中起着不可忽视的作用。然而,人们并没有给予非言语交际以足够的重视,使其长期处于被忽视的地位。在跨文化交际过程中,经常发生因非言语交际误解导致交际无法顺畅进行,因而影响交际质量的情况。本文从手势,面部表情,目视行为等几个方面分析非言语行为在跨文化交际中的差异,以期提高人们跨文化交际的敏感性和质量。

  3. 跨文化视域下的非言语交流探析%On Non-verbal Communication of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娣

    2014-01-01

    非言语( NOV)语言在交流过程中起着重要的作用,它可使人们在无意识情形下传递自己真实的情感。非言语交流( NVC)可分为四种基本类型:体态语、副语言、环境语和对象语。非言语交流具有一定的文化载体,中西方文化存在着较为明显的差异。跨文化视角下的非言语交流探究,能够帮助人们更好地理解和运用非言语交流手段,尽量避免跨文化交流中不应有的障碍,增进不同文化与语言背景下人们的相互理解,提高交流水平。%Non-verbal ( NOV) language plays a significant part in communication, which gives away people’s true feelings without their awareness. Non-verbal communication ( NVC) is roughly divided into four groups:body lan-guage, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. NOV is the carrier of a certain culture and there is great difference between Chinese and western culture. Cultural comparison is of great help to the communi-cation for the people from different nations, with which we will have a better understanding on non-verbal communi-cation to avoid the problems in cross cultural communication.

  4. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  5. The neural basis of non-verbal communication-enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  6. The effects of the interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy on the educational outcomes for a science exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappenberger, Naomi

    This dissertation examines factors which may affect the educational effectiveness of science exhibits. Exhibit effectiveness is the result of a complex interaction among exhibit features, cognitive characteristics of the museum visitor, and educational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative proportions of field-dependent and field-independent visitors in the museum audience, and to ascertain if the cognitive style of visitors interacted with instructional strategies to affect the educational outcomes for a computer-based science exhibit. Cognitive style refers to the self-consistent modes of selecting and processing information that an individual employs throughout his or her perceptual and intellectual activities. It has a broad influence on many aspects of personality and behavior, including perception, memory, problem solving, interest, and even social behaviors and self-concept. As such, it constitutes essential dimensions of individual differences among museum visitors and has important implications for instructional design in the museum. The study was conducted in the spring of 1998 at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum in Chicago. Two experimental treatments of a computer-based exhibit were tested in the study. The first experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-dependent visitors that limited the text and provided more structure and cueing than the baseline treatment of the computer program. The other experimental treatment utilized strategies designed for field-independent visitors that provided hypothesis-testing and more contextual information. Approximately two-thirds of the visitors were field-independent. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that there was a significant interaction between cognitive style and instructional strategy that affected visitors' posttest scores on a multiple-choice test of the content. Field-independent visitors out- performed the field

  7. A importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor universitário no exercício de sua atividade profissional The importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa de Fátima Lucena de Sousa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor no exercício de sua atividade profissional. MÉTODOS: a presente pesquisa foi realizada no período de março a maio de 2008. A população de estudo foi composta por alunos de dois cursos de graduação (Ciências Biológicas e de Fonoaudiologia. Foram escolhidos, aleatoriamente, alunos de cada turma, independente de sexo ou idade, compondo um total de 63 alunos. RESULTADOS: os dados obtidos mostraram que, independente da sua formação (se fonoaudiólogo ou não, todos consideraram que a comunicação não-verbal do professor é um importante fator na transmissão das mensagens. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa mostrou que os entrevistados avaliaram a comunicação não-verbal como importante para a efetividade da interação, podendo interferir no desempenho do docente em sala de aula.PURPOSE: to check the importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities. METHODS: this research was conducted during the period from March to May, 2008. The studied population was made up of students from the two under-graduation courses the (Biological sciences and speech therapy. They were chosen randomly, 63 students, regardless of gender or age. RESULTS: data obtained showed that, regardless of their training (whether or not speech therapist, everybody considered that the non-verbal communication of the teacher is an important factor in the transmission of messages. CONCLUSION: the research showed that the investigated students and teachers evaluated the non-verbal communication as important for the effectiveness of interaction and can interfere in the performance of teachers in the classroom.

  8. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  9. Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y Wan

    Full Text Available Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide 'proof of concept' for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism.

  10. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.

  12. Auditory-Motor Mapping Training as an Intervention to Facilitate Speech Output in Non-Verbal Children with Autism: A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y.; Bazen, Loes; Baars, Rebecca; Libenson, Amanda; Zipse, Lauryn; Zuk, Jennifer; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide ‘proof of concept’ for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism. PMID:21980480

  13. Challenges of implementing a personalized mental task near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface for a non-verbal young adult with motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Sabine; Chau, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interfaces (NIRS-BCIs) have been proposed as potential motor-free communication pathways. This paper documents the challenges of implementing an NIRS-BCI with a non-verbal, severely and congenitally impaired, but cognitively intact young adult. A 5-session personalized mental task NIRS-BCI training paradigm was invoked, whereby participant-specific mental tasks were selected either by the researcher or by the user, on the basis of prior performance or user preference. Although the personalized mental task selection and training framework had been previously demonstrated with able-bodied participants, the participant was not able to exceed chance-level accuracies. Challenges to the acquisition of BCI control may have included disinclination to BCI training, structural or functional brain atypicalities, heightened emotional arousal and confounding haemodynamic patterns associated with novelty and reward processing. Overall, we stress the necessity for further clinical NIRS-BCI research involving non-verbal individuals with severe motor impairments.

  14. Non-Verbal Symbol Communication of On-Camera Correspondents%电视新闻出镜记者的非语言符号传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    电视新闻出镜记者的非语言符号传播,是出现频率不亚于语言符号却往往被业内人士忽视的一种传播行为。在出镜记者的现场报道中,非语言符号起到了补充、丰富语言符号的作用,并和语言符号交融在一起,实现新闻事件信息的有效传播。%Non-verbal symbol communications of TV news on-camera correspondents has the same frequency of appearance as language symbols but are often ignored by the industry insiders.In the live reporting of on-camera correspondents,non-verbal symbols play a supplementary role and blend together with language symbols to achieve the effective dissemination of news events information.

  15. Language representation of the emotional state of the personage in non-verbal speech behavior (on the material of Russian and German languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherbakova Irina Vladimirovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of actualization of emotions in a non-verbal speech behavior of the character of a literary text. Emotions are considered basic, the most actively used method of literary character reaction to any object, action, or the communicative situation. Nonverbal ways of expressing emotions more fully give the reader an idea of the emotional state of the character. The main focus in the allocation of non-verbal means of communication in art is focused on the description of kinetic, proxemic and prosodic components. The material of the study is the microdialogue fragments extracted by continuous sampling of their works of art texts of the Russian-speaking and German-speaking classical and modern literature XIX - XX centuries. Fragments of the dialogues were analyzed, where the recorded voice of nonverbal behavior of the character of different emotional content (surprise, joy, fear, anger, rage, excitement, etc. was fixed. It was found that means of verbalization and descriptions of emotion of nonverbal behavior of the character are primarily indirect nomination, expressed verbal vocabulary, adjectives and adverbs. The lexical level is the most significant in the presentation of the emotional state of the character.

  16. Verschueren的语境顺应论下的非言语交际%The Non-verbal Communication in Verschueren's Context Adaptability Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琎

    2014-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important form of communication. This thesis is based on Verschueren's context adaptability theory to propose that the non-verbal communication is a dynamic course, utterer and interpreter should adapt their linguistic choice to the communicative context consisting of the social world, the physical world and the mental world of language users,so as to achieve the goal of communication.%非语言交际是交际的一种重要形式。本文以Verschueren的语境顺应论为理论基础,提出非言语交际是一个动态过程,交际双方语言的选择必须与语言使用者的社交世界、物理世界和心理世界等所构成的交际语境相顺应,从而达到交际的目的。

  17. 论中古文体的扩张、互动及非常态化%The Expansion, Interaction and Abnormalization of Literary Style in Mediaeval Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡大雷

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of style sometimes means the writer uses other style to express something instead its own style. It makes some style abnormal. That's the style transplant expansion from one subject to another. The expansion of style also can be some characters of one style expand to other styles, and some expansion can form a new style. The different styles expand each other but achieve themselves. It makes the interaction of styles. The main significance of literary history is: motive power of expansion of style shows the desire which article detaches the practicability, shows the power which can write the article. It embodies the style pursuit new changes in Mediaeval Times. But the over-expansion also has some disadvantages, for example, the expansion of poem origins from affection impairs the narrative and arguing function of poetry and style. However it will produce some excellent works by perishing the bounder of styles or the interaction and compatibility of style makes their own features much more outstanding.%文体扩张,有时是越界去做其他文体应该做的事,造成了某些文体的非常态化形式,即文体由此学科向彼学科的移植性扩张;如文学文体进入哲学,形成玄言赋、玄言诗之类;又如文学文体进入史学,构成史述赞之类。文体扩张,或者是文体的某些特质向诸文体的扩张,如“宫体”的题材由诗蔓延到众文体之类;又如“经国文符”、“撰德驳奏”这类文体的用典向诗歌的扩张,而诗歌音律运用向其他文体的扩张。文体扩张,又有文体某部分扩张导致新文体产生,如对问中“臣闻”格式的扩张膨胀构成了“连珠体”,又如诗歌本是叙事的某一环节,扩张就使自己独立出来。各文体扩张而互不相让并各有所得,这就成为文体互动,即文体间运用了其他文体的写作方法,如中古时期“以诗为赋”、“以赋为诗”以及骚、赋不

  18. Reducing the Risk Through Effective Use of Verbal And Non-Verbal Language to Promote Safe Schools in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a country that is potential of natural disaster, Indonesia created the National Disaster Management Plan 2010-2014 to enable decision makers to take preventive actions before the disaster happens. One of the implementation is by establishing a safe school that can minimize the risk of injury when strong earthquake or landslide occurs. The department of Arts and Visual Communication and the Language Center of BINUS University has proposed a social campaign to promote natural disaster safe - school to people in disastrous areas. The campaign will be disseminated verbally and nonverbally through various media such as brochures, posters, animated movies, and public announcement services (PSA. This paper tries to show the different style of language and layouts in posters made by the government and Students of BINUS University in making people aware about living in disaster risk area in Indonesia.

  19. Analysis of the training of cross-cultural non-verbal communication ability in foreign language teaching%浅析跨文化非语言交际能力在外语教学中的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀艳

    2012-01-01

      Non-verbal communication, as an important component of interpersonal communication, plays an irreplaceable part of verbal communication in interpersonal communication. However, foreign language teaching is the basis of fostering students’ communicative ability. So the training of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching is self-evident. This paper aims to state how to cultivate students’ non-verbal communication by introducing the functions and characteristics of non-verbal communication and the application of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching.%  非语言交际作为人类交际的重要组成部分,在人类交际中起着语言交际无法替代的作用,而外语教学是培养学生交际能力的基础,因此非语言交际能力的培养在外语教学中的重要性不言而喻。本文拟通过介绍非语言交际的功能和特点,非语言交际在外语教学中的应用来阐述如何培养学生的非语言交际能力。

  20. Staff interactive style during multisensory storytelling with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, A.; ten Brug, A.; Munde, V.; van der Putten, A.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multisensory storytelling (MSST) is an individualised activity for people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in which a story is being told with an emphasis on sensory experiences and social interaction. MSST is a promising approach, but needs more empirical resea

  1. Children's Temperament and Academic Skill Development during First Grade: Teachers' Interaction Styles as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…

  2. Children's Temperament and Academic Skill Development during First Grade: Teachers' Interaction Styles as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…

  3. Training Teaching Staff to Facilitate Spontaneous Communication in Children with Autism: Adult Interactive Style Intervention (AISI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the way adults interact with children with autism can have a great impact on their spontaneous communication. However, to date, few studies have focused on modifying adults' behaviour and even fewer have been conducted in school settings which actively involve teaching staff in designing the intervention.…

  4. Optimizing the teaching of human anatomy by applying non-verbal communicative approaches%运用非语言交际优化解剖教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新庆; 梁邦领; 王旭; 吴效普; 皮全民

    2011-01-01

    菏泽医学专科学校解剖学教研室在教学改革中,提出了一种新的解剖学教学手段——非语言交际教学.合理地运用副语言、表情语、目光语、手势语、姿势语等非语言交际手段,可以优化解剖学教学,取得良好的教学效果.%In the teaching reform of anatomy,department of human anatomy in Heze medical college put forward a new teaching means-Non-verbal communication teaching.The reasonable use of the paralanguage,gesture,posture,eye contact,facial expressions can optimize the teaching of anatomy and achieve good teaching effect.

  5. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features.

  6. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  7. The Improvement of Non-Verbal Communication Skills of Five Females with Profound and Multiple Disabilities Using Song-Choices in Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina McFerran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facilitating the expression of preferences and choices of non-verbal adults who have profound and multiple disabilities is important yet challenging. The present research project aimed to examine whether consistent opportunities for expressing song-choices within music therapy resulted in an improvement in communication abilities of five females with profound and multiple disabilities. A multiple case study design was used. Each participant attended weekly thirty-minute sessions comprising three song-preference assessment sessions followed by ten song-choice intervention sessions. Affective responses to songs in the song-preference assessment were analyzed to identify each participant’s preferred songs. Four song-choice opportunities consisting of a pair of preferred and less-preferred songs were offered during the intervention sessions, and intentional choice-making behaviors were facilitated. The descriptive video-analysis of the sessions shows that the participants were able to indicate consistent preferences for songs, make intentional choices of songs, and improve communication skills throughout the ten intervention sessions. Two participants developed clear choice-making skills, such as selecting a preferred song-card from two options and alternating eye-gaze between a song-card and the researcher. The other three participants demonstrated idiosyncratic but clear intentional behaviors using body movements, facial expressions, and vocalizations to indicate choices of preferred songs. Inter-rater reliability was calculated. These results suggest that some adults with profound and multiple disabilities are capable of improving non-verbal communication skills when appropriate interventions and strategies are provided and also highlight the potential of music therapy to promote communication development of these individuals.

  8. 日语翻译中的非语言文化交际分析%On Non-verbal Cultural Communication in the Japanese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申素芳

    2012-01-01

    The non-language cultural communication is a large proportion of the actual communication expression.Expressions implications which Many languages can not express or not inconvenient to express implications are all through non-verbal communication.The ability to understand the good non-passed language communication significance for correct and complete transfer has a very important role.Translation is a bridge connecting the two cultures,so how to describe the culture of non-verbal communication accurately becomes an important aspect of translation work.This paper aims to illustrate the characteristics of nonverbal cultural communication in the Japanese culture to analyze the non-language cultural communication in the Japanese translation.%非语言文化交际在实际交际中占有很大比重,许多语言不能表达或者不便表达的隐含意义都是通过非语言交际传递的,能否理解好非语言交际传递出的意义,对于思想的正确完整传递有着十分重要的作用。翻译是连接两种文化的桥梁,因此在翻译中如何将非语言文化交际准确地表述出来成为了翻译工作的一个重要方面。文章结合日本文化中非语言文化交际的特点,对日语翻译中的非语言文化交际进行了分析。

  9. A multi-centre study of interactional style in nurse specialist- and physician-led Rheumatology clinics in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall-Collier, Karen; Madill, Anna; Firth, Jill

    2016-07-01

    Nurse-led care is well established in Rheumatology in the UK and provides follow-up care to people with inflammatory arthritis including treatment, monitoring, patient education and psychosocial support. The aim of this study is to compare and contrast interactional style with patients in physician-led and nurse-led Rheumatology clinics. A multi-centre mixed methods approach was adopted. Nine UK Rheumatology out-patient clinics were observed and audio-recorded May 2009-April 2010. Eighteen practitioners agreed to participate in clinic audio-recordings, researcher observations, and note-taking. Of 9 nurse specialists, 8 were female and 5 of 9 physicians were female. Eight practitioners in each group took part in audio-recorded post-clinic interviews. All patients on the clinic list for those practitioners were invited to participate and 107 were consented and observed. In the nurse specialist cohort 46% were female; 71% had a diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The physician cohort comprised 31% female; 40% with RA and 16% unconfirmed diagnosis. Nineteen (18%) of the patients observed were approached for an audio-recorded telephone interview and 15 participated (4 male, 11 female). Forty-four nurse specialist and 63 physician consultations with patients were recorded. Roter's Interactional Analysis System (RIAS) was used to code this data. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted (16 practitioner, 15 patients) within 24h of observed consultations and were analyzed using thematic analysis. RIAS results illuminated differences between practitioners that can be classified as 'socio-emotional' versus 'task-focussed'. Specifically, nurse specialists and their patients engaged significantly more in the socio-emotional activity of 'building a relationship'. Across practitioners, the greatest proportion of 'patient initiations' were in 'giving medical information' and reflected what patients wanted the practitioner to know rather than giving insight into

  10. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.

  11. Interactive effects of personality and separation as acculturation style on adolescent antisocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Sobral; Paula Villar; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela; Estrella Romero; M. Ángeles Luengo

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como principal objetivo estudiar cómo las variables de personalidad y la aculturación interactúan a la hora de predecir la conducta antisocial de adolescentes inmigrantes en España. Estudios previos mostraron que la estrategia aculturativa llamada separación (rechazo por la cultura de acogida, con un fuerte aprecio por la preservación de la de origen) es la más relacionada con la conducta antisocial inmigrante. Este estudio examina si esa relación está moderada por variable...

  12. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  13. The Relationship between Leadership Style (Transformational Leadership and Interactive of Principals and Job Satisfaction of Shiraz University Staff Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mokhtarpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of the styles of behavior management as related to job attitudes and satisfaction level of management has been among the topics of interest in the past few decades. This study aimed to examine the leadership styles of managers (heads and its correlation with job satisfaction among university employees. Method: The study population included all employees working at Shiraz University. A sample of 107 subjects as the manager (head who had their position for two consecutive years was randomly selected from each set of three. To review and assess the transformative interactionism managers, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ designed by Boss and Vlyv (1995 was used. A questionnaire was used to assess the level of job satisfaction. Content validity and reliability of the method was assessed by calculating the reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha. The alpha for job satisfaction was obtained 0.79. Results: The results showed that the correlations between job satisfaction and leadership style (R=0.58, transformational leadership style (R=0.58 and the transactional leadership style (R=0.46 were significant (P<0.001. The results of this study indicated that leadership style can be used as a facilitator which motivates the direct and indirect impact on job satisfaction. Conclusion: People’s values influence the way they manage and especially determines their satisfaction about the organization. The concepts of transformational leadership styles of managers, their gender and level of mental stimulation showed the greatest effect on job satisfaction

  14. Interactive effects of personality and separation as acculturation style on adolescent antisocial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sobral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como principal objetivo estudiar cómo las variables de personalidad y la aculturación interactúan a la hora de predecir la conducta antisocial de adolescentes inmigrantes en España. Estudios previos mostraron que la estrategia aculturativa llamada separación (rechazo por la cultura de acogida, con un fuerte aprecio por la preservación de la de origen es la más relacionada con la conducta antisocial inmigrante. Este estudio examina si esa relación está moderada por variables de personalidad, particularmente por la impulsividad, la búsqueda de sensaciones y la competencia personal. Para ello, a través de escalas auto-informadas, previamente validadas, se recogieron datos en una muestra de 750 adolescentes inmigrantes en Galicia y Madrid. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la separación como las variables de personalidad están significativamente asociadas a la conducta antisocial. Además, los análisis de regresión jerárquica, que incluyen términos de interacción, mostraron potentes efectos de moderación: la relación entre separación y conducta antisocial se amplifica notablemente cuando la impulsividad o la búsqueda de sensaciones son elevadas. Estos resultados alertan sobre la necesidad de estudiar los complejos efectos conjuntos entre personalidad y aculturación cuando se trata de explicar los problemas de adaptación en jóvenes inmigrantes. © 2012 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  15. CHINESE PRESCHOOLERS' FALSE BELIEF UNDERSTANDING: IS SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE UNDERPINNED BY PARENTAL STYLES, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS OR EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LEWIS, Charlie; HUANG, Zhao; ROOKSBY, Maki

    2006-01-01

    .... This research was conducted in China in order to test recent claims that members of the child's social network and parenting styles are instrumental in facilitating this development and that oriental...

  16. 商务英语教学中非言语交际能力提高探析%On Enhancing the Ability of Non-verbal Communication in Business English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘集成

    2015-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important approach for human beings to convey information and its function is equal to that of verbal communication. However, the non-verbal communication teaching is often ignored in business English teaching, which leads to the students' not being able to accomplish efficient communication in international business environment. Based on the analysis of theory of non-verbal communication, the paper brings forwards some effective teaching methods and tactics to improve the students' ability of non-verbal communication by taking into account the current business English teaching.%非言语交际是人类传递信息的重要途径,其作用不亚于言语交际.然而,目前的商务英语教学忽视了非言语交际教学,导致学生无法在真实的国际商务环境中进行有效沟通. 本文在分析非言语交际理论的基础上,结合当前商务英语教学实际,提出有效的教学方法和策略以提高学生的非言语交际能力.

  17. Play an Effective Application of Non-Verbal Language in Public Relations Communication%有效发挥公共关系传播中非语言的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠林

    2014-01-01

    In the spread and communication of public relations,verbal communication is an important means of communication, and non-verbal communication also plays an important role.Effective use of non-verbal language can express thoughts and feelings that get aid and enhance communication.Sometimes,in the transmission of information,the non-verbal language is more expressive and contagious verbal language.Timely and accurate use of non-verbal communication has a positive effect on coordinating communication and enhancing the communication quality .%公共关系的传播沟通中,语言交流是重要的沟通手段,非语言沟通也起重要作用,有效用非语言表达思想感情,使交流得到辅助和增进。有时,就单一传递信息而言,公关非语言所表达出来的信息要比公关语言更富有表现力和感染力。适时准确地运用非语言传播沟通,对于协调双方交流,提高交流质量有积极作用。

  18. Music to My Eyes: Cross-Modal Interactions in the Perception of Emotions in Musical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Bradley W.; Krumhansl, Carol L.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Dalca, Ioana M.; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate non-verbal communication through expressive body movement and musical sound, to reveal higher cognitive processes involved in the integration of emotion from multiple sensory modalities. Participants heard, saw, or both heard and saw recordings of a Stravinsky solo clarinet piece, performed with three distinct expressive styles:…

  19. Music to My Eyes: Cross-Modal Interactions in the Perception of Emotions in Musical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Bradley W.; Krumhansl, Carol L.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Dalca, Ioana M.; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate non-verbal communication through expressive body movement and musical sound, to reveal higher cognitive processes involved in the integration of emotion from multiple sensory modalities. Participants heard, saw, or both heard and saw recordings of a Stravinsky solo clarinet piece, performed with three distinct expressive styles:…

  20. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  1. Model for research of the style of political leadership in Serbia at the crossing of the millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlićević Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article indicated a model for a scientific description of styles of political leadership in Serbia from 1990 to the present, more precisely, pointed the basic elements of concept developed by the author in the study “The style of political leaders in Serbia in the period 1990-2006” (2010. For the evaluation the author uses analytical tools that include the aforementioned concept, simultaneously indicating correlative theoretical approaches the aforementioned study did not examine, and may be of importance for the research of political elites in Serbia. This contributes the epistemological part of the method, which is registered in the definition of the style of political leadership as a term and the category apparatus that follows - understood from the aspect of the political style: the style in building political power, the style of political communication, the style of building one’s legitimacy, the ideological style, the styles of political language, symbolism and rituals, non-verbal communication and style in expressing patriotism. Starting from the fact that political styles are related to characteristics of political cultures and that it is necessary to make a concept of ideal typical models of styles focused on political subjects, this article marked the styles of political leadership typology related to the specific acting of political leaders in Serbia: authoritarian, republican, realistic, populist, conformist, revolutionary and style of a politician-rebel.

  2. Comparative Study of Cultural Influence on Non-verbal Communicative Behavior%英日德文化因素对非言语交际行为影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯巧红; 祖静; 魏宏泽

    2014-01-01

    言语行为和非言语行为共同构成了人类的交际行为。与言语行为相比,后者的受重视程度显然不够。从文化差异角度出发,以英国、日本和德国的三部电视剧为研究对象,选取“道歉”这一场景的数据,对言语行为和非言语行为发生比例进行对比,分析文化和非言语行为的关系,从而得出结论:非言语行为与言语行为一样,是交际行为的重要组成部分,不同国家的人们非言语行为的不同往往源于文化的差异。%Human communicative behavior is composed of verbal and non-verbal behavior .non-verbal behav-ior is obviously paid less attention to , compared with the former .From the perspective of cultural differences , this paper is intended to compare the statistics in terms of percentage that both behaviors present in some scenes of “a-pology” in English , Japanese and German TV operas , to probe the relationship between culture and non-verbal be-havior.Through experiment and comparison , we find that non-verbal behavior is as a vital part as verbal behavior in human communicative behavior .The differences of non-verbal behavior are caused by the cultural differences .

  3. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students’ scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spa-tial artistic, and oral linguistic in the DIS-COVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses and the TCT-DP (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Produc-tion, a non-verbal general measure of creativi-ty, were examined. The participants were 135 first and second graders from two schools in the Southwestern United States from linguisti-cally and culturally diverse backgrounds. Pearson correlations, canonical correlations, and multiple regression analyses were calcu-lated to describe the relationship between the TCT-DP and the three DISCOVER creative problem-solving activities. We found that crea-tivity has both domain-specific and domain-general aspects, but that the domain-specific component seemed more prominent. One im-plication of these results is that educators should consider assessing creativity in specific domains to place students in special programs for gifted students rather than relying only on domain-general measures of divergent think-ing or creativity.

  4. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  5. 论日语翻译的非语言文化交际%Analysis of Japanese Interpreter's Non-Verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝阳

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在通过调查日资企业里的日语翻译在脸部表情、对人说话的距离、空间的使用方法、时间观念、说话时的音调等非语言交际方面的差异来考察耳语翻译在哪些方面难以适应。然后总结了为更好地推动日资企业内部跨文化间的交流与合作,有关方面应采取的应对方法。%This paper analyzes Japanese interpreter' s non-adaptive behavior in Japanese company from the aspect of non-verbal communication such as facial expressions, body distance, spatial elements, time sense and speaking tone. It points out some coping methods for relevant parties to ensure the successful cross-culture communication in Japanese company.

  6. The Effects of Peer-Interaction Styles in Team Blogs on Students' Cognitive Thinking and Blog Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Ke, Fengfeng; Sharma, Priya

    2010-01-01

    Deep cognitive thinking refers to a learner's purposeful and conscious manipulation of ideas toward meaningful learning. Strategies such as journaling/blogging and peer feedback have been found to promote deep thinking. This article reports a research study about the effects of two different blog leader styles on students' deep thinking as…

  7. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crewther Sheila G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  8. La communication non verbale de l'enseignant d'EPS lors de la phase d'échauffement au secondaire II: étude de cas : enseignants chevronnés VS enseignants débutants

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Patrick; Schulé, Nicolas; Méard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude vise à observer la communication non verbale (CNV) de l’enseignant d’éducation physique lors de la phase d’échauffement au secondaire II. Elle va confronter les CNV des enseignants « débutants » aux CNV des enseignants « chevronnés » afin de comprendre s’il y a des différences au niveau de son utilisation entre les deux groupes d’enseignants. Par conséquent, l'objectif général visé par notre étude de cas est l'influence de la communication non verbale en EPS. Quels sont les gestes...

  9. Research on Training Strategies of Non-verbal Communication Abilities in Foreign Language Teaching%外语教学中非言语交际能力培养策略之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐日宣

    2011-01-01

    外语教学中通常重视言语交际能力的培养,而忽视非言语交际。本文论述了非言语交际能力在外语教学中的重要性,并提出了三种模式的能力培养策略:传授讲解式,模拟互动式,观察理解式。%Verbal communication abilities in foreign language teaching usually receive much attention but non-verbal communication abilities are neglected. This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal communication abilities in foreign language teaching and pro

  10. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  11. Comunicação não-verbal durante cuidados prestados aos filhos por mães com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana Comunicación no-verbal durante cuidados prestados a los hijos por madres con Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana Non-verbal communication during child care by mothers with Human Inmunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Paiva

    2010-01-01

    cuidados, promoviendo estímulos para el desarrollo infantil.PURPOSE: To examine the non-verbal communication during child care by mothers with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: This study was conducted in the second semester of 2007 in an experimental setting with 5 HIV positive mothers. Data were collected through videotaping during child care such as bathing, clothes changes, feeding, playing, and cuddling. Data analysis focused on the aspects of non-verbal communication. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated differences between the mother and the child in all aspects of non-verbal communication during child care. Clothes changes and bathing were the most instrumental child care. Non-verbal communication is used by mothers to show affection and to perceive abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest the need to encourage mothers to interact with the child during all aspects of child care to promote normal child development.

  12. Non-verbal behavioral interactions of depressed patients with partners and strangers : The role of behavioral social support and involvement in depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW; Jansen, JHC; Bouhuys, AL; Jenner, JA; vandenHoofdakker, RH

    1997-01-01

    Excessive support seeking and lack of receiving social support have been associated with depression onset and unfavorable course of depression. It has been assumed that social support is effected by observable behaviors that express involvement. Twenty-five patients with major depression were studie

  13. Interaction between anaesthetists, their patients, and the anaesthesia team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Mishra, K

    2010-07-01

    Communication is a key skill for anaesthetic practice. The 'non-informational' aspects of communication, such as non-verbal elements and the degree to which the style of communication reflects the implied relationship between the sender and the recipient, are relevant to interactions both between anaesthetists and patients and to interactions with other members of staff in the team. Communication and interaction between members of the anaesthesia team in isolation has received less attention than communication in the operating theatre during surgery. Most aspects of such communication are informally learned and developed with experience. Studies of communication at induction of anaesthesia have used qualitative methods to identify a range of styles of talk. This is nominally directed at the patient but also serves to unite and co-ordinate the team to ensure the patient's smooth, safe progress into anaesthesia. In particular, the use of positive words and phrases seems to benefit patient comfort and safety. On emergence, a more limited range of communication styles is found. Handover of the recently anaesthetized patient to recovery room staff is often brief and distracted by concurrent patient-related activities. Both information about the patient, and responsibility for the patient's continuing care, have to be transferred. The handover event also serves as an opportunity to review the care the patient has received and plan for further progress. Anaesthetists and nurses use unspoken and implicit negotiation strategies to achieve the aims of handover without compromising future collaborative work. This is in contrast to the more formalized handover approaches in other safety-critical settings.

  14. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE REPRESENTATION COSTUME IN PICTORIAL ART- BAROQUE STYLE -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the social history of human civilization and art history, the human body was and still is a challenging field to explore in various representations, a material for various manners of cultural interventions. The way of artistically representing the body, the clothed body, has followed the path of various artistic movements that marked art history. In the act of interpersonal perception, the costume establishes itself as a particular field of non-verbal communication, one based on image. The present paper refers to the costume, as a particular vector of non-verbal communication in social space, as it was depicted and perceived in the painting of the 17th century and early 18th century, a time marked by the Baroque style. From this point of view, garment received the value of an intermediary in the communication between bodily space and the social one. In Baroque formal portrait, the garment completes by scale and the rendering technique of the texture and chromatic emphasizes the position of the pictorially represented person. Thus, the garment interferes with the gesture and mimics as forms of interpersonal knowledge. The transmitter – the clothed character represented through the eyes of the painter – is exposed to the perceptions of the others, providing a comprehensive matrix of information integrated in the social context. Pictorial representations are included in the matrix of the means by which the body is exposed by the costume in order to communicate with the social environment

  15. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Toet, A.

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  16. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords

  17. Social touch in human–computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Jan B.F.; Toet, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Touch is our primary non-verbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords affectiv

  18. Teaching Styles and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Using 24 college and university teachers, this study investigated the effect of teaching styles on adult student learning and analyzed the results of a factor breakdown, interactions between teacher behavior and class and student characteristics, and profiles of teacher effectiveness. Gains in factual information were positively related to teacher…

  19. An agent-based architecture for multimodal interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The agent-based architecture can be used to create multimodal interaction. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate

  20. An agent-based architecture for multimodal interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The agent-based architecture can be used to create multimodal interaction. The generic process model has been designed, implemented and used to simulate di

  1. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    that students receive instruction tailored to their putative learning style, the experiment must reveal a specific type of interaction between learning style and instructional method: Students with one learning style achieve the best educational outcome when given an instructional method that differs from the instructional method producing the best outcome for students with a different learning style. In other words, the instructional method that proves most effective for students with one learning style is not the most effective method for students with a different learning style. Our review of the literature disclosed ample evidence that children and adults will, if asked, express preferences about how they prefer information to be presented to them. There is also plentiful evidence arguing that people differ in the degree to which they have some fairly specific aptitudes for different kinds of thinking and for processing different types of information. However, we found virtually no evidence for the interaction pattern mentioned above, which was judged to be a precondition for validating the educational applications of learning styles. Although the literature on learning styles is enormous, very few studies have even used an experimental methodology capable of testing the validity of learning styles applied to education. Moreover, of those that did use an appropriate method, several found results that flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis. We conclude therefore, that at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice. Thus, limited education resources would better be devoted to adopting other educational practices that have a strong evidence base, of which there are an increasing number. However, given the lack of methodologically sound studies of learning styles, it would be an error to conclude that all possible versions of learning styles have been tested and found

  2. Effect of the interaction of heat-processing style and fat type on the micellarization of lipid-soluble pigments from green and red pungent peppers (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Failla, Mark L

    2013-04-17

    The high diversity of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods contrasts with the reduced number of pigments that typically are investigated in micellarization studies. In this study, pepper samples (raw and heat-treated) contained 68 individual pigments, but only 38 of them were micellarized after in vitro digestion. The micellarization of pigments was majorly determined by the interaction effect of processing style (food matrix effect) and fat type (saturated and unsaturated). The highest micellarization was observed with raw peppers. Unsaturated fat increased the micellarization of carotenoid esters, while the impact of fat on the micellarization of free carotenoids seemed to be dependent on pigment structure. The micellarization efficiency was diminished as the esterification level of carotenoids increased. The type of fatty acid moiety and the polarity of the carotenoids modulated their micellarization. Chlorophylls were transformed into pheophytins by heat-processing and digestion, with the pheophytins being stable under gastrointestinal conditions. Micellarization of pheophytins was improved by fat.

  3. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum.......Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  4. An Analysis of Non-verbal Pragmatic Failures Based on Geert Hofstede' s Cultural Dimensions%从Geert Hofstede的文化维度探究非言语语用失误

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑娟

    2012-01-01

    语用失误是造成跨文化交际失败的主要原因之一。至今,较多语用失误相关研究是从言语性的角度进行的。而实际上,在语用失误现象中竟存在高达70%左右的非言语语用失误现象。因此,非常有必要从言语性与非言语性两个角度对其重新界定、整合研究。论文根据C,eertHofstede的四个文化维度对非言语语用失误现象进行解析,以引起外语学习者对语用失误现象的再认识,进而大力推动跨文化交流的成功运行与发展。%The breakdown of cross-cultural communication results mainly from pragmatic failures. So far, more studies on pragmatic failures have been done from the verbal perspective. Non-verbal pragmatic failure, however, occupies about 70% in it. Consequently it is essential to redefine and examine integratively pragmatic failures verbally and non-verbally. This paper, based on Geert Hofstede' s cultural dimensions, aims to study non-verbal pragmatic failures, which will arouse English-learners' reconsideration of pragmatic failures to promote successfully the development of cross-cuhural communication.

  5. Application of Non-verbal Communication in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language%非言语交际行为在对外汉语教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习觅哲

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the author in conjunction with their teaching practice,the analysis of non-verbal communication behavior in Teaching Chinese as a foreign language,in order to improve the sensitivity and plasticity of second language teaching and learners cross-cultural communication.%本文笔者结合自己的教学实践,分析研究了非言语交际行为在对外汉语教学中的应用,以提高第二语言教学者和学习者跨文化交际的敏感性和可塑性。

  6. Non-verbal communication: aspects observed during nursing consultations with blind patients Comunicación no-verbal: aspectos observados durante la consulta de Enfermería con el paciente ciego Comunicação não-verbal: aspectos observados durante a consulta de Enfermagem com o paciente cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Brasil de Almeida Rebouças

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory-descriptive study on non-verbal communication among nurses and blind patients during nursing consultations to diabetes patients, based on Hall's theoretical reference framework. Data were collected by recording the consultations. The recordings were analyzed every fifteen seconds, totaling 1,131 non-verbal communication moments. The analysis shows intimate distance (91.0% and seated position (98.3%; no contact occurred in 83.3% of the interactions. Emblematic gestures were present, including hand movements (67.4%; looks deviated from the interlocutor (52.8%, and centered on the interlocutor (44.4%. In all recordings, considerable interference occurred at the moment of nurse-patient interaction. Nurses need to know about and deepen non-verbal communication studies and adequate its use to the type of patients attended during the consultations.Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo sobre comunicación no-verbal entre el enfermero y el paciente ciego durante la consulta de enfermería al diabético, desde el referencial teórico de Hall. Colecta de datos con filmación de la consulta, analizadas a cada quince segundos, totalizando 1.131 momentos de comunicación no-verbal. El análisis muestra alejamiento íntimo (91,0% y postura sentada (98,3%, en 83,3% de las intervenciones no hubo contacto. Estubo presente el gesto emblemático mover las manos (67,4%; el mirar desviado del interlocutor (52,8% y al mirar centrado en el interlocutor (44,4%. En todas las filmaciones, hubieron interferencias considerables en el momento de la interacción enfermero y paciente. Concluyese que el enfermero precisa conocer y profundizar los estudios en comunicación no-verbal y adecuar su utilización al tipo de pacientes asistidos durante las consultas.Estudo exploratório-descritivo sobre comunicação não-verbal entre o enfermeiro e o cego durante a consulta de enfermagem ao diabético, a partir do referencial teórico de Hall. Coleta de dados com filmagem da

  7. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  8. 非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中的意义与实践%The Significance and Practice of Non-verbal Language Expression Skills in Participatory Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈量雄; 张友福

    2014-01-01

    非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中有着极其重要的作用,能较大弥补传统重“灌”、“填”的纯语言教学的缺陷,能充分发挥师生的主体性,满足学生对海量信息的需求,从而提升教学效果。文章从肢体语言教学、PPT课件教学和视频展示教学三个维度进行了非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中的意义与实践。%Non-verbal language expression skills play an impor-tant role in participatory teaching, as it can make up for the tradi-tional pure language teaching based on infiltration, give full play to teachers' and students' subjectivity, and meet the needs of stu-dents for huge amount of information, so as to improve the teach-ing effect. From such three dimensions as body language teach-ing, PPT courseware teaching and video display teaching, this paper discusses the significance and practice of non-verbal lan-guage expression skills in participatory teaching.

  9. [Comparative evaluation of speech disorders and verbal and non verbal communication within two groups of patients: patients with facial paralysis (FP) and those who had undergone hypoglosso-facial anastomosis (HFA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, P; Tankere, F; Clero, D; Lobryau, Ch; Soudant, J; Lamas, G

    2003-01-01

    Speech disorders were often allotted to hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA) without being clearly shown. We have compared patients with a peripheral facial paralysis at those with HFA. Retrospective study comparing verbal communication (articulation) and non-verbal within two groups of patients: patients with patient FP versus with HFA. 10 patients with idiopathic FP versus 7 patients with HFA took part in this study. The series of tests includes an evaluation of the motor possibilities, bilabial pressure measurement (for the patients with FP), speech capacities and finally an evaluation of the verbal and non-verbal communication from a scale of satisfaction. The results highlight: the presence of real speech disorders (permanent) among patients with FP and their absence among patients having profited from HFA; a real satisfaction of the HFA versus FP on the quality of life compared to daily tasks, more specifically concerning verbal and food skills. The HFA is not responsible for speech disorders, and makes undeniable improvements confirmed subsequently by the patients.

  10. Spatial Development Of Senior Community With Non-verbal Symbol System%基于非语言符号系统的养老社区交往空间塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶舒晨; 曹康

    2015-01-01

    Senior people activities usualy happen in communities, therefore open community space is important for their social life. The paper analyzes the impact factors of senior communication from psychology, biology, and society, puts forwards non-verbal communication approach for senior people social life. The paper analyzes the non-verbal communication of senior people, and puts forwards design strategies from vision-action symbol system, eye contact system, space-temporal system, and auxiliary verbal system.%随着年龄的增长,老年人的生活范围逐渐缩小并主要集中于社区,社区交往空间成为老年人重建社交网络的重要平台。文章从生理、心理和社会三方面分析老年人交往行为的影响因素,提出非语言交往对促进老年人社区交往具有重大帮助;分析老年人非语言交往的主要类型和特征,并从视—动符号系统、目光接触系统、时空组织系统和辅助语言系统出发提出养老社区非语言交往空间设计建议。

  11. Language Differences in Strategies for the Interactional Management of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creider, Chet A.

    Data from videotaped conversations in a number of East African languages and in English are used to establish the existence of a preference in the African interactional systems for the use of verbal feedback by listeners in contrast to a preference for the use of non-verbal (gaze, head nod) feedback in English. This difference is related to…

  12. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  13. Interaction with the Mother in Children Born as a Result of in Vitro Fertilization (IVF: Attachment and Parenting Style Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dueva A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the social and emotional development of children. We tested and partially confirmed the hypothesis that children born as a result of reproductive technology, less often show reliable attachment type than the naturally born children. Such a pattern may emerge because of the behavior of IVF mothers. The present study involved 11 children aged from 5 years to 6 years 11 months, born as a result of IVF, and 10 control children conceived naturally, as well as their mothers. To collect anamnesis, we used: survey of parents with Child-parent emotional interaction questionnaire, and techniques Analysis of family education, projective drawing techniques Nest drawing and Drawing dialogue aimed at identifying the quality of the child's attachment to his mother and interaction in the dyad, as well as Kaplan method for determining the type of attachment.

  14. Lack of Interaction between Sensing-Intuitive Learning Styles and Problem-First versus Information-First Instruction: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Thompson, Warren G.; Thomas, Kris G.; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning. Objective: We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method. Design: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Setting:…

  15. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  16. Effect of Cognitive Style and Gender on JSS Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and gender on student's academic ... Field Independent students performed significantly better than field ... in social studies • There was no significant interaction effect of cognitive style and ...

  17. Estudo longitudinal da atenção compartilhada em crianças autistas não-verbais Longitudinal study of joint attention in non-verbal autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sandra Damião Farah

    2009-12-01

    desenvolvimento da comunicação das crianças autistas.PURPOSE: to identify and characterize abilities of Joint Attention of non-verbal autistic children through the observation of communicative behaviors. METHODS: the research involved 5 boys, between 5,9 and 8,6-year old, diagnosed as Autistic Disorder (DSM IV, 2002, recorded in two instances with a four months interval. Meanwhile, the children were submitted to a language therapy mediation based on Joint Attention stimulation. Each recording was 15 minutes long and involved one child or group of 2-3 children with the therapist within non-directed and semi-directed interaction situations, at school where they studied. We observed and registered behaviors regarding Joint Attention abilities. The used material involved percussion instruments. Data were analyzed in relation to time, interaction and interlocutor. RESULTS: the gaze behavior showed the greatest growth in each subject. Data analysis revealed that the subjects showed qualitative trends for evolution of the Joint Attention ability revealing important clinical meaning although there was lack of statistical significance. Each subject showed characteristics and evolution of the communicative behaviors regarding Joint Attention in an individualized manner. After the period of language therapy intervention, we observed a quantitative behavioral growth in the 5 subjects, specifically under child-therapist interaction. CONCLUSIONS: the gaze behavior is an important step for the development of others behaviors toward Joint Attention. The adult-child interaction situation facilitates the appearance of communication behaviors and sharing. Language therapy with focus on the Joint Attention abilities seems to contribute positively for communication development of autistic children.

  18. Study on the Impact of Non-verbal Communication on the Patients with Mechanical Ventilation%非语言沟通对神内机械通气患者影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 王素凤; 宋红香

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on the patients with mechanical ventilatioi Methods:133 conscious cases from the intensive care unit in the department of Neurology during October 2009 to October 2010 whom were treated with mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into two groups. 67 was in experimental group while 66 was in the control group. The control group was treated with conventional treatment and general care of the Department of Neurology, prescribed to regulate breathing patterns and parameters. Experimental group was treated by strengthening the non-verbal communication, such as using eyes, smiling, touching, body language, emotional exchange to understand the inner world of mechanically ventilated patients and to enhance the patients' confidence to overcome the disease.Results: The non-verbal communication plays the role of stabling the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and other vital indicators in mechanically ventilated patients.Conclusion: With the non-verbal communication, mechanical ventilation patient changed their cognitive to active coordinate with mechanical ventilation with a positive attitude, so that the effect of treatment was greatly enhanced and the duration of mechanical ventilation was shorten, the patient' s suffering was reduced.%目的:探讨非语言性沟通对神内机械通气患者的影响.方法:选择我院2009 年10 月至2010 年10 月入住神内重症监护病房的神志清楚,使用机械通气治疗的患者133 例,随机分为实验组67 例,对照组66 例.对照组患者给予神经内科常规治疗和一般护理,遵医嘱调节呼吸模式及参数,使用机械通气.实验组在此基础上加强对患者的非语言性沟通,运用眼神,微笑,触摸,肢体语言等方法进行情感交流,了解机械通气患者的内心世界,增强患者战胜疾病的信心.结果:非语言性交流具有稳定机械通气患者心率,血压,呼吸等生命指标的作用.结论:

  19. Application of Non-verbal Communication in College English Teaching%试谈非语言交际在大学英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乙夫合

    2006-01-01

    与语言交际一样,非语言交际(non-verbal communication)是人类交际中不可或缺的一部分,在人类交际起着无法替代的作用.大学英语教学中,非语言交际也有着十分重要的地位.文章论述了非语言交际的涵义、种类及功能,举例说明非语言交际在大学英语教学中的重要作用,并针对如何培养大学生跨文化非语言交际能力提出一些方法和策略.

  20. Dietary intake and micronutrient status of adolescents: effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on indices of status and performance in tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, S; Wright, A J; Finglas, P M; Bailey, A L; Loughridge, J M; Walker, A D

    1994-06-01

    Relationships between micronutrient intake and status, and micronutrient status and performance in tests of intelligence were investigated in a group of adolescents (13-14 years old). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Vitamin and trace mineral intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with those obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Micronutrient status was judged via a range of biochemical indices measured in blood samples taken after a 12-15 h fast. Blood samples were taken both before and after a 16-week period of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation. Individual tests of verbal and nonverbal intelligence were also performed pre- and post-supplementation. The results of this study indicate that the use of food table data may lead to substantial over- or underestimation of the intake of several micronutrients. In general, the total calculated or analysed amount of a specific micronutrient consumed did not adequately predict status, as judged by a range of biochemical indices. There were significant changes in status measurements over the 16-week study period, irrespective of supplementation, and these changes were markedly influenced by the initial status of the subject. There was no effect of supplementation on performance in tests of intelligence. However, there was a significant association between plasma ascorbic acid and initial non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in the boys, and between whole blood glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activity and non-verbal and verbal IQ in both sexes. These findings are discussed in relation to other recent studies of the influence of micronutrient supplementation on the psychological performance of children.

  1. The Application Value of Non-verbal Communication Between Nurse and Patient in Outpatient Infusion Room%门诊输液室护患沟通中非语言沟通的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴银萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the value of nonverbal communication about nurse-patient communication in outpatient infusion room. Methods 800 patients of outpatient infusion were selected from June 2012 to January 2013 and from February 2013 to September 2013 as control group and study group, trained outpatient infusion room staff about non-verbal communication, analysed changes in patient satisfaction and nurse-patient disputes before and after the training. Results The study group of nursing disputes were significantly lower than control group. Conclusion The application of non-verbal communication skills can signiifcantly improve the nursing quality in outpatient infusion room, promote the communication between nurses and patients.%目的:分析探究门诊输液室护患沟通中非语言沟通的应用价值。方法分别选取2012年6月~2013年1月和2013年2月~2013年9月间800例门诊输液患者作为对照组和研究组,研究组期间门诊输液室工作人员展开非语言沟通培训,对比培训前后患者满意度变化情况和护患纠纷发生几率。结果研究组护患纠纷发生几率明显较低。结论非语言沟通技巧应用能够显著提升门诊输液室工作质量,促进和谐护患优质沟通。

  2. Assessing the learning potential of an interactive digital game versus an interactive-style didactic lecture: the continued importance of didactic teaching in medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier, Jesse; Webb, Emily M; Phelps, Andrew S; Naeger, David M

    2016-12-01

    Games with educational intent offer a possible advantage of being more interactive and increasing learner satisfaction. We conducted a two-armed experiment to evaluate student satisfaction and content mastery for an introductory pediatric radiology topic, taught by either an interactive digital game or with a traditional didactic lecture. Medical students participating in a fourth-year radiology elective were invited to participate. Student cohorts were alternatively given a faculty-supervised 1h session playing a simple interactive digital Tic-tac-toe quiz module on pediatric gastrointestinal radiology or a 1h didactic introductory lecture on the same topic. Survey questions assessed the learners' perceived ability to recall the material as well as their satisfaction with the educational experience. Results of an end-of-rotation exam were reviewed to evaluate a quantitative measure of learning between groups. Survey responses were analyzed with a chi-squared test. Exam results for both groups were analyzed with a paired Student's t-test. Students in the lecture group had higher test scores compared to students in the game group (4.0/5 versus 3.6/5, P = 0.045). Students in the lecture group reported greater understanding and recall of the material than students in the game group (P lecture group perceived the lecture to be more enjoyable and a better use of their time compared to those in the game group (P = 0.04 and P lecture and game group in ability to maintain interest (P = 0.187). In comparison to pre-survey results, there was a statistically significant decrease in interest for further digital interactive materials reported by students in the game group (P = 0.146). Our experience supported the use of a traditional lecture over a digital game module. While these results might be affected by the specific lecture and digital content in any given comparison, a digital module is not always the superior option.

  3. Can We Use Creativity to Improve Generic Skills in Our Higher Education Students? A Proposal Based on Non-Verbal Communication and Creative Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Rosa Maria; Castilla, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, general skills and personal growth have been developed through cognitive processes within academic contexts. Development based on experience may be an alternative route to achieve cognitive knowledge. Enact-learning is based on the biunivocal relationship between knowledge and action. Action is movement. Participants interact with…

  4. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)

  5. Evaluating Intimacy and Ludic Engagement with a Musical Interactive Art Installation that Explores Remote Abstract Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The main contribution of the paper is a usability evaluation of an interactive art installation where several different factors for ludic and intimate engagement in this specific context of remote face-to-face non-verbal communication are compared. Experiments are carried out with the following d...

  6. 基于幼儿认知风格的移动数字化早教软件交互设计%The interaction design of mobile digital early education software based on baby cognitive style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琼; 张立群

    2013-01-01

    在研究幼儿认知风格的基础上,通过定性研究和对中国一线城市多名学龄前幼儿使用移动数字平台早教软件进行测试和量化评估,探索学龄前幼儿认知风格和早教软件交互设计之间的关系,提出基于幼儿认知风格的移动数字化早教软件的交互设计指南.%Based on cognitive style research, it aims to explore the relationship between preschool children' s cognitive styles and interaction design of early education softwares through qualitative test and evaluation to preschool children using early education software. Then it is presented that the interaction design guidelines of mobile digital early education software based on cognitive style.

  7. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2007-12-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types - Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test), and activity between objects (active test). The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main M(FG)170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: M(FG)100, M(FG)170, and M(FG)200 - all showed preference for faces. Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in M(FG)100 shows that processing of faces is already

  8. Analysis of the status quo of the application of two kinds of non-verbal pain assess-ment tools%两种非语言疼痛评估工具的应用现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷琦; 杨悦来; 李燕; 茅越丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relevant researches and literatures in terms of the two kinds of non-ver-bal pain assessment tools to provide references for the selection and study of non-verbal pain assessment tools of Chi-na. Methods The performance scoring system of pain assessment tools was used to analyze the relevant literatures searched on Internet. Results A total of 29 papers were included in this study. The average scores of the Behavioral Pain Scale ( BPS ) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool ( CPOT ) were 9. 20 and 9. 32 respectively. Conclusions The Behavioral Pain Scale ( BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool ( CPOT) are gradually and widely used in the pain assessment for non-verbal pain patients. However, the reliability and validity of the two pain as-sessment tools are different for various groups, it is essential to test their reliability and validity further.%目的:通过对两种非语言疼痛评估工具相关研究进行文献分析,为我国非语言疼痛评估工具的选择提供参考。方法运用疼痛评估工具性能评分系统对计算机检索获取的相关文献进行分析。结果共纳入29篇文献,疼痛行为量表( BPS)与重症监护疼痛观察工具( CPOT)平均得分分别为9.20分、9.32分。结论疼痛行为量表( BPS)与重症监护疼痛观察工具( CPOT)逐渐被广泛应用于非语言疼痛患者的疼痛评估,但在不同人群中两者的信效度都存在差异,仍需进一步被验证。

  9. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  10. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  11. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  12. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  13. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  14. 医患沟通中语言与非语言技巧的应用%Application of Verbal and Non-verbal Skills in Doctor-patient Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪梅

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize the medical ethics for doctor-patient communication in traditional medicine such as "consider others in one's own place","think about others'feelings",this paper discussed how to grasp the verbal and non-verbal skills for doctor-patient communication,aiming to correct interpretate these skills,improve the professional quality in medical staff and promote and establish a harmonious doctor-patient relationship.%为实现“推己及人”、“他人之心,予忖度之”等传统医学医患伦理价值观念,更好的发挥传统医学中的医患观念的现实意义,探讨了如何掌握医患沟通的语言与非语言技巧,如何正确解读患者言语的技巧,以提升医务人员职业素养,促进和谐医患关系的构建.

  15. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  16. Temperament and Parenting Styles on Adolescent Aggression in Adolescence: A Test of Interaction Effects%气质和教养方式对青少年攻击行为的交互效应检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宝娟; 杨强; 任皓

    2012-01-01

    目的:考察气质间及气质与教养方式对青少年直接攻击和间接攻击的交互效应.方法:采用气质问卷、教养方式问卷和青少年攻击行为问卷,对1266名青少年进行调查.结果:①意志控制可缓冲感觉寻求对青少年直接攻击的风险作用.②权威教养可缓冲感觉寻求对青少年直接攻击的风险作用,而专制教养可增强意志控制对青少年直接攻击的保护作用;专制教养可减弱感觉寻求对青少年间接攻击的抑制作用.结论:气质间及气质与教养方式的交互效应对青少年直接攻击效应显著;气质与教养方式的交互效应对青少年间接攻击效应显著.%Objective: To investigate the interaction effects among temperamental factors, as well as the interaction effects between temperamental factors and parenting styles on adolescent aggression. Methods: Participants were 1266 adolescents. They completed Temperament Questionnaire, Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, and Aggressive Beliefs and Behaviors Scale. Results: ①The effect of sensation seeking on direct aggression was buffered by effortful control. ②The effect of sensation seeking on direct aggression was buffered by authoritative parenting; the effect of effortful control on direct aggression was enhanced by authoritative parenting; the effect of sensation seeking on indirect aggression was buffered by authoritative parenting. Conclusion: The interaction effects among temperamental factors and between temperamental factors and parenting styles on direct aggression were significant; the interaction effect between temperamental factors and parenting styles on indirect aggression was significant.

  17. Predicting dietary intake among children classified as overweight or at risk for overweight: Independent and interactive effects of parenting practices and styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L

    2017-03-01

    Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory

  18. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  19. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Ariëns, G.A.M.; Simons, M.; Knol, D.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a group-based interactive work style intervention in improving work style behavior. Methods: Computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms were randomised into the work style group (WS, N = 152), the work style and physical

  20. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  1. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    .... It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics...

  2. Non Verbal Talk in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sybil E.

    Nonverbal talk is presented as a legitimate language form of importance to teachers. Examples of how gestures, facial expressions, and the use of personal space communicate not only ideas but also emotions and reactions are given. In addition, the use of body language as an important accessory to speech is discussed, as it expands communication…

  3. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication is interpersonal communication involving people with cultural references different enough that it may pose a significant barrier that difficult communication efficiency. It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics and some senses like touch and smell, highly influenced by the cultural references of each person. These studies reveal some basic differences in potential intercultural communicative encounter.

  4. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  5. Performance in a planning task: The (ir)relevance of interface style and users’ cognitive style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, Christof; Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates whether interface style (internalization or externalization) influences performance in a problem solving task. Assistance from a user interface during problem solving is often thought to make interactions easier. Interfaces often display relevant information, making recall

  6. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and Interaction with Dietary and Life Style Factors in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Danish Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjoøneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation...... and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants...

  7. Strategic Style in Pared-Down Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin

    This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.

  8. Affective and behavioral responses to robot-initiated social touch : Towards understanding the opportunities and limitations of physical contact in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Toet, A.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2017-01-01

    Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human–robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for

  9. Press advertisements for food in Spain: Cultural orientations and communicative style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel García-Yeste

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of cultural values on the design and communicative style of Spanish graphic advertising for food and beverages. More specifically, the influence of Hall’s (1976: 101 “context dependence” and Hofstede’s (1994: 51 “individualism index” is surveyed. Guillén-Nieto’s (2009 table of hypothetical correlations between culture and communicative style is adapted for the analysis of 100 Spanish advertisements at the macro- and microlinguistic levels. The study is organised in two stages: (i a qualitative examination of the communicative strategies found in the sample; and (ii a quantitative analysis of the previous findings in order to identify significant patterns statistically. The findings indicate that context dependence and the individualism index can be traced in the texts in relation to the verbal and non-verbal elements, the explicitness of the communicative style and the purpose of the message. A set of multimodal communicative strategies is offered at the end of the paper aimed at advertising professionals and students as well as LSP practitioners.

  10. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  11. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  12. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    TELEMETRY GROUP DOCUMENT 125-15 XML STYLE GUIDE DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE XML Style Guide 5a. CONTRACT...standard was prepared by the Data Multiplex Committee of the Telemetry Group, Range Commanders Council. The XML Style Guide defines rules and guidelines

  13. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  14. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  16. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  17. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  18. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  19. Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Vincent; Baron, Joan

    1977-01-01

    Critically analyzes Neville Bennett's book "Teaching Styles and Pupil Progress," which found that formal teaching styles are more closely associated with student achievement in "basic skills" than are informal styles. (IRT)

  20. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures.

  1. Key Learning Styles of Teaching English to Students from the Asian-Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko Natalia A.; Bekisheva Tatiana G.; Gasparyan Gayane A.; Yakimenko Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines key styles of learning English as the second language, particularly for students from Asian-Pacific countries. It deals with the methods of improving their learning skills and abilities. The most traditional and popular ways of learning styles are pointed out. The authors also discuss teaching approaches for matching and interaction of learning styles in different cultures. The authors also discuss teaching approaches to matching and interaction of learning styles in dif...

  2. Problem-solving styles in autism spectrum disorder and the development of higher cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Paul A; Ring, Melanie; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M

    2017-05-01

    The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ. The autism spectrum disorder group also required more cues than the typically developing group to discern the conceptual structure of the blocks, a pattern that correlated with Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule-Communication and Imagination/Creativity sub-scales. When asked to categorize the blocks in new ways, the autism spectrum disorder participants developed fewer principles on which to base new categorizations, which in contrast to the typically developing group correlated with verbal IQ and with the Imagination/Creativity sub-scale of the ADOS. These results are in line with a number of existing findings in the autism spectrum disorder literature and confirm that conceptualization in autism spectrum disorder seems to rely more on non-verbal and less on imaginative processes than in typically developing individuals. The findings represent first steps to the possibility of outlining a testable account of psychological development in autism spectrum disorder that integrates verbal, non-verbal and social factors into the transition from elementary to higher level processes.

  3. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  4. Narrative Elaboration and Participation: Two Dimensions of Maternal Elicitation Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzi, Gigliana; Schick, Adina R.; Kennedy, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the narrative scaffolding styles of Spanish-speaking and English-speaking mothers as they engaged their preschool-aged children in family reminiscing and book sharing interactions. Specifically, the study examined the dimensions of narrative elaboration and participation in mothers' scaffolding styles across the 2 narrative…

  5. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  6. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  7. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing's center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace. Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches o...

  8. Babylon-style Restaurant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Babylon-style Restaurant is located on Jinbao Street, near East Second Ring Road and Wangfujing Street, in Beijing’s center. With more than 3,000 square meters, the restaurant can accommodate 500 people. Built in the style of an Arabian palace, Babylon-style Restaurant has three floors, which provides customers with more space options. The Meal and Art Square, on the first floor, has Islamic features. It can accommodate 300 people. It is the ideal place for groups, parties, annual meetings and launches of new products.

  9. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  10. 非语言性护理沟通对心肌梗死患者身心状态的影响%Impact of non-verbal communication in nursing care on the physical and mental state of patients with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖少琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the impact of non - verbal communication in nursing care on the physical and mental state of patients with myocardial infarction. Methods: 102 patients with myocardial infarction were randomly divided into observation and control groups ( 51 patients in each group ). The routine primary care,health education and psychological guidance were carried out in the control group and the proper non - verbal communication service was provided for the patients in the observation group based on the nursing measures in the control group. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the physical function and mental function of QOL - 30 between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The non - verbal communication in nursing care can increase the degree of patients comfort in the physical and mental state and improve their quality of life as well.%目的:探讨非语言性护理沟通对心肌梗死患者身心状态的影响.方法:将102例心肌梗死患者随机分为观察组和对照组各51例,对照组给予常规基础护理、健康教育和心理指导,观察组在此基础上给予针对性的非语言性护理沟通服务.结果:观察组QOL-30中躯体功能、心理功能评分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:非语言性护理沟通对提高患者身心舒适度,改善患者生活质量有重要意义.

  11. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  12. The Effect of Student Learning Styles on the Learning Gains Achieved When Interactive Simulations Are Coupled with Real-Time Formative Assessment via Pen-Enabled Mobile Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, F V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes results from a project in an undergraduate engineering physics course that coupled classroom use of interactive computer simulations with the collection of real-time formative assessment using pen-enabled mobile technology. Interactive simulations (free or textbook-based) are widely used across the undergraduate science and engineering curriculia to help actively engaged students increase their understanding of abstract concepts or phenomena which are not directly or easily observable. However, there are indications in the literature that we do not yet know the pedagogical best practices associated with their use to maximize learning. This project couples student use of interactive simulations with the gathering of real-time formative assessment via pen-enabled mobile technology (in this case, Tablet PCs). The research question addressed in this paper is: are learning gains achieved with this coupled model greater for certain types of learners in undergraduate STEM classrooms? To answer t...

  13. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  14. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  15. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  16. Learning Styles: Humpty Dumpty Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stan D.

    2009-01-01

    What is a learning style? No one seems to know for sure. The language used by learning style theorists is filled with ambiguities. Price (2004) maintains that "learning style is often used as a metaphor for considering the range of individual differences in learning" (p. 681). Is learning style merely a fanciful metaphor or is it the wave of the…

  17. Exploration of Parental Teaching Style: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, William A.; McLoughlin, Caven S.

    1982-01-01

    A behavioral analysis of parental teaching style was performed to determine what variables in mothers' interaction patterns facilitated the greatest learning in their preschool handicapped children (n=11). Analyses indicated that the changes in parents followed the changes in their children, rather than the reverse. (Author/PN)

  18. Language style matching and police interrogation outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Beth H.; Taylor, Paul J.; Snook, Brent; Conchie, Stacey M.; Bennell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the coordination of interrogator and suspects’ verbal behavior in interrogations. Sixty-four police interrogations were examined at the aggregate and utterance level using a measure of verbal mimicry known as Language Style Matching. Analyses revealed an interaction between co

  19. Didactic Approaches to Child-Managed Play: Analyses of Teacher's Interaction Styles in Kindergartens and After-School Programmes in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løndal, Knut; Greve, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the nature of teachers' involvement in child-managed play. We approached this didactic issue through analysis of interactional situations in a kindergarten and an after-school programme and by drawing on relational theory and the concept of "pedagogical tact". Qualitative material was gathered from observations and…

  20. Effectiveness and Attractiveness as a Function of Communicator Style in Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Anthony B.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how interactive style influences effectiveness and interpersonal attraction in groups. After college student volunteers completed the Communicator Style Measure (CSM), 72 subjects were selected from three style profiles and assigned to triads that contained high, mid, and low communication style…

  1. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  2. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.

  3. The impact of leadership styles on innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm; Song, Jiwen Lynda

    2015-01-01

    : directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional & instrumental leadership, strategic & CEO leadership, and shared & distributed leadership. We find strong indications that different innovation stages and types raise different...... demands on leadership. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only style to lead innovations, but different leadership styles fit differently well with different innovation types and stages. However, the specification of this fit is still very incomplete and the answer......This paper reviews the insights that research offers on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management. To do so, we develop a framework structuring existing insights into four generic dimensions: people, means, effects, and goals. Based on this framework, we review studies on...

  4. The impact of leadership styles on innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm; Song, Jiwen Lynda;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the insights that research offers on the impact of different leadership styles on innovation management. To do so, we develop a framework structuring existing insights into four generic dimensions: people, means, effects, and goals. Based on this framework, we review studies on......: directive and participative leadership, interactive leadership, charismatic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional & instrumental leadership, strategic & CEO leadership, and shared & distributed leadership. We find strong indications that different innovation stages and types raise different...... demands on leadership. Against this background, transformational leadership is not the only style to lead innovations, but different leadership styles fit differently well with different innovation types and stages. However, the specification of this fit is still very incomplete and the answer...

  5. On Linking Social Performance with Social Competence: Some Relations between Communicative Style and Attributions of Interpersonal Attractiveness and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, David R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the process of impression formation in initial interactions as a function of a person's communicative style. Develops a method for measurement of interactive or communicative style and describes a study designed to empirically assess relations between style, attractiveness, and effectiveness. (JMF)

  6. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  7. Parenting style and obesity risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Barnett, Tracie A; Séguin, Louise; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    Parents play a critical role in their children's lifestyle habits. The objective was to assess the effect of parenting style on the risk of childhood obesity, and to determine whether poverty was a moderator of the association. Participants were from the 1994-2008 cross-sectional samples of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a nationally representative survey of Canadian youth. Factor and cluster analyses identified four parenting styles consistent with Baumrind's parenting style prototypes. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the risk of obesity based on parenting style after adjusting for covariates. Analyses were stratified by age (preschool: 2-5years of age, n=19,026; school-age: 6-11years of age, n=18,551) and the moderating effect of poverty (household incomepoverty moderated this association: authoritarian and negligent parenting was associated with 44% (CI: 1.3-1.7) and 26% (CI: 1.1-1.4) increased likelihood of obesity, respectively, but only among the children not living in poverty. In school-age children, poverty was not a moderator. Parenting style is associated with childhood obesity, but may be moderated by poverty. Successful strategies to combat childhood obesity should reflect the independent and interactive associations of sociodemographic and social-familial influences on health especially in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  9. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overall...... shape which makes the general analysis and retrieval of such shapes more challenging. Also there is no single way of defining the style as this depends much on the context of the family of shapes used for the analysis. That is why the definition needs to be given through the examples. The straight...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  10. Match the Style of Instruction to the Style of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many reading problems are caused by using the wrong teaching methods. This article advocates using a reading style inventory and matching the teaching method to the student's reading style. The author holds copyright to this article. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  12. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  13. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  14. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  15. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  16. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  17. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  18. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  19. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  20. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  1. Communicating with Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Judy

    1992-01-01

    To develop strong channels of communication with teachers, principals must first determine which communication style (intuitor, thinker, sensor, or feeler) each individual favors. Then principals can open one-to-one communication channels, establish effective teaching teams, form more productive committees, and solve problems efficiently. Also,…

  2. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  3. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  4. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  5. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  6. COMMUNICATIVE PECULIARITY OF INTERPRETATIVE AND DELIBERATIVE STYLE IN PEDAGOGICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsinkerman Tamara Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to characterize the communicative peculiarities of the interpretative-deliberative style in pedagogical discourse. The object of the study is interpretative-deliberative style viewed as one of the communication forms in pedagogical discourse; the subject of the analysis is the stratagem and tactics characteristics of the interpretative-deliberative communicative style. Descriptive and analytical as well as stylistic and discourse analysis methods are employed. The author reveals the most prevalent strategies–explanatory, interpretative and deliberative–employed in communicative interaction in situations of educative persuasion. The communicative characteristics of the analyzed style are: a rational type of the communicative action, a trust-based tone and the emotional involvement of the communication participants. The results can be used for clarifying specifics of speech behavior in educative communication as well as for comparing styles of educative communication in different enthnocultural traditions.

  7. Gender Difference in Learning Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳

    2008-01-01

    This article mainly focused on learning styles and its relative influence on language learning proficiency,as well as gender difference in terms of learning style.Through a litemture review,I found many learning style models.Also,there were many variations among the students in use of these models.The acquaintances of learning style may benefit students and language instructors to adapt teaching and learning to individual differences among students.This can enhance education effectiveness.

  8. Multimodality and Design of Interactive Virtual Environments for Creative Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    . The three-dimensional representation of space and the resources for non-verbal communication enable the users to interact with the digital content in more complex yet engaging ways. However, understanding the communicative resources in virtual spaces with the theoretical tools that are conventionally used......-user interaction, customization and interdisciplinary collaboration. These spaces accommodate new forms of spatial and social practices, provide multimodal communication resources in physical and virtual environments, and allow individuals (or groups) to actively engage with collaborative creative experiences...

  9. Students’ High Achievement on Learning Style Preferences in Chinese Department, Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Go

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every student certainly demonstrates different achievement in her/his Chinese language learning process because every student has her/his own individual way to resolve their problems in learning. In learning process, student’s individual differences exist. These differences lead to different learning speed and learning style of the student. The purpose of this study was to investigate the high achievement students’ learning styles. This study was based on Reid’s learning styles theory and also uses Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ to investigate student’s learning styles. The main finding of this study is that student’s learning style preference is group style. According to student learning style preferences results, students prefer to learn together with others or in group and learn in a more interactive way.

  10. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...

  11. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  12. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  13. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cumming; G. Fleming; A. Schwienbacher

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  14. The Myth of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Cedar; Willingham, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. In this article, the authors begin by defining "learning styles"; then they address the claims made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what the authors consider the valid claims of learning-styles theorists. But in separating the wheat from the…

  15. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  16. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  18. 非语言交际能力的培养对提高外语教学学习质量之我见——以中德文化差异为例%Non-verbal Communication Skills for Improving the Quality of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning-A Case Study on the Differences between the Chinese and the German Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2011-01-01

    随着现代电子科技的发展,互联网的普及以及经济的高度全球化,我们与不同国度、不同文化背景下人们之间的交流也随之越来越频繁。在这样的跨文化交际中,非语言交际起着非常重要的作用。但是由于每个国家和民族之间的文化差异,使得非语言交际在不同的文化中被赋予了不同的含义,使人们在交际过程中遇到了很大的困难。本文拟从中德文化差异比较入手,阐述在当前外语教学和学习中,不能只单纯地强调语言能力的培养,还应注重提高学生对跨文化交际能力的认识以及提高学生的非语言交际能力,实现外语教育的最终目的。%With the development of modern electronic technology,the popularity of the Internet,and the globalization of economy, the exchanges between the Chinese people and people from different countries and cultures have become more and more frequent. In such cross-cultural exchanges,the non-verbal communication also plays a very important role. However,due to cultural differences,the non-verbal communication in different countries takes different forms,which often present much difficulty in the process of cross-cultural communication. The author intends to compare the Chinese culture with the German culture to elaborate on the current foreign language teaching and learning,not just simply giving emphasis to the language abilities,but also to the importance of improving students'understanding of the cross-cultural communication skills,especially the non-verbal communication skills,so as to achieve the ultimate goal of the foreign language teaching.

  19. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  20. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  1. Radiography students' clinical learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patti; Makela, Carole

    2010-01-01

    To examine the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Descriptive research methodology, using a single self-report questionnaire, helped to identify common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. The results indicated that 3 learning styles predominate among radiography students during clinical practice: task oriented, purposeful and tentative. Insight into clinical practice learning styles can help students understand how they learn and allow them to recognize ways to maximize learning. It also heightens awareness among clinical instructors and technologists of the different learning styles and their relevance to clinical practice education.

  2. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  3. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  4. A influência da comunicação não verbal no cuidado de enfermagem La influencia de la comunicación no verbal en la atención de enfermería The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Viana Santos

    2005-08-01

    Nursing School Alfredo Pinto UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  5. Parenting styles and alcohol consumption among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Fernando Santana; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between alcohol consumption in adolescence and parenting styles of socialization among Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 273 adolescents, 58% whom were males. Instruments were: 1) Sociodemographic Questionnaire; 2) Demand and Responsiveness Scales; 3) Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI). Study analyses employed multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Maternal, but not paternal, authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles were directly related to adolescent alcohol intake. The style that mothers use to interact with their children may influence uptake of high-risk behaviors.

  6. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  7. PLURILINGUAL COMPETENCE, STYLES AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kalliokoski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores plurilingual competence in respect to language proficiency, language education and pluri- and multilingualism. The notion of communicative competence was introduced by Hymes (1972 as a reaction to chomskyan view of language as an autonomous system. Hymes’ notion of communicative competence originally included plurilingualism. The concept of communicative competence was quickly adopted to applied linguistics but the idea of a linguistic repertoire consisting of the competencies of linguistic varieties was not imported to SLA or language testing. The Hymesian perspective to plurilingualism as an essential dimension of communicative competence was revived in the Common European Framework (CEFR. However,the practice of applying the CEFR has mostly neglected the dimension on plurilingualism and plurilingual competence. The focus in the use of the CEFR has been on the different areas of language skills within one single language at a time, while the application of plurilingual practices has gained very little attention. The Hymesian notion of communicative competence has lived on in the sociolinguistic research tradition, especially within interactional sociolinguistics. The present paper relates the notion of plurilingual competence to its hymesian origin, to recent trends in plurilingual and pluricultural education, and to the sociolinguistic study of style and linguistic variation in multilingual communities. The article uses Finnish L2 data to show how plurilingual competence is used as an interactional resource.From the perspective of language learning, plurilingual competence enables speakers with different linguistic backgrounds to use their shared linguistic repertoire in order to ensure smooth interaction and achieve mutual understanding.

  8. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  9. Style in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-10-15

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed.

  10. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  11. 浅析非言语交际行为与高校外语教学改革%On the Relationship between Non-verbal Communicative Behavior and Foreign Language Teaching Reform in Universities---A Case Study of Japanese, German and English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯巧红; 祖静; 刘俊娟

    2015-01-01

    Communicative behavior is composed of verbal and non-verbal behavior, while the importance of the latter is always neglected. As the microcosm of communicative scenes, the effectiveness of foreign lan-guage classes in the higher education determines whether the professional graduates who meet the standards of social needs can be cultivated or not. However, traditional foreign teaching mode overemphasized the signifi-cance of verbal behaviors, and rarely used non-verbal behavior as a teaching method, which seriously impe-ded the improvement of students ’ comprehensive abilities including intercultural communication ability. Therefore, only by scaling up the nonverbal behavior and mixing the two together can we renovate the foreign language teaching mode and cultivate excellent foreign language talents.%交际行为分为言语行为和非言语行为,后者的重要性往往被人们忽视。高校外语课堂是交际场景的缩影,其交际的有效性决定了能否培养出符合社会需求的外语专业毕业生。传统的外语教学模式过分强调言语行为的作用,很少重视非言语行为的使用,严重阻碍了学生外语综合能力和跨文化交际能力的提升。因此,只有加大非言语交际行为的使用比重,革新外语教学模式,才能培养出优秀的外语人才。

  12. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  13. Le style Louis XVI

    OpenAIRE

    Kivland, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    A small catalogue of Louis XVI furniture, which makes a rapport between style and revolution, furniture and its naming, femininity and the neo-classical. The ambience is welcoming, despite its sobriety and a whiff of the Terror. The book contains six duo-tone photographic plates, tipped-in by hand. The book is published in a edition of 50 copies at the kind invitation of AM Bruno on the occasion of the 16th International Contemporary Artists' Book Fair, Leeds.

  14. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  15. Style comparisons in calligraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafen; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    Calligraphic style is considered, for this research, visual attributes of images of calligraphic characters sampled randomly from a "work" created by a single artist. It is independent of page layout or textual content. An experimental design is developed to investigate to what extent the source of a single, or of a few pairs, of character images can be assigned to the either same work or to two different works. The experiments are conducted on the 13,571 segmented and labeled 600-dpi character images of the CADAL database. The classifier is not trained on the works tested, only on other works. Even when only a few samples of same-class pairs are available, the difference-vector of a few simple features extracted from each image of a pair yields over 80% classification accuracy for a same-work vs. different-work dichotomy. When many pairs of different classes are available for each pair, the accuracy, using the same features, is almost the same. These style-verification experiments are part of our larger goal of style identification and forgery detection.

  16. Perceptual compensation for differences in speaking style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Davi eVitela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that listeners will shift their categorization of a target vowel as a function of acoustic characteristics of a preceding carrier phrase. These results have been interpreted as an example of perceptual normalization for variability resulting from differences in talker anatomy. The present study examined whether listeners would normalize for acoustic variability resulting from differences in speaking style within a single talker. Two vowel series were synthesized that varied between central and peripheral vowels (the vowels in beat‐bit and bod‐bud. Each member of the series was appended to one of four carrier phrases that were spoken in either a clear or reduced speech style. Participants categorized vowels in these eight contexts. A reliable shift in categorization as a function of speaking style was obtained for three of four phrase sets. This demonstrates that phrase context effects can be obtained with a single talker. However, the directions of the obtained shifts are not reliably predicted on the basis of the speaking style of the talker. Instead, it appears that the effect is determined by an interaction of the average spectrum of the phrase with the target vowel.

  17. Life style: progress in measuring life style and its relation with other psychological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on life styles ha ve driven us to consider three studies which analyse the concept and its relationship with other psychological variables. The first study presents an analysis of the activities carried out by a person, asan operational definition of life styles using ADIT self-registering (Self-Registeringof Time Distribution, SRTD, considering individuals who interact with subject in those activities. In the second study, modifications to the original self-record are suggested; eg, the sectionthat registers where and with whom are carried out the activities was eliminated. In the third study, the relationships among life styles, life satisfaction and personality variables are analysed. Therewere 84 persons in the sample assigned to 6 groups, depending on the relationships among these three concepts, as was previously suggested by other studies

  18. Perceived Competence and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Seligman, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of depressive attributional style and multiple domains of perceived competence on depressive symptoms among 431 adolescents. Our structural equation modeling with latent factor interactions indicated that (1) for girls with a higher depressive attributional style, lower perceived competence…

  19. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  20. Modeling Leadership Styles in Human-Robot Team Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gerardo E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent proliferation of robotic systems in our society has placed questions regarding interaction between humans and intelligent machines at the forefront of robotics research. In response, our research attempts to understand the context in which particular types of interaction optimize efficiency in tasks undertaken by human-robot teams. It is our conjecture that applying previous research results regarding leadership paradigms in human organizations will lead us to a greater understanding of the human-robot interaction space. In doing so, we adapt four leadership styles prevalent in human organizations to human-robot teams. By noting which leadership style is more appropriately suited to what situation, as given by previous research, a mapping is created between the adapted leadership styles and human-robot interaction scenarios-a mapping which will presumably maximize efficiency in task completion for a human-robot team. In this research we test this mapping with two adapted leadership styles: directive and transactional. For testing, we have taken a virtual 3D interface and integrated it with a genetic algorithm for use in &le-operation of a physical robot. By developing team efficiency metrics, we can determine whether this mapping indeed prescribes interaction styles that will maximize efficiency in the teleoperation of a robot.

  1. Modeling Leadership Styles in Human-Robot Team Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Gerardo E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent proliferation of robotic systems in our society has placed questions regarding interaction between humans and intelligent machines at the forefront of robotics research. In response, our research attempts to understand the context in which particular types of interaction optimize efficiency in tasks undertaken by human-robot teams. It is our conjecture that applying previous research results regarding leadership paradigms in human organizations will lead us to a greater understanding of the human-robot interaction space. In doing so, we adapt four leadership styles prevalent in human organizations to human-robot teams. By noting which leadership style is more appropriately suited to what situation, as given by previous research, a mapping is created between the adapted leadership styles and human-robot interaction scenarios-a mapping which will presumably maximize efficiency in task completion for a human-robot team. In this research we test this mapping with two adapted leadership styles: directive and transactional. For testing, we have taken a virtual 3D interface and integrated it with a genetic algorithm for use in &le-operation of a physical robot. By developing team efficiency metrics, we can determine whether this mapping indeed prescribes interaction styles that will maximize efficiency in the teleoperation of a robot.

  2. Web-Based Learning: Cognitive Styles and Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomyan, Hesham Raji

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study, which investigated whether different instructional strategies might interact with individual's cognitive style in learning. A web-based learning package was designed employing three strategies, Interactive Concept Maps, Illustration with Embedded Text and Text-Only. Group Embedded Figure Test was administered to 178…

  3. Culture, Learning Styles, and Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores Web 2.0 in interactive learning environments. Specifically, the article examines Web 2.0 as an interactive learning platform that holds potential, but is also limited by learning styles and cultural value preferences. The article explores the issue of control from both teacher and learner perspectives, and in particular the…

  4. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    taster sessions over foreign language classrooms in monolingual contexts to English as an Additional Language settings in a multilingual context. This variety of settings allows him to examine a range of verbal and non-verbal features of classroom interaction, for example how code-switching is used...... in multilingual settings, and what the role of multimodal (such as gestures and gaze) and epistemic (for instance claims of insufficient knowledge and epistemic status checks) resources employed by students and teachers is. The book is structured in three sections: survey (Chapters 2 and 3), analysis (Chapters 4...

  5. Detection Learning Style Vark For Out Of School Children (OSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS

    2017-04-01

    Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.

  6. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  7. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  8. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  9. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  10. Ptolemy Coding Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    JavaTemplate.java. In addition useful tools are provided in the directories under $PTII/util/ to help enforce the standards. • lisp /ptjavastyle.el is a... lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...key by inserting spaces rather than the tab character. To set up Emacs to follow the Ptolemy II indentation style, see $PTII/util/ lisp /ptemacs.el. To

  11. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  12. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its c

  13. Comunicação não-verbal: uma contribuição para o aconselhamento em amamentação Comunicación no verbal: una contribución para la consejería en lactancia materna Non verbal communication: a contribution to breastfeeding counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moraes Leite

    2004-04-01

    . Los autores percibieron que las habilidades del curso están centradas en técnicas solamente orientadas hacia las actitudes de los profesionales. Es fundamental estar atento a las señales no verbales de la mujer, pues estas retratan sus emociones. Tales señales pueden ser los indicadores de las dificultades que la mujer enfrenta, de las interpretaciones a cerca de elementos interactivos en su contexto, y muchas veces, son los indicativos del curso que podrán imprimir al proceso de lactancia.The "Course on Breastfeeding Counseling", elaborated and implemented by the United Nation's Children's Emergency Fund - UNICEF in partnership with the World Health Organization - WHO, represents one of the most important initiatives towards the valorization of women as breastfeeding agents. With a view to understanding and facilitating the application of the nonverbal communication skills this course intends to develop among professionals, this study aims to organize the theoretical frameworks that will support the teaching of Listening and Learning Skills -1 - "Use of non verbal communication", considering the concepts of human communication found in different authors. We found out that the skills of the course are centered in techniques only directed at the professional's attitudes. However, it is necessary to pay attention to women's nonverbal signs, as they reflect their emotions. These signs can indicate the difficulties women are facing, their interpretations regarding the interaction elements in their context and, often, they are indicative of how they will direct the breastfeeding process.

  14. Integrating Teaching Styles with Students' Learning Styles (Series of 14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitt, Linda; And Others

    This document begins with a report of a study of the learning styles of American Indian students at the Sante Fe Indian School (New Mexico). Santa Fe Indian School is a secondary school of 550 students, primarily from the Pueblo communities of New Mexico. A learning style assessment instrument was administered to 459 students, Grades 7-12, in 4…

  15. Style in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    2013-11-01

    There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.

  16. Hierarchical message bus-based software architectural style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世琨; 王立福; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    As the size and complexity of software systems increase,the design and specification of overall system structure become more significant issues than the choice of algorithms and data structures of computation.An appropriate architecture for a system is a key element of its success.Based on the practice of Jadebird software production line,this paper proposes a software architectural style based on hierarchical message buses,named JB/HMB.In this style,the component model consists of external interfaces,static structure and dynamic behavior,which depicts a component from different aspects.Supported by message buses,components interact with one another by messages,which can be used to describe distributed and concurrent systems well.JB/HMB style supports stepwise decomposition and refinement,and runtime system evolution.Finally,characteristics of JB/HMB style are summarized as a conclusion,and future research directions are specified.``

  17. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  18. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  19. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  20. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...