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Sample records for non-verbal intelligence test

  1. Physical growth and non-verbal intelligence: Associations in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196

  2. Saudi normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-3, Picture Completion and Vocabulary (subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghatani, Ali M; Obonsawin, Marc C; Binshaig, Basmah A; Al-Moutaery, Khalaf R

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 aims for this study: first, to collect normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI-3), Picture Completion (PC) and Vocabulary (VOC) sub-test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for use in a Saudi Arabian culture, and second, to use the normative data provided to generate the regression equations. To collect the normative data and generate the regression equations, 198 healthy individuals were selected to provide a representative distribution for age, gender, years of education, and socioeconomic class. The WCST, Stroop test, TONI-3, PC, and VOC were administrated to the healthy individuals. This study was carried out at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to July 2002. Normative data were obtained for all tests, and tables were constructed to interpret scores for different age groups. Regression equations to predict performance on the 3 tests of frontal function from scores on tests of fluid (TONI-3) and premorbid intelligence were generated from the data from the healthy individuals. The data collected in this study provide normative tables for 3 tests of frontal lobe function and for tests of general intellectual ability for use in Saudi Arabia. The data also provide a method to estimate pre-injury ability without the use of verbally based tests.

  3. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  4. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  5. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying

  6. Gender Differences in Variance and Means on the Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test: Data from the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista, Alvin; Care, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on gender differences in intelligence has focused mostly on samples from Western countries and empirical evidence on gender differences from Southeast Asia is relatively sparse. Aims: This article presents results on gender differences in variance and means on a non-verbal intelligence test using a national sample of public…

  7. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and ...

  8. Association of chronotype and social jetlag with human non-verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panev, A S; Tserne, T A; Polugrudov, A S; Bakutova, L A; Petrova, N B; Tatarinova, O V; Kolosova, O N; Borisenkov, M F

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronotype and social jetlag (SJL) on intelligence. Subjects were aged 14-25 years (n = 1008). A significant effect of intelligence on academic performance, as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test, was found (F 2,917 = 11.75, P intelligence of people with late chronotype was found to be higher than that of subjects with early and intermediate chronotypes (F 2,305 = 3.12, P intelligence testing was noted only in subjects with late chronotype (F 2,536 = 2.61, P intelligence, but these advantages disappear when SJL ≥2 hours.

  9. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3 rd to 7 th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher's teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed.

  10. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  11. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  12. Seizure-related factors and non-verbal intelligence in children with epilepsy. A population-based study from Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, B; Mykletun, A; Sommerfelt, K; Bjørnaes, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Waaler, P E

    2005-06-01

    To study the relationship between seizure-related factors, non-verbal intelligence, and socio-economic status (SES) in a population-based sample of children with epilepsy. The latest ILAE International classifications of epileptic seizures and syndromes were used to classify seizure types and epileptic syndromes in all 6-12 year old children (N=198) with epilepsy in Hordaland County, Norway. The children had neuropediatric and EEG examinations. Of the 198 patients, demographic characteristics were collected on 183 who participated in psychological studies including Raven matrices. 126 healthy controls underwent the same testing. Severe non-verbal problems (SNVP) were defined as a Raven score at or Raven percentile group, whereas controls were highly over-represented in the higher percentile groups. SNVP were present in 43% of children with epilepsy and 3% of controls. These problems were especially common in children with remote symptomatic epilepsy aetiology, undetermined epilepsy syndromes, myoclonic seizures, early seizure debut, high seizure frequency and in children with polytherapy. Seizure-related characteristics that were not usually associated with SNVP were idiopathic epilepsies, localization related (LR) cryptogenic epilepsies, absence and simple partial seizures, and a late debut of epilepsy. Adjusting for socio-economic status factors did not significantly change results. In childhood epilepsy various seizure-related factors, but not SES factors, were associated with the presence or absence of SNVP. Such deficits may be especially common in children with remote symptomatic epilepsy aetiology and in complex and therapy resistant epilepsies. Low frequencies of SNVP may be found in children with idiopathic and LR cryptogenic epilepsy syndromes, simple partial or absence seizures and a late epilepsy debut. Our study contributes to an overall picture of cognitive function and its relation to central seizure characteristics in a childhood epilepsy population

  13. Frontal brain deactivation during a non-verbal cognitive judgement bias test in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldimann, Kathrin; Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Animal welfare concerns have raised an interest in animal affective states. These states also play an important role in the proximate control of behaviour. Due to their potential to modulate short-term emotional reactions, one specific focus is on long-term affective states, that is, mood. These states can be assessed by using non-verbal cognitive judgement bias paradigms. Here, we conducted a spatial variant of such a test on 24 focal animals that were kept under either unpredictable, stimulus-poor or predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions to induce differential mood states. Based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we measured haemodynamic frontal brain reactions during 10 s in which the sheep could observe the configuration of the cognitive judgement bias trial before indicating their assessment based on the go/no-go reaction. We used (generalised) mixed-effects models to evaluate the data. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions took longer and were less likely to reach the learning criterion and reacted slightly more optimistically in the cognitive judgement bias test than sheep from the predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions. A frontal cortical increase in deoxy-haemoglobin [HHb] and a decrease in oxy-haemoglobin [O2Hb] were observed during the visual assessment of the test situation by the sheep, indicating a frontal cortical brain deactivation. This deactivation was more pronounced with the negativity of the test situation, which was reflected by the provenance of the sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, the proximity of the cue to the negatively reinforced cue location, or the absence of a go reaction in the trial. It seems that (1) sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor in comparison to sheep from the predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions dealt less easily with the test conditions rich in stimuli, that (2) long-term housing conditions seemingly did not influence mood

  14. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  15. Do children with autism have a theory of mind? A non-verbal test of autism vs. specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-04-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the possibility that a non-verbal FB test would distinguish children with autism vs. children with SLI. The present study tested two predictions: (1) FB understanding is to some extent independent of language ability; and (2) Children with autism with low language levels show specific impairment in theory of mind. Results confirmed both predictions. Results are discussed in terms of the role of language in the development of mindreading.

  16. Do Children with Autism Have a Theory of Mind? A Non-Verbal Test of Autism vs. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism have delays in the development of theory of mind. However, the sub-group of children with autism who have little or no language have gone untested since false belief tests (FB) typically involve language. FB understanding has been reported to be intact in children with specific language impairment (SLI). This raises the…

  17. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

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    Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students’ scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spa-tial artistic, and oral linguistic in the DIS-COVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses and the TCT-DP (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Produc-tion, a non-verbal general measure of creativi-ty, were examined. The participants were 135 first and second graders from two schools in the Southwestern United States from linguisti-cally and culturally diverse backgrounds. Pearson correlations, canonical correlations, and multiple regression analyses were calcu-lated to describe the relationship between the TCT-DP and the three DISCOVER creative problem-solving activities. We found that crea-tivity has both domain-specific and domain-general aspects, but that the domain-specific component seemed more prominent. One im-plication of these results is that educators should consider assessing creativity in specific domains to place students in special programs for gifted students rather than relying only on domain-general measures of divergent think-ing or creativity.

  18. [Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test: useful for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M; Berg, I; Deelman, B

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, a non-verbal intelligence test for deaf children, was investigated in a group of older adults, with a view to the future use of the test in older neurological patients. In a group of 58 healthy elderly persons intelligence was measured with the SON, the Raven Progressive Matrices and a Dutch reading test. The subjects were also asked for their subjective judgements of the tests. The SON-R 5 1/2-17 appears to be a user-friendly test. The high correlations between the subtests, and between the SON and other measures of intelligence suggest that the SON is a valid test for measuring fluid intelligence in elderly persons. The existing norms are not suitable when the SON is used in elderly people, new norms for adults should therefore be developed.

  19. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  20. Nutritional Status and Performance in Test of Verbal and Non-Verbal Intelligence in 6-Year- Old Children

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    Arija, Victoria; Esparo, Griselda; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Murphy, Michelle M.; Biarnes, Elisabeth; Canals, Josefa

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and intellectual capacity in 6-year-old children was investigated in 83 subjects of medium-high socio-economic status, without any apparent risk of malnutrition and normal or high intellectual capacity. Nutritional status was evaluated by measuring food consumption, anthropometrical measurements and…

  1. Oncologists’ non-verbal behavior and analog patients’ recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Tienhoven, G.; van Laarhoven, H.W.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Vermeulen, D.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist’s non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  2. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  3. The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational levels, and the same cultural background (inter-education intra-culture comparison); (2) the test performance among groups with the same educational level and different cultural backgrounds (intra-education inter-culture comparisons). Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between educational level and performance on common non-verbal neuropsychological tests. When neuropsychological test performance in different cultural groups is compared, significant differences are evident. Performance on non-verbal tests such as copying figures, drawing maps or listening to tones can be significantly influenced by the individual's culture. Arguments against the use of some current neuropsychological non-verbal instruments, procedures, and norms in the assessment of diverse educational and cultural groups are discussed and possible solutions to this problem are presented.

  4. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

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    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  5. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

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    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  6. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  7. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  8. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

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    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  9. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  10. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  11. Persistent non-verbal memory impairment in remitted major depression - caused by encoding deficits?

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    Behnken, Andreas; Schöning, Sonja; Gerss, Joachim; Konrad, Carsten; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker

    2010-04-01

    While neuropsychological impairments are well described in acute phases of major depressive disorders (MDD), little is known about the neuropsychological profile in remission. There is evidence for episodic memory impairments in both acute depressed and remitted patients with MDD. Learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize information during learning. This study investigates non-verbal memory functions in remitted MDD and whether nonverbal memory performance is mediated by organizational strategies whilst learning. 30 well-characterized fully remitted individuals with unipolar MDD and 30 healthy controls matching in age, sex and education were investigated. Non-verbal learning and memory were measured by the Rey-Osterrieth-Complex-Figure-Test (RCFT). The RCFT provides measures of planning, organizational skills, perceptual and non-verbal memory functions. For assessing the mediating effects of organizational strategies, we used the Savage Organizational Score. Compared to healthy controls, participants with remitted MDD showed more deficits in their non-verbal memory function. Moreover, participants with remitted MDD demonstrated difficulties in organizing non-verbal information appropriately during learning. In contrast, no impairments regarding visual-spatial functions in remitted MDD were observed. Except for one patient, all the others were taking psychopharmacological medication. The neuropsychological function was solely investigated in the remitted phase of MDD. Individuals with MDD in remission showed persistent non-verbal memory impairments, modulated by a deficient use of organizational strategies during encoding. Therefore, our results strongly argue for additional therapeutic interventions in order to improve these remaining deficits in cognitive function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  14. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the

  15. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  16. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  17. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  18. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  19. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  20. Shall we use non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2014-05-30

    Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients׳ results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  2. Non-verbal numerical cognition: from reals to integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel; Gelman

    2000-02-01

    Data on numerical processing by verbal (human) and non-verbal (animal and human) subjects are integrated by the hypothesis that a non-verbal counting process represents discrete (countable) quantities by means of magnitudes with scalar variability. These appear to be identical to the magnitudes that represent continuous (uncountable) quantities such as duration. The magnitudes representing countable quantity are generated by a discrete incrementing process, which defines next magnitudes and yields a discrete ordering. In the case of continuous quantities, the continuous accumulation process does not define next magnitudes, so the ordering is also continuous ('dense'). The magnitudes representing both countable and uncountable quantity are arithmetically combined in, for example, the computation of the income to be expected from a foraging patch. Thus, on the hypothesis presented here, the primitive machinery for arithmetic processing works with real numbers (magnitudes).

  3. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  4. Intelligence Is What the Intelligence Test Measures. Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han L. J. van der Maas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mutualism model, an alternative for the g-factor model of intelligence, implies a formative measurement model in which “g” is an index variable without a causal role. If this model is accurate, the search for a genetic of brain instantiation of “g” is deemed useless. This also implies that the (weighted sum score of items of an intelligence test is just what it is: a weighted sum score. Preference for one index above the other is a pragmatic issue that rests mainly on predictive value.

  5. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  6. The validation of Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Azrin Mohammad; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah; Safar, Ajmain

    2017-08-01

    In general, a hafiz who can memorize the Quran has many specialties especially in respect to their academic performances. In this study, the theory of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner is embedded in a developed psychometric instrument, namely Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT). This paper presents the validation and the reliability of HIT of some tahfiz students in Malaysia Islamic schools. A pilot study was conducted involving 87 huffaz who were randomly selected to answer the items in HIT. The analysis method used includes Partial Least Square (PLS) on reliability, convergence and discriminant validation. The study has validated nine intelligences. The findings also indicated that the composite reliabilities for the nine types of intelligences are greater than 0.8. Thus, the HIT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the multiple intelligences among huffaz.

  7. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  8. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  9. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  10. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  11. Cross-cultural Differences of Stereotypes about Non-verbal Communication of Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of non-verbal communication as a factor of cross-cultural intercourse and adaptation of representatives of different cultures. The possibility of studying of ethnic stereotypes concerning non-verbal communication is considered. The results of empiric research of stereotypes about non-verbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are presented.

  12. The similar effects of verbal and non-verbal intervening tasks on word recall in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B R; Sullivan, S K; Morra, L F; Williams, J R; Donovick, P J

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerability to retroactive interference has been shown to increase with cognitive aging. Consistent with the findings of memory and aging literature, the authors of the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) suggest that a non-verbal task be administered during the test's delay interval to minimize the effects of retroactive interference on delayed recall. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which retroactive interference caused by non-verbal and verbal intervening tasks affects recall of verbal information in non-demented, older adults. The effects of retroactive interference on recall of words during Long-Delay recall on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) were evaluated. Participants included 85 adults age 60 and older. During a 20-minute delay interval on the CVLT-II, participants received either a verbal (WAIS-III Vocabulary or Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB) or non-verbal (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices or WAIS-III Block Design) intervening task. Similarly to previous research with young adults (Williams & Donovick, 2008), older adults recalled the same number of words across all groups, regardless of the type of intervening task. These findings suggest that the administration of verbal intervening tasks during the CVLT-II do not elicit more retroactive interference than non-verbal intervening tasks, and thus verbal tasks need not be avoided during the delay interval of the CVLT-II.

  13. Drama to promote non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Nixon, Lara; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hofmeister, Marianna; Dornan, Tim

    2018-05-23

    Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'. Workshops based on drama exercises were designed to heighten an awareness of sight, hearing, touch and proxemics in non-verbal communication. These were conducted at eight medical education conferences, held between 2014 and 2016, and were open to all conference participants. Workshops were evaluated by recording narrative data generated during the workshops and an open-ended questionnaire following the workshop. Data were analysed qualitatively, using thematic analysis. Non-verbal communication skills help doctors to deliver relationship-centred care RESULTS: One hundred and twelve participants attended workshops, 73 (65%) of whom completed an evaluation form: 56 physicians, nine medical students and eight non-physician faculty staff. Two themes were described: an increased awareness of NVCS and the importance of NVCS in relationship building. Drama exercises enabled participants to experience NVCS, such as sight, sound, proxemics and touch, in novel ways. Participants reflected on how NCVS contribute to developing trust and building relationships in clinical practice. Drama-based exercises elucidate the tacit nature of NVCS and require further evaluation in formal educational settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    the critical role of non-verbal behaviour during face-to-face communication. In this chapter we restrict the discussion to body language. We also consider embodied virtual agents. As is the case with humans, there are a number of fundamental factors to be considered when constructing persuasive agents......This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining...

  15. Intelligent Testing: Integrating Psychological Theory and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The field of intelligence testing has been revolutionized by Alan S. Kaufman. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with David Wechsler, and his best-selling book, Intelligent Testing with the WISC-R, introduced the phrase "intelligent testing." Kaufman, with his wife, Nadeen, then created his own…

  16. Perception of non-verbal auditory stimuli in Italian dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiani, Chiara; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Valnegri, Camilla; Molteni, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Auditory temporal processing deficits have been proposed as the underlying cause of phonological difficulties in Developmental Dyslexia. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 20 Italian dyslexic children aged 8-14, and 20 matched control children. Three tasks of auditory processing of non-verbal stimuli, involving discrimination and reproduction of sequences of rapidly presented short sounds were expressly created. Dyslexic subjects performed more poorly than control children, suggesting the presence of a deficit only partially influenced by the duration of the stimuli and of inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs).

  17. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  18. Relationships between the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Steven O; Weaver, Kenneth A

    2003-06-01

    The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test detects learning problems of young students and is a screen for whether a more comprehensive test of intelligence is needed. A study to assess whether this test was valid as an adult intelligence test was conducted with 20 undergraduate psychology majors. The correlations between the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test's Composite, Vocabulary, and Matrices test scores and their corresponding Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition test scores, the Full Scale (r=.88), Verbal (r=.77), and Performance scores (r=.87), indicated very strong relationships. In addition, no significant differences were obtained between the Composite, Vocabulary, and Matrices means of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance means of the WAIS-III. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test appears to be a valid test of intelligence for adults.

  19. On the embedded cognition of non-verbal narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... representational technologies. We consider three relevant trends in narrative studies that have emerged in the 60 years of cognitive and digital revolution. The issue at hand could have implications for developmental psychology, pedagogics, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, ethology and evolutionary studies...... of language. In particular, it is of great importance for narratology in relation to interactive media and new representational technologies. Therefore we outline a research agenda for a bio-cognitive semiotic interdisciplinary investigation on how people understand, react to, and interact with narratives...

  20. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  1. The impact of the teachers? non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and ...

  2. Verbal and non-verbal semantic impairment: From fluent primary progressive aphasia to semantic dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Lie Hosogi Senaha

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective disturbances of semantic memory have attracted the interest of many investigators and the question of the existence of single or multiple semantic systems remains a very controversial theme in the literature. Objectives: To discuss the question of multiple semantic systems based on a longitudinal study of a patient who presented semantic dementia from fluent primary progressive aphasia. Methods: A 66 year-old woman with selective impairment of semantic memory was examined on two occasions, undergoing neuropsychological and language evaluations, the results of which were compared to those of three paired control individuals. Results: In the first evaluation, physical examination was normal and the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 26. Language evaluation revealed fluent speech, anomia, disturbance in word comprehension, preservation of the syntactic and phonological aspects of the language, besides surface dyslexia and dysgraphia. Autobiographical and episodic memories were relatively preserved. In semantic memory tests, the following dissociation was found: disturbance of verbal semantic memory with preservation of non-verbal semantic memory. Magnetic resonance of the brain revealed marked atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe. After 14 months, the difficulties in verbal semantic memory had become more severe and the semantic disturbance, limited initially to the linguistic sphere, had worsened to involve non-verbal domains. Conclusions: Given the dissociation found in the first examination, we believe there is sufficient clinical evidence to refute the existence of a unitary semantic system.

  3. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters, in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword vs. low (real word phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex. Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

  4. Gender differences on tests of crystallized intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Muglia Wechsler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether performance on tests of crystallized intelligence is affected by gender and to ascertain whether differential item parameters could account for the gender disparities. The sample comprised 1.191 individuals (55% women between the ages of 16 and 77 years old (M=22; SD=9.5. The participants were primarily college students (58.3% living in four Brazilian states. Four verbal tests measuring crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms and verbal analogies were constructed and administered in a group setting. An analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in the overall performance between men and women. However, a differential item functioning analysis indicated significant differences on 8.7% of the items, which indicates the existence of gender bias. Because bias can limit women’s access to social opportunities, the results obtained indicate the importance of reducing item bias in cognitive measures to ensure the accuracy of test results

  5. The relationship of speech intelligibility with hearing sensitivity, cognition, and perceived hearing difficulties varies for different speech perception tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests. Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study. Forty-four listeners aged between 50 and 74 years with mild sensorineural hearing loss were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet), to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise) to high (sentence perception in modulated noise); cognitive tests of attention, memory, and non-verbal intelligence quotient; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life. Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that

  6. Age Effects on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Jerome M.

    1982-01-01

    Studied age norms for 11 individual Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) tests. Digit Symbol showed the most decline. Results suggest that fluid intelligence, as measured by the performance scale tests, shows more of a decline with age than crystallized intelligence, as measured by the verbal scale tests. (Author)

  7. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of proactive interference on non-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Nee, Derek E; Nelson, Eric; Senger, Thea; Jonides, John; Malapani, Chara

    2017-02-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PI in visual WM using both objects with high and low nameability. Using a Directed-Forgetting paradigm, we varied discriminability between WM items on two dimensions, one verbal (high-nameability vs. low-nameability objects) and one perceptual (colored vs. gray objects). As in previous studies using verbal material, effects of PI were found with object stimuli, even after controlling for verbal labels being used (i.e., low-nameability condition). We also found that the addition of distinctive features (color, verbal label) increased performance in rejecting intrusion probes, most likely through an increase in discriminability between content-context bindings in WM.

  9. Development of a Danish speech intelligibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A Danish speech intelligibility test for assessing the speech recognition threshold in noise (SRTN) has been developed. The test consists of 180 sentences distributed in 18 phonetically balanced lists. The sentences are based on an open word-set and represent everyday language. The sente....... The test was verified with 14 normal-hearing listeners; the overall SRTN lies at a signal-to-noise ratio of -3.15 dB with a standard deviation of 1.0 dB. The list-SRTNs deviate less than 0.5 dB from the overall mean....

  10. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...

  11. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  12. Cross-cultural features of gestures in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebotariova N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to analysis of the concept of non-verbal communication and ways of expressing it. Gesticulation is studied in detail as it is the main element of non-verbal communication and has different characteristics in various countries of the world.

  13. Reliability and Validity of the New Tanaka B Intelligence Scale Scores: A Group Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurre...

  14. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  15. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Colorful ESL Test Papers And Spatial Intelligence:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Moradkhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out whether introducing color as an element which may appeal to spatially-intelligent candidates affects their performance on ESL grammar tests. 52 participants were given two parallel grammar tests, one in black and white and the other bearing the full spectrum of colors in the natural daylight. In order to identify the candidates with visual-spatial learning style, the participants and their teachers were asked to respond to Visual-Spatial Identifier rating scale. Based on the results, no significant relationship was found between the performance of candidates on the colorful and black and white grammar tests and their visual-spatial intelligence. It was concluded that other variables including the method of applying colors, the type and combination of colors as well as the differential impact of different colors on candidates with different cultural backgrounds needed to be addressed before any conclusions can be drawn about the application of color in language assessment.

  17. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  18. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  19. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  20. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  1. Dissociation of neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal visual working memory with different delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endestad Tor

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, posterior parietal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex have been identified as neural sites for visual working memory (WM. The exact involvement of the DLPFC in verbal and non-verbal working memory processes, and how these processes depend on the time-span for retention, remains disputed. Methods We used functional MRI to explore the neural correlates of the delayed discrimination of Gabor stimuli differing in orientation. Twelve subjects were instructed to code the relative orientation either verbally or non-verbally with memory delays of short (2 s or long (8 s duration. Results Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD 3-Tesla fMRI revealed significantly more activity for the short verbal condition compared to the short non-verbal condition in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, insula and supramarginal gyrus. Activity in the long verbal condition was greater than in the long non-verbal condition in left language-associated areas (STG and bilateral posterior parietal areas, including precuneus. Interestingly, right DLPFC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus was more active in the non-verbal long delay condition than in the long verbal condition. Conclusion The results point to a dissociation between the cortical sites involved in verbal and non-verbal WM for long and short delays. Right DLPFC seems to be engaged in non-verbal WM tasks especially for long delays. Furthermore, the results indicate that even slightly different memory maintenance intervals engage largely differing networks and that this novel finding may explain differing results in previous verbal/non-verbal WM studies.

  2. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  5. Secular gains in fluid intelligence: evidence from the Culture-Fair intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; García-López, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    There is no doubt about the reality of the secular increase in cognitive test scores. However, there is disagreement about a key issue: does the observed increase reflect a genuine upward trend in intelligence? Evidence from the Raven test is clear, although there are some doubts about its adequacy as a fine-grained measure of fluid intelligence. Evidence from the so-called 'method of correlated vectors' is much less clear. When a crystallized battery is considered, the results leave little doubt: the increase does not reflect gains in general intelligence. However, when a fluid battery is analysed, the increase does reflect gains in general intelligence. The present study uses one of the best available measures of fluid intelligence (the Culture-Fair intelligence test) to provide new evidence for the secular increase in fluid intelligence, beyond the findings from the Raven test and the method of correlated vectors. A total of 4498 Spanish high school students and high school graduates were tested within a time interval of 20 and 23 years, respectively. The results show that there is a clear upward trend in intelligence. Moreover, students show an average increase equivalent to 6 IQ points, while graduates show an average increase of 4 IQ points. Therefore, more selected people (graduates) show a smaller increase than less selected people (students). Some implications are discussed.

  6. Race of Examiner Effects and the Validity of Intelligence Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, William G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence for the influence of examiner's race on examinee's performance on intelligence tests is reviewed. The current literature, 1966 through 1980, offers little support for the hypothesis that examiner's race has a systematic effect on examinee's performance on intelligence tests. Conceptual and methodological issues are…

  7. Psychometric properties of Akinboye's emotional intelligence tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies have been carried out on emotional intelligence. But few of these studies have been able to link emotional intelligence to creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. Importantly, the fact that creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship are strongly driven by positive emotions cannot be ignored. This study ...

  8. A Valid Culture-Fair Test of Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fagan, Joseph F

    2008-01-01

    .... The technical barrier overcome was that current theories of intelligence are based on an assumption that all those taking IQ tests have had equal opportunity for exposure to the information being tested...

  9. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAMBAEEROO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message

  10. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  11. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  12. Negative Symptoms and Avoidance of Social Interaction: A Study of Non-Verbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Elizabeth; Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; Priebe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped. Symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale. Independent raters later analysed the videos for non-verbal behaviour, using a modified version of the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Patients with a higher level of negative symptoms displayed significantly fewer prosocial (e.g., nodding and smiling), gesture, and displacement behaviours (e.g., fumbling), but significantly more flight behaviours (e.g., looking away, freezing). No gender differences were found, and these associations held true when adjusted for antipsychotic medication dosage. Negative symptoms are associated with both a lower level of actively engaging non-verbal behaviour and an increased active avoidance of social contact. Future research should aim to identify the mechanisms behind flight behaviour, with implications for the development of treatments to improve social functioning. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (Asymmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predicate operates in such a way that adjectival predicates are more likely to be conjugated than nominals. Further, besides symmetric paradigms and constructions, in Erzya there are non-verbal predicate constructions which display a more overt structural encoding than do verbal ones, namely, copula constructions. Complexity in the domain of non-verbal predication in Erzya decreases the symmetry of the paradigms. Complexity increases in asymmetric constructions, as well as in paradigmatic neutralisation when non-verbal predicates cannot be inflected in all the tenses and moods occurring in verbal predication. The results would be the reverse if we were to measure complexity in terms of the morphological structure. The asymmetric features in non-verbal predication are motivated language-externally, because non-verbal predicates refer to states and occur less frequently as predicates than verbal categories. The symmetry of the paradigms and constructions is motivated language-internally: a grammatical system with fewer rules is economical.

  14. Non-verbal Communication in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Video Audit Using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale (NIS-O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao; Raval, Himalaya; Bansal, Satvik Chaitanya; Pandya, Utkarsh; Pathak, Ajay

    2018-05-03

    Effective communication with parents is a very important skill for pediatricians especially in a neonatal setup. The authors analyzed non-verbal communication of medical caregivers during counseling sessions. Recorded videos of counseling sessions from the months of March-April 2016 were audited. Counseling episodes were scored using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale Observer Report (NIS-O). A total of 150 videos of counseling sessions were audited. The mean (SD) total score on (NIS-O) was 78.96(7.07). Female counseled sessions had significantly higher proportion of low scores (p communication skills in a neonatal unit. This study lays down a template on which other Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can carry out gap defining audits.

  15. The Development, Testing, and Evaluation of an Emotional Intelligence Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2003-01-01

    Adult students using an emotional intelligence (EI) curriculum (n=13) and 15 controls in a composition class completed the Emotional Intelligence Test and Emotional Content Quality Index. Significant pre- to posttest changes in the EI group suggest the curriculum positively increased their ability to identify, reflect on, process, and manage…

  16. Phenomenology of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Karpets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The priority of language professional activity in sports is such non-verbal communication as body language. Purpose: to delete the main aspects of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities. Material & Methods: in the study participated members of sports teams, individual athletes, in particular, for such sports: basketball, handball, volleyball, football, hockey, bodybuilding. Results: in the process of research it was revealed that in sports activities such nonverbal communication as gestures, facial expressions, physique, etc., are lapped, and, as a consequence, the position "everything is language" (Lyotard is embodied. Conclusions: non-verbal communication is one of the most significant forms of communication in sports. Additional means of communication through the "language" of the body help the athletes to realize themselves and self-determination.

  17. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  18. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  19. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (p...

  20. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  1. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  2. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  3. Cross-cultural differences in the processing of non-verbal affective vocalizations by Japanese and canadian listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Michihiko; Belin, Pascal; Hama, Tomoko; Masuda, Tadashi; Matsuura, Masato; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs) consist of a database of non-verbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group × Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of non-verbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al., 2010), but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions.

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Processing of Non-Verbal Affective Vocalizations by Japanese and Canadian Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Michihiko; Belin, Pascal; Hama, Tomoko; Masuda, Tadashi; Matsuura, Masato; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    The Montreal Affective Voices (MAVs) consist of a database of non-verbal affect bursts portrayed by Canadian actors, and high recognitions accuracies were observed in Canadian listeners. Whether listeners from other cultures would be as accurate is unclear. We tested for cross-cultural differences in perception of the MAVs: Japanese listeners were asked to rate the MAVs on several affective dimensions and ratings were compared to those obtained by Canadian listeners. Significant Group × Emotion interactions were observed for ratings of Intensity, Valence, and Arousal. Whereas Intensity and Valence ratings did not differ across cultural groups for sad and happy vocalizations, they were significantly less intense and less negative in Japanese listeners for angry, disgusted, and fearful vocalizations. Similarly, pleased vocalizations were rated as less intense and less positive by Japanese listeners. These results demonstrate important cross-cultural differences in affective perception not just of non-verbal vocalizations expressing positive affect (Sauter et al., 2010), but also of vocalizations expressing basic negative emotions. PMID:23516137

  5. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  6. Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) prototype acceptance test summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of System Acceptance Testing for the implementation of the Intelligent Network : Flow Optimization (INFLO) Prototype bundle within the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) portion of the Connected : Vehicle Program. ...

  7. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  8. Intelligent Monitoring of Rocket Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Esteban; Rocha, Stephanie; Figueroa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Stephanie Rocha is an undergraduate student pursuing a degree in Mechanical Engineering. Esteban Duran is pursuing a degree in Computer Science. Our mentor is Fernando Figueroa. Our project involved developing Intelligent Health Monitoring at the High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) utilizing the software GensymG2.

  9. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacy L

    2015-05-01

    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Toward a digitally mediated, transgenerational negotiation of verbal and non-verbal concepts in daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    an adult researcher’s research problem and her/his conceptual knowledge of the child-adult-digital media interaction are able to do justice to what the children actually intend to communicate about their experiences and actions, both verbally and non-verbally, by and large remains little explored...

  11. “Communication by impact” and other forms of non-verbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try ...

  12. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of

  13. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  14. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  15. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  16. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  17. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  18. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  19. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.; Dignum, F.; Greaves, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  20. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  1. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  2. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  3. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  5. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  6. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  7. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  8. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality

  9. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J

    2010-08-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  10. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention and Intelligence: The Validity of the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying performance on the Star Counting Test (SCT) and its nomothetic span were investigated along with the relationships between working memory capacity, fluid intelligence (Gf), speed, and school achievement. The SCT is an attention test for children that requires the

  12. Effects of Instruction and Stage-Fright on Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…

  13. Effects of instruction and stage-fright on intelligence testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Oostdam, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated

  14. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  15. A Review of Verbal and Non-Verbal Human-Robot Interactive Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of human-robot interactive communication is presented, covering verbal as well as non-verbal aspects of human-robot interaction. Following a historical introduction, and motivation towards fluid human-robot communication, ten desiderata are proposed, which provide an organizational axis both of recent as well as of future research on human-robot communication. Then, the ten desiderata are examined in detail, culminating to a unifying discussion, and a forward-lookin...

  16. A Characterization of the Utility of Using Artificial Intelligence to Test Two Artificial Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An artificial intelligence system, designed for operations in a real-world environment faces a nearly infinite set of possible performance scenarios. Designers and developers, thus, face the challenge of validating proper performance across both foreseen and unforeseen conditions, particularly when the artificial intelligence is controlling a robot that will be operating in close proximity, or may represent a danger, to humans. While the manual creation of test cases allows limited testing (perhaps ensuring that a set of foreseeable conditions trigger an appropriate response, this may be insufficient to fully characterize and validate safe system performance. An approach to validating the performance of an artificial intelligence system using a simple artificial intelligence test case producer (AITCP is presented. The AITCP allows the creation and simulation of prospective operating scenarios at a rate far exceeding that possible by human testers. Four scenarios for testing an autonomous navigation control system are presented: single actor in two-dimensional space, multiple actors in two-dimensional space, single actor in three-dimensional space, and multiple actors in three-dimensional space. The utility of using the AITCP is compared to that of human testers in each of these scenarios.

  17. Artificial intelligence in a mission operations and satellite test environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Carl

    1988-01-01

    A Generic Mission Operations System using Expert System technology to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) automated monitor and control functions in a Mission Operations and Satellite Test environment will be developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Expert system techniques in a real time operation environment are being studied and applied to science and engineering data processing. Advanced decommutation schemes and intelligent display technology will be examined to develop imaginative improvements in rapid interpretation and distribution of information. The Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC) will demonstrate improved data handling accuracy, flexibility, and responsiveness in a complex mission environment. The ultimate goal is to automate repetitious mission operations, instrument, and satellite test functions by the applications of expert system technology and artificial intelligence resources and to enhance the level of man-machine sophistication.

  18. Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y Wan

    Full Text Available Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide 'proof of concept' for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism.

  19. Choosing among Tests of Emotional Intelligence: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnrue, Mary Pat; Groves, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of research regarding five types of validity for each of four major tests used to measure emotional intelligence (EI). It culls and synthesizes information scattered among a host of articles in academic journals, technical reports, chapters, and books, as well as unpublished papers and manuscripts. It…

  20. Results of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Statistical analyses of scores on subtests of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children were done for two groups of children, either with or without usable vision. Results suggest that the battery has differential factorial and predictive validity. (Author/DB)

  1. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. IRVIN - Intelligent Road and Vehicle test INfrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.T.; Hogema, J.A.; Huiskamp, W.; Papp, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation, or rather virtual testing, is a good instrument for study and design of traffic management concepts, traffic safety, vehicle safety and ergonomics. Simulation facilitates the evaluation of the design at an early stage and reduces the costs of making prototypes. The Dutch research

  3. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. [Loss of intelligence in aphasic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazková-Ctrnáctá, D; Kalvach, P; Preissová, I; Müllerová, B

    2004-01-01

    Certain level of aphasia is considered to be an integral component of dementia. More controversial is the question whether every--e.g. also strictly focal--aphasia must be accompanied with dementia. 41 persons hospitalized after the cerebral stroke (17 men, 24 women, average age 64.6, 47 to 89 years old) were tested to correlate the level of aphasia with mental and intelligence scores. 35 patients had an ischaemic stroke, 6 had a hemorrhagic one; according to CT/MRI there were 37 patients with left sided impairment, one patient with a right sided one and 3 patients with bilateral lesions. As an aphasiologic test the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) was used, to determine the general mental performance as an equivalent of IQ test the non-verbal Raven's and verbal Euro-ADAS test were used. Correlation analysis using non-parametric Spearman's coefficient showed a significant relation between results in phatic functions and the score in intelligence tests. Phatic performance had in all elementary tests closer relation to verbal IQ in Euro-ADAS than with non-verbal IQ in Raven's test. The highest correlation was found in the relation between "apprehension vs. Euro-ADAS" (-0.842) and "apprehension vs. Raven" (0.782), while the lowest correlation was found for "repetition vs. Euro-ADAS" (-0.769), and "repetition vs. Raven" (0.646). The correlation was in all cases significant (p intelligence tests. Sensory aphasia was associated most closely with both relations, with Euro-ADAS (-0.800), and Raven's test (0.800), while global aphasia had the lowest correlation with Euro-ADAS (-0.451) and with Raven's test (0.517). Speech is not only a product of thinking but also represents a source and structural tool for thinking.

  5. Neurophysiological Modulations of Non-Verbal and Verbal Dual-Tasks Interference during Word Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fargier

    Full Text Available Running a concurrent task while speaking clearly interferes with speech planning, but whether verbal vs. non-verbal tasks interfere with the same processes is virtually unknown. We investigated the neural dynamics of dual-task interference on word production using event-related potentials (ERPs with either tones or syllables as concurrent stimuli. Participants produced words from pictures in three conditions: without distractors, while passively listening to distractors and during a distractor detection task. Production latencies increased for tasks with higher attentional demand and were longer for syllables relative to tones. ERP analyses revealed common modulations by dual-task for verbal and non-verbal stimuli around 240 ms, likely corresponding to lexical selection. Modulations starting around 350 ms prior to vocal onset were only observed when verbal stimuli were involved. These later modulations, likely reflecting interference with phonological-phonetic encoding, were observed only when overlap between tasks was maximal and the same underlying neural circuits were engaged (cross-talk.

  6. Neurophysiological Modulations of Non-Verbal and Verbal Dual-Tasks Interference during Word Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Running a concurrent task while speaking clearly interferes with speech planning, but whether verbal vs. non-verbal tasks interfere with the same processes is virtually unknown. We investigated the neural dynamics of dual-task interference on word production using event-related potentials (ERPs) with either tones or syllables as concurrent stimuli. Participants produced words from pictures in three conditions: without distractors, while passively listening to distractors and during a distractor detection task. Production latencies increased for tasks with higher attentional demand and were longer for syllables relative to tones. ERP analyses revealed common modulations by dual-task for verbal and non-verbal stimuli around 240 ms, likely corresponding to lexical selection. Modulations starting around 350 ms prior to vocal onset were only observed when verbal stimuli were involved. These later modulations, likely reflecting interference with phonological-phonetic encoding, were observed only when overlap between tasks was maximal and the same underlying neural circuits were engaged (cross-talk).

  7. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  8. Approaching Artificial Intelligence for Games – the Turing Test revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Eriksson Lundström

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today's powerful computers have increasingly more resources available, which can be used for incorporating more sophisticated AI into home applications like computer games. The perhaps obvious way of using AI to enhance the experience of a game is to make the player perceive the computer-controlled entities as intelligent. The traditional idea of how to determine whether a machine can pass as intelligent is the Turing Test. In this paper we show that it is possible and useful to conduct a test adhering to the intention of the original Turing test. We present an empirical study exploring human discrimination of artificial intelligence from the behaviour of a computer-controlled entity used in its specific context and how the behaviour responds to the user's expectations. In our empirical study the context is a real-time strategy computer game and the purpose of the AI is merely to pass as an acceptable opponent. We discuss the results of the empirical study and its implications for AI in computer applications.

  9. Intelligent Test Mechanism Design of Worn Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of national economy, big gear was widely applied in metallurgy and mine domains. So, big gear plays an important role in above domains. In practical production, big gear abrasion and breach take place often. It affects normal production and causes unnecessary economic loss. A kind of intelligent test method was put forward on worn big gear mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. The measure equations transformations were made on involute straight gear. Original polar coordinate equations were transformed into rectangular coordinate equations. Big gear abrasion measure principle was introduced. Detection principle diagram was given. Detection route realization method was introduced. OADM12 laser sensor was selected. Detection on big gear abrasion area was realized by detection mechanism. Tested data of unworn gear and worn gear were led in designed calculation program written by Visual Basic language. Big gear abrasion quantity can be obtained. It provides a feasible method for intelligent test and intelligent repair welding on worn big gear.

  10. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  11. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F; Celi, L A; Fialho, A S; Vieira, S M; Reti, S R; Sousa, J M C; Finkelstein, S N

    2013-05-01

    To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1-3]. Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the likely information to be gained from proposed future

  12. Reducing unnecessary lab testing in the ICU with artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, F.; Celi, L.A.; Fialho, A.S.; Vieira, S.M.; Reti, S.R.; Sousa, J.M.C.; Finkelstein, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To reduce unnecessary lab testing by predicting when a proposed future lab test is likely to contribute information gain and thereby influence clinical management in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Recent studies have demonstrated that frequent laboratory testing does not necessarily relate to better outcomes. Design Data preprocessing, feature selection, and classification were performed and an artificial intelligence tool, fuzzy modeling, was used to identify lab tests that do not contribute an information gain. There were 11 input variables in total. Ten of these were derived from bedside monitor trends heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature, blood pressure, and urine collections, as well as infusion products and transfusions. The final input variable was a previous value from one of the eight lab tests being predicted: calcium, PTT, hematocrit, fibrinogen, lactate, platelets, INR and hemoglobin. The outcome for each test was a binary framework defining whether a test result contributed information gain or not. Patients Predictive modeling was applied to recognize unnecessary lab tests in a real world ICU database extract comprising 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Main results Classification accuracy of necessary and unnecessary lab tests of greater than 80% was achieved for all eight lab tests. Sensitivity and specificity were satisfactory for all the outcomes. An average reduction of 50% of the lab tests was obtained. This is an improvement from previously reported similar studies with average performance 37% by [1–3]. Conclusions Reducing frequent lab testing and the potential clinical and financial implications are an important issue in intensive care. In this work we present an artificial intelligence method to predict the benefit of proposed future laboratory tests. Using ICU data from 746 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, and eleven measurements, we demonstrate high accuracy in predicting the

  13. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  14. Cortical auditory disorders: a case of non-verbal disturbances assessed with event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Sönke; Jöbges, Michael E.; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians' musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19-30) and by event-related potentials (ERP) recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm'. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  15. Linking social cognition with social interaction: Non-verbal expressivity, social competence and "mentalising" in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmkämper Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI. Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD.

  16. The Bursts and Lulls of Multimodal Interaction: Temporal Distributions of Behavior Reveal Differences Between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Louwerse, Max M; Kello, Christopher T

    2018-04-06

    Recent studies of naturalistic face-to-face communication have demonstrated coordination patterns such as the temporal matching of verbal and non-verbal behavior, which provides evidence for the proposal that verbal and non-verbal communicative control derives from one system. In this study, we argue that the observed relationship between verbal and non-verbal behaviors depends on the level of analysis. In a reanalysis of a corpus of naturalistic multimodal communication (Louwerse, Dale, Bard, & Jeuniaux, ), we focus on measuring the temporal patterns of specific communicative behaviors in terms of their burstiness. We examined burstiness estimates across different roles of the speaker and different communicative modalities. We observed more burstiness for verbal versus non-verbal channels, and for more versus less informative language subchannels. Using this new method for analyzing temporal patterns in communicative behaviors, we show that there is a complex relationship between verbal and non-verbal channels. We propose a "temporal heterogeneity" hypothesis to explain how the language system adapts to the demands of dialog. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  18. One Dimensional Turing-Like Handshake Test for Motor Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniel, Amir; Avraham, Guy; Peles, Bat-Chen; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Nisky, Ilana

    2010-01-01

    In the Turing test, a computer model is deemed to "think intelligently" if it can generate answers that are not distinguishable from those of a human. However, this test is limited to the linguistic aspects of machine intelligence. A salient function of the brain is the control of movement, and the movement of the human hand is a sophisticated demonstration of this function. Therefore, we propose a Turing-like handshake test, for machine motor intelligence. We administer the test through a telerobotic system in which the interrogator is engaged in a task of holding a robotic stylus and interacting with another party (human or artificial). Instead of asking the interrogator whether the other party is a person or a computer program, we employ a two-alternative forced choice method and ask which of two systems is more human-like. We extract a quantitative grade for each model according to its resemblance to the human handshake motion and name it "Model Human-Likeness Grade" (MHLG). We present three methods to estimate the MHLG. (i) By calculating the proportion of subjects' answers that the model is more human-like than the human; (ii) By comparing two weighted sums of human and model handshakes we fit a psychometric curve and extract the point of subjective equality (PSE); (iii) By comparing a given model with a weighted sum of human and random signal, we fit a psychometric curve to the answers of the interrogator and extract the PSE for the weight of the human in the weighted sum. Altogether, we provide a protocol to test computational models of the human handshake. We believe that building a model is a necessary step in understanding any phenomenon and, in this case, in understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for the generation of the human handshake. PMID:21206462

  19. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  20. Individual Differences in Verbal and Non-Verbal Affective Responses to Smells: Influence of Odor Label Across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Joussain, Pauline; Digard, Bérengère; Luneau, Lucie; Djordjevic, Jelena; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory perception is highly variable from one person to another, as a function of individual and contextual factors. Here, we investigated the influence of 2 important factors of variation: culture and semantic information. More specifically, we tested whether cultural-specific knowledge and presence versus absence of odor names modulate odor perception, by measuring these effects in 2 populations differing in cultural background but not in language. Participants from France and Quebec, Canada, smelled 4 culture-specific and 2 non-specific odorants in 2 conditions: first without label, then with label. Their ratings of pleasantness, familiarity, edibility, and intensity were collected as well as their psychophysiological and olfactomotor responses. The results revealed significant effects of culture and semantic information, both at the verbal and non-verbal level. They also provided evidence that availability of semantic information reduced cultural differences. Semantic information had a unifying action on olfactory perception that overrode the influence of cultural background. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The use of neuropsychological tests to assess intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, David A; Varvaris, Mark; Schretlen, David J

    We sought to derive a 'neuropsychological intelligence quotient' (NIQ) to replace IQ testing in some routine assessments. We administered neuropsychological testing and a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to a community sample of 394 adults aged 18-96 years. We regressed Wechsler Full Scale IQs (W-FSIQ) on 23 neuropsychological scores and derived an NIQ from 9 measures that explained significant variance in W-FSIQ. We then compared subgroups of 284 healthy and 108 unhealthy participants in NIQ and W-FSIQ to assess criterion validity, correlated NIQ and W-FSIQ scores with education level and independence for activities of daily living to assess convergent validity, and compared validity coefficients for the NIQ with those of 'hold' and 'no-hold' indices. By design, NIQ and W-FSIQ scores correlated highly (r = .84), and both were higher in healthy participants. The difference was larger for NIQ, which accounted for more variability in activities of daily living. The NIQ and 'no-hold' index were better predicted by health status and less predicted by educational status than the 'hold' index. We constructed an NIQ that correlates highly with Wechsler FSIQ. Tests required to obtain NIQ are commonly used and can be administered in about 45 min. Validity properties of NIQ and W-FSIQ are similar. The NIQ bore greater resemblance to a 'no-hold' than 'hold' index. One can obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of current Full Scale IQ without formal intelligence testing from a brief neuropsychological battery.

  2. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft.

  3. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  4. Intelligent Tutoring System: A Tool for Testing the Research Curiosities of Artificial Intelligence Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaratan, Huseyin

    2003-01-01

    An ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) is a teaching-learning medium that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technology for instruction. Roberts and Park (1983) defines AI as the attempt to get computers to perform tasks that if performed by a human-being, intelligence would be required to perform the task. The design of an ITS comprises two distinct…

  5. Emotional Intelligence Tests: Potential Impacts on the Hiring Process for Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Shane; Wegener, Matt; Bay, Darlene; Cook, Gail Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is increasingly recognized as being important for professional career success. Skills related to emotional intelligence (e.g. organizational commitment, public speaking, teamwork, and leadership) are considered essential. Human resource professionals have begun including tests of emotional intelligence (EI) in job applicant…

  6. The Lovelace 2.0 Test of Artificial Creativity and Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Observing that the creation of certain types of artistic artifacts necessitate intelligence, we present the Lovelace 2.0 Test of creativity as an alternative to the Turing Test as a means of determining whether an agent is intelligent. The Lovelace 2.0 Test builds off prior tests of creativity and additionally provides a means of directly comparing the relative intelligence of different agents.

  7. The Development of the Wechsler Scales and Their Influence on Contemporary Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The history of intelligence testing merits study as standardized intelligence tests have been administered for only a little over a century. The most popular tests in use today are the Wechsler scales, despite the availability of other test batteries that are better grounded in contemporary theory. To understand why contemporary revisions of…

  8. Assessing and Revising the Plan for Intelligence Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Vergauwe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This brief commentary suggests that the usefulness of the concept of intelligence might depend on how one defines intelligence and on whether one is using it for scientific or practical purposes. Furthermore, it is suggested that the concept of working memory must not be overlooked when considering individual differences in intelligence.

  9. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  10. Contextual analysis of human non-verbal guide behaviors to inform the development of FROG, the Fun Robotic Outdoor Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the first step in a series of studies to design the interaction behaviors of an outdoor robotic guide. We describe and report the use case development carried out to identify effective human tour guide behaviors. In this paper we focus on non-verbal communication cues in gaze,

  11. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, L. A.; Nauta, M. H.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015.

  12. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A network meta-analysis on the effects of non-verbal therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Bocking, Claudi L.H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015.

  13. Adults with Asperger Syndrome with and without a Cognitive Profile Associated with "Non-Verbal Learning Disability." A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…

  14. Near Real-Time Comprehension Classification with Artificial Neural Networks: Decoding e-Learner Non-Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mike; Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; O'Shea, James D.

    2018-01-01

    Comprehension is an important cognitive state for learning. Human tutors recognize comprehension and non-comprehension states by interpreting learner non-verbal behavior (NVB). Experienced tutors adapt pedagogy, materials, and instruction to provide additional learning scaffold in the context of perceived learner comprehension. Near real-time…

  15. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  16. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  17. The use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of "transformed social interactions." This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA.

  18. Knowledge Prediction of Different Students’ Categories Trough an Intelligent Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zheliazkova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Student’s modelling, prediction, and grouping have remained open research issues in the multi-disciplinary area of educational data mining. The purpose of this study is to predict the correct knowledge of different categories of tested students: good, very good, and all. The experimental data set was gathered from an intelligent post-test performance containing student’s correct, missing, and wrong knowledge, time undertaken, and final mark. The proposed procedure applies consequently correlation analysis, simple and multiple liner regression using a power specialized tool for programming by the teacher. The finding is that the accuracy of the procedure is satisfactory for the three students’ categories. The experiment also confirms some findings of other researchers and previous authors’ team studies.

  19. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour and patient perception of communication in primary care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Gashi, Shkelzen; Bikker, Annemieke; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have assessed the importance of a broad range of verbal and non-verbal consultation behaviours. To explore the relationship of observer ratings of behaviours of videotaped consultations with patients' perceptions. Observational study in general practices close to Southampton, Southern England. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour was rated by independent observers blind to outcome. Patients competed the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS; primary outcome) and questionnaires addressing other communication domains. In total, 275/360 consultations from 25 GPs had useable videotapes. Higher MISS scores were associated with slight forward lean (an 0.02 increase for each degree of lean, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002 to 0.03), the number of gestures (0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15), 'back-channelling' (for example, saying 'mmm') (0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.2), and social talk (0.29, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.54). Starting the consultation with professional coolness ('aloof') was helpful and optimism unhelpful. Finishing with non-verbal 'cut-offs' (for example, looking away), being professionally cool ('aloof'), or patronising, ('infantilising') resulted in poorer ratings. Physical contact was also important, but not traditional verbal communication. These exploratory results require confirmation, but suggest that patients may be responding to several non-verbal behaviours and non-specific verbal behaviours, such as social talk and back-channelling, more than traditional verbal behaviours. A changing consultation dynamic may also help, from professional 'coolness' at the beginning of the consultation to becoming warmer and avoiding non-verbal cut-offs at the end. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  20. Exploring laterality and memory effects in the haptic discrimination of verbal and non-verbal shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoycheva, Polina; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2018-03-14

    The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality. Participants performed haptic discrimination of letters, geometric shapes and nonsense shapes at memory retention times of 5, 15 and 30 s with the left and right hand separately, and we measured the discriminability index d'. The d' values were significantly higher for letters and geometric shapes than for nonsense shapes. This might result from dual coding (naming + spatial) or/and from a low stimulus complexity. There was no stimulus-specific laterality effect. However, we found a time-dependent laterality effect, which revealed that the performance of the left hand-right hemisphere was sustained up to 15 s, while the performance of the right-hand-left hemisphere decreased progressively throughout all retention times. This suggests that haptic memory traces are more robust to decay when they are processed by the left hand-right hemisphere.

  1. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  2. Memory and comprehension deficits in spatial descriptions of children with non-verbal and reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Meneghetti, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the difficulties encountered by children with non-verbal learning disability (NLD) and reading disability (RD) when processing spatial information derived from descriptions, based on the assumption that both groups should find it more difficult than matched controls, but for different reasons, i.e., due to a memory encoding difficulty in cases of RD and to spatial information comprehension problems in cases of NLD. Spatial descriptions from both survey and route perspectives were presented to 9-12-year-old children divided into three groups: NLD (N = 12); RD (N = 12), and typically developing controls (TD; N = 15); then participants completed a sentence verification task and a memory for locations task. The sentence verification task was presented in two conditions: in one the children could refer to the text while answering the questions (i.e., text present condition), and in the other the text was withdrawn (i.e., text absent condition). Results showed that the RD group benefited from the text present condition, but was impaired to the same extent as the NLD group in the text absent condition, suggesting that the NLD children's difficulty is due mainly to their poor comprehension of spatial descriptions, while the RD children's difficulty is due more to a memory encoding problem. These results are discussed in terms of their implications in the neuropsychological profiles of children with NLD or RD, and the processes involved in spatial descriptions.

  3. Application of artificial intelligence to motor operated valve testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, T.; Bednar, F.; Matty, T.; Kent, R.

    1989-01-01

    Improper valve maintenance can be a significant roadblock to successful power plant operation. There have been events during which motor operated valves failed on demand due to improper switch settings. For nuclear electric generating stations, these events have led to regulatory requirements such as NRC Bulletin 85-03 and NRC Bulletin 89-10 Safety Related Motor Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance which imposes strict testing and programmatic requirements on motor operated valves (MOV). Part of the requirements include performing diagnostic testing to verify stem thrust loads and switch settings. Diagnostic equipment must be non-intrusive, minimize valve disassembly, and reduce plant refueling critical path time for testing. In this paper an on-line diagnostic system using sensors to measure stem forces, motor current, and valve position, and a portable system employing these same sensor inputs in addition to torque, limit and torque bypass switch inputs is described. Sophisticated graphic software is employed to display data or trace information. A rule based artificial intelligence (AI) system is used to analyze sensor outputs. Objectives for valve diagnostics, sample AI rules, results of actual field testing, and system software/hardware architecture are presented

  4. Motivation and intelligence drive auditory perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Halliday, Lorna; Taylor, Jenny; Sohoglu, Ediz; Moore, David R

    2010-03-23

    Although feedback on performance is generally thought to promote perceptual learning, the role and necessity of feedback remain unclear. We investigated the effect of providing varying amounts of positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones on learning frequency discrimination. Using this novel procedure, the feedback was meaningless and random in relation to the listeners' responses, but the amount of feedback provided (or lack thereof) affected learning. We found that a group of listeners who received positive feedback on 10% of the trials improved their performance on the task (learned), while other groups provided either with excess (90%) or with no feedback did not learn. Superimposed on these group data, however, individual listeners showed other systematic changes of performance. In particular, those with lower non-verbal IQ who trained in the no feedback condition performed more poorly after training. This pattern of results cannot be accounted for by learning models that ascribe an external teacher role to feedback. We suggest, instead, that feedback is used to monitor performance on the task in relation to its perceived difficulty, and that listeners who learn without the benefit of feedback are adept at self-monitoring of performance, a trait that also supports better performance on non-verbal IQ tests. These results show that 'perceptual' learning is strongly influenced by top-down processes of motivation and intelligence.

  5. Symbiotic Relations of Verbal and Non-Verbal Components of Creolized Text on the Example of Stephen King’s Books Covers Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Anna S. Kobysheva; Viktoria A. Nakaeva

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the symbiotic relationships between non-verbal and verbal components of the creolized text. The research focuses on the analysis of the correlation between verbal and visual elements of horror book covers based on three types of correlations between verbal and non-verbal text constituents, i.e. recurrent, additive and emphatic.

  6. Symbiotic Relations of Verbal and Non-Verbal Components of Creolized Text on the Example of Stephen King’s Books Covers Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Kobysheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the symbiotic relationships between non-verbal and verbal components of the creolized text. The research focuses on the analysis of the correlation between verbal and visual elements of horror book covers based on three types of correlations between verbal and non-verbal text constituents, i.e. recurrent, additive and emphatic.

  7. Intelligent MRTD testing for thermal imaging system using ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junyue; Ma, Dongmei

    2006-01-01

    The Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) is the most widely accepted figure for describing the performance of a thermal imaging system. Many models have been proposed to predict it. The MRTD testing is a psychophysical task, for which biases are unavoidable. It requires laboratory conditions such as normal air condition and a constant temperature. It also needs expensive measuring equipments and takes a considerable period of time. Especially when measuring imagers of the same type, the test is time consuming. So an automated and intelligent measurement method should be discussed. This paper adopts the concept of automated MRTD testing using boundary contour system and fuzzy ARTMAP, but uses different methods. It describes an Automated MRTD Testing procedure basing on Back-Propagation Network. Firstly, we use frame grabber to capture the 4-bar target image data. Then according to image gray scale, we segment the image to get 4-bar place and extract feature vector representing the image characteristic and human detection ability. These feature sets, along with known target visibility, are used to train the ANN (Artificial Neural Networks). Actually it is a nonlinear classification (of input dimensions) of the image series using ANN. Our task is to justify if image is resolvable or uncertainty. Then the trained ANN will emulate observer performance in determining MRTD. This method can reduce the uncertainties between observers and long time dependent factors by standardization. This paper will introduce the feature extraction algorithm, demonstrate the feasibility of the whole process and give the accuracy of MRTD measurement.

  8. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B.R.; Gignac, G.; Manocha, R.; Stough, C.

    2005-01-01

    and discussed.There has been some debate recently over the scoring, reliability and factor structure of ability measures of emotional intelligence (EI). This study examined these three psychometric properties with the most recent ability test of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso,…

  9. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  10. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  11. Comparison of Individual Performance in Intelligence Tests WAIS III and RPM (Raven's Progressive Matrices)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrů, Vít

    2017-01-01

    This thesis deals with replacement of performative scale of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd revision) through Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices and Advanced Progressive Matrices. In the theoretical part introduces the concepts of intelligence, approaches to its exploration and intelligence tests. The theoretical part is also devoted to the description of the used methods and presents an overview of the research on a similar theme as this work. In the empirical part of the thesis is...

  12. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  13. Non-verbal communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; O'Connor-Fenelon, Maureen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with an intellectual disability is then comprehensively examined in light of existing literature. Issues including knowledge of the person with intellectual disability, mismatch of communication ability, and knowledge of communication arose as predominant themes. A critical review of the importance of communication in nursing practice follows. The paucity of literature relating to intellectual disability nursing and non-verbal communication clearly indicates a need for research.

  14. From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: tracing the history of intelligence testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boake, Corwin

    2002-05-01

    The history of David Wechsler's intelligence scales is reviewed by tracing the origins of the subtests in the 1939 Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. The subtests originated from tests developed between 1880 and World War I, and was based on approaches to mental testing including anthropometrics, association psychology, the Binet-Simon scales, language-free performance testing of immigrants and school children, and group testing of military recruits. Wechsler's subtest selection can be understood partly from his clinical experiences during World War I. The structure of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scale, which introduced major innovations in intelligence testing, has remained almost unchanged through later revisions.

  15. Development and Testing of Intelligent Alcohol Transportation Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velaphi Msomi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and testing of intelligent liquid transportation security system are being reported in this paper. The targeted fluid to be secured was ethanol alcohol and this was due to the theft cases occurring during the transportation of this product from the supplier to the customer. The system was developed such that only the radar level sensor (VEGAPULS 62 might be in contact with the fluid and the rest of the system remained outside the liquid carrying container to be secured. The system was developed such that it reports any abnormal liquid level drop through short message service (SMS. The functioning of the developed system was tested through the use of 1040 L Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC filled with water which was hauled for about 1.5 km. The liquid theft was simulated and the system sent two SMS. The first SMS reported the beginning of water level drop and the second one reported the ending of water level drop. The second SMS reported the amount of liquid that was taken out of the container.

  16. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  17. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  18. How Emotional Intelligence Might Get You the Job: The Relationship Between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Faking on Personality Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Pelt (Dirk); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined trait emotional intelligence (EI) in relation to the ability to fake on personality tests. Undergraduate students (N = 129) were first instructed to fill out a personality inventory honestly, and subsequently in such a way as to maximize their chances of obtaining two

  19. Comparative Analysis of Verbal and Non-Verbal Mental Activity Components Regarding the Young People with Different Intellectual Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Revenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper maintains that for developing the educational pro- grams and technologies adequate to the different stages of students’ growth and maturity, there is a need for exploring the natural determinants of intel- lectual development as well as the students’ individual qualities affecting the cognition process. The authors investigate the differences of the intellect manifestations with the reference to the gender principle, and analyze the correlations be- tween verbal and non-verbal components in boys and girls’ mental activity depending on their general intellect potential. The research, carried out in Si- berian State Automobile Road Academy and focused on the first year stu- dents, demonstrates the absence of gender differences in students’ general in- tellect levels; though, there are some other conformities: the male students of different intellectual levels show the same correlation coefficient of verbal and non-verbal intellect while the female ones have the same correlation only at the high intellect level. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the need for the integral ap- proach to raising students’ mental abilities considering the close interrelation between the verbal and non-verbal component development. The teaching materials should stimulate different mental qualities by differentiating the educational process to develop students’ individual abilities. 

  20. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V: Test Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sabrina D; Burns, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Changes from the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) to the fifth edition are discussed, with particular emphasis on how the electronic administration facilitated assessment. The hierarchical organization and conceptualization of primary indices have been adjusted, based on recent theory and research on the construct of intelligence. Changes also include updates to psychometric properties and consideration of cultural bias. The scoring program allows intelligence scores to be linked statistically to achievement measures to aid in diagnoses of learning disabilities. Electronic assessment was clunky at times but overall delivered on its promise of quicker and more accurate administration and scoring.

  2. Towards Intelligence and Flexibility of Learning and Knowledge Testing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerijus AUKSTAKALNIS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.

  3. Methodology Investigation of AI(Artificial Intelligence) Test Officer Support Tool. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    American Association for Artificial inteligence A! ............. Artificial inteliigence AMC ............ Unt:ed States Army Maeriel Comand ASL...block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems Automated Aids to Testing 9. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and...identify by block number) This report covers the application of Artificial Intelligence-Techniques to the problem of creating automated tools to

  4. Peculiarities of Stereotypes about Non-Verbal Communication and their Role in Cross-Cultural Interaction between Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the stereotypes about non-verbal communication, formed in Russian and Chinese cultures. The results of the experimental research of the role of ethnic auto- and heterostereotypes about non-verbal communication in cross-cultural interaction between Russian and Chinese students of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia are presented.

  5. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal, e investigar a prevalência de assimetria inter-hemisférica neste grupo populacional. Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças e adolescentes encaminhados para uma avaliação interdisciplinar, com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem e que receberam diagnóstico interdisciplinar de transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal. As variáveis avaliadas foram prevalência por sexo, sistema de ensino, hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais e respectivas prevalências, prevalência de condições em relação à amostra total, prevalência geral do transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal

  6. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  7. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  8. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  9. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  10. The Chinese Intelligence Scale for Young Children: Testing Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance Using the Framework of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Boliang; Aveyard, Paul; Dai, Xiaoyang

    2009-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence test has four factors representing four components of intellectual function. In China, there are marked cultural, educational, and economic disparities between rural and urban dwellers, which could lead to cultural bias. The aim of this study was to apply the four-factor structure to responses to the Chinese Intelligence…

  11. Relationship of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in children referred for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, Donald J; Scattone, Dorothy; May, Warren

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Increasingly, psychologists are using brief measures of intelligence, but scant information exists regarding their clinical utility in various populations. 44 children referred for evaluation of ADHD were administered the KBIT-2 and WASI in counterbalanced order. Results of this study indicated the WASI to be a more stable measure of ADHD children's intelligence, that the KBIT-2 Vocabulary scores were significantly lower than the WASI Verbal score, and that there was significant variability within participants.

  12. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  13. Emotional Intelligence Measured in a Highly Competitive Testing Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2001-01-01

    This is a study in which emotional intelligence (EI) as well as several other personality dimensions were studied in a real, high-stakes, selection situation, N=190. Forty-one trait oriented personality scales were measured and factor analyzed. A factor pattern with four secondary factors was found: EI, emotional stability, rigidity/perfectionism and energy/dominance. These factors were related to standard FFM (Five Factor Model) dimensions, to Hogan's Development Survey ("the dark side of pe...

  14. Concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2 1/2-7-Revised with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, C; O'Keefe, SL; Lawhon, D; Tellegen, P

    This study examined the concurrent validity of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised compared to the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised Subjects were 25 4-yr.-olds of lower, lower-middle, and middle socioeconomic status from both urban and rural areas of

  15. Eugenics and Education: A Note on the Origins of the Intelligence Testing Movement in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roy

    1980-01-01

    Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…

  16. Origin of differences between Serbian and Roma children in social intelligence test's achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đigić Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to identify the origin of differences between Serbian (N=166 and Roma children (N=169 of primary school age in achievement on Modified Rosenzweig Test, used as a measure of social intelligence (Roma children had lower results than Serbian children. Results show that these differences can be partly explained with extreme inviolable socio-economic and cultural status of Roma children. Social intelligence test's scores are significantly correlated with socio-economic and cultural status; this correlation is more apparent in Roma than in Serbian sample. Differences between Serbian and Roma children become less apparent when we control the influence of socio-economic and cultural status. Parent's educational level is recognized as the most important indicator of socio-economic and cultural status. Another way to identify the origin of differences was directed to investigation of adequacy of used test as a measure of social intelligence of Roma children. Our assumption that some items make whole test unfair for Roma children is not confirmed. However, results concerning the relation between experience with particular social situations and success in particular test items, and results concerning the different structures of implicite understanding of social intelligence by Serbian and Roma parents, point out that test key favors responses that Serbian people accept as optimal in task situation, while the responses according to Roma implicite understanding of social intelligence are less valued.

  17. The relationship between Test Takers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on the Reading Sections of TOEFL and IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the hypothetical relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading sections of TOEFL and IELTS. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that intelligence is not a single and solely inborn capacity, rather a multiple construct which is only partly genetic, and can be crystallized or paralyzed over one’s lifetime. Based on the theory, there are eight types of intelligence: linguistic, mathematical, musical, bodily, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalist, but the list is not exhaustive. The multiple intelligences of test takers were estimated by means of MIDAS, the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales, developed by Shearer (1994. Subsequently, the bias detection for the reading section of TOEFL was carried out on 90 participants, and this subtest was found to correlate positively with linguistic and logical intelligences. By the same token, 89 out of the 163 participants in the study were included in the analysis of the relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading section of IELTS, and this test proved biased toward linguistic and spatial intelligences. The implications concern the inadequacy of the definition of language proficiency .Moreover, Measurement-Driven Instruction courses and preparatory materials of the two proficiency tests, TOEFL and IELTS, can benefit from the results of the study by being designed in such a way as to represent the intelligences which are positively correlated with performance on the tests in question.

  18. Sex differences in the ability to recognise non-verbal displays of emotion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Voyer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of sex differences in humans' ability to accurately recognise non-verbal emotional displays. Studies of relevance were those that required explicit labelling of discrete emotions presented in the visual and/or auditory modality. A final set of 551 effect sizes from 215 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed a small overall advantage in favour of females on emotion recognition tasks (d=0.19). However, the magnitude of that sex difference was moderated by several factors, namely specific emotion, emotion type (negative, positive), sex of the actor, sensory modality (visual, audio, audio-visual) and age of the participants. Method of presentation (computer, slides, print, etc.), type of measurement (response time, accuracy) and year of publication did not significantly contribute to variance in effect sizes. These findings are discussed in the context of social and biological explanations of sex differences in emotion recognition.

  19. [Intelligence, socio-economic status and hospital admissions of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F

    2007-05-12

    To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.

  20. Real time testing of intelligent relays for synchronous distributed generation islanding detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Davy

    As electric power systems continue to grow to meet ever-increasing energy demand, their security, reliability, and sustainability requirements also become more stringent. The deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), including generation and storage, in conventional passive distribution feeders, gives rise to integration problems involving protection and unintentional islanding. Distributed generators need to be islanded for safety reasons when disconnected or isolated from the main feeder as distributed generator islanding may create hazards to utility and third-party personnel, and possibly damage the distribution system infrastructure, including the distributed generators. This thesis compares several key performance indicators of a newly developed intelligent islanding detection relay, against islanding detection devices currently used by the industry. The intelligent relay employs multivariable analysis and data mining methods to arrive at decision trees that contain both the protection handles and the settings. A test methodology is developed to assess the performance of these intelligent relays on a real time simulation environment using a generic model based on a real-life distribution feeder. The methodology demonstrates the applicability and potential advantages of the intelligent relay, by running a large number of tests, reflecting a multitude of system operating conditions. The testing indicates that the intelligent relay often outperforms frequency, voltage and rate of change of frequency relays currently used for islanding detection, while respecting the islanding detection time constraints imposed by standing distributed generator interconnection guidelines.

  1. Utility of Intelligence Tests for Treatment Planning, Classification, and Placement Decisions: Recent Empirical Findings and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.; Witt, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that intelligence tests contribute little to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for children. Suggests that intelligence tests are not useful in making differential diagnostic and classification determinations for children with mild learning problems and that such testing is not a cost-beneficial…

  2. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  3. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE OF THE TEENAGERS MAKING USE OF SMOKING BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonidovna Plotnikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article one can find the results of the research of the teenagers social intelligence at the age of 14-15 years old, making use of narcotic smoking blends. Some specific features of their social intelligence, development level of empathy and communicative skills in comparison with nonsmoking peers are given.Purpose: to find and describe specific features of the social intelligence of the teenagers at the age of 14-15 years old making use of the narcotic smoking blends in comparison with nonsmoking peers.Method: testing, Mann – Whitney U Test.Results: the teenagers making use of narcotic smoking blends have a low level of the social intelligence, communicative skills and empathic abilities. Such elements of the social intelligence as the ability to foresee the behavioral consequences in a concrete situation (prognostic competence and the ability to logical generalization of non-verbal reactions of a person are worse developed in comparison with nonsmoking peers. There are no significant differences between smoking girls and smoking boys.Areas of use: resocialization and rehabilitation of the addicted teenagers

  4. Validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version-Research Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christine; Kranzler, John H.; Rossen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the criterion-related validity evidence of scores on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version-Research Version. The authors also investigate the relationship between scores on the MSCEIT-YV and chronological age. Results provide initial support for the construct validity of the MSCEIT-YV but also…

  5. Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 by Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, C. Holley; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the performance of 292 4- to 17-year-olds with Williams syndrome (WS) on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Mean IQ Composite, Verbal standard score (SS), and Nonverbal SS were in the borderline range relative to the general population, with variability similar to the general population.…

  6. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  7. A modern artificial intelligence Playware art tool for psychological testing of group dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and the psychological findings. We describe the modern artificial intelligence implementation of this instrument. Between an art piece and a psychological test, at a first cognitive analysis, it seems to be a promising research tool. In the discussion we speculate about potential industrial applications, as well....

  8. A comparison of processing load during non-verbal decision-making in two individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Suleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A growing body of evidence suggests people with aphasia (PWA can have impairments to cognitive functions such as attention, working memory and executive functions.(1-5 Such cognitive impairments have been shown to negatively affect the decision-making (DM abilities adults with neurological damage. (6,7 However, little is known about DM abilities of PWA.(8 Pupillometry is “the measurement of changes in pupil diameter”.(9;p.1 Researchers have reported a positive relationship between processing load and phasic pupil size (i.e., as processing load increases, pupil size increases.(10 Thus pupillometry has the potential to be a useful tool for investigating processing load during DM in PWA. AIMS The primary aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of using pupillometry during a non-verbal DM task with PWA. The secondary aim was to explore non-verbal DM performance in PWA and determine the relationship between DM performance and processing load using pupillometry. METHOD DESIGN. A single-subject case-study design with two participants was used in this study. PARTICIPANTS. Two adult males with anomic aphasia participated in this study. Participants were matched for age and education. Both participants were independent, able to drive, and had legal autonomy. MEASURES. PERFORMANCE ON A DM TASK. We used a computerized risk-taking card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT as our non-verbal DM task.(11 In the IGT, participants made 100 selections (via eye gaze from four decks of cards presented on the computer screen with the goal of maximizing their overall hypothetical monetary gain. PROCESSING LOAD. The EyeLink 1000+ eye tracking system was used to collect pupil size measures while participants deliberated before each deck selection during the IGT. For this analysis, we calculated change in pupil size as a measure of processing load. RESULTS P1. P1 made increasingly advantageous decisions as the task progressed (Fig.1. When

  9. Neuroticism, intelligence, and intra-individual variability in elementary cognitive tasks: testing the mental noise hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Quiroga, Ma Angeles

    2009-08-01

    Some studies show positive correlations between intraindividual variability in elementary speed measures (reflecting processing efficiency) and individual differences in neuroticism (reflecting instability in behaviour). The so-called neural noise hypothesis assumes that higher levels of noise are related both to smaller indices of processing efficiency and greater levels of neuroticism. Here, we test this hypothesis measuring mental speed by means of three elementary cognitive tasks tapping similar basic processes but varying systematically their content (verbal, numerical, and spatial). Neuroticism and intelligence are also measured. The sample comprised 196 undergraduate psychology students. The results show that (1) processing efficiency is generally unrelated to individual differences in neuroticism, (2) processing speed and efficiency correlate with intelligence, and (3) only the efficiency index is genuinely related to intelligence when the colinearity between speed and efficiency is controlled.

  10. A novel modification of the Turing test for artificial intelligence and robotics in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2015-03-01

    The increasing demands of delivering higher quality global healthcare has resulted in a corresponding expansion in the development of computer-based and robotic healthcare tools that rely on artificially intelligent technologies. The Turing test was designed to assess artificial intelligence (AI) in computer technology. It remains an important qualitative tool for testing the next generation of medical diagnostics and medical robotics. Development of quantifiable diagnostic accuracy meta-analytical evaluative techniques for the Turing test paradigm. Modification of the Turing test to offer quantifiable diagnostic precision and statistical effect-size robustness in the assessment of AI for computer-based and robotic healthcare technologies. Modification of the Turing test to offer robust diagnostic scores for AI can contribute to enhancing and refining the next generation of digital diagnostic technologies and healthcare robotics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diagnosis - Using automatic test equipment and artificial intelligence expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. E., Jr.

    Three expert systems (ATEOPS, ATEFEXPERS, and ATEFATLAS), which were created to direct automatic test equipment (ATE), are reviewed. The purpose of the project was to develop an expert system to troubleshoot the converter-programmer power supply card for the F-15 aircraft and have that expert system direct the automatic test equipment. Each expert system uses a different knowledge base or inference engine, basing the testing on the circuit schematic, test requirements document, or ATLAS code. Implementing generalized modules allows the expert systems to be used for any different unit under test. Using converted ATLAS to LISP code allows the expert system to direct any ATE using ATLAS. The constraint propagated frame system allows for the expansion of control by creating the ATLAS code, checking the code for good software engineering techniques, directing the ATE, and changing the test sequence as needed (planning).

  12. Referential Interactions of Turkish-Learning Children with Their Caregivers about Non-Absent Objects: Integration of Non-Verbal Devices and Prior Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Beyza S.; Küntay, Aylin C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way children younger than two use non-verbal devices (i.e., deictic gestures and communicative functional acts) and pay attention to discourse status (i.e., prior mention vs. newness) of referents in interactions with caregivers. Data based on semi-naturalistic interactions with caregivers of four children, at ages 1;00,…

  13. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  14. Non-verbal sensorimotor timing deficits in children and adolescents who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFalk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that motor and speech disorders co-occur during development. In the present study, we investigated whether stuttering, a developmental speech disorder, is associated with a motor timing deficit in childhood and adolescence. By testing sensorimotor synchronization abilities, we aimed to assess whether predictive timing is dysfunctional in young participants who stutter (8-16 years. Twenty German children and adolescents who stutter and 43 non-stuttering participants matched for age and musical training were tested on their ability to synchronize their finger taps with periodic tone sequences and with a musical beat. Forty percent of children and 90 percent of adolescents who stutter displayed poor synchronization with both metronome and musical stimuli, falling below 2.5 % of the estimated population based on the performance of the group without the disorder. Synchronization deficits were characterized by either lower synchronization accuracy or lower consistency or both. Lower accuracy resulted in an over-anticipation of the pacing event in participants who stutter. Moreover, individual profiles revealed that lower consistency was typical of participants that were severely stuttering. These findings support the idea that malfunctioning predictive timing during auditory-motor coupling plays a role in stuttering in children and adolescents.

  15. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N. [Joong Ang Inspection Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J. [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-15

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  16. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Nondestructive Testing Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Koh, S. N.; Kim, M. K.; Shim, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is written to introduce a multimedia tutoring system for nondestructive testing using personal computer. Nondestructive testing, one of the chief methods for inspecting welds and many other components, is very difficult for the NDT inspectors to understand its technical basis without a wide experience. And it is necessary for considerable repeated education and training for keeping their knowledge. The tutoring system that can simulate NDT works is suggested to solve the above problem based on reasonable condition. The tutoring system shows basic theories of nondestructive testing in a book-style with video images and hyper-links, and it offers practices, in which users can simulate the testing equipment. The book-style and simulation practices provide effective and individual environments for learning nondestructive testing

  17. Integrating Symbolic and Statistical Methods for Testing Intelligent Systems Applications to Machine Learning and Computer Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Embedded intelligent systems ranging from tiny im- plantable biomedical devices to large swarms of autonomous un- manned aerial systems are becoming pervasive in our daily lives. While we depend on the flawless functioning of such intelligent systems, and often take their behavioral correctness and safety for granted, it is notoriously difficult to generate test cases that expose subtle errors in the implementations of machine learning algorithms. Hence, the validation of intelligent systems is usually achieved by studying their behavior on representative data sets, using methods such as cross-validation and bootstrapping.In this paper, we present a new testing methodology for studying the correctness of intelligent systems. Our approach uses symbolic decision procedures coupled with statistical hypothesis testing to. We also use our algorithm to analyze the robustness of a human detection algorithm built using the OpenCV open-source computer vision library. We show that the human detection implementation can fail to detect humans in perturbed video frames even when the perturbations are so small that the corresponding frames look identical to the naked eye.

  18. Approbation of the Non-Verbal Technique for Assessment of the Satisfaction with Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkova T.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new assessment tool is proposed for measuring the attitude to individual parts of one's body, applicable to persons with physical disabilities. The forms for testing contain schematic images of the man figure and person's face, on which the sections are marked out. It is necessary to put a specific rating on a 5-point scale in the each segment of body and face. Approbation was carried out in adolescents 11-18 years old with typical development (ATD, 103 people and with motor disabilities and IQ within normal range (AMD, 31 people. Specific and averaged assessments of the face, body, limbs, etc. were obtained. Psychometric analysis showed that the adolescents of both groups basically assess their body with points 4 and 5. In both groups, there are about 9% of respondents with low ratings (below 3.5. There are significant sex differences in the estimates of certain parts of the body. The ANOVA reveals reliable effects of interaction of the factors of sex, age and the presence of disorders in comparison of the ATD and AMD groups. In particular, the lowest scores are typical for girls 11-14 years of the AMD group. The validity of the proposed technique is indicated by regular correlations with other body image estimates, self-esteem and neuroticism. The proposed diagnostic tool can be recommended for research purposes in work with adolescents and adults with physical appearance defects.

  19. Fuzzy Cognitive Map for Software Testing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Larkman , Deane; Mohammadian , Masoud; Balachandran , Bala; Jentzsch , Ric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses a framework to assist test managers to evaluate the use of AI techniques as a potential tool in software testing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are employed to evaluate the framework and make decision analysis easier. A what-if analysis is presented that explores the general application of the framework. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The framework proposed is innovative and it assists managers in making e...

  20. Measurement of mental attention: Assessing a cognitive component underlying performance on standardized intelligence tests

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Howard; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of standardized IQ tests to measure human intelligence, problems with such measures have led some to suggest that better indices may derive from measurement of cognitive processes underlying performance on IQ tests (e.g., working memory capacity). However, measures from both approaches may exhibit performance biases in favour of majority groups, due to the influence of prior learning and experience. Mental attentional (M-) capacity is proposed to be a causal factor ...

  1. Emotion Recognition as a Real Strength in Williams Syndrome: Evidence From a Dynamic Non-verbal Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Ibernon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypersocial profile characterizing individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, and particularly their attraction to human faces and their desire to form relationships with other people, could favor the development of their emotion recognition capacities. This study seeks to better understand the development of emotion recognition capacities in WS. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 15 participants with WS. Their performance was compared to that of 15 participants with Down syndrome (DS and 15 typically developing (TD children of the same non-verbal developmental age, as assessed with Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM; Raven et al., 1998. The analysis of the three groups’ results revealed that the participants with WS performed better than the participants with DS and also than the TD children. Individuals with WS performed at a similar level to TD participants in terms of recognizing different types of emotions. The study of development trajectories confirmed that the participants with WS presented the same development profile as the TD participants. These results seem to indicate that the recognition of emotional facial expressions constitutes a real strength in people with WS.

  2. Contrasting visual working memory for verbal and non-verbal material with multivariate analysis of fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Christian; Rakitin, Brian; Steffener, Jason; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    We performed a delayed-item-recognition task to investigate the neural substrates of non-verbal visual working memory with event-related fMRI (‘Shape task’). 25 young subjects (mean age: 24.0 years; STD=3.8 years) were instructed to study a list of either 1,2 or 3 unnamable nonsense line drawings for 3 seconds (‘stimulus phase’ or STIM). Subsequently, the screen went blank for 7 seconds (‘retention phase’ or RET), and then displayed a probe stimulus for 3 seconds in which subject indicated with a differential button press whether the probe was contained in the studied shape-array or not (‘probe phase’ or PROBE). Ordinal Trend Canonical Variates Analysis (Habeck et al., 2005a) was performed to identify spatial covariance patterns that showed a monotonic increase in expression with memory load during all task phases. Reliable load-related patterns were identified in the stimulus and retention phase (pmemory loads (pmemory load, and mediofrontal and temporal regions that were decreasing. Mean subject expression of both patterns across memory load during retention also correlated positively with recognition accuracy (dL) in the Shape task (prehearsal processes. Encoding processes, on the other hand, are critically dependent on the to-be-remembered material, and seem to necessitate material-specific neural substrates. PMID:22652306

  3. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  5. The influence of non-verbal educational and therapeutic Practices in autism spectrum disorder: the possibilities for physical education professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adryelle Fabiane Campelo de Lima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have symptoms that begin in childhood and affects the individual's ability to function in life and in their day to day. For reduce and control the symptoms of ASD exist several types of practices. Thus, this study aims to analyze the contributions of the main pedagogical and therapeutic practices of non-verbal communication in motivation, emotional stability, communication and socialization of individuals with autism spectrum disorders, which may collaborate in the intervention of the physical education professional. The study was done through a systematic review that was conducted in the electronic databases. Initially, 390 documents have been identified. After the reading and analysis of the titles of the documents, have selected 109. After reading the summaries were considered eligible 53 and, finally, we've included 18, which completely satisfy our criteria for inclusion. The results showed that intervention programs are distinct and the majority is in music therapy. This systematic review showed that there is direct intervention of physical education professionals only in psychomotricity.

  6. How physician electronic health record screen sharing affects patient and doctor non-verbal communication in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Young, Henry N; Chewning, Betty; Montague, Enid

    2015-03-01

    Use of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary-care exam rooms changes the dynamics of patient-physician interaction. This study examines and compares doctor-patient non-verbal communication (eye-gaze patterns) during primary care encounters for three different screen/information sharing groups: (1) active information sharing, (2) passive information sharing, and (3) technology withdrawal. Researchers video recorded 100 primary-care visits and coded the direction and duration of doctor and patient gaze. Descriptive statistics compared the length of gaze patterns as a percentage of visit length. Lag sequential analysis determined whether physician eye-gaze influenced patient eye gaze, and vice versa, and examined variations across groups. Significant differences were found in duration of gaze across groups. Lag sequential analysis found significant associations between several gaze patterns. Some, such as DGP-PGD ("doctor gaze patient" followed by "patient gaze doctor") were significant for all groups. Others, such DGT-PGU ("doctor gaze technology" followed by "patient gaze unknown") were unique to one group. Some technology use styles (active information sharing) seem to create more patient engagement, while others (passive information sharing) lead to patient disengagement. Doctors can engage patients in communication by using EHRs in the visits. EHR training and design should facilitate this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  8. Exploring the validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) with established emotions measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard D; Schulze, Ralf; O'Brien, Kristin; MacCann, Carolyn; Reid, John; Maul, Andy

    2006-11-01

    Emotions measures represent an important means of obtaining construct validity evidence for emotional intelligence (EI) tests because they have the same theoretical underpinnings. Additionally, the extent to which both emotions and EI measures relate to intelligence is poorly understood. The current study was designed to address these issues. Participants (N = 138) completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), two emotions measures, as well as four intelligence tests. Results provide mixed support for the model hypothesized to underlie the MSCEIT, with emotions research and EI measures failing to load on the same factor. The emotions measures loaded on the same factor as intelligence measures. The validity of certain EI components (in particular, Emotion Perception), as currently assessed, appears equivocal. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Towards General Evaluation of Intelligent Systems: Lessons Learned from Reproducing AIQ Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadinský, Ondřej

    2018-03-01

    This paper attempts to replicate the results of evaluating several artificial agents using the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test originally reported by Legg and Veness. Three experiments were conducted: One using default settings, one in which the action space was varied and one in which the observation space was varied. While the performance of freq, Q0, Qλ, and HLQλ corresponded well with the original results, the resulting values differed, when using MC-AIXI. Varying the observation space seems to have no qualitative impact on the results as reported, while (contrary to the original results) varying the action space seems to have some impact. An analysis of the impact of modifying parameters of MC-AIXI on its performance in the default settings was carried out with the help of data mining techniques used to identifying highly performing configurations. Overall, the Algorithmic Intelligence Quotient test seems to be reliable, however as a general artificial intelligence evaluation method it has several limits. The test is dependent on the chosen reference machine and also sensitive to changes to its settings. It brings out some differences among agents, however, since they are limited in size, the test setting may not yet be sufficiently complex. A demanding parameter sweep is needed to thoroughly evaluate configurable agents that, together with the test format, further highlights computational requirements of an agent. These and other issues are discussed in the paper along with proposals suggesting how to alleviate them. An implementation of some of the proposals is also demonstrated.

  10. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    assessing the general intelligence and neuropsychological aptitudes of USAF RPA pilot training candidates. Chappelle et al. obtained comprehensive...computer-based intelligence testing (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition [MAB-II]) and neuropsychological screening (MicroCog) on USAF MQ-1... schizophrenia , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators

  11. Myth of the Master Detective: Reliability of Interpretations for Kaufman's "Intelligent Testing" Approach to the WISC-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

    1997-01-01

    Used computer simulation to examine the reliability of interpretations for Kaufman's "intelligent testing" approach to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd ed.) (WISC-III). Findings indicate that factor index-score differences and other measures could not be interpreted with confidence. Argues that limitations of IQ testing…

  12. Empirical versus Random Item Selection in the Design of Intelligence Test Short Forms--The WISC-R Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David S.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages of using psychometric thoery to design short forms of intelligence tests are demonstrated by comparing such usage to a systematic random procedure that has previously been used. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) Short Form is presented as an example. (JKS)

  13. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmen Ecija; Velasco, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1) Sensitivity to others and 2) confidence in one’s capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections. PMID:26076133

  14. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Zautra

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI. Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1 Sensitivity to others and 2 confidence in one's capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections.

  15. Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Eva K; Zautra, Alex J; Gallardo, Carmen Ecija; Velasco, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1) Sensitivity to others and 2) confidence in one's capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections.

  16. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  17. Leader emotional intelligence, transformational leadership, trust and team commitment: Testing a model within a team context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton F. Schlechter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study tested a model within a team context consisting of transformational-leadership behaviour, team-leader emotional intelligence, trust (both in the team leader and in the team members and team commitment. It was conducted within six manufacturing plants, with 25 teams participating. Of the 320 surveys distributed to these teams, 178 were received (which equals a 56% response rate. The surveys consisted of the multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ, the Swinburne University emotional intelligence test (SUEIT, the organisational-commitment scale (OCS (adapted for team commitment and the workplace trust survey (WTS. The validity of these scales was established using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confrmatory factor analysis (CFA. The Cronbach alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. The model was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM; an acceptable level of model ft was found. Signifcant positive relationships were further found among all the constructs. Such an integrated model has not been tested in a team context before and the positive fndings therefore add to existing teamwork literature. The fnding that transformational leadership and leader emotional intelligence are positively related to team commitment and trust further emphasises the importance of effective leadership behaviour in team dynamics and performance.

  18. Orofacial Pain during Mastication in People with Dementia: Reliability Testing of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlijn W. de Vries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability of the “chewing” subscale of the OPS-NVI, a novel tool designed to estimate presence and severity of orofacial pain in nonverbal patients. Methods. The OPS-NVI consists of 16 items for observed behavior, classified into four categories and a subjective estimate of pain. Two observers used the OPS-NVI for 237 video clips of people with dementia in Dutch nursing homes during their meal to observe their behavior and to estimate the intensity of orofacial pain. Six weeks later, the same observers rated the video clips a second time. Results. Bottom and ceiling effects for some items were found. This resulted in exclusion of these items from the statistical analyses. The categories which included the remaining items (n=6 showed reliability varying between fair-to-good and excellent (interobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40–0.47; intraobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40–0.92. Conclusions. The “chewing” subscale of the OPS-NVI showed a fair-to-good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability in this dementia population. This study contributes to the validation process of the OPS-NVI as a whole and stresses the need for further assessment of the reliability of the OPS-NVI with subjects that might already show signs of orofacial pain.

  19. Orofacial Pain during Mastication in People with Dementia: Reliability Testing of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Merlijn W; Visscher, Corine; Delwel, Suzanne; van der Steen, Jenny T; Pieper, Marjoleine J C; Scherder, Erik J A; Achterberg, Wilco P; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability of the "chewing" subscale of the OPS-NVI, a novel tool designed to estimate presence and severity of orofacial pain in nonverbal patients. Methods. The OPS-NVI consists of 16 items for observed behavior, classified into four categories and a subjective estimate of pain. Two observers used the OPS-NVI for 237 video clips of people with dementia in Dutch nursing homes during their meal to observe their behavior and to estimate the intensity of orofacial pain. Six weeks later, the same observers rated the video clips a second time. Results. Bottom and ceiling effects for some items were found. This resulted in exclusion of these items from the statistical analyses. The categories which included the remaining items (n = 6) showed reliability varying between fair-to-good and excellent (interobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40-0.47; intraobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40-0.92). Conclusions. The "chewing" subscale of the OPS-NVI showed a fair-to-good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability in this dementia population. This study contributes to the validation process of the OPS-NVI as a whole and stresses the need for further assessment of the reliability of the OPS-NVI with subjects that might already show signs of orofacial pain.

  20. Orofacial pain during mastication in people with dementia : Reliability testing of the orofacial pain scale for non-verbal individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.W.; Visscher, C.; Delwel, S.; van der Steen, J.T.; Pieper, M.J.C.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Achterberg, W.P.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability of the “chewing” subscale of the OPS-NVI, a novel tool designed to estimate presence and severity of orofacial pain in nonverbal patients. Methods. The OPS-NVI consists of 16 items for observed behavior, classified into four

  1. Revisiting measurement invariance in intelligence testing in aging research: Evidence for almost complete metric invariance across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Briana N; Hyun, Jinshil; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Invariance of intelligence across age is often assumed but infrequently explicitly tested. Horn and McArdle (1992) tested measurement invariance of intelligence, providing adequate model fit but might not consider all relevant aspects such as sub-test differences. The goal of the current paper is to explore age-related invariance of the WAIS-R using an alternative model that allows direct tests of age on WAIS-R subtests. Cross-sectional data on 940 participants aged 16-75 from the WAIS-R normative values were used. Subtests examined were information, comprehension, similarities, vocabulary, picture completion, block design, picture arrangement, and object assembly. The two intelligence factors considered were fluid and crystallized intelligence. Self-reported ages were divided into young (16-22, n = 300), adult (29-39, n = 275), middle (40-60, n = 205), and older (61-75, n = 160) adult groups. Results suggested partial metric invariance holds. Although most of the subtests reflected fluid and crystalized intelligence similarly across different ages, invariance did not hold for block design on fluid intelligence and picture arrangement on crystallized intelligence for older adults. Additionally, there was evidence of a correlated residual between information and vocabulary for the young adults only. This partial metric invariance model yielded acceptable model fit compared to previously-proposed invariance models of Horn and McArdle (1992). Almost complete metric invariance holds for a two-factor model of intelligence. Most of the subtests were invariant across age groups, suggesting little evidence for age-related bias in the WAIS-R. However, we did find unique relationships between two subtests and intelligence. Future studies should examine age-related differences in subtests when testing measurement invariance in intelligence.

  2. Frameworks for Performing on Cloud Automated Software Testing Using Swarm Intelligence Algorithm: Brief Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys on Cloud Based Automated Testing Software that is able to perform Black-box testing, White-box testing, as well as Unit and Integration Testing as a whole. In this paper, we discuss few of the available automated software testing frameworks on the cloud. These frameworks are found to be more efficient and cost effective because they execute test suites over a distributed cloud infrastructure. One of the framework effectiveness was attributed to having a module that accepts manual test cases from users and it prioritize them accordingly. Software testing, in general, accounts for as much as 50% of the total efforts of the software development project. To lessen the efforts, one the frameworks discussed in this paper used swarm intelligence algorithms. It uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for complete path coverage to minimize time and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO for regression testing to ensure backward compatibility.

  3. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  4. ITS-NANO - Prioritising nanosafety research to develop a stakeholder driven intelligent testing strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, V.; Pozzi-Mucelli, S.; Tran, L.

    2014-01-01

    of the current and future risk assessment of NMs. RESULTS: The framework for future research has been developed from the opinions of over 80 stakeholders, that describes the research priorities for effective development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS) to allow risk evaluation of NMs. In this context......BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of all nanomaterials (NMs) on a case-by-case basis is challenging in terms of financial, ethical and time resources. Instead a more intelligent approach to knowledge gain and risk assessment is required. METHODS: A framework of future research priorities was developed......-priority research areas are described via a series of stepping stones, or hexagon diagrams structured into a time perspective. Importantly, this framework is flexible, allowing individual stakeholders to identify where their own activities and expertise are positioned within the prioritisation pathway...

  5. Development of intelligent Eddy Current Testing (ECT) system for PWR steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, K.; Kawase, N.; Kurokawa, M.; Asada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The intelligent ECT system was developed for the inspection of heat transfer tubes of the steam generator of the PWR plant. It consists of intelligent probe, data acquisition unit and data analysis system. The probe combines 24 channels inclined lay out drive coils and thin film pick-up coils with built-in electric circuits to provide high inspection capability equivalent to rotating coil ECT and high-speed inspection equivalent to conventional bobbin coil ECT. The advanced data analysis system that has filtering and automatic analysis functions is also developed to enable fast and precise analysis of large volume inspection data. The system was qualified by confirmation tests in FY 2003 to show thinned thickness sizing accuracy within ± 5%. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Advanced power cycler with intelligent monitoring strategy of IGBT module under test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Blaabjerg, F.; Iannuzzo, F.

    2017-01-01

    and diode, which for the wear-out condition monitoring are presented. This advanced power cycler allows to perform power cycling test cost-effectively under conditions close to real power converter applications. In addition, an intelligent monitoring strategy for the separation of package-related wear......-out failure mechanisms has been proposed. By means of the proposed method, the wear-out failure mechanisms of an IGBT module can be separated without any additional efforts during the power cycling tests. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed monitoring strategy are also verified by experiments....

  7. What a Smile Means: Contextual Beliefs and Facial Emotion Expressions in a Non-verbal Zero-Sum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pádua Júnior, Fábio P; Prado, Paulo H M; Roeder, Scott S; Andrade, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Research into the authenticity of facial emotion expressions often focuses on the physical properties of the face while paying little attention to the role of beliefs in emotion perception. Further, the literature most often investigates how people express a pre-determined emotion rather than what facial emotion expressions people strategically choose to express. To fill these gaps, this paper proposes a non-verbal zero-sum game - the Face X Game - to assess the role of contextual beliefs and strategic displays of facial emotion expression in interpersonal interactions. This new research paradigm was used in a series of three studies, where two participants are asked to play the role of the sender (individual expressing emotional information on his/her face) or the observer (individual interpreting the meaning of that expression). Study 1 examines the outcome of the game with reference to the sex of the pair, where senders won more frequently when the pair was comprised of at least one female. Study 2 examines the strategic display of facial emotion expressions. The outcome of the game was again contingent upon the sex of the pair. Among female pairs, senders won the game more frequently, replicating the pattern of results from study 1. We also demonstrate that senders who strategically express an emotion incongruent with the valence of the event (e.g., smile after seeing a negative event) are able to mislead observers, who tend to hold a congruent belief about the meaning of the emotion expression. If sending an incongruent signal helps to explain why female senders win more frequently, it logically follows that female observers were more prone to hold a congruent, and therefore inaccurate, belief. This prospect implies that while female senders are willing and/or capable of displaying fake smiles, paired-female observers are not taking this into account. Study 3 investigates the role of contextual factors by manipulating female observers' beliefs. When prompted

  8. Polish Adult Reading Test (PART) - construction of Polish test for estimating the level of premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Stecka, Mariola

    2017-08-29

    In view of unavailability in Poland of the standardized methods to measure PIQ, the aim of the work was to develop a Polish test to assess the premorbid level of intelligence - PART(Polish AdultReading Test) and to measureits psychometric properties, such as validity, reliability as well as standardization in the group of schizophrenia patients. The principles of PART construction were based on the idea of popular worldwide National Adult Reading Test by Hazel Nelson. The research comprised a group of 122 subjects (65 schizophrenia patients and 57 healthy people), aged 18-60 years, matched for age and gender. PART appears to be a method with high internal consistency and reliability measured by test-retest, inter-rater reliability, and the method with acceptable diagnostic and prognostic validity. The standardized procedures of PART have been investigated and described. Considering the psychometric values of PART and a short time of its performance, the test may be a useful diagnostic instrument in the assessment of premorbid level of intelligence in a group of schizophrenic patients.

  9. Reviving and Refining Psychodynamic Interpretation of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests: The Verbal Comprehension Subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence tests (currently Wechsler, 2008 , 2014) have traditionally been part of the multimethod test battery favored by psychodynamically oriented assessors. In this tradition, assessors have used Wechsler data to make inferences about personality that transcend cognition. Recent trends in clinical psychology, however, have deemphasized this psychodynamic way of working. In this article, I make a conceptual and clinical case for reviving and refining a psychodynamic approach to inference making about personality using the Wechsler Verbal Comprehension subtests. Specifically, I (a) describe the psychological and environmental conditions sampled by the Wechsler tests, (b) discuss the Wechsler tests conceptually in terms of assessing vulnerability to breakdowns in adaptive defensive functioning, (c) review a general framework for inference making, and (d) offer considerations for and illustrate pragmatic application of the Verbal Comprehension subtests data to make inferences that help answer referral questions and have important treatment implications.

  10. Concurrent validity of the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostantjopoulou, S; Kiosseoglou, G; Katsarou, Z; Alevriadou, A

    2001-03-01

    The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-2; L. Brown, R. J. Sherbenou, & S. Johnsen, 1990) and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM; J. C. Raven, 1965) are defined as language-free measures of cognitive ability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between the RCPM and the TONI-2 for samples of patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 75) and controls (n = 47). A regression equation was computed to evaluate the relation of the RCPM scores to the TONI-2 quotient. Regression equation results indicate that there is a significant overlapping linear variance between the two measures in both patients and controls.

  11. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  12. Validity evidence for the situational judgment test paradigm in emotional intelligence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip

    2012-01-01

    To date, various measurement approaches have been proposed to assess emotional intelligence (EI). Recently, two new EI tests have been developed based on the situational judgment test (SJT) paradigm: the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM). Initial attempts have been made to examine the construct-related validity of these new tests; we extend these findings by placing the tests in a broad nomological network. To this end, 850 undergraduate students completed a personality inventory, a cognitive ability test, a self-report EI test, a performance-based EI measure, the STEU, and the STEM. The SJT-based EI tests were not strongly correlated with personality and fluid cognitive ability. Regarding their relation with existing EI measures, the tests did not capture the same construct as self-report EI measures, but corresponded rather to performance-based EI measures. Overall, these results lend support for the SJT paradigm for measuring EI as an ability.

  13. A psychology for pedagogy: intelligence testing in USSR in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopoldoff, Irina

    2014-08-01

    This article examines a case of intelligence testing conducted in the mid-1920s, while considering the broader political and scientific context of Soviet life. Guided by questions about the status and influence of mental measurement in Russian society, previously and after the revolution, as well as asking about the main actors in the fields linked to testing, such as psychology, pedagogy, and pedology, during this tumultuous period. To answer these questions, journals and difficult-to-access archival sources were used, which provided evidence regarding the enthusiasm psychological testing had on scholars in the 1920s and the institutional support they received for their surveys. The article offers some hints concerning why this was so and why this situation changed completely a decade later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Can Intelligence Testing Inform Educational Intervention for Children with Reading Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian G. Elliott

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value of intelligence testing for the purpose of informing us how best to intervene with children with reading disability. While the original function of IQ testing was to ascertain whether a child was capable of profiting from schooling, there are many who now claim that cognitive assessment offers a range of diagnostic and prescriptive functions which can help teachers in delivering effective educational programs. This paper interrogates such assertions in relation to the assessment of IQ, cognitive strengths and weaknesses, executive functions, and the use of dynamic testing/assessment. The paper concludes that current evidence indicates that cognitive measures have limited relevance for instructional planning, and cognitive training programs have yet to show sufficient academic gains. For these reasons, it is recommended that our energies should be directed to the continuing development of powerful forms of academic skills-based instruction operating within a response to intervention framework.

  15. Pipeline defect prediction using long range ultrasonic testing and intelligent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dino Isa; Rajprasad Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with efforts to improve nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques by using artificial intelligence in detecting and predicting pipeline defects such as cracks and wall thinning. The main emphasis here will be on the prediction of corrosion type defects rather than just detection after the fact. Long range ultrasonic testing will be employed, where a ring of piezoelectric transducers are used to generate torsional guided waves. Various defects such as cracks as well as corrosion under insulation (CUI) will be simulated on a test pipe. The machine learning algorithm known as the Support Vector Machine (SVM) will be used to predict and classify transducer signals using regression and large margin classification. Regression results show that the SVM is able to accurately predict future defects based on trends of previous defect. The classification performance was also exceptional showing a facility to detect defects at different depths as well as for distinguishing closely spaced defects. (author)

  16. Bi-directional effects of depressed mood in the postnatal period on mother-infant non-verbal engagement with picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Burt, Mike

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the bi-directional nature of maternal depressed mood in the postnatal period on maternal and infant non-verbal behaviors while looking at a picture book. Although, it is acknowledged that non-verbal engagement with picture books in infancy plays an important role, the effect of maternal depressed mood on stimulating the interest of infants in books is not known. Sixty-one mothers and their infants, 38 boys and 23 girls, were observed twice approximately 3 months apart (first observation: mean age 6.8 months, range 3-11 months, 32 mothers with depressed mood; second observation: mean age 10.2 months, range 6-16 months, 17 mothers with depressed mood). There was a significant effect for depressed mood on negative behaviors: infants of mothers with depressed mood tended to push away and close books more often. The frequency of negative behaviors (pushing the book away/closing it on the part of the infant and withholding the book and restraining the infant on the part of the mother) were behaviors which if expressed during the first visit were more likely to be expressed during the second visit. Levels of negative behaviors by mother and infant were strongly related during each visit. Additionally, the pattern between visits suggests that maternal negative behavior may be the cause of her infant negative behavior. These results are discussed in terms of the effects of maternal depressed mood on the bi-directional relation of non-verbal engagement of mother and child. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring an artificial intelligence system's performance on a Verbal IQ test for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Sloan, Robert H.; Turán, György; Urasky, Aaron

    2017-07-01

    We administered the Verbal IQ (VIQ) part of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III) to the ConceptNet 4 artificial intelligence (AI) system. The test questions (e.g. "Why do we shake hands?") were translated into ConceptNet 4 inputs using a combination of the simple natural language processing tools that come with ConceptNet together with short Python programs that we wrote. The question answering used a version of ConceptNet based on spectral methods. The ConceptNet system scored a WPPSI-III VIQ that is average for a four-year-old child, but below average for 5-7 year olds. Large variations among subtests indicate potential areas of improvement. In particular, results were strongest for the Vocabulary and Similarities subtests, intermediate for the Information subtest and lowest for the Comprehension and Word Reasoning subtests. Comprehension is the subtest most strongly associated with common sense. The large variations among subtests and ordinary common sense strongly suggest that the WPPSI-III VIQ results do not show that "ConceptNet has the verbal abilities of a four-year-old". Rather, children's IQ tests offer one objective metric for the evaluation and comparison of AI systems. Also, this work continues previous research on psychometric AI.

  18. A Comparison of Laboratory and Clinical Working Memory Tests and Their Prediction of Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill T.; Elliott, Emily M.; Hill, B. D.; Calamia, Matthew R.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    The working memory (WM) construct is conceptualized similarly across domains of psychology, yet the methods used to measure WM function vary widely. The present study examined the relationship between WM measures used in the laboratory and those used in applied settings. A large sample of undergraduates completed three laboratory-based WM measures (operation span, listening span, and n-back), as well as the WM subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Performance on all of the WM subtests of the clinical batteries shared positive correlations with the lab measures; however, the Arithmetic and Spatial Span subtests shared lower correlations than the other WM tests. Factor analyses revealed that a factor comprising scores from the three lab WM measures and the clinical subtest, Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS), provided the best measurement of WM. Additionally, a latent variable approach was taken using fluid intelligence as a criterion construct to further discriminate between the WM tests. The results revealed that the lab measures, along with the LNS task, were the best predictors of fluid abilities. PMID:20161647

  19. Construct validity of the Italian version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Zammuner, Vanda Lucia; Salovey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In 2 studies, we assessed the construct validity of the Italian version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) version 2.0. In Study 1, we administered the MSCEIT together with measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect. In Study 2, we administered the MSCEIT together with indexes of dispositional coping, emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia, state-trait anxiety, depression, and depressive rumination. We evaluated the factorial structure of the MSCEIT with a confirmatory factor analysis model using data combined from Study 1 and 2. The results confirm that the MSCEIT Italian version satisfactorily discriminates emotional intelligence ability from crystallized and fluid intelligence, personality, and affect, and exhibits significant correlations with various psychological well-being criteria. Furthermore, data from both studies confirm that the factorial structure of MSCEIT is consistent with the theory on which it is based, although it was difficult to rule out alternative structures.

  20. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  1. The neural basis of non-verbal communication-enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  2. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  3. Situational Judgment Test Research: Informing the Debate on Practical Intelligence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Michael A.; Whetzel, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    [Gottfredson, L. S. (2003). Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence. Intelligence, 31, 343-397.] provided a detailed critique of Sternberg's [Sternberg, R. J., Fotsythe, G. B., Hedlund, J., Horvath, J. A., Wagner, R. K., Williams, W. M., Snook, S. A., Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Practical intelligence in everyday life. New…

  4. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474

  5. Development of an Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracker Using an Advanced PV System Test Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Amoiridis, Anastasios; Beres, Remus Narcis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of photovoltaic systems is often reduced by the presence of partial shadows. The system efficiency and availability can be improved by a maximum power point tracking algorithm that is able to detect partial shadow conditions and to optimize the power output. This work proposes...... an intelligent maximum power point tracking method that monitors the maximum power point voltage and triggers a current-voltage sweep only when a partial shadow is detected, therefore minimizing power loss due to repeated current-voltage sweeps. The proposed system is validated on an advanced, flexible...... photovoltaic inverter system test platform that is able to reproduce realistic partial shadow conditions, both in simulation and on hardware test system....

  6. Thermal Error Test and Intelligent Modeling Research on the Spindle of High Speed CNC Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhonghui; Peng, Bin; Xiao, Qijun; Bai, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Thermal error is the main factor affecting the accuracy of precision machining. Through experiments, this paper studies the thermal error test and intelligent modeling for the spindle of vertical high speed CNC machine tools in respect of current research focuses on thermal error of machine tool. Several testing devices for thermal error are designed, of which 7 temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of machine tool spindle system and 2 displacement sensors are used to detect the thermal error displacement. A thermal error compensation model, which has a good ability in inversion prediction, is established by applying the principal component analysis technology, optimizing the temperature measuring points, extracting the characteristic values closely associated with the thermal error displacement, and using the artificial neural network technology.

  7. STANFORD-OHWAKI-KOHS TACTILE BLOCK DESIGN INTELLIGENCE TEST FOR THE BLIND. PART ONE-FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAUTERMAN, WILLIAM L.; SUINN, RICHARD M.

    THIS TEST WAS DEVELOPED TO MEASURE THE INTELLIGENCE OF BLIND ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS. SIX HUNDRED AND THIRTY BLIND SUBJECTS 14 YEARS OF AGE AND OLDER WERE USED IN REFINING AND STANDARDIZING THE NONVERBAL, PERFORMANCE OHWAKI-KOHS BLOCK DESIGN TEST FOR USE BY BLIND INDIVIDUALS IN THE UNITED STATES. RESULTS INDICATED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT…

  8. Power cycling test and failure analysis of molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module under different temperature swing durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    on the lifetime of 600 V, 30 A, 3-phase molded Intelligent PowerModules (IPM) and their failuremechanismsare investigated. The study is based on the accelerated power cycling test results of 36 samples under 6 different conditions and tests are performed under realistic electrical conditions by an advanced power...

  9. The National Adult Reading Test: restandardisation against the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Peter; Hale, Emily; Gooch, Vikki Jayne; Myhill, Thomas; van der Linde, Ian

    2018-09-01

    Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997, and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.

  10. Meta-analysis of fluid intelligence tests of children from the Chinese mainland with learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fang; Fu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ) values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was -13.18 (95% CI: -16.50- -9.85). Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (Pintelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D, and E was more obvious.

  11. Intelligence and leadership: a quantitative review and test of theoretical propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Colbert, Amy E; Ilies, Remus

    2004-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to aggregate results from studies examining the relationship between intelligence and leadership. One hundred fifty-one independent samples in 96 sources met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that the corrected correlation between intelligence and leadership is.21 (uncorrected for range restriction) and.27 (corrected for range restriction). Perceptual measures of intelligence showed stronger correlations with leadership than did paper-and-pencil measures of intelligence. Intelligence correlated equally well with objective and perceptual measures of leadership. Additionally, the leader's stress level and the leader's directiveness moderated the intelligence-leadership relationship. Overall, results suggest that the relationship between intelligence and leadership is considerably lower than previously thought. The results also provide meta-analytic support for both implicit leadership theory and cognitive resource theory. (c) 2004 APA

  12. Design of a sentence identification test with pictures (TIS-F based on the pediatric speech intelligibility test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Freitas Vellozo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purposes: to design a sentence identification test with pictures for adults (Teste de Identificação de Sentenças com Figuras (TIS-F as an alternative for evaluation of auditory figure-background ability for verbal sounds, based on the Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test and also for assessment of unskillful individuals who cannot accomplish other tests with higher levels of difficulty and greater demands. Methods: the Adobe Illustrator software was used and the image vectorization technique applied for figures creation. The sentences and the competitive message were audio-recorded in a sound treated room by a female announcer, using the software - REAPER - FM Digital Audio Workstation. Results: the TIS-F consisted of a 32 x 45 cm card, containing 10 figures, each one measuring 12 x 12 cm; one compact disc containing a track with the test calibration tone and seven test tracks, each one containing ten sentences and a competitive message and a specific protocol. Conclusion: the TIS-F is composed of a compact disc with dual-channel recording, with seven tracks containing ten sentences and the competitive story, one card containing ten pictures and a labeling protocol for all presentations and S/N in use, as well as the established normality values.

  13. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  14. Language representation of the emotional state of the personage in non-verbal speech behavior (on the material of Russian and German languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherbakova Irina Vladimirovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of actualization of emotions in a non-verbal speech behavior of the character of a literary text. Emotions are considered basic, the most actively used method of literary character reaction to any object, action, or the communicative situation. Nonverbal ways of expressing emotions more fully give the reader an idea of the emotional state of the character. The main focus in the allocation of non-verbal means of communication in art is focused on the description of kinetic, proxemic and prosodic components. The material of the study is the microdialogue fragments extracted by continuous sampling of their works of art texts of the Russian-speaking and German-speaking classical and modern literature XIX - XX centuries. Fragments of the dialogues were analyzed, where the recorded voice of nonverbal behavior of the character of different emotional content (surprise, joy, fear, anger, rage, excitement, etc. was fixed. It was found that means of verbalization and descriptions of emotion of nonverbal behavior of the character are primarily indirect nomination, expressed verbal vocabulary, adjectives and adverbs. The lexical level is the most significant in the presentation of the emotional state of the character.

  15. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal Cortex Decreases Performance on the WAIS-IV Intelligence Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Mellin, Juliann M.; Lustenberger, Caroline M.; Boyle, Michael R.; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V.; Frohlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20 minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40 seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20 minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  17. Development of a Test Battery to Assess Mental Flexibility Based on Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    on such tests as the Embedded Figures Test ( EFT ) (Witkin et al., 1971) or the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) (Witkin, Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp...one starts to tap sources of individual differences measured little or not at all by such tests. Thus, when assessing intelligence, it is important to...in requiring verbal skills or the ability to analyze one’s own ideas-Sternberg & Lubart, 1995) but also tap skills beyond those measured even by

  18. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  19. Development of the Korean Adult Reading Test (KART to estimate premorbid intelligence in dementia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahyun Yi

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV. Among the 94 words, 50 words that did not show a significant difference between the CN and the AD group were selected and constituted the KART. Using the 30 CN calculation group (CNc, a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ was regressed on the reading errors of the KART, where education was included as an additional variable. When the regressed equation computed from the CNc was applied to 30 CN individuals of the validation group (CNv, the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.63. In addition, independent sample t-test showed that the KART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the CNv and AD groups, whereas the performance of the AD group was significantly worse in the observed IQs. In addition, an extended validation of the KART was performed with a separate sample consisted of 84 CN, 56 elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 43 AD patients who were administered comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in addition to the KART. When the equation obtained from the CNc was applied to the extended validation sample, the KART-predicted IQs of the AD, MCI and the CN groups did not significantly differ, whereas their current global cognition scores significantly differed between the groups. In conclusion, the results support the validity of KART-predicted IQ as an index of premorbid IQ in individuals with AD.

  20. Issues in the Educational, Psychological Assessment of Visually Impaired Children: Test-Retest Reliability of the Williams Intelligence Test for Children with Defective Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael J.; Hill, Eileen W.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses some problems confronting teachers and psychologists when making decisions as to how to use the currently available test procedures. It reports data gathered on three separate occasions on the performance of a group of blind and partially sighted children on the Williams Intelligence Test which is the only specialist IQ test…

  1. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence: Causes of International Differences in Cognitive Ability Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Becker, David; Coyle, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Following Snyderman and Rothman (1987, 1988), we surveyed expert opinions on the current state of intelligence research. This report examines expert opinions on causes of international differences in student assessment and psychometric IQ test results. Experts were surveyed about the importance of culture, genes, education (quantity and quality), wealth, health, geography, climate, politics, modernization, sampling error, test knowledge, discrimination, test bias, and migration. The importance of these factors was evaluated for diverse countries, regions, and groups including Finland, East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Europe, the Arabian-Muslim world, Latin America, Israel, Jews in the West, Roma (gypsies), and Muslim immigrants. Education was rated by N = 71 experts as the most important cause of international ability differences. Genes were rated as the second most relevant factor but also had the highest variability in ratings. Culture, health, wealth, modernization, and politics were the next most important factors, whereas other factors such as geography, climate, test bias, and sampling error were less important. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations of the survey (e.g., response rates and validity of expert opinions).

  2. Meta-analysis of fluid intelligence tests of children from the Chinese mainland with learning difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differences in fluid intelligence tests between normal children and children with learning difficulties in China. METHOD: PubMed, MD Consult, and other Chinese Journal Database were searched from their establishment to November 2012. After finding comparative studies of Raven measurements of normal children and children with learning difficulties, full Intelligent Quotation (FIQ values and the original values of the sub-measurement were extracted. The corresponding effect model was selected based on the results of heterogeneity and parallel sub-group analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twelve documents were included in the meta-analysis, and the studies were all performed in mainland of China. Among these, two studies were performed at child health clinics, the other ten sites were schools and control children were schoolmates or classmates. FIQ was evaluated using a random effects model. WMD was -13.18 (95% CI: -16.50- -9.85. Children with learning difficulties showed significantly lower FIQ scores than controls (P<0.00001; Type of learning difficulty and gender differences were evaluated using a fixed-effects model (I² = 0%. The sites and purposes of the studies evaluated here were taken into account, but the reasons of heterogeneity could not be eliminated; The sum IQ of all the subgroups showed considerable heterogeneity (I² = 76.5%. The sub-measurement score of document A showed moderate heterogeneity among all documents, and AB, B, and E showed considerable heterogeneity, which was used in a random effect model. Individuals with learning difficulties showed heterogeneity as well. There was a moderate delay in the first three items (-0.5 to -0.9, and a much more pronounced delay in the latter three items (-1.4 to -1.6. CONCLUSION: In the Chinese mainland, the level of fluid intelligence of children with learning difficulties was lower than that of normal children. Delayed development in sub-items of C, D

  3. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  4. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eSmoleń

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence (Gf is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM. We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load in a Gf test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf test, the Raven test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  5. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Tomasz; Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM). We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load) in a Gf-test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed) are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf-test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf-test, the Raven-test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any) in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  6. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these

  7. Increased Specificity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Matrix Reasoning Test Instructions and Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Andy M.; Atchison, Timothy B.; Engler, Rachel R.

    2009-01-01

    Instructions for the Matrix Reasoning Test (MRT) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition were modified by explicitly stating that the subtest was untimed or that a per-item time limit would be imposed. The MRT was administered within one of four conditions: with (a) standard administration instructions, (b) explicit instructions…

  8. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  9. Infant Long-Term Memory for a Conditioned Response and Intelligence Test Performance at 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Jeffrey W.; And Others

    To find predictive relations between measures taken in infancy and later scores on intelligence tests, a study was made that measured in the infant those cognitive processes examined later in life. Operant conditioning tasks were employed which required 3-, 7-, and 11-month-old infants to execute some response to produce an environmental…

  10. Validation of the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised 2 1/2-7 for Australian children with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkinson, J; Roberts, S; Dennehy, S; Tellegen, P.J.

    One hundred and fifty-five preschool children (59 with hearing impairment, 37 with developmental delay, and 59 nondisabled children) were tested with the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test - Revised (2 1/2 - 7) (SON-R 2 1/2 - 7) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence -

  11. Emotional Intelligence as Assessed by Situational Judgment and Emotion Recognition Tests: Building the Nomological Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn MacCann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on emotion recognition ability (ERA suggests that the capacity to process emotional information may differ for disparate emotions. However, little research has examined whether this findings holds for emotional understanding and emotion management, as well as emotion recognition. Moreover, little research has examined whether the abilities to recognize emotions, understand emotions, and manage emotions form a distinct emotional intelligence (EI construct that is independent from traditional cognitive ability factors. The current study addressed these issues. Participants (N=118 completed two ERA measures, two situational judgment tests assessing emotional understanding and emotion management, and three cognitive ability tests. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of both the understanding and management item parcels showed that a three-factor model relating to fear, sadness, and anger content was a better fit than a one-factor model, supporting an emotion-specific view of EI. In addition, an EI factor composed of emotion recognition, emotional understanding, and emotion management was distinct from a cognitive ability factor composed of a matrices task, general knowledge test, and reading comprehension task. Results are discussed in terms of their potential implications for theory and practice, as well as the integration of EI research with known models of cognitive ability.

  12. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  13. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  14. Habilidades de praxia verbal e não-verbal em indivíduos gagos Verbal and non-verbal praxic abilities in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Casagrande Brabo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar as habilidades de praxias verbal e não-verbal em indivíduos gagos. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 40 indivíduos, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, do sexo masculino e feminino: 20 gagos adultos e 20 sem queixas de comunicação. Para a avaliação das praxias verbal e não-verbal, os indivíduos foram submetidos à aplicação do Protocolo de Avaliação da Apraxia Verbal e Não-verbal (Martins e Ortiz, 2004. RESULTADOS: com relação às habilidades de praxia verbal houve diferença estatisticamente significante no número de disfluências típicas e atípicas apresentadas pelos grupos estudados. Quanto à tipologia das disfluências observou-se que nas típicas houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados apenas na repetição de frase, e nas atípicas, houve diferença estatisticamente significante, tanto no bloqueio quanto na repetição de sílaba e no prolongamento. Com relação às habilidades de praxia não-verbal, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os indivíduos estudados na realização dos movimentos de lábios, língua e mandíbula, isolados e em sequência. CONCLUSÃO: com relação às habilidades de praxia verbal, os gagos apresentaram frequência maior de rupturas da fala, tanto de disfluências típicas quanto de atípicas, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Já na realização de movimentos práxicos isolados e em sequência, ou seja, nas habilidades de praxia não-verbal, os indivíduos gagos não se diferenciaram dos fluentes não confirmando a hipótese de que o início precoce da gagueira poderia comprometer as habilidades de praxia não-verbal.PURPOSE: to characterize the verbal and non-verbal praxic abilities in adult stutterers. METHODS: for this research, 40 over 18-year old men and women were selected: 20 stuttering adults and 20 without communication complaints. For the praxis evaluation, they were submitted to

  15. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  17. WHAT’S THE “SECRET” OF THE GESTURE LANGUAGE? A FEW CRITICAL REFLECTIONS ON THE PSEUDO-SCIENCES DEALING WITH THE “NON-VERBAL DECODING”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCAL LARDELLIER

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we deal with a situation commonly met with in contemporary society: the representatives of pseudo-sciences invite their readers to learn „to decode the non-verbal language”. They pretend that in this way our body is supposed to be „readable” and it would be enough to know these „theories” in order to read into our interlocutors and to find out their thoughts and emotions. It is obvious that we find ourselves in front of a discourse imitating the rhetorical codes of science, but having nothing to do with science. Moreover, these pseudo-sciences have never been presented or discussed within the academic sphere

  18. Emotional Intelligence Relates to Well-Being: Evidence from the Situational Judgment Test of Emotional Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Betancourt, Anthony; Holtzman, Steven; Minsky, Jennifer; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D

    2012-07-01

    This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54). Furthermore, the ability to manage emotions was related to hedonic well-being, correlating with both the frequency of experienced positive affect and the frequency of experienced negative affect, as measured by the Day Reconstruction Method. Two aspects of these results suggest a relationship between EI and well-being. First, the observed relationship between ability EI and psychological well-being is the largest reported in the literature to date. Second, this study is the first use of the Day Reconstruction Method to examine the relationship between well-being and EI. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for training emotion management to enhance well-being. Methodological advances for future research are also suggested. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  19. Humans can consciously generate random number sequences: a possible test for artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra

    2005-01-01

    Computer algorithms can only produce seemingly random or pseudorandom numbers whereas certain natural phenomena, such as the decay of radioactive particles, can be utilized to produce truly random numbers. In this study, the ability of humans to generate random numbers was tested in healthy adults. Subjects were simply asked to generate and dictate random numbers. Generated numbers were tested for uniformity, independence and information density. The results suggest that humans can generate random numbers that are uniformly distributed, independent of one another and unpredictable. If humans can generate sequences of random numbers then neural networks or forms of artificial intelligence, which are purported to function in ways essentially the same as the human brain, should also be able to generate sequences of random numbers. Elucidating the precise mechanism by which humans generate random number sequences and the underlying neural substrates may have implications in the cognitive science of decision-making. It is possible that humans use their random-generating neural machinery to make difficult decisions in which all expected outcomes are similar. It is also possible that certain people, perhaps those with neurological or psychiatric impairments, are less able or unable to generate random numbers. If the random-generating neural machinery is employed in decision making its impairment would have profound implications in matters of agency and free will.

  20. The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading as a Measure of Premorbid Intelligence Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Kayla A; Novack, Thomas A; Kennedy, Richard; Crowe, Michael; Marson, Daniel C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2017-02-01

    The current study sought to determine whether the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR) provides a stable estimate of premorbid intellectual ability in acutely injured patients recovering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). A total of 135 participants (43 mild TBI [mTBI], 40 moderate/severe TBI [msevTBI], 52 healthy controls) were administered the WTAR at 1 and 12 months post-injury. Despite similar demographic profiles, participants with msevTBI performed significantly worse than controls on the WTAR at both time points. Moreover, the msevTBI group had a significant improvement in WTAR performance over the 1-year period. In contrast, those participants with mTBI did not significantly differ from healthy controls and both the mTBI and control groups demonstrated stability on the WTAR over time. Results indicate that word-reading tests may underestimate premorbid intelligence during the immediate recovery period for patients with msevTBI. Clinicians should consider alternative estimation measures in this TBI subpopulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Propriedades psicométricas apresentadas em manuais de testes de inteligência Psychometric parameters in intelligence test directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar quais os parâmetros psicométricos apresentados nos manuais de 19 instrumentos de avaliação da inteligência. Os elementos avaliados nos instrumentos foram: análise de itens, padronização, validade e precisão. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que, dos 19 testes avaliados, 89,5% apresentaram estudos de padronização, sendo que o procedimento mais utilizado na escolha dos sujeitos foi o não aleatório (62,2% dos testes. No que se refere à validade, a de construto foi a mais freqüente dentre os testes (94,7%. Observou-se que todos os instrumentos apresentaram verifica��ão da precisão, sendo o método de consistência interna o mais aplicado (78,9%. Conclui-se que, embora os autores concordem que todos os testes devam realizar estudos de verificação dos parâmetros psicométricos e devam possuir normas regionais, tal prática ainda não se encontra totalmente difundida na avaliação psicológica brasileira,This research aimed to verify the psychometric parameters presented in manuals of 19 intelligence tests. The psychometric properties included in the analysis were: item analysis, validity, reliability, and norms studies. The results indicated that 89.5% of the 19 tests presented norming studies. The procedure of sample selection was mostly non-random (62.2% of the tests. Construct validity was the most frequent method used among the studies (94.7%. All tests presented reliability studies, most of them using internal consistency coefficient (78.9%. It is concluded that although the authors agree that all tests need studies to verify psychometric parameters and studies to obtain regional norms this action isn’t divulged totally yet in the Brazilian psychological assessment.

  2. Assessment of Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT Reports: Implication to Career Guidance Program Enhancement of Academic Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to assess the reports generated from the Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT administered by selected DMIT resource companies and consultancy firms in India with the end view of identifying its implication to career guidance program enhancement of academic institutions. This paper employed the descriptive research method which involved the use of documentary analysis, questionnaires and interviews with purposively selected respondents supported by the researchers’ analysis and insights with reference to the content of the data. Findings of this research revealed that the dermatoglyphics, as a scientific discipline, began with the publication of Purkinje’s thesis (1823 and Galton’s classic book, Fingerprints (1892; DMIT is a remarkable offshoot of Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences which has the following salient features: Overview of the Dermatoglyphics and the Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test/Analysis; Personality Assessment; Profile based on Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences and Dunn’s Brain Lateralization Theories; Learning Styles; Competency and Compatibility Profiles; Working Style; Leadership Style; Management Style; Report Interpretation; and Customized Academic and Relationship Advises; the respondents of this study gave their perceptions with reference to the beneficial results of the DMIT; and the foregoing findings have some implications that may be used by academic institutions to enhance their career guidance program.

  3. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  4. Physical growth and academic intelligence of rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A frequency table was generated to reflect the rate of non-verbal, verbal and IQ tests of Ellisras children grade 4 to 7 in the categories of cognitively challenged, borderline, low average, and above average. Generally, boys exhibit a mean score ranging between 64.5 and 72.3 across the grades and between verbal, ...

  5. New possibilities for non-destructive testing of pipelines with intelligent pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, H.; Jaskolla, B.; Barbian, O.A. [NDT Systems and Services, Stutensee (Germany); Niese, F. [Institut fuer zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Pipelines are considered to be the safest way for transportation of large amounts of liquid and gas over large distances. In the course of the lifetime of a pipeline, however, many effects can lead to damages affecting the integrity of the line, e.g. manufacturing-related anomalies, operationally induced anomalies or third-party damage. In order to avoid pipeline failures with potentially catastrophic consequences so-called intelligent pigs (or smart pigs) were developed during the last decades: These tools allow for the internal inspection (In-Line Inspection, ILI) of pipelines using non-destructive testing technologies for the early detection and sizing of defects. Most common are magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic techniques for corrosion inspection and the latter also for crack inspection. While the ultrasonic techniques offer superior sizing capabilities they are limited to the inspection of liquid pipelines where the medium itself provides the necessary coupling between the (piezoelectric) ultrasonic transducers and the pipe wall. However, this limitation can be overcome by recent developments using EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) technology. By a special sensor design, the EMAT inspection is combined with eddy current (EC) inspection and MFL inspection at the same time. As a result, this new multi-technology approach offers improved sizing as well as enhanced feature identification for wall thickness inspection of gas pipelines. (orig.)

  6. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different traffic scenarios checking the robustness of traffic light cycle programs. We have concentrated on an extensive urban area in the city of Malaga (in Spain, in which we validate a set of candidate cycle programs generated by means of four optimization algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization for Traffic Lights, Differential Evolution for Traffic Lights, random search, and Sumo Cycle Program Generator. We can test the cycles of traffic lights considering the different states of the city, weather, congestion, driver expertise, vehicle’s features, and so forth, but prioritizing the most relevant scenarios among a large and varied set of them. The improvement achieved in solution quality is remarkable, especially for CO2 emissions, in which we have obtained a reduction of 126.99% compared with the experts’ solutions.

  7. Development of equally intelligible Telugu sentence-lists to test speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanniru, Kishore; Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Jain, Chandni; Konadath, Sreeraj; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Sreenivas, K J Ramadevi; K, Anusha

    2017-09-01

    To develop sentence lists in the Telugu language for the assessment of speech recognition threshold (SRT) in the presence of background noise through identification of the mean signal-to-noise ratio required to attain a 50% sentence recognition score (SRTn). This study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved the selection and recording of Telugu sentences. In the second phase, 20 lists, each consisting of 10 sentences with equal intelligibility, were formulated using a numerical optimisation procedure. In the third phase, the SRTn of the developed lists was estimated using adaptive procedures on individuals with normal hearing. A total of 68 native Telugu speakers with normal hearing participated in the study. Of these, 18 (including the speakers) performed on various subjective measures in first phase, 20 performed on sentence/word recognition in noise for second phase and 30 participated in the list equivalency procedures in third phase. In all, 15 lists of comparable difficulty were formulated as test material. The mean SRTn across these lists corresponded to -2.74 (SD = 0.21). The developed sentence lists provided a valid and reliable tool to measure SRTn in Telugu native speakers.

  8. The relationship of speech intelligibility with hearing sensitivity, cognition, and perceived hearing difficulties varies for different speech perception tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eHeinrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeners vary in their ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Hearing sensitivity, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, can only partly explain these results, and cognition has emerged as another key concept. Although cognition relates to speech perception, the exact nature of the relationship remains to be fully understood. This study investigates how different aspects of cognition, particularly working memory and attention, relate to speech intelligibility for various tests.Perceptual accuracy of speech perception represents just one aspect of functioning in a listening environment. Activity and participation limits imposed by hearing loss, in addition to the demands of a listening environment, are also important and may be better captured by self-report questionnaires. Understanding how speech perception relates to self-reported aspects of listening forms the second focus of the study.Forty-four listeners aged between 50-74 years with mild SNHL were tested on speech perception tests differing in complexity from low (phoneme discrimination in quiet, to medium (digit triplet perception in speech-shaped noise to high (sentence perception in modulated noise; cognitive tests of attention, memory, and nonverbal IQ; and self-report questionnaires of general health-related and hearing-specific quality of life.Hearing sensitivity and cognition related to intelligibility differently depending on the speech test: neither was important for phoneme discrimination, hearing sensitivity alone was important for digit triplet perception, and hearing and cognition together played a role in sentence perception. Self-reported aspects of auditory functioning were correlated with speech intelligibility to different degrees, with digit triplets in noise showing the richest pattern. The results suggest that intelligibility tests can vary in their auditory and cognitive demands and their sensitivity to the challenges that auditory environments pose on

  9. Concept development and needs identification for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO) : test readiness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO), which is one collection (or bundle) of high-priority transformative applications identified by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) Mob...

  10. On the Need for Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Test and Evaluation Methods for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, D. H.; Hibbitts, C. A.; Chen, M. H.; Paxton, L. J.; Bekker, D. L.

    2017-02-01

    Implementing mature artificial intelligence would create the ability to significantly increase the science return from a mission, while potentially saving costs in mission and instrument operations, and solving currently intractable problems.

  11. Exploration of verbal and non-verbal semantic knowledge and autobiographical memories starting from popular songs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaglia-Pappas, S; Laterza, M; Borg, C; Richard-Mornas, A; Favre, E; Thomas-Antérion, C

    2013-05-01

    In mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), a deficit in episodic memory, particularly autobiographical memory, is clearly established. Several recent studies have also shown impaired semantic memory from the onset of the disease. Musical memory capacities may be especially preserved and listening to music might encourage autobiographical recall. The aim of this study was to explore recall of popular songs in AD. We tested 12 patients with mild AD and 12 control subjects. We created a tool made up of old French popular songs: POP 10. This tool is a questionnaire composed of several subtests: melodic free recall, chorus free recall, melodic recognition, chorus recognition, semantic knowledge, autobiographical recall about the song, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter. We used non-parametric tests, the Mann-Whitney test (M-W), the Friedman test, and the a posteriori Wilcoxon test. Results of AD patients were rather similar to those of control participants for melodic memory. Concerning chorus memory (except recognition), semantic knowledge, and autobiographical recall about the interpreter, results of AD patients were significantly weaker than those of control participants. The most important result concerned autobiographical recall about the song: we found no impairment-related differences between the two groups. Our findings demonstrate that popular songs can be excellent stimuli for reminiscence, such as the ability to produce an autobiographical memory related to a song. Thus, we confirm that musical semantic knowledge associated with a song may be relatively preserved in the early stages of AD. This leads to new possibilities for cognitive stimulation.

  12. The relation between continuous and discrete emotional responses to food odors with facial expressions and non-verbal reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, W.; Boesveldt, S.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional sensory and hedonic tests are often limited to predict market performance. Investigating emotional responses to food stimuli may contribute to a better understanding of consumers’ eating behavior. In the present study, 26 female participants were exposed to an orange (pleasant) and a

  13. Parâmetros psicométricos: estudo comparativo entre testes de inteligência e de personalidade Psychometric parameters: comparative study between intelligence and personality tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A validade e a precisão de testes psicológicos vêm sendo bastante questionadas e discutidas atualmente. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a validade, a precisão e a existência de padronização brasileira em 43 testes psicológicos comercializados no Brasil, sendo 22 de inteligência e 21 de personalidade. Os testes foram comparados quanto ao período de publicação no Brasil. Os resultados indicaram que existe maior número de instrumentos publicados nas décadas de 1980 e 1990, que os testes de inteligência apresentam mais estudos de padronização, validade e precisão, embora não tenha havido diferença significante entre os grupos de testes (inteligência e personalidade. Novos estudos devem ser desenvolvidos com o intuito de promover os testes psicológicos e a área de avaliação psicológica, como um todo.Nowadays, the validity and the reliability of psychological tests are being very questioned and discussed. The current study aims to evaluate the validity, the reliability and the existence of Brazilian standardization in 43 psychological tests commercialized in Brazil, being 22 of intelligence and 21 of personality. The tests have been compared concearning the publication period in Brazil. The results have indicated that there is a bigger number of instruments published in the 1980´s and 1990´s, that the intelligence tests present more studies of standardization, validity and reliability, even though there hasn´t been significant difference among the groups tests (intelligence and personality. New studies must be developed aiming to promote the psychological tests and the area of psychological assessment, as a whole.

  14. Automated Critical Test Findings Identification and Online Notification System Using Artificial Intelligence in Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Erdal, Barbaros S; Ryu, John L; Little, Kevin J; Demirer, Mutlu; Qian, Songyue; White, Richard D

    2017-12-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of an artificial intelligence (AI) tool using a deep learning algorithm for detecting hemorrhage, mass effect, or hydrocephalus (HMH) at non-contrast material-enhanced head computed tomographic (CT) examinations and to determine algorithm performance for detection of suspected acute infarct (SAI). Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was completed after institutional review board approval. A training and validation dataset of noncontrast-enhanced head CT examinations that comprised 100 examinations of HMH, 22 of SAI, and 124 of noncritical findings was obtained resulting in 2583 representative images. Examinations were processed by using a convolutional neural network (deep learning) using two different window and level configurations (brain window and stroke window). AI algorithm performance was tested on a separate dataset containing 50 examinations with HMH findings, 15 with SAI findings, and 35 with noncritical findings. Results Final algorithm performance for HMH showed 90% (45 of 50) sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78%, 97%) and 85% (68 of 80) specificity (95% CI: 76%, 92%), with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91 with the brain window. For SAI, the best performance was achieved with the stroke window showing 62% (13 of 21) sensitivity (95% CI: 38%, 82%) and 96% (27 of 28) specificity (95% CI: 82%, 100%), with AUC of 0.81. Conclusion AI using deep learning demonstrates promise for detecting critical findings at noncontrast-enhanced head CT. A dedicated algorithm was required to detect SAI. Detection of SAI showed lower sensitivity in comparison to detection of HMH, but showed reasonable performance. Findings support further investigation of the algorithm in a controlled and prospective clinical setting to determine whether it can independently screen noncontrast-enhanced head CT examinations and notify the interpreting radiologist of critical findings.

  15. Structural neurobiological correlates of Mayer-Salovery-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test performance in early course schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalik, Jessica A; Eack, Shaun M; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-01-10

    The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a key measure of social cognition in schizophrenia that has good psychometric properties and is recommended by the MATRICS committee. As a way to further investigate the validity of the MSCEIT, this study sought to examine the neurobiological correlates of MSCEIT performance in patients with early course schizophrenia. A total of 51 patients diagnosed with early course, stabilized schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and the MSCEIT. Investigation of the associations between MSCEIT performance and gray matter morphology was examined by conducting voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses across hypothesized social-cognitive regions of interest using automated anatomical labeling in Statistical Parametric Mapping Software, version 5 (SPM5). All VBM analyses utilized general linear models examining gray matter density partitioned images, adjusting for demographic and illness-related confounds. VBM results were then followed up with confirmatory volumetric analyses. Patients with poorer overall and Facilitating, Understanding, and Managing Emotions subscale performances on the MSCEIT showed significantly reduced gray matter density in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Additionally, attenuated performance on the Facilitating and Managing Emotions subscales was significantly associated with reduced right posterior cingulate gray matter density. All associations observed between MSCEIT performance and gray matter density were supported with confirmatory gray matter volumetric analyses, with the exception of the association between the right posterior cingulate and the facilitation of emotions. These findings provide additional evidence for the MSCEIT as a valid social-cognitive measure by elucidating its correlates with neurobiological structures commonly implicated in emotion processing. These findings provide additional biological evidence

  16. Cognitive differences between orang-utan species: a test of the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Sofia I F; Willems, Erik; Call, Josep; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-07-28

    Cultural species can - or even prefer to - learn their skills from conspecifics. According to the cultural intelligence hypothesis, selection on underlying mechanisms not only improves this social learning ability but also the asocial (individual) learning ability. Thus, species with systematically richer opportunities to socially acquire knowledge and skills should over time evolve to become more intelligent. We experimentally compared the problem-solving ability of Sumatran orang-utans (Pongo abelii), which are sociable in the wild, with that of the closely related, but more solitary Bornean orang-utans (P. pygmaeus), under the homogeneous environmental conditions provided by zoos. Our results revealed that Sumatrans showed superior innate problem-solving skills to Borneans, and also showed greater inhibition and a more cautious and less rough exploration style. This pattern is consistent with the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which predicts that the more sociable of two sister species experienced stronger selection on cognitive mechanisms underlying learning.

  17. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  18. Heart rate variability during acute psychosocial stress: A randomized cross-over trial of verbal and non-verbal laboratory stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Agostino; Zarbo, Cristina; Tarvainen, Mika P; Marchettini, Paolo; Adorni, Roberta; Compare, Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Acute psychosocial stress is typically investigated in laboratory settings using protocols with distinctive characteristics. For example, some tasks involve the action of speaking, which seems to alter Heart Rate Variability (HRV) through acute changes in respiration patterns. However, it is still unknown which task induces the strongest subjective and autonomic stress response. The present cross-over randomized trial sought to investigate the differences in perceived stress and in linear and non-linear analyses of HRV between three different verbal (Speech and Stroop) and non-verbal (Montreal Imaging Stress Task; MIST) stress tasks, in a sample of 60 healthy adults (51.7% females; mean age = 25.6 ± 3.83 years). Analyses were run controlling for respiration rates. Participants reported similar levels of perceived stress across the three tasks. However, MIST induced a stronger cardiovascular response than Speech and Stroop tasks, even after controlling for respiration rates. Finally, women reported higher levels of perceived stress and lower HRV both at rest and in response to acute psychosocial stressors, compared to men. Taken together, our results suggest the presence of gender-related differences during psychophysiological experiments on stress. They also suggest that verbal activity masked the vagal withdrawal through altered respiration patterns imposed by speaking. Therefore, our findings support the use of highly-standardized math task, such as MIST, as a valid and reliable alternative to verbal protocols during laboratory studies on stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. M. Van Esch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  20. VEHIL: a full-scale test methodology for intelligent transport systems, vehicles and subsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, L.; Verburg, D.J.; Lupker, H.A.; Kusters, L.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency and safety of today's road transport, the application of driver support systems and fully automated, intelligent transport systems becomes increasingly important. The safety and reliability requirements of these systems and their complexity are high, which results in a

  1. Testing the Theory of Successful Intelligence in Teaching Grade 4 Language Arts, Mathematics, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Jarvin, Linda; Birney, Damian P.; Naples, Adam; Stemler, Steven E.; Newman, Tina; Otterbach, Renate; Parish, Carolyn; Randi, Judy; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed whether prior successes with educational interventions grounded in the theory of successful intelligence could be replicated on a larger scale as the primary basis for instruction in language arts, mathematics, and science. A total of 7,702 4th-grade students in the United States, drawn from 223 elementary school classrooms in…

  2. Intelligence test at preschool-age predicts reading difficulty among school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Ogino, Tatsuya; Koeda, Tatsuya; Oka, Makio; Yorifuji, Takashi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuo; Sugino, Noriko; Bonno, Motoki; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao

    2018-05-21

    To elucidate whether the results of an intelligence test at preschool age are predictive of reading difficulty (RD) at school age among very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Subjects were 48 Japanese children whose birth weight was Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) during the last grade of kindergarten, and four reading tasks during the second to fourth grade of elementary school. All participants had a full-scale intelligence quotient score of 85 or higher. Subjects with a standard deviation reading time score greater than 2.0 in two or more tasks were considered to have RD. We evaluated the associations between each WISC-III score and RD using logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine a cutoff WISC-III score predictive of RD. In the mutually-adjusted model, the adjusted odds ratio per 1 score increase of freedom from distractibility (FD) was 0.832 (95% confidence interval: 0.720-0.962). In the ROC analysis, an FD score of memory and attention, is a risk factor for RD at school age among Japanese VLBWI. Further investigation is desired to clarify the cognitive deficits underlying RD in Japanese-speaking preterm children, and to establish appropriate interventions for these children. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Ferrer; José García-Nieto; Enrique Alba; Francisco Chicano

    2016-01-01

    In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security) of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different ...

  4. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Extremera, Natalio; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This research examined evidence regarding the reliability and validity of scores on the Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Version 2.0 (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). In Study 1, we found a close convergence of the Spanish consensus scores and the general and expert consensus scores determined with Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, and Sitarenios (2003) data. The MSCEIT also demonstrated adequate evidence of reliability of test scores as estimated by internal consistency and test-retest correlation after 12 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-level higher factor model with 8 manifest variables (task scores), 4 first-level factors (corresponding to the 4-branch model of Mayer & Salovey [1997], with 2 tasks for each branch), 2 second-level factors (experiential and strategic areas, with 2 branches for each area), and 1 third-level factor (overall emotional intelligence [EI]), and multigroup analyses supported MSCEIT cross-gender invariance. Study 2 found evidence for the discriminant validity of scores on the MSCEIT subscales, which were differentially related to personality and self-reported EI. Study 3 provided evidence of the incremental validity of scores on the MSCEIT, which added significant variance to the prospective prediction of psychological well-being after controlling for personality traits. The psychometric properties of the Spanish MSCEIT are similar to those of the original English version, supporting its use for assessing emotional abilities in the Spanish population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  6. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers

  7. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  8. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwel, Suzanne; Perez, Roberto S G M; Maier, Andrea B; Hertogh, Cees M P M; de Vet, Henrica C W; Lobbezoo, Frank; Scherder, Erik J A

    2018-04-29

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric evaluation of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals (OPS-NVI) as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with dementia. The OPS-NVI has recently been developed and needs psychometric evaluation for clinical use in people with dementia. The pain self-report is imperative as a reference standard and can be provided by people with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. The presence of orofacial pain during rest, drinking, chewing and oral hygiene care was observed in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia using the OPS-NVI. Participants who were considered to present a reliable self-report were asked about pain presence, and in all participants, the oral health was examined by a dentist for the presence of potential painful conditions. After item-reduction, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity were determined. The presence of orofacial pain in this population was low (0%-10%), resulting in an average Positive Agreement of 0%-100%, an average Negative Agreement of 77%-100%, a sensitivity of 0%-100% and a specificity of 66%-100% for the individual items of the OPS-NVI. At the same time, the presence of oral problems, such as ulcers, tooth root remnants and caries was high (64.5%). The orofacial pain presence in this MCI and dementia population was low, resulting in low scores for average Positive Agreement and sensitivity and high scores for average Negative Agreement and specificity. Therefore, the OPS-NVI in its current form cannot be recommended as a screening tool for orofacial pain in people with MCI and dementia. However, the inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of the individual items in this study provide more insight for the further adjustment of the OPS-NVI for diagnostic use. Notably, oral health problems were frequently present, although no pain was reported or observed, indicating that oral health problems cannot be used as a new reference

  10. A influência da comunicação não verbal no cuidado de enfermagem La influencia de la comunicación no verbal en la atención de enfermería The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Viana Santos

    2005-08-01

    Nursing School Alfredo Pinto UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  11. Normative data for the Boston Naming Test in native Dutch-speaking Belgian children and the relation with intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Gert; Saerens, Jos; De Deyn, Peter P

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be significantly lower than published norms for comparable North-American children. Error analysis disclosed remarkable similarities with data from elderly subjects, with verbal semantic paraphasias and 'don't know' responses occurring most frequently. Finally, BNT scores were shown to correlate strongly with general intelligence as measured with the Raven Progressive Matrices. The relation between both measures can be of help in the diagnosis of identification naming deficits and impaired word-retrieval capacities.

  12. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  13. Discrepancy analysis between crystallized and fluid intelligence tests: a novel method to detect mild cognitive impairment in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaiwa, A; Kuwayama, N; Akioka, N; Kashiwazaki, D; Kuroda, S

    2018-02-01

    The present study was conducted to accurately determine the presence of mild cognitive impairment, which is often difficult to evaluate using only simple tests. Our approach focused on discrepancy analysis of fluid intelligence relative to crystallized intelligence using internationally recognized neuropsychological tests. One-hundred and five patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis were assessed. The neuropsychological tests included the two subtests (information and picture completion) of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R-two-subtests): crystallized intelligence tests and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory and total score) as fluid intelligence tests. Discrepancy analysis was used to assess cognitive impairment. The score for RBANS was subtracted from the score for WAIS-R-two-subtests, and if the score difference was greater than the 5% confidence limit for statistical significance, it was defined as a decline in cognitive function. The WAIS-R-two-subsets was within normal limits when compared with the standardized values. However, all RBANS domains showed significant declines. Frequencies of decline in each RBANS domain were as follows: 69 patients (66%) in immediate memory, 26 (25%) in visuospatial/constructional, 54 (51%) in language, 63 (60%) in attention, 54 (51%) in delayed memory and 78 (74%) in the total score. Moreover, 99 patients (94%) showed decline in at least one RBANS domain. Cognitive function is only preserved in a few patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Mild cognitive impairment can be precisely detected by performing the discrepancy analysis between crystallized and fluid intelligence tests. © 2017 EAN.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  16. Comparison between β-thalassemia minor and normal individuals using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangiabadi, Nasser; Yarahmadi, Fahimeh; Darekordi, Ali; Shabani, Mohammad; Dadgar, Mehrak Memaran

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating and comparing patients suffering from β-thalassemia (β-thal) minor with normal individuals in regard to their performances in the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Patients with β-thal minor are carriers of β-thal genes. They have mild microcytic and hypochromic anemia and are usually asymptomatic. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 60 individuals were divided into two equal groups of β-thal minor and normal subjects; they were then studied by the WAIS subscales. The mean performance scores of the normal group in the subtests of arithmetic and vocabulary (p <0.01) and picture completion (p <0.05) were higher than those of the thalassemia group. The mean performance score and ability of the normal group on the verbal scale was higher in comparison to the thalassemia group (p <0.05), while on the non verbal scale, there was no significant difference between the two groups. It can be concluded that β-thal minor negatively influences verbal fluency, reasoning and conceptualization, and sequencing tasks, perceptual skill, prediction of social situations and abstract thinking.

  17. Fluid intelligence: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  18. Intelligent Tutor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  19. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T. E. M.; Dreschler, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test

  20. Longitudinal Assessment of Intellectual Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: Multilevel Modeling of Performance on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Kistler, Doris J.; John, Angela E.; Morris, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to address the longitudinal stability of standard scores (SSs) measuring intellectual ability for children with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants were 40 children with genetically confirmed WS who completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test--Second Edition (KBIT-2; A. S. Kaufman & N. L. Kaufman, 2004) 4-7…

  1. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  2. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  3. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  4. Emotional intelligence and reasoning tests: a correlacional study / Inteligência emocional e provas de raciocínio: um estudo correlacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Garcia de Jesus Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intended to study the convergent validity as detailed by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test – MSCEIT, as a tool to assess Emotional Intelligence by relating them to the Baterias de Provas de Raciocínio (Series of Reasoning Tests – BPR-5, regarding fluid and crystallized intelligence. The sample consisted of 191 grad students, between 17 and 60 years old, with majors in the areas of Pedagogy, PE, BA, Accounting and Information Systems, from a privately funded university from the state of Sao Paulo. The instruments were applied in two collective sessions in groups classified by their majors. The general correlation between MSCEIT and BPR-5 was low and significant (r=0,18; p<0,05, showing a little convergence of constructs. However, this correlation was increased (r=0,28; p<0,01, when discarding the Spatial and Mechanical reasoning tests (BPR-5, for they also assess other skills besides Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence.

  5. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  6. JOINT INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, & RECONNAISSANCE (ISR) TEST & EVALUATION (JISR-TE) FACILITY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To meet the needs of the Warfighter, the JISR-TE facility provides the US, NATO, and Coalition members standards conformance testing of imagery capabilities across...

  7. AN INTELLIGENT REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING PARADIGM FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the chemical evaluation bottleneck that currently exists can only be achieved through progressive changes to the current testing paradigm. The primary resources for addressing these issues lie in computational toxicology, a field enriched by recent advances in computer...

  8. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agneta H; Kret, Mariska E; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions.

  9. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous, emotion cues. In addition, we included a self-report emotional intelligence test in order to examine any discrepancy between self-perceptions and actual performance for both men and women. We used a wide range of stimuli and models, displaying six different emotions at two different intensity levels. In order to better tap sensitivity for subtle emotion cues, we did not use a forced choice format, but rather intensity measures of different emotions. We found no support for the emotional sensitivity account, as both genders rated the target emotions as similarly intense at both levels of stimulus intensity. Men, however, more strongly perceived non-target emotions to be present than women. In addition, we also found that the lower scores of men in self-reported EI was not related to their actual perception of target emotions, but it was to the perception of non-target emotions. PMID:29370198

  10. In Silico Testing of an Artificial-Intelligence-Based Artificial Pancreas Designed for Use in the Intensive Care Unit Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJournett, Leon; DeJournett, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    Effective glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality rates which should in turn lead to decreased health care expenditures. Current ICU-based glucose controllers are mathematically derived, and tend to be based on proportional integral derivative (PID) or model predictive control (MPC). Artificial intelligence (AI)-based closed loop glucose controllers may have the ability to achieve control that improves on the results achieved by either PID or MPC controllers. We conducted an in silico analysis of an AI-based glucose controller designed for use in the ICU setting. This controller was tested using a mathematical model of the ICU patient's glucose-insulin system. A total of 126 000 unique 5-day simulations were carried out, resulting in 107 million glucose values for analysis. For the 7 control ranges tested, with a sensor error of ±10%, the following average results were achieved: (1) time in control range, 94.2%, (2) time in range 70-140 mg/dl, 97.8%, (3) time in hyperglycemic range (>140 mg/dl), 2.1%, and (4) time in hypoglycemic range (artificial pancreas system for use in the ICU setting. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Towards Intelligent Interpretation of Low Strain Pile Integrity Testing Results Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, De-Mi; Yan, Weizhong; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Lu, Lie-Min

    2017-10-25

    Low strain pile integrity testing (LSPIT), due to its simplicity and low cost, is one of the most popular NDE methods used in pile foundation construction. While performing LSPIT in the field is generally quite simple and quick, determining the integrity of the test piles by analyzing and interpreting the test signals (reflectograms) is still a manual process performed by experienced experts only. For foundation construction sites where the number of piles to be tested is large, it may take days before the expert can complete interpreting all of the piles and delivering the integrity assessment report. Techniques that can automate test signal interpretation, thus shortening the LSPIT's turnaround time, are of great business value and are in great need. Motivated by this need, in this paper, we develop a computer-aided reflectogram interpretation (CARI) methodology that can interpret a large number of LSPIT signals quickly and consistently. The methodology, built on advanced signal processing and machine learning technologies, can be used to assist the experts in performing both qualitative and quantitative interpretation of LSPIT signals. Specifically, the methodology can ease experts' interpretation burden by screening all test piles quickly and identifying a small number of suspected piles for experts to perform manual, in-depth interpretation. We demonstrate the methodology's effectiveness using the LSPIT signals collected from a number of real-world pile construction sites. The proposed methodology can potentially enhance LSPIT and make it even more efficient and effective in quality control of deep foundation construction.

  12. [Evaluation of mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening test--personal observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Eugenia; Noczyńska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for a proper development of the central nervous system (CNS), skeleton and tooth buds. They are important from the early stages of fetal development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mental development of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected in screening and to determine the effect of TSH, level of thyroid hormones during observation, perinatal factors as well as parental and environmental factors on the children's IQ. 44 children (28 girls and 16 boys) aged 3.5-18 years (mean age 7.3+/- 3.5) were enrolled in the study. The subjects' mental development was analyzed. General intelligence quotient was measured on verbal and non-verbal scale and chosen parameters of mental development were measured. The evaluation of mental development was performed in two age groups: group A - 20 patients in the age range 3.5-5.9 years (mean age 5.3+/-0.8) tested using the Columbus method, and group B - 24 patients in the age range 6-18 years (mean age 10.3+/-2.2) tested on the Wechsler Scale. The intelligence quotient (IQ) in both groups was within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. Mean IQ values on verbal and non-verbal scale were comparable and within the average IQ range on Wechsler scale. The level of intelligence in group A correlated, on the brink of statistical significance (IS), with the education level of the parents (r=0.32; p=0.0934), while in the group B - IS correlated with birth weight (r=0.62; p=0.00247), it correlated on the brink of statistical significance with the education level of parents (r=0.4; p=0.0532) and mother's age (r=0.41; p=0.0514). The level of intelligence on verbal scale in group B, statistically significant, positively correlated with the body mass at birth (r=0.62; p=0.00147) and negatively with the mean value of TSH in 2-year follow-up period (r=-0.47; p=0.0381). The level of general intelligence and on verbal and non-verbal scale did not correlate with the time of commencement of therapy

  13. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fajrianthi,1 Rizqy Amelia Zein2 1Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2Department of Personality and Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia Abstract: This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA] was designed to measure three EI domains: 1 emotional appraisal, 2 emotional recognition, and 3 emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA and item response theory (IRT were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF was 3.414 (ability level = 0 for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2, and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2. It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA’s item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset. Keywords: categorical confirmatory factor analysis, emotional intelligence, item response theory 

  14. The Relationship between Intelligence and Performance on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Mitzlaff, Linda; Thomas, Laura

    2002-01-01

    This study, with 17 young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 62 without ADHD, found no significant correlations between full scale IQ and scores on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). However, analysis of variance revealed that subjects with ADHD made more errors of omission on the TOVA than did controls.…

  15. Environmental test chamber for the support of learning and teaching in intelligent control

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C. James

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the utility of a low cost, 1 m2 by 2 m forced ventilation, micro-climate test chamber, for the support of research and teaching in mechatronics. Initially developed for the evaluation of a new ventilation rate controller, the fully instrumented chamber now provides numerous learning opportunities and individual projects for both undergraduate and postgraduate research students.

  16. Assessment of the Speech Intelligibility Performance of Post Lingual Cochlear Implant Users at Different Signal-to-Noise Ratios Using the Turkish Matrix Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Polat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spoken word recognition and speech perception tests in quiet are being used as a routine in assessment of the benefit which children and adult cochlear implant users receive from their devices. Cochlear implant users generally demonstrate high level performances in these test materials as they are able to achieve high level speech perception ability in quiet situations. Although these test materials provide valuable information regarding Cochlear Implant (CI users’ performances in optimal listening conditions, they do not give realistic information regarding performances in adverse listening conditions, which is the case in the everyday environment. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the speech intelligibility performance of post lingual CI users in the presence of noise at different signal-to-noise ratio with the Matrix Test developed for Turkish language. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The thirty post lingual implant user adult subjects, who had been using implants for a minimum of one year, were evaluated with Turkish Matrix test. Subjects’ speech intelligibility was measured using the adaptive and non-adaptive Matrix Test in quiet and noisy environments. Results: The results of the study show a correlation between Pure Tone Average (PTA values of the subjects and Matrix test Speech Reception Threshold (SRT values in the quiet. Hence, it is possible to asses PTA values of CI users using the Matrix Test also. However, no correlations were found between Matrix SRT values in the quiet and Matrix SRT values in noise. Similarly, the correlation between PTA values and intelligibility scores in noise was also not significant. Therefore, it may not be possible to assess the intelligibility performance of CI users using test batteries performed in quiet conditions. Conclusion: The Matrix Test can be used to assess the benefit of CI users from their systems in everyday life, since it is possible to perform

  17. Is Intelligence Artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of intelligence is directed primarily at the level of human beings. This paper attempts to give a more unifying definition that can be applied to the natural world in general. The definition would be used more to verify a degree of intelligence, not to quantify it and might help when making judgements on the matter. A version of an accepted test for AI is then put forward as the 'acid test' for Artificial Intelligence itself. It might be what a free-thinking program or robot...

  18. Testing and interfacing intelligent power supplies for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Cohen, S.; Weintraub, B.L.; Hayden, D.J.; Archuleta, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    New high-current, high-precision microprocessor-controlled power supplies, built by Alpha Scientific Electronics of Hayward, CA, have been installed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex. Each unit has sophisticated microprocessor control on-board and communicates via RS-422 (serial communications). The units use a high level ASCII-based control protocol. Performance tests were conducted to verify adherence to specification and to ascertain ultimate long-term stability. The ''front-end'' software used by the accelerator control system has been written to accommodate these new devices. The supplies are interfaced to the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ediernet backbone. Test design and results as well as details of the software implementation for the analog and digital control of the supplies through the accelerator control system are presented

  19. The effect of intranasal oxytocin on perceiving and understanding emotion on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Christopher; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that intranasal oxytocin enhances the perception of emotion in facial expressions during standard emotion identification tasks. However, it is not clear whether this effect is desirable in people who do not show deficits in emotion perception. That is, a heightened perception of emotion in faces could lead to "oversensitivity" to the emotions of others in nonclinical participants. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of intranasal oxytocin on emotion perception using ecologically valid social and nonsocial visual tasks. Eighty-two participants (42 women) self-administered a 24 IU dose of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo in a double-blind, randomized experiment and then completed the perceiving and understanding emotion components of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In this test, emotion identification accuracy is based on agreement with a normative sample. As expected, participants administered intranasal oxytocin rated emotion in facial stimuli as expressing greater emotional intensity than those given a placebo. Consequently, accurate identification of emotion in faces, based on agreement with a normative sample, was impaired in the oxytocin group relative to placebo. No such effect was observed for tests using nonsocial stimuli. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin enhances the salience of social stimuli in the environment, but not nonsocial stimuli. The present findings support a growing literature showing that the effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition can be negative under certain circumstances, in this case promoting "oversensitivity" to emotion in faces in healthy people. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Intelligence and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ru; Shi, Jiannong; Yong, W.

    2012-01-01

    Results of prev ious studies of the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence hav e been inconsistent. This study attempts to distinguish the dif f erences between sev eral prosocial tasks, and explores the way s in which cognitiv e ability inf luences prosocial behav ior. In Study...... One and Two, we reexamined the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence by employ ing a costly signaling theory with f our games. The results rev ealed that the prosocial lev el of smarter children is higher than that of other children in more complicated tasks but not so in simple...... tasks. In Study Three, we tested the moderation ef f ect of the av erage intelligence across classes, and the results did not show any group intelligence ef f ect on the relationship between intelligence and prosocial behav ior....

  1. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-08

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Intelligent Condition Diagnosis Method Based on Adaptive Statistic Test Filter and Diagnostic Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Qiuju; Wang, Kun; Chen, Peng; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-01-01

    A new fault diagnosis method for rotating machinery based on adaptive statistic test filter (ASTF) and Diagnostic Bayesian Network (DBN) is presented in this paper. ASTF is proposed to obtain weak fault features under background noise, ASTF is based on statistic hypothesis testing in the frequency domain to evaluate similarity between reference signal (noise signal) and original signal, and remove the component of high similarity. The optimal level of significance α is obtained using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To evaluate the performance of the ASTF, evaluation factor Ipq is also defined. In addition, a simulation experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of ASTF. A sensitive evaluation method using principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to evaluate the sensitiveness of symptom parameters (SPs) for condition diagnosis. By this way, the good SPs that have high sensitiveness for condition diagnosis can be selected. A three-layer DBN is developed to identify condition of rotation machinery based on the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) theory. Condition diagnosis experiment for rolling element bearings demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26761006

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  5. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  6. Comparing Different Versions of Road to Mental Readiness to Determine Optimal Content: Testing Instruction Type, Homework, and Intelligence Effects at Two Timepoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    intelligence including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III, Wechsler , 1997) and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence ...is there a resolution? Chest 2011,140(1), 16-18. Wechsler , D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale , Third Edition. San Antonio, TX...Psychological Corporation. Wechsler , D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence . San Antonio, TX: Psychological

  7. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  8. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  9. Is adaptation of the word accentuation test of premorbid intelligence necessary for use among older, Spanish-speaking immigrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Weintraub, Sandra; Navarro, Ellen

    2006-05-01

    Adaptations of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) for assessing premorbid intelligence in languages other than English requires (a) generating word-items that are rare and do not follow grapheme-to-phoneme mappings common in that language, and (b) subsequent validation against a cognitive battery normed on the population of interest. Such tests exist for Italy, France, Spain, and Argentina, all normed against national versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Given the varieties of Spanish spoken in the United States, the adaptation of the Spanish Word Accentuation Test (WAT) requires re-validating the original word list, plus possible new items, against a cognitive battery that has been normed on Spanish-speakers from many countries. This study reports the generation of 55 additional words and revalidation in a sample of 80 older, Spanish-dominant immigrants. The Batería Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada (BWM-R), normed on Spanish speakers from six countries and five U.S. states, was used to establish criterion validity. The original WAT word list accounted for 77% of the variance in the BWM-R and 58% of the variance in Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, suggesting that the unmodified list possesses adequate predictive validity as an indicator of intelligence. Regression equations are provided for estimating BWM-R and Ravens scores from WAT scores.

  10. Speech Intelligibility in Noise Using Throat and Acoustic Microphones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acker-Mills, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    ... speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility for signals generated by an acoustic microphone, a throat microphone, and the two microphones together was assessed using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT...

  11. Intelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...

  12. Assessment of emotion processing skills in acquired brain injury using an ability-based test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah E; Wrench, Joanne M; Wilson, Sarah J

    2018-04-01

    Social and emotional problems are commonly reported after moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and pose a significant barrier to rehabilitation. However, progress in assessment of emotional skills has been limited by a lack of validated measurement approaches. This study represents the first formal psychometric evaluation of the use of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) V2.0 as a tool for assessing skills in perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions following ABI. The sample consisted of 82 participants aged 18-80 years in the postacute phase of recovery (2 months-7 years) after moderate to severe ABI. Participants completed the MSCEIT V2.0 and measures of cognition and mood. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collated from participant interview and medical files. Results revealed deficits across all MSCEIT subscales (approximately 1 SD below the normative mean). Internal consistency was adequate at overall, area, and branch levels, and MSCEIT scores correlated in expected ways with key demographic, clinical, cognitive, and mood variables. MSCEIT performance was related to injury severity and clinician-rated functioning after ABI. Confirmatory factor analysis favored a 3-factor model of EI due to statistical redundancy of the Using Emotions branch. Overall, these findings suggest that the MSCEIT V2.0 is sensitive to emotion processing deficits after moderate to severe ABI, and can yield valid and reliable scores in an ABI sample. In terms of theoretical contributions, our findings support a domain-based, 3-factor approach for characterizing emotion-related abilities in brain-injured individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  14. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  15. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  16. Aging and Strategic Retrieval in a Cued-Recall Test: The Role of Executive Functions and Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was…

  17. Intelligent Testing with Wechsler’s Fourth Editions: Perspectives on the Weiss et al. Studies and the Eight Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The two featured articles and eight commentaries on the WISC-IV (Wechsler, 2003) and WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) in this special issue of "Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment" are of exceptional quality. As a collective, this special issue greatly advances the field of cognitive assessment by intelligently synthesizing the best of…

  18. Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional intelligence in the Indonesian workplace using an item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrianthi; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an emotional intelligence (EI) test that is suitable to the Indonesian workplace context. Airlangga Emotional Intelligence Test (Tes Kecerdasan Emosi Airlangga [TKEA]) was designed to measure three EI domains: 1) emotional appraisal, 2) emotional recognition, and 3) emotional regulation. TKEA consisted of 120 items with 40 items for each subset. TKEA was developed based on the Situational Judgment Test (SJT) approach. To ensure its psychometric qualities, categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) and item response theory (IRT) were applied to test its validity and reliability. The study was conducted on 752 participants, and the results showed that test information function (TIF) was 3.414 (ability level = 0) for subset 1, 12.183 for subset 2 (ability level = -2), and 2.398 for subset 3 (level of ability = -2). It is concluded that TKEA performs very well to measure individuals with a low level of EI ability. It is worth to note that TKEA is currently at the development stage; therefore, in this study, we investigated TKEA's item analysis and dimensionality test of each TKEA subset.

  19. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.

  20. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Inte...

  1. Do Dyslexic Individuals Present a Reduced Visual Attention Span? Evidence from Visual Recognition Tasks of Non-Verbal Multi-Character Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeari, Menahem; Isser, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A controversy has recently developed regarding the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia may be caused, in some cases, by a reduced visual attention span (VAS). To examine this hypothesis, independent of phonological abilities, researchers tested the ability of dyslexic participants to recognize arrays of unfamiliar visual characters. Employing…

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  3. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  4. Alzheimer's disease and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, R A; Arden, R; Jung, R E

    2011-06-01

    A significant body of evidence has accumulated suggesting that individual variation in intellectual ability, whether assessed directly by intelligence tests or indirectly through proxy measures, is related to risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in later life. Important questions remain unanswered, however, such as the specificity of risk for AD vs. other forms of dementia, and the specific links between premorbid intelligence and development of the neuropathology characteristic of AD. Lower premorbid intelligence has also emerged as a risk factor for greater mortality across myriad health and mental health diagnoses. Genetic covariance contributes importantly to these associations, and pleiotropic genetic effects may impact diverse organ systems through similar processes, including inefficient design and oxidative stress. Through such processes, the genetic underpinnings of intelligence, specifically, mutation load, may also increase the risk of developing AD. We discuss how specific neurobiologic features of relatively lower premorbid intelligence, including reduced metabolic efficiency, may facilitate the development of AD neuropathology. The cognitive reserve hypothesis, the most widely accepted account of the intelligence-AD association, is reviewed in the context of this larger literature.

  5. On Family Size and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques research by Rodgers, et al. (June 2000) on the impact of family size on intelligence, explaining that it applied very simple analytic techniques to a very complex question, leading to unwarranted conclusions about family size and intelligence. Loss of cases, omission of an important ability test, and failure to apply multivariate…

  6. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  7. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  8. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  9. What Does Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology Tell Us about Multiple Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that have used noninvasive brain imaging techniques to record neocortical activity while individuals were performing cognitive intelligence tests (traditional intelligence) and social intelligence tests were reviewed. In cognitive intelligence tests 16 neocortical areas were active, whereas in social intelligence 10 areas were active.…

  10. Measuring Intelligence in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiyumi, Mohammed Talib

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of intelligence measurement in the Sultanate of Oman, based on different aspects of historical evidence. These intelligence measurements have been used to describe activities of the Omani citizens. Since there is no unique Omani intelligence test, researchers conducted studies to standardize different intelligence…

  11. Can fast and slow intelligence be differentiated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partchev, I.; de Boeck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1.

  12. Intelligent Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.

  13. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version: relation to factor indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Jile, Judith R; Schrimsher, Gregory W; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2005-10-01

    The California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) provides clinicians with a method of assessing various aspects of children's verbal memory and has been found to be sensitive to memory deficits resulting from a variety of neurological conditions. Intuitively, the CVLT-C would be expected to be highly related to a child's verbal cognitive abilities; however, with only a few exceptions, the relationship of this test to various domains of cognitive function has not been broadly studied empirically. To examine this issue, we evaluated the amount of unique variance in CVLT-C scores that could be predicted by the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom from Distractibility, and Processing Speed indices of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) beyond that accounted for by age and gender in a sample of 62 children referred to an outpatient psychiatry clinic for neuropsychological evaluation. While the Processing Speed Index predicted a significant amount of variance for both short and long delay free and cued recall, the Verbal Comprehension Index was a poor predictor of CVLT-C performance on all outcome variables, accounting for only 1.5 to 4.5% additional variance above age and gender. These findings indicate that while the CVLT-C may be relatively independent of influences of verbal intelligence and abstract verbal reasoning, general speed and efficiency of processing play an important role in successful encoding for later retrieval on the CVLT-C.

  15. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Mohor Dumitrita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present business intelligence systems. These systems can be extremely complex and important in modern market competition. Its effectiveness also reflects in price, so we have to exlore their financial potential before investment. The systems have 20 years long history and during that time many of such tools have been developed, but they are rarely still in use. Business intelligence system consists of three main areas: Data Warehouse, ETL tools and tools f...

  16. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  17. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Imitation Therapy for Non-Verbal Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Cindy; Mehta, Jyutika; Fredenburg, Karen; Bartlett, Karen

    2011-01-01

    When imitation skills are not present in young children, speech and language skills typically fail to emerge. There is little information on practices that foster the emergence of imitation skills in general and verbal imitation skills in particular. The present study attempted to add to our limited evidence base regarding accelerating the…

  19. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  20. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  1. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A cluster analytic study of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV in children referred for psychoeducational assessment due to persistent academic difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Corinne R; Casey, Joseph E; Ricciardi, Philip W R

    2014-02-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV core subtest scores of 472 children were cluster analyzed to determine if reliable and valid subgroups would emerge. Three subgroups were identified. Clusters were reliable across different stages of the analysis as well as across algorithms and samples. With respect to external validity, the Globally Low cluster differed from the other two clusters on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Word Reading, Numerical Operations, and Spelling subtests, whereas the latter two clusters did not differ from one another. The clusters derived have been identified in studies using previous WISC editions. Clusters characterized by poor performance on subtests historically associated with the VIQ (i.e., VCI + WMI) and PIQ (i.e., POI + PSI) did not emerge, nor did a cluster characterized by low scores on PRI subtests. Picture Concepts represented the highest subtest score in every cluster, failing to vary in a predictable manner with the other PRI subtests.

  3. Distributed intelligence at CELLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, W. de

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of distributed intelligence at CELLO, a large 4π detector at PETRA. Besides special purpose hardware processors for online calibration and reformatting of data, several microcomputers are used for monitoring and testing the various detector components. (orig.)

  4. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  5. Reliability and validity of the rey visual design learning test in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Rey Visual Design Learning Test (Rey, 1964, in Spreen & Strauss, 1991) assesses immediate memory span, new learning and recognition for non-verbal material. Three studies are presented that focused on the reliability and validity of the RVDLT in primary school children. Test-retest reliability

  6. Gender, "g", and Fixed versus Growth Intelligence Mindsets as Predictors of Self-Estimated Domain Masculine Intelligence (DMIQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Over 120 participants completed three timed intelligence tests, a self-estimated Domain Masculine (DMIQ) Intelligence scale, and a mindset "beliefs about intelligence" measure (Dweck, 2012) to examine correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect (HHE) which shows males believe they are more intelligent than females. As predicted males gave…

  7. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  8. Intelligent Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  9. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret-Galix, D.

    1992-01-01

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined, even unpredictable conduct, 2- entities endowed with diverse or even multiple intelligence forms, like moral intelligence, 3- open and, even, free-conduct performing systems (with specific, flexible and heuristic mechanisms and procedures of decision, 4 – systems which are open to education, not just to instruction, 5- entities with “lifegraphy”, not just “stategraphy”, 6- equipped not just with automatisms but with beliefs (cognitive and affective complexes, 7- capable even of reflection (“moral life” is a form of spiritual, not just of conscious activity, 8 – elements/members of some real (corporal or virtual community, 9 – cultural beings: free conduct gives cultural value to the action of a ”natural” or artificial being. Implementation of such characteristics does not necessarily suppose efforts to design, construct and educate machines like human beings. The human moral code is irremediably imperfect: it is a morality of preference, of accountability (not of responsibility and a morality of non-liberty, which cannot be remedied by the invention of ethical systems, by the circulation of ideal values and by ethical (even computing education. But such an imperfect morality needs perfect instruments for its implementation: applications of special logic fields; efficient psychological (theoretical and technical attainments to endow the machine not just with intelligence, but with conscience and even spirit; comprehensive technical

  11. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  12. Assessing Intelligence in Children and Youth Living in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurks, Petra P. M.; Bakker, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we briefly describe the history of intelligence test use with children and youth in the Netherlands, explain which models of intelligence guide decisions about test use, and detail how intelligence tests are currently being used in Dutch school settings. Empirically supported and theoretical models studying the structure of human…

  13. What Makes Nations Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Earl

    2012-05-01

    Modern society is driven by the use of cognitive artifacts: physical instruments or styles of reasoning that amplify our ability to think. The artifacts range from writing systems to computers. In everyday life, a person demonstrates intelligence by showing skill in using these artifacts. Intelligence tests and their surrogates force examinees to exhibit some of these skills but not others. This is why test scores correlate substantially but not perfectly with a variety of measures of socioeconomic success. The same thing is true at the international level. Nations can be evaluated by the extent to which their citizens score well on cognitive tests, including both avowed intelligence tests and a variety of tests of academic achievement. The resulting scores are substantially correlated with various indices of national wealth, health, environmental quality, and schooling and with a vaguer variable, social commitment to innovation. These environmental variables are suggested as causes of the differences in general cognitive skills between national populations. It is conceivable that differences in gene pools also contribute to international and, within nations, group differences in cognitive skills, but at present it is impossible to evaluate the extent of genetic influences. © The Author(s) 2012.

  14. Intelligence as Trait—and State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We tend to think of intelligence as trait-like. However, with increasing use of psychoactive drugs that enhance performance on psychometric tests of intelligence, investigators need to think of intelligence also as having state-like properties. Questions of the ethics of such drug use will need to be faced in the field of high-stakes psychometric testing as they now are being faced in professional athletics.

  15. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  16. Increasing the reliability of the fluid/crystallized difference score from the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with reliable component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J C

    2001-06-01

    The unreliability of difference scores is a well documented phenomenon in the social sciences and has led researchers and practitioners to interpret differences cautiously, if at all. In the case of the Kaufman Adult and Adolescent Intelligence Test (KAIT), the unreliability of the difference between the Fluid IQ and the Crystallized IQ is due to the high correlation between the two scales. The consequences of the lack of precision with which differences are identified are wide confidence intervals and unpowerful significance tests (i.e., large differences are required to be declared statistically significant). Reliable component analysis (RCA) was performed on the subtests of the KAIT in order to address these problems. RCA is a new data reduction technique that results in uncorrelated component scores with maximum proportions of reliable variance. Results indicate that the scores defined by RCA have discriminant and convergent validity (with respect to the equally weighted scores) and that differences between the scores, derived from a single testing session, were more reliable than differences derived from equal weighting for each age group (11-14 years, 15-34 years, 35-85+ years). This reliability advantage results in narrower confidence intervals around difference scores and smaller differences required for statistical significance.

  17. Extraordinary intelligence and the care of infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Kidd, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence that pressures for early childcare may have been one of the driving factors of human evolution. We show through an evolutionary model that runaway selection for high intelligence may occur when (i) altricial neonates require intelligent parents, (ii) intelligent parents must have large brains, and (iii) large brains necessitate having even more altricial offspring. We test a prediction of this account by showing across primate genera that the helplessness of infants is a particularly strong predictor of the adults’ intelligence. We discuss related implications, including this account’s ability to explain why human-level intelligence evolved specifically in mammals. This theory complements prior hypotheses that link human intelligence to social reasoning and reproductive pressures and explains how human intelligence may have become so distinctive compared with our closest evolutionary relatives. PMID:27217560

  18. Students’ thinking level based on intrapersonal intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholikhati, Rahadian; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to determine the students’ thinking level based on bloom taxonomy guidance and reviewed from students' Intrapersonal Intelligence. Taxonomy bloom is a taxonomy that classifies the students' thinking level into six, ie the remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, creating, and evaluating levels. Students' Intrapersonal Intelligence is the intelligence associated with awareness and knowledge of oneself. The type of this research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The research subject were taken by one student in each Intrapersonal Intelligence category (high, moderate, and low) which then given the problem solving test and the result was triangulated by interview. From this research, it is found that high Intrapersonal Intelligence students can achieve analyzing thinking level, subject with moderate Intrapersonal Intelligence being able to reach the level of applying thinking, and subject with low Intrapersonal Intelligence able to reach understanding level.

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  20. Intelligence, age and schooling: data from the Battery of Reasoning Tests (BRT-5 Inteligência, idade e escolarização: dados da Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Primi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence is commonly divided into two distinctive areas: fluid intelligence (Gf, which is understood as the skill of reasoning or intelligence as a process, and crystallized intelligence (Gc that involves skills that are more related to learning and experience (knowledge-based skills. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects that schooling and age exert on fluid and crystallized intelligence measuring students' results in sub-tests of the Battery of Reasoning Test (BRT-5. This study considered a sample composed of 1,722 students - 603 were assessed with Form A of the battery and 1,119 with Form B. The results show that intelligence is systematically associated with schooling and age. Some difficulties in separating the effects of cognitive development from the effects of formal learning on students' cognitive performance are also emphasized.A inteligência é comumente dividida em fluida (Gf, entendida como habilidade de raciocínio ou inteligência como um processo, e cristalizada (Gc como as habilidades mais associadas à aprendizagem e experiência (habilidades associadas aos conhecimentos. No presente trabalho, o objetivo foi investigar os efeitos que a escolarização e a idade exercem sobre Gf e Gc tomando os resultados dos alunos nos subtestes da Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5. Este estudo considerou uma amostra composta por 1722 estudantes respondendo 603 à forma A dessa bateria e 1119 à sua forma B. Os resultados apontam relações sistemáticas entre inteligência, escolaridade e idade. Também se enfatiza a dificuldade em se separar os efeitos do desenvolvimento cognitivo e da aprendizagem formal no desempenho cognitivo dos alunos.

  1. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2014),"Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-V[superscript CDN])." Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Kennedy, Kathleen E.; Aquilina, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-V[superscript CDN]; Wechsler, 2014) is published by Pearson Canada Assessment. The WISC-V[superscript CDN] is a norm-referenced, individually administered intelligence battery that provides a comprehensive diagnostic profile of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of…

  2. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  3. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  4. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  5. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  6. The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, S J; Bier, I D; Young, K; Nichols, D; Jansenns, S

    2000-02-01

    given active tablets and 120 children given placebo tablets (p = 0.038). Second, this finding is consistent with the mean 3.2 IQ point net gain found in the 12 similar but less rigorous studies. Third, a significantly higher proportion of children in the active group gained 15 or more IQ points when compared to the placebo group (p IQ gain, the modest 2.5 IQ point net gain for the entire sample can be explained by the remaining 24 children who took active tablets, and had a 16 point higher net gain in IQ than the remaining 19 placebo controls. This study confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation modestly raised the nonverbal intelligence of some groups of Western schoolchildren by 2 to 3 points but not that of most Western schoolchildren, presumably because the majority were already adequately nourished. This study also confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation markedly raises the non-verbal intelligence of a minority of Western schoolchildren, presumably because they were too poorly nourished before supplementation for optimal brain function. Because nonverbal intelligence is closely associated with academic performance, it follows that schools with children who consume substandard diets should find it difficult to produce academic performance equal to those schools with children who consume diets that come closer to providing the nutrients suggested in the U.S. RDA. The parents of schoolchildren whose academic performance is substandard would be well advised to seek a nutritionally oriented physician for assessment of their children's nutritional status as a possible etiology.

  7. Introduction of a New Diagnostic Method for Breast Cancer Based on Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Test Data and Combining Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuzy, Mohammad; Haddadnia, Javad; Mollania, Nasrin; Hashemian, Maryam; Hassanpour, Kazem

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate Diagnosis of Breast Cancer is of prime importance. Fine Needle Aspiration test or "FNA”, which has been used for several years in Europe, is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive and accurate technique for detecting breast cancer. Expending the suitable features of the Fine Needle Aspiration results is the most important diagnostic problem in early stages of breast cancer. In this study, we introduced a new algorithm that can detect breast cancer based on combining artificial intelligent system and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA). Methods We studied the Features of Wisconsin Data Base Cancer which contained about 569 FNA test samples (212 patient samples (malignant) and 357 healthy samples (benign)). In this research, we combined Artificial Intelligence Approaches, such as Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) with Genetic Algorithm (GA), and also used Exact Classifier Systems (here by Fuzzy C-Means (FCM)) to separate malignant from benign samples. Furthermore, we examined artificial Neural Networks (NN) to identify the model and structure. This research proposed a new algorithm for an accurate diagnosis of breast cancer. Results According to Wisconsin Data Base Cancer (WDBC) data base, 62.75% of samples were benign, and 37.25% were malignant. After applying the proposed algorithm, we achieved high detection accuracy of about "96.579%” on 205 patients who were diagnosed as having breast cancer. It was found that the method had 93% sensitivity, 73% specialty, 65% positive predictive value, and 95% negative predictive value, respectively. If done by experts, Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) can be a reliable replacement for open biopsy in palpable breast masses. Evaluation of FNA samples during aspiration can decrease insufficient samples. FNA can be the first line of diagnosis in women with breast masses, at least in deprived regions, and may increase health standards and clinical supervision of patients. Conclusion Such a smart, economical, non-invasive, rapid

  8. Emotional Intelligence: The MSCEIT from the Perspective of Generalizability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follesdal, Hallvard; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has been reported to provide reliable scores for the four-branch ability model of emotional intelligence [Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). "Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). User's manual." Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health…

  9. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  10. Multiple Intelligence Scores of Science Stream Students and Their Relation with Reading Competency in Malaysian University English Test (MUET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Zaini, Nuramirah

    2014-01-01

    Many researches have shown that different approach needed in analysing linear and non-linear reading comprehension texts and different cognitive skills are required. This research attempts to discover the relationship between Science Stream students' reading competency on linear and non-linear texts in Malaysian University English Test (MUET) with…

  11. The Cylindrical Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--IV: A Retest of the Guttman Model of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Arie; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Farley, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study on the underlying structure of the Wechsler intelligence test (WISC-R; [Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual WISC-R: Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation]), using smallest space analysis (SSA) [Guttman, L., and Levy, S. (1991). Two structural laws for intelligence tests.…

  12. Gender differences in emotion perception and self-reported emotional intelligence: A test of the emotion sensitivity hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Agneta H.; Kret, Mariska E.; Broekens, Joost

    2018-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses and reviews on gender differences in emotion recognition have shown a small to moderate female advantage. However, inconsistent evidence from recent studies has raised questions regarding the implications of different methodologies, stimuli, and samples. In the present research based on a community sample of more than 5000 participants, we tested the emotional sensitivity hypothesis, stating that women are more sensitive to perceive subtle, i.e. low intense or ambiguous...

  13. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children. 

  14. Flight Test Results from the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project with Adaptation to a Simulated Stabilator Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be more resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane and subjected to an inflight simulation of a failed (frozen) (unmovable) stabilator. Formation flight handling qualities evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to decouple the roll and pitch response and reestablish good onboard model tracking. Flight evaluation with the simulated stabilator failure and adaptation engaged showed that there was generally improvement in the pitch response; however, a tendency for roll pilot-induced oscillation was experienced. A detailed discussion of the cause of the mixed results is presented.

  15. Perceived Intelligence Is Associated with Measured Intelligence in Men but Not Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisner, Karel; Chvátalová, Veronika; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to accurately assess the intelligence of other persons finds its place in everyday social interaction and should have important evolutionary consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings We used static facial photographs of 40 men and 40 women to test the relationship between measured IQ, perceived intelligence, and facial shape. Both men and women were able to accurately evaluate the intelligence of men by viewing facial photographs. In addition to general intelligence, figural and fluid intelligence showed a significant relationship with perceived intelligence, but again, only in men. No relationship between perceived intelligence and IQ was found for women. We used geometric morphometrics to determine which facial traits are associated with the perception of intelligence, as well as with intelligence as measured by IQ testing. Faces that are perceived as highly intelligent are rather prolonged with a broader distance between the eyes, a larger nose, a slight upturn to the corners of the mouth, and a sharper, pointing, less rounded chin. By contrast, the perception of lower intelligence is associated with broader, more rounded faces with eyes closer to each other, a shorter nose, declining corners of the mouth, and a rounded and massive chin. By contrast, we found no correlation between morphological traits and real intelligence measured with IQ test, either in men or women. Conclusions These results suggest that a perceiver can accurately gauge the real intelligence of men, but not women, by viewing their faces in photographs; however, this estimation is possibly not based on facial shape. Our study revealed no relation between intelligence and either attractiveness or face shape. PMID:24651120

  16. Perceived intelligence is associated with measured intelligence in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisner, Karel; Chvátalová, Veronika; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately assess the intelligence of other persons finds its place in everyday social interaction and should have important evolutionary consequences. We used static facial photographs of 40 men and 40 women to test the relationship between measured IQ, perceived intelligence, and facial shape. Both men and women were able to accurately evaluate the intelligence of men by viewing facial photographs. In addition to general intelligence, figural and fluid intelligence showed a significant relationship with perceived intelligence, but again, only in men. No relationship between perceived intelligence and IQ was found for women. We used geometric morphometrics to determine which facial traits are associated with the perception of intelligence, as well as with intelligence as measured by IQ testing. Faces that are perceived as highly intelligent are rather prolonged with a broader distance between the eyes, a larger nose, a slight upturn to the corners of the mouth, and a sharper, pointing, less rounded chin. By contrast, the perception of lower intelligence is associated with broader, more rounded faces with eyes closer to each other, a shorter nose, declining corners of the mouth, and a rounded and massive chin. By contrast, we found no correlation between morphological traits and real intelligence measured with IQ test, either in men or women. These results suggest that a perceiver can accurately gauge the real intelligence of men, but not women, by viewing their faces in photographs; however, this estimation is possibly not based on facial shape. Our study revealed no relation between intelligence and either attractiveness or face shape.

  17. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  18. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  20. A restricted test of single word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target...... hard palate closure at either12 months (HPR (hard palate repaired)) or 36 months (HPU (hard palate unrepaired)), were compared to data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing, control children. Methods: Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naïve listeners...... consonants obtained from a simple naming test. To evaluate the relevance of this finding, we investigated how well the children's target words were understood by 84 naïve listeners. Design: A cross-sectional study. Participants: Data obtained from twenty-eight children with UCLP, 3 years of age, who received...

  1. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  2. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  3. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    open source information— osint (newspapers...by user agencies. Section 1052 of the Intelligence Reform Act expressed the sense of Congress that there should be an open source intelligence ...center to coordinate the collection, analysis, production, and dissemination of open source intelligence to other intelligence agencies. An Open Source

  4. Análise dos itens do mayer-salovey-caruso emotional intelligence test: escalas da área estratégica Análisis de los ítems del mayer-salovey-caruso emotional intelligence test: escalas del área estratégica Item analysis of the mayer-salovey-caruso emotional intelligence test: strategic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou analisar os itens da Área Estratégica do Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intellligence Test - MSCEIT, a fim de investigar a consistência interna dos sub-testes, a correlação item-total e a correção das respostas dos itens do instrumento. Para tanto, fizeram parte deste estudo 522 participantes com idade média de 23,78, tendo variado entre 16 e 65 anos (DP = 7,543. Dentre esses, 281 (F=53,3% eram do sexo feminino e 238 (F=45,2% do masculino. A aplicação do instrumento se deu de forma coletiva, tendo sido realizada por diferentes aplicadores, treinados para a tarefa, e foi realizada em universidades e empresas do interior do estado de São Paulo, com duração média de 45 minutos. Os resultados indicaram que no geral, os sub-testes apresentaram níveis de consistência interna aceitáveis considerando os padrões estabelecidos pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia, embora alguns problemas tenham sido encontrados; e que o método de correção por consenso, de alguma forma, dificulta a criação de itens difíceis.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo el de analizar los ítems del Área Estratégica del Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intellligence Test - MSCEIT, con el fin de investigar la consistencia interna dos subtests, la correlación ítem-total y la corrección de las respuestas de los ítems del instrumento. Para ello, tomaron parte de este estudio 522 participantes, con edad promedio de 23,78 años, teniendo variado entre 16 y 65 años (DP = 7,543. De ésos, 281 (F=53,3% eran del sexo femenino y 238 (F=45,2% del masculino. La aplicación del instrumento se dio de forma colectiva, habiendo sido realizada por diferentes aplicadores, entrenados para la tarea, y fue realizada en universidades y empresas del interior del Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, con duración media de 45 minutos. Los resultados indicaron que, por lo general, los subtests presentaron niveles de consistencia interna aceptables, se

  5. Intelligent Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem de Lint

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, within liberal democracies, the post-Westphalian consolidation of security and intelligence has ushered in the normalization not only of security in ‘securitization’ but also of intelligence in what is proposed here as ‘intelligencification.’ In outlining the features of intelligencified governance, my aim is to interrogate the view that effects or traces, and productivity rather than negation is as persuasive as commonly thought by the constructivists. After all, counter-intelligence is both about purging and reconstructing the archive for undisclosed values. In practice, what is being normalized is the authorized and legalized use of release and retention protocols of politically actionable information. The intelligencification of governmentality affords a sovereignty shell-game or the instrumentalization of sovereign power by interests that are dependent on, yet often inimical to, the power of state, national, and popular sovereignty. On voit le politique et le social comme dépendant de contingences exclusives. Récemment, au sein des démocraties libérales, la consolidation de la sécurité et des services de renseignements de sécurité qui a suivi les traités de la Westphalie a donné lieu à la normalisation non seulement de la sécurité en «sécurisation» mais aussi des services de renseignements de sécurité en ce qui est proposé ici comme «intelligencification» [terme anglais créé par l’auteur, dérivé du mot anglais «intelligence» dans le sens de renseignements des écurité]. En particulier, ce que l’on normalise dans le but de contourner des contingences exclusives est l’utilisation autorisée et légalisée de protocoles de communication et de rétention d’information qui, politiquement, pourrait mener à des poursuites. En esquissant les traits de la gouvernance «intelligencifiée», mon but est d’interroger le point de vue que les effets ou les traces, et la productivité plutôt que la

  6. Pathogen intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  7. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  8. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Intelligence and Birth Order in Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this…

  11. Intelligence and birth order in boys and girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Beem, A.L.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35, 503-514

  12. Estudo longitudinal da atenção compartilhada em crianças autistas não-verbais Longitudinal study of joint attention in non-verbal autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sandra Damião Farah

    2009-12-01

    desenvolvimento da comunicação das crianças autistas.PURPOSE: to identify and characterize abilities of Joint Attention of non-verbal autistic children through the observation of communicative behaviors. METHODS: the research involved 5 boys, between 5,9 and 8,6-year old, diagnosed as Autistic Disorder (DSM IV, 2002, recorded in two instances with a four months interval. Meanwhile, the children were submitted to a language therapy mediation based on Joint Attention stimulation. Each recording was 15 minutes long and involved one child or group of 2-3 children with the therapist within non-directed and semi-directed interaction situations, at school where they studied. We observed and registered behaviors regarding Joint Attention abilities. The used material involved percussion instruments. Data were analyzed in relation to time, interaction and interlocutor. RESULTS: the gaze behavior showed the greatest growth in each subject. Data analysis revealed that the subjects showed qualitative trends for evolution of the Joint Attention ability revealing important clinical meaning although there was lack of statistical significance. Each subject showed characteristics and evolution of the communicative behaviors regarding Joint Attention in an individualized manner. After the period of language therapy intervention, we observed a quantitative behavioral growth in the 5 subjects, specifically under child-therapist interaction. CONCLUSIONS: the gaze behavior is an important step for the development of others behaviors toward Joint Attention. The adult-child interaction situation facilitates the appearance of communication behaviors and sharing. Language therapy with focus on the Joint Attention abilities seems to contribute positively for communication development of autistic children.

  13. FROM EMOTIONAL TO SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Aurel NITÃ

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at underlining the existence of various types of intelligence (rational IQ, emotional EQ, spiritual SQ), representing an argument for the fact that the intelligence of „to feel” (EQ) taken to perfection triggers the qualitative jump towards the intelligence of „to be” (SQ). The paper presents at the same time the results of an empiric study done within the public administration by applying some emotional and spiritual intelligence tests.

  14. Geography literation to improve spatial intelligence of high school student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, WS; Zain, IM

    2018-01-01

    Spatial intelligence is deeply related to success in the STEM disciplines (science,technology, engineering, and math). spatial intelligence as a transversal capacity which is useful for everyday life but which cannot be characterized in any specific and distinctive way, as are, for example, linguistic or mathematical ability. The ability of geographical literacy relates to spatial intelligence. test results prove that the ability of high-liter geography of high school students found in students who have a good spatial intelligence score

  15. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this article is to unveil the ways in which the emotional intelligence (EI) of a young person is linked with subjective assessment of physical state, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being, as well as to determine whether these factors are reliable predictors of EI constituents. The study was conducted using an original EI test (EI-DARL-V1/V2), which consisted of a traditional 73-item questionnaire; tasks of emotional, social and interpersonal situations; and identification of emotions in facial expressions (pictures). Questionnaire items were multiplexed into 5 subscales using multi-step factor analysis. Special questionnaires were devised and presented to participants together with the EI questionnaire in order to assess subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being. There were 1430 participants from various regions of Lithuania who participated in the study. The age of participants varied from 17 to 27 years. Established inverse linear correlation showed that those participants who experienced certain somatic symptoms or unpleasant psychological states had lower EI; a particularly strong correlation was observed between poor subjective assessment of health and understanding and control of one's own emotions. Depressed and anxious participants possessed poorer understanding and ability to regulate emotions of others as well as their own. Also, these participants performed worse when resolving emotional, social, and interpersonal situations. A direct relationship between EI and psychological well-being was established according to three EI indexes i.e. (a) understanding of own emotions; (b) understanding of emotions of other people; (c) control of emotions of others. As perception of psychological well-being increased, participants were able to understand emotions of others better and demonstrated even better ability to understand and control their own emotions. The study

  16. The evolution of intelligence in mammalian carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Benson-Amram, Sarah

    2017-06-06

    Although intelligence should theoretically evolve to help animals solve specific types of problems posed by the environment, it is unclear which environmental challenges favour enhanced cognition, or how general intelligence evolves along with domain-specific cognitive abilities. The social intelligence hypothesis posits that big brains and great intelligence have evolved to cope with the labile behaviour of group mates. We have exploited the remarkable convergence in social complexity between cercopithecine primates and spotted hyaenas to test predictions of the social intelligence hypothesis in regard to both cognition and brain size. Behavioural data indicate that there has been considerable convergence between primates and hyaenas with respect to their social cognitive abilities. Moreover, compared with other hyaena species, spotted hyaenas have larger brains and expanded frontal cortex, as predicted by the social intelligence hypothesis. However, broader comparative study suggests that domain-general intelligence in carnivores probably did not evolve in response to selection pressures imposed specifically in the social domain. The cognitive buffer hypothesis, which suggests that general intelligence evolves to help animals cope with novel or changing environments, appears to offer a more robust explanation for general intelligence in carnivores than any hypothesis invoking selection pressures imposed strictly by sociality or foraging demands.

  17. A general framework for intelligent recommender systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a general framework for an intelligent recommender system that extends the concept of a knowledge-based recommender system. The intelligent recommender system exploits knowledge, learns, discovers new information, infers preferences and criticisms, among other things. For that, the framework of an intelligent recommender system is defined by the following components: knowledge representation paradigm, learning methods, and reasoning mechanisms. Additionally, it has five knowledge models about the different aspects that we can consider during a recommendation: users, items, domain, context and criticisms. The mix of the components exploits the knowledge, updates it and infers, among other things. In this work, we implement one intelligent recommender system based on this framework, using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs. Next, we test the performance of the intelligent recommender system with specialized criteria linked to the utilization of the knowledge in order to test the versatility and performance of the framework.

  18. Artificial intelligence in cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishti Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI provides machines with the ability to learn and respond the way humans do and is also referred to as machine learning. The step to building an AI system is to provide the data to learn from so that it can map relations between inputs and outputs and set up parameters such as “weights”/decision boundaries to predict responses for inputs in the future. Then, the model is tested on a second data set. This article outlines the promise this analytic approach has in medicine and cardiology.

  19. Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests. The purpose of this article is to examine whether or not these two types of instruments converge into a general factor of cognitive performance. Thus, the Battery of General and Differential…

  20. Toward Intelligence Systems for Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    corresponding to [3]. The question posed to the student will end up being, 𔄁s the current at Meter A higher, lower, or the same as the current at Meter B1 " The...List [Pittsburgh/Lesgold] NR 4422539 Dr. Diane Damos ERIC Facility-Acquisitions Arizona State University 4833 Rugby Avenue Department of Psychology

  1. Online multiple intelligence teaching tools (On-MITT) for enhancing interpersonal teaching activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Siti Nurul Mahfuzah; Salam, Sazilah; Bakar, Norasiken; Sui, Linda Khoo Mei

    2014-07-01

    The theories of Multiple Intelligence (MI) used in this paper apply to students with interpersonal intelligence who is encouraged to work together in cooperative groups where interpersonal interaction is practiced. In this context, students used their knowledge and skills to help the group or partner to complete the tasks given. Students can interact with each other as they learn and the process of learning requires their verbal and non-verbal communication skills, co-operation and empathy in the group. Meanwhile educators can incorporate cooperative learning in groups in the classroom. On-MITT provides various tools to facilitate lecturers in preparing e-content that applies interpersonal intelligence. With minimal knowledge of Information and Technology (IT) skills, educators can produce creative and interesting teaching activities and teaching materials. The objective of this paper is to develop On-MITT prototype for interpersonal teaching activities. This paper addressed initial prototype of this study. An evaluation of On-MITT has been completed by 20 lecturers of Malaysian Polytechnics. Motivation Survey Questionnaire is used as the instrument to measure four motivation variables: ease of use, enjoyment, usefulness and self-confidence. Based on the findings, the On-MITT can facilitate educators to prepare teaching materials that are compatible for interpersonal learner.

  2. Crianças com fissura isolada de palato: desempenho nos testes de processamento auditivo Cleft palate children: performance in auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Boscariol

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitas crianças com transtorno de processamento auditivo têm uma prevalência alta de otite média, alteração na orelha média de grande ocorrência na população com fissura labiopalatina. OBJETIVO: Verificar o desempenho de crianças com fissura isolada de palato (FP em testes do processamento auditivo. Estudo prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Vinte crianças (7 a 11 anos com FP foram submetidas aos testes de localização sonora (LS, memória para sons verbais (MSSV e não-verbais em seqüência (MSSNV, Fusão Auditiva-Revisado (AFT-R, Teste Pediátrico de Inteligibilidade de Fala/Sentenças Sintéticas (PSI/SSI, Dissílabos alternados (SSW e Dicótico de dígitos (DD. O desempenho das crianças nos testes foi classificado em ruim e bom. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os gêneros e orelhas. Os valores médios obtidos foram 2,16, 2,42, 4,37, 60,50ms, de 40,71 a 67,33%, 96,25 a 99,38%, 73,55 a 73,88% e 58,38 a 65,47%, respectivamente, para os testes MSSNV, MSSV, LS, AFT-R, PSI/SSI com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral (PSI/SSIMCI e contralateral (PSI/SSI/MCC, DD e SSW. CONCLUSÃO: Uma alta porcentagem de crianças demonstrou seus piores desempenhos nos testes AFT-R, DD, SSW e no teste PSI/SSIMCI. Os melhores desempenhos ocorreram nos testes de localização sonora, memória seqüencial para sons não verbais e verbais e para PSI/SSIMCC.Many children with auditory processing disorders have a high prevalence of otitis media, a middle ear alterations greatly prevalent in children with palatine and lip clefts. AIM: to check the performance of children with palate cleft alone (PC in auditory processing tests. Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty children (7 to 11 years with CP were submitted to sound location tests (SL, memory for verbal sounds (MSSV and non verbal sounds in sequence (MSSNV, Revised auditory fusion (AFT-R, Pediatric test of speech intelligibility/synthetic sentences (PSI/SSI, alternate

  3. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

  4. On the Law of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  5. On the Nature of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Paul M.

    Alan Turing is the consensus patron saint of the classical research program in Artificial Intelligence (AI), and his behavioral test for the possession of conscious intelligence has become his principal legacy in the mind of the academic public. Both takes are mistakes. That test is a dialectical throwaway line even for Turing himself, a tertiary gesture aimed at softening the intellectual resistance to a research program which, in his hands, possessed real substance, both mathematical and theoretical. The wrangling over his celebrated test has deflected attention away from those more substantial achievements, and away from the enduring obligation to construct a substantive theory of what conscious intelligence really is, as opposed to an epistemological account of how to tell when you are confronting an instance of it. This essay explores Turing's substantive research program on the nature of intelligence, and argues that the classical AI program is not its best expression, nor even the expression intended by Turing. It then attempts to put the famous Test into its proper, and much reduced, perspective.

  6. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  7. A New Dimension of Business Intelligence: Location-based Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Panian

    2012-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we define Locationbased Intelligence (LBI) which is outgrowing from process of amalgamation of geolocation and Business Intelligence. Amalgamating geolocation with traditional Business Intelligence (BI) results in a new dimension of BI named Location-based Intelligence. LBI is defined as leveraging unified location information for business intelligence. Collectively, enterprises can transform location data into business intelligence applic...

  8. Classification of Children Intelligence with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahminan; ika Hidayati, Permata

    2018-04-01

    Intelligence of children s An Important Thing To Know The Parents Early on. Typing Can be done With a Child’s intelligence Grouping Dominant Characteristics Of each Type of Intelligence. To Make it easier for Parents in Determining The type of Children’s intelligence And How to Overcome them, for It Created A Classification System Intelligence Grouping Children By Using Fuzzy logic method For determination Of a Child’s degree of intelligence type. From the analysis We concluded that The presence of Intelligence Classification systems Pendulum Children With Fuzzy Logic Method Of determining The type of The Child’s intelligence Can be Done in a way That is easier And The results More accurate Conclusions Than Manual tests.

  9. Intelligence and all-cause mortality in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 and their siblings: testing the contribution of family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Matthew H; Cukic, Iva; Der, Geoff; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2018-02-01

    Higher early-life intelligence is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in adulthood, though this association is apparently hardly attenuated when accounting for early-life socio-economic status (SES). However, the use of proxy measures of SES means that residual confounding may underestimate this attenuation. In the present study, the potential confounding effect of early-life SES was instead accounted for by examining the intelligence-mortality association within families. The association between early-life intelligence and mortality in adulthood was assessed in 727 members of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 and, for the first time, 1580 of their younger siblings. These individuals were born between 1936 and 1958, and were followed up into later life, with deaths recorded up to 2015. Cox regression was used to estimate the relative risk of mortality associated with higher IQ scores after adjusting for shared family factors. A standard-deviation advantage in IQ score was associated with a significantly reduced mortality risk [hazard ratio = 0.76, p family factors [hazard ratio = 0.79, p = 0.002, 95% CI (0.68-0.92)]. Although somewhat conservative, adjusting for all variance shared by a family avoids any potential residual confounding of the intelligence-mortality association arising from the use of proxy measures of early-life SES. The present study demonstrates that the longevity associated with higher early-life intelligence cannot be explained by early-life SES or within-family factors. © The Author 2017; Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  10. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  11. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the new paradigm for user-centered computing known as ambient intelligence and its relation with methods and techniques from the field of computational intelligence, including problem solving, machine learning, and expert systems.

  12. Advanced intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryoo, Young; Jang, Moon-soo; Bae, Young-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been initiated with the attempt to imitate the human brain. People wish to let machines perform intelligent works. Many techniques of intelligent systems are based on artificial intelligence. According to changing and novel requirements, the advanced intelligent systems cover a wide spectrum: big data processing, intelligent control, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence and machine learning. This book focuses on coordinating intelligent systems with highly integrated and foundationally functional components. The book consists of 19 contributions that features social network-based recommender systems, application of fuzzy enforcement, energy visualization, ultrasonic muscular thickness measurement, regional analysis and predictive modeling, analysis of 3D polygon data, blood pressure estimation system, fuzzy human model, fuzzy ultrasonic imaging method, ultrasonic mobile smart technology, pseudo-normal image synthesis, subspace classifier, mobile object tracking, standing-up moti...

  13. Instrumentos de inteligência e interesses em orientação profissional Intelligence and interests tests in vocational guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Godoy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de instrumentos psicometricamente ajustados ao contexto em que serão utilizados é fundamental para a confiabilidade de processos de avaliação psicológica. Em situações de orientação profissional, tal preceito tem igual importância, uma vez que a análise de diferentes construtos deve levar o sujeito a melhor se conhecer, proporcionando uma escolha adequada da profissão. O objetivo desse estudo foi correlacionar diferentes instrumentos de avaliação de interesses profissionais e inteligência, aplicados a 312 participantes de um programa de orientação profissional, com média de idade de 16,13 anos (DP = 2,07. Os resultados mostraram algumas correlações significativas entre BPR-5 e LIP, por um lado, e entre o INV e Angelini de outro. Novos estudos com amostras maiores e mais heterogêneas geograficamente são sugeridos, a fim de se obter mais evidências de validade, principalmente para os instrumentos ainda não aprovados pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia.The use of psychometrically adjusted instruments to the context in which they will be used is important to trust the psychological assessments process. In professional counseling situations, such use has the same importance, since different constructs analyses must provide a better self-knowledge, facilitating an adequate professional choice. The goal of this study was to correlate different intelligence and vocational interests instruments, answered by 312 students from a vocational counseling process, with age average 16.13 years old (SD = 2.07. Results showed significant correlations between BPR-5 and LIP, in one hand, and between INV and Angelini, in the other. New studies with larger and more geographically heterogeneous samples are suggested, aiming to get more validity evidences, mainly to the not approved instruments by the Federal institution that regulates psychological test use.

  14. Artificial Intelligence Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Symposium on Aritificial Intelligence and Software Engineering Working Notes, March 1989. Blumenthal, Brad, "An Architecture for Automating...Artificial Intelligence Project Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-OGO Artificial Intelligence LaboratO"ry The University of Texas at...Austin N>.. ~ ~ JA 1/I 1991 n~~~ Austin, Texas 78712 ________k A,.tificial Intelligence Project i Final Technical Report ARO Contract: DAAG29-84-K-0060

  15. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  16. Algorithms in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Korst, J.H.M.; Verhaegh, W.F.J.; Weber, W.; Rabaey, J.M.; Aarts, E.

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the concept of ambient intelligence and discuss its relation with the domain of intelligent algorithms. By means of four examples of ambient intelligent systems, we argue that new computing methods and quantification measures are needed to bridge the gap between the class of

  17. Designing with computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Heitor; Mourelle, Luiza

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

  18. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  19. Designing, Testing, and Using Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) Systems: What Causes the Disconnects and What Can be Done About Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-28

    control situations must consider how their decisions will impact the rest of their team. They must monitor not only their own predicament, but they must...could be implemented by simulated forces and the impact of the decisions on the battle outcome could be determined. Another approach that has merit is...disseminate intelligence is the experience of VII Corps with the Pioneer UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The Pioneer flies a televison -like camera over

  20. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.