WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-verbal dynamic faces

  1. Decoding of non-Verbal Behaviors in Rooye Mahe Khodavand Ra Beboos (Kiss the Lovely Face of God Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A razi

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen’s theory of classification and behavior analysis in two fields of decoding and practice. The results of this study show that non-verbal communication often plays the role of complement of verbal communication in advancement of narrative and it has an important role in personification and increases the representational potential of fiction.

  2. Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  3. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  4. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2007-12-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types - Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test), and activity between objects (active test). The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main M(FG)170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: M(FG)100, M(FG)170, and M(FG)200 - all showed preference for faces. Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in M(FG)100 shows that processing of faces is already

  5. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  6. [The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Cristina Viana; Shiratori, Kaneji

    2005-01-01

    The present study is linked to the Center for Researching and Testing in Nursing at the Nursing School Alfredo Pinto - UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  7. Non-verbal Behavior in English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金花; 付雪芬

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reveals the non-verbal behavior and then further emphasizes the important of body behavior which can be used in class frequently under the classification of the non-verbal behavior. By analyzing the important role of non-verbal behavior plays in communication, the paper discusses the specific and important part that non-verbal behavior serves, especially in foreign language teaching. The paper concludes that non-verbal behavior can perform as a relation maintainer, a structure maker, and a content container. The further suggestions for teacher to facilitate are proposed.

  8. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  9. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  10. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  11. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  12. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain.

  13. Non Verbal Communication in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    Differences between American (Anglo) and Latin American cultures, particularly the culture of Puerto Rico, in the area of non-verbal communication (NVC) are examined in this work. Specific contrasts in language and kinesic patterns between the two cultures are illustrated in descriptions of communicative gestures employed by Puerto Ricans in the…

  14. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  15. [Non-verbal learning disabilities: developmental dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, L

    2007-11-01

    Dyspraxia is a non verbal neuropsychological dysfunction still unrecognized but which can generate scholar learning and behavioural disabilities. We propose, at first time, to do a state of art with the various terminologies and typologies which lead to put together clumsiness, motor coordination disorder and the different types of dyspraxia. Then, we will bring an integrative model and clinical data in children with developmental dyspraxia, allowing a better pointing, to make a diagnostic and then we suggest some advices for remediations.

  16. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  17. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  18. On the Embedded Cognition of Non-verbal Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... that are communicated through non-verbal modalities....

  19. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  20. Non-verbal Context in the Teaching of EFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal context in foreign language learning and teaching .The first part introduces the development of the context theory. The second part covers the relevance of context to language learning. The last part recommends some ways to use non-verbal context in the teaching of EFL.

  1. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Music can be seen as a social skilled practice, since the creation of good music is the result of a group effort. According to current literature, communication through non-verbal cues is an important factor in securing a good performance, since it allows musicians to correct each other without...... the music should be played and the intention to communicate through non-verbal interaction, which allows them to achieve their desire and improve the performance on-the-fly. The BDI model has proven useful in synthesising information and it is believed that this scientific-rational model will bring benefits...... interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  3. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  4. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  5. Getting the Message: Intuition and Reflexivity in Professional Interpretations of Non-Verbal Behaviours in People with Profound Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelvin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the current challenges facing nurses and other professionals who care for people with profound and multiple intellectual disabilities. This particularly vulnerable group of service users often rely on a repertoire of non-verbal behaviours to communicate their needs and wishes. These challenges include the requirements of…

  6. Evaluating medical students' non-verbal communication during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Shimizu, Teruo; Yano, Eiji

    2006-12-01

    Non-verbal communication (NVC) in medical encounters is an important method of exchanging information on emotional status and contextualising the meaning of verbal communication. This study aimed to assess the impact of medical students' NVC on interview evaluations by standardised patients (SPs). A total of 89 medical interviews in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for post-clerkship medical students were analysed. All interviews were videotaped and evaluated on 10 non-verbal behaviour items. In addition, the quality of the interview content was rated by medical faculty on 5 items and the interview was rated by SPs on 5 items. The relationships between student NVC and SP evaluation were examined by multivariate regression analyses controlling for the quality of the interview content. Standardised patients were likely to give higher ratings when students faced them directly, used facilitative nodding when listening to their talk, looked at them equally when talking and listening, and spoke at a similar speed and voice volume to them. These effects of NVC remained significant after controlling for the quality of the interview content. This study provided evidence of specific non-verbal behaviours of doctors that may have additional impacts on the patient's perception of his or her visit, independently of the interview content. Education in basic NVC should be incorporated into medical education alongside verbal communication.

  7. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  8. Comparing non-verbal vocalisations in conversational speech corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvain, Jürgen; Truong, Khiet P.; Devillers, L.; Schuller, B.; Batliner, A.; Rosso, P.; Douglas-Cowie, E.; Cowie, R.; Pelachaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conversations do not only consist of spoken words but they also consist of non-verbal vocalisations. Since there is no standard to define and to classify (possible) non-speech sounds the annotations for these vocalisations differ very much for various corpora of conversational speech. There seems to

  9. Non-verbal Means in Cross-cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Mazhitaeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the non-verbal means of communication which are significant factors of cross-cultural communication. Authors dwell on the features of kinetic components of speech and confirm the idea that language is universal in its basis and national according to different ways of expression.

  10. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  11. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  12. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  13. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja-Brita Robins Wahlin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines non-verbal (design and verbal (phonemic and semantic fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD. An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods: Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16 or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16. Results: The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion: The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes.

  14. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and i

  15. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  16. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six non-ve

  17. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  18. Non-verbal communication in human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Babkina, Nadezda

    2011-01-01

    Effective non-verbal communication, communication through body language, is one of the fundamental prerequisites for successful manager's performance. The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the importance of nonverbal communication in human resource management and, on the example of management style and nonverbal communication of two the most successful managers in the world of information and communication technologies, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, to formulate basic recommendatio...

  19. The use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of "transformed social interactions." This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA.

  20. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  1. Pragmatic Failure in inter-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兑艳霞; 刘凯歌

    2006-01-01

    近年来.随着跨文化交际的日趋频繁,语用失误引起了国内外语语言学家的重视.国内外很多学者对语用失误进行了一系列的研究.其中以Jenny Thomas的研究成果为代表.然而,这些语用失误的定义及分类一般都因忽略了非语言交际而存在局限.本文章阐释了跨文化中的非语言交际语用失误,并分析其理论根源,在此基础上提出克服跨文化非语言交际语用失误的对策.%With the increasing development of intercultural communication between cultures,pragmatic failure has recent caught the attention of linguists and language teachers both at home and abroad. But the usual definition and classification of pragmatic failure has its limitations because of its neglect of nonverbal communication. The present thesis is intended to explore pragmatic failure in intercultural non-verbal communication,analyzing the root causes of intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure, offering the strategic approaches to avoid intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure.

  2. Cultivation of College Students’Ability in Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳琳

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, students’non-verbal communicative competence is neglected by themselves as well as the teachers. In this paper a research is done to analyze the causes of students’non-verbal communicative failure. And some suggestions are given to cultivate students’ability in cross-cultural non-verbal Communication The students’enhanced communicative competence will help them avoid non-verbal communicative failure and communicate effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural communi⁃cation.

  3. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure. PMID:24146641

  4. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  5. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  6. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  7. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  8. Altruists are trusted based on non-verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Naganawa, Takuya; Yamauchi, Shinsaku; Yamagata, Noriko; Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko

    2009-12-23

    The identification of altruists based on non-verbal cues might offer a solution to the problem of subtle cheating. Previous studies have indicated that the ability to discriminate altruists from non-altruists emerges during evolution. However, behavioural differences with regard to social exchanges involving altruists and non-altruists have not been studied. We investigated differences in responses to videotaped altruists and non-altruists with the Faith Game. Participants tended to entrust real money to altruists more than to non-altruists, providing strong evidence that cognitive adaptations evolve as counter-strategies to subtle cheating.

  9. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour and patient perception of communication in primary care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Gashi, Shkelzen; Bikker, Annemieke; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have assessed the importance of a broad range of verbal and non-verbal consultation behaviours. To explore the relationship of observer ratings of behaviours of videotaped consultations with patients' perceptions. Observational study in general practices close to Southampton, Southern England. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour was rated by independent observers blind to outcome. Patients competed the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS; primary outcome) and questionnaires addressing other communication domains. In total, 275/360 consultations from 25 GPs had useable videotapes. Higher MISS scores were associated with slight forward lean (an 0.02 increase for each degree of lean, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002 to 0.03), the number of gestures (0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15), 'back-channelling' (for example, saying 'mmm') (0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.2), and social talk (0.29, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.54). Starting the consultation with professional coolness ('aloof') was helpful and optimism unhelpful. Finishing with non-verbal 'cut-offs' (for example, looking away), being professionally cool ('aloof'), or patronising, ('infantilising') resulted in poorer ratings. Physical contact was also important, but not traditional verbal communication. These exploratory results require confirmation, but suggest that patients may be responding to several non-verbal behaviours and non-specific verbal behaviours, such as social talk and back-channelling, more than traditional verbal behaviours. A changing consultation dynamic may also help, from professional 'coolness' at the beginning of the consultation to becoming warmer and avoiding non-verbal cut-offs at the end. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  10. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  11. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  12. Verbal and non-verbal samples from a TV interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faria Dalacorte Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the analysis of verbal and non-verbal elements displayed by the participants of the interview TV program Roda Viva. The study also focuses on the investigation of the possible influences of such effects on the social and interactional process during the TV show. The structure of the program includes the main interviewer, Marilia Gabriela, the guest, in this case, the actor Wagner Moura, and other journalists that are all seated around the guest. The study reveals that, throughout the conversation, overlaps and raising tone of voice, produced especially by the main interviewer, occur in relevant moments of the interview, possibly to collaborate with the guest, who exhibited a lot of hesitations in what would be considered a non-preferred topic. These strategies may also reveal a unique marc of Marilia Gabriela’s conversational style.

  13. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (A)symmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    OpenAIRE

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predica...

  14. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  15. The Many Faces of Graph Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, resulting in the discovery of many universal properties and reoccurring characteristics of different kinds of networks. However, much less is known today about the network dynamics: indeed, complex networks in reality are not static, but rather dynamically evolve over time. Our paper is motivated by the empirical observation that network evolution patterns seem far from random, but exhibit structure. Moreover, the specific patterns appear to depend on the network type, contradicting the existence of a "one fits it all" model. However, we still lack observables to quantify these intuitions, as well as metrics to compare graph evolutions. Such observables and metrics are needed for extrapolating or predicting evolutions, as well as for interpolating graph evolutions. To explore the many faces of graph dynamics and to quantify temporal changes, this paper suggests to build upon the concept of centrality, a measure of no...

  16. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Kathi J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, and b determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM, a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material; non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read; tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs; Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read. To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else. Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2, relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8 and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P

  18. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also

  19. Two-Year-Olds Are Vigilant of Others' Non-Verbal Cues to Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Susan A. J.; Akmal, Nazanin; Frampton, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from three experiments provide the first evidence that children, at least as young as age two, are vigilant of others' non-verbal cues to credibility, and flexibly use these cues to facilitate learning. Experiment 1 revealed that 2- and 3-year-olds prefer to learn about objects from someone who appears, through non-verbal cues, to be…

  20. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  1. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  2. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  3. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  4. Young children's understanding of markedness in non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may 'mark' their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing gesture--as special, and so search for a not-so-obvious referent. We set up the context of cleaning up and then pointed to an object. Three-year-olds inferred that the adult intended the pointing gesture to indicate that object, and so cleaned it up. However, when the adult marked her pointing gesture (with exaggerated facial expression) they took the object's hidden contents or a hidden aspect of it as the intended referent. Two-year-olds' appreciation of such marking was less clear-cut. These results demonstrate that markedness is not just a linguistic phenomenon, but rather something concerning the pragmatics of intentional communication more generally.

  5. English Face-to-Face: The Non-Verbal Dimension of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, James K.

    Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process. Cross-cultural misunderstandings result from incorrect interpretations of the tone of voice, body motions, facial…

  6. The many faces of graph dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Roy, Matthieu; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, resulting in the discovery of many universal properties and reoccurring characteristics of different kinds of networks. However, much less is known today about the network dynamics: indeed, complex networks in reality are not static, but rather dynamically evolve over time. Our paper is motivated by the empirical observation that network evolution patterns seem far from random, but exhibit structure. Moreover, the specific patterns appear to depend on the network type, contradicting the existence of a ‘one fits it all’ model. However, we still lack observables to quantify these intuitions, as well as metrics to compare graph evolutions. Such observables and metrics are needed for extrapolating or predicting evolutions, as well as for interpolating graph evolutions. To explore the many faces of graph dynamics and to quantify temporal changes, this paper suggests to build upon the concept of centrality, a measure of node importance in a network. In particular, we introduce the notion of centrality distance, a natural similarity measure for two graphs which depends on a given centrality, characterizing the graph type. Intuitively, centrality distances reflect the extent to which (non-anonymous) node roles are different or, in case of dynamic graphs, have changed over time, between two graphs. We evaluate the centrality distance approach for five evolutionary models and seven real-world social and physical networks. Our results empirically show the usefulness of centrality distances for characterizing graph dynamics compared to a null-model of random evolution, and highlight the differences between the considered scenarios. Interestingly, our approach allows us to compare the dynamics of very different networks, in terms of scale and evolution speed.

  7. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  9. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  10. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  11. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  12. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  14. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...

  16. Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Gregory F.; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings are presented. Investigations are conducted using a single pad, load on pad configuration over a range of shaft speeds and loads. Two polyether ether ketone (PEEK) faced pads, one polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) faced pad and tw...

  17. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  18. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  19. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  20. Old and recent approaches to the problem of non-verbal conceptual disorders in aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-04-01

    From the first research on aphasia, it has been shown that, in addition to verbal communication disorders, aphasic patients often have difficulty on non-verbal cognitive tasks, which can actually be solved without the use of language. In this survey, I will discuss in a historical perspective the different interpretations provided by classical and contemporary authors to explain this puzzling observation. First, I will take into account the different positions of classical authorities on this topic, starting from the first debates (mainly based on anatomo-clinical observations) on the organisation of language in the brain. Then, I will attempt to summarize the work of authors who have tackled this complex issue more recently, in systematic investigations using methods drawn from experimental psychology, to clarify the meaning of non-verbal cognitive disorders in aphasia. Finally, in the last part of the survey, I will discuss the interpretation of proponents of the 'semantic hub' hypothesis who have tried to analyse and explain the differences between the non-verbal semantic defects of patients with semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. The hypothesis which assumes that most non-verbal cognitive disorders observed in aphasic patients are due to a preverbal conceptual disorder, which cannot be attributed to a loss of semantic representations but rather to a defect in their controlled retrieval, seems substantially confirmed. Nevertheless, two main issues must still be clarified. The first is that some of the non-verbal cognitive defects of aphasic patients seem due to the negative influence of language disturbances on abstract non-verbal cognitive activities, rather than to a preverbal conceptual disorder. The second issue concerns the exact nature and the neuroanatomical correlates of the defective controlled retrieval of unimpaired conceptual representations, which should subsume most of the non-verbal cognitive disorders of aphasic patients.

  1. A compositional and dynamic model for face aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Jinli; Zhu, Song-Chun; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a compositional and dynamic model for face aging. The compositional model represents faces in each age group by a hierarchical And-Or graph, in which And nodes decompose a face into parts to describe details (e.g., hair, wrinkles, etc.) crucial for age perception and Or nodes represent large diversity of faces by alternative selections. Then a face instance is a transverse of the And-Or graph-parse graph. Face aging is modeled as a Markov process on the parse graph representation. We learn the parameters of the dynamic model from a large annotated face data set and the stochasticity of face aging is modeled in the dynamics explicitly. Based on this model, we propose a face aging simulation and prediction algorithm. Inversely, an automatic age estimation algorithm is also developed under this representation. We study two criteria to evaluate the aging results using human perception experiments: 1) the accuracy of simulation: whether the aged faces are perceived of the intended age group, and 2) preservation of identity: whether the aged faces are perceived as the same person. Quantitative statistical analysis validates the performance of our aging model and age estimation algorithm.

  2. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  3. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  4. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. PMID:27080219

  5. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lima Alcântara

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56% and were males (n=26; 63.4%. There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain.

  6. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  7. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  8. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  9. Investigation of non-Verbal Elements in Speech Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Rahimbeigi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech poetry in the past two decades has expanded considerably and has led to various discussions and different claims about it. However, no impartial and independent research has been done to collect and classify views about it and proposing a scientific claim by comparing those views with poetic examples critically. By analyzing nonverbal features of speech poem in four main branches, that is, music, imagination, structure and content, the particular features of this kind of poem are explained critically. More than anything else, this kind of poem depends on language-based elements. Language in this poem is simple and, in most cases, free of the traditional aesthetic aspects and even modern experiences of contemporary poetry. Various matters that make up its content, often instead of using common methods of imagery, are depicted with sentimental tone and with simple and non-rhythmic language derived from the nature of spoken language. In speech poetry, we are facing with two trends. First we have meaningful spoken poems which have a consistent structure second we have meaning-escaping spoken poems which lack any kind of coherence. The poets of this movement claim that they are looking for literariness in popular language. It seems that they have somehow achieved what they want especially in the domains of language, rhyme and imagery.

  10. Patterns of Non-Verbal Social Interactions within Intensive Mathematics Intervention Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age…

  11. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  12. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  13. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  14. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  15. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  16. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  17. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  18. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  19. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  20. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  1. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. The Importance of Non Verbal Behavior in Giving Instructions to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alan; Blane, Maureen

    1985-01-01

    A study of 16 mother-child pairs found that parents' non-verbal behaviors affect child compliance with parental requests. Five behaviors were investigated: distance from child; mother's body orientation; eye contact; tone of voice; and mother's orientation toward objects involved in the instruction. Parent training clinics should recognize the…

  3. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  4. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  5. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of sch

  6. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  7. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  8. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  9. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  10. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic pr

  11. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  12. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  13. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  14. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  15. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  16. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  17. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvemen

  18. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  19. Introducing PrEmo2: New directions for the non-verbal measurement of emotion in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurans, G.F.G.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-verbal emotion self-report methods have flourished in the last 10 years. We present the theoretical basis underlying non-verbal self-report, review available tools, and discuss perspectives for further progress in measurement practices in design-oriented emotion research. We describe a new quest

  20. Effectiveness of Teacher’s Non-verbal Communication in English Class-rooms of Primary Schools in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔燕

    2013-01-01

    While there is a lot of research in non-verbal communication, a limited of studies are about the situation in primary schools in Chinese context. In this paper, I will argue for the relationship between teacher ’s non-verbal communication and stu⁃dent’s learning interests in primary school.

  1. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  2. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  3. Relationships between symbolic play, functional play, verbal and non-verbal ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention.

  4. Improviser non verbalement pour l’apprentissage de la langue parlée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Chaîné

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Un texte réflexif sur la pratique de l'improvisation dans un contexte scolaire en vue d'apprendre la langue parlée. D'aucun penserait que l'improvisation verbale est le moyen par excellence pour faire l'apprentissage de la langue, mais l'expérience nous a fait découvrir la richesse de l'improvisation non-verbale suivie de prise de parole sur la pratique comme moyen privilégié. L'article est illustré d'un atelier d'improvisation-non verbale s'adressant à des enfants ou à des adolescents.

  5. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have...

  6. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  7. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR = 95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships.

  8. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery.

  9. Asperger syndrome: how does it relate to non-verbal learning disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryburn, B; Anderson, V; Wales, R

    2009-03-01

    The syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) is associated with prominent non-verbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, against a background of relatively intact verbal abilities. Asperger syndrome is one of the several developmental disorders for which Byron Rourke has claimed that almost all the signs and symptoms of NLD are present. This study investigated the claim utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests that were found to be sensitive to NLD in the original learning disordered populations used to describe the syndrome. Children aged between 8 and 14 were recruited to form two groups: (1) children with Asperger syndrome (N=14) and (2) normal healthy schoolchildren (N=20). By contrast to the main principle outlined in the NLD model, children with Asperger syndrome did not display a relative difficulty with spatial- or problem-solving tasks; indeed, they displayed significantly higher performance on some non-verbal tasks in comparison with verbal tasks. It was only in relation to their high levels of psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, which are also predicted on the basis of their psychiatric diagnosis, that the children with Asperger syndrome were clearly consistent with the NLD model in this study. These results raise questions about the relevance of the syndrome of NLD for children with Asperger syndrome.

  10. [Syntactic awareness: probable correlations with central coherence and non-verbal intelligence in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Cristina de Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate syntactic awareness, central coherence, non-verbal intelligence, social and communication development, interests and behavior of children with autistic spectrum disorders and to examine their probable correlations. Participants were ten subjects diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, eight male and two female, with ages between 4 years e 9 months and 13 years and 4 months (mean age 9 years), who used oral language for communication. The following tests were used: Syntactic Awareness Test - Adapted (Prova de Consciência Sintática - Adaptada), Computerized jigsaw puzzles with picture and background and only with background; and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices - Special Scale. Subjects' parents answered the protocol Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). The children with autism presented syntactic awareness performance similar to that of 6-year-old children with typical development. Sixty percent of the subjects showed non-verbal intelligence at a superior or average level. There were no correlations between the performances in syntactic awareness and the other tested variables. There was no relationship between the performance in syntactic awareness and the results related to central coherence, non-verbal intelligence and social interaction deficits, difficulties in communication and restrict patterns interests of subjects with autism. The results suggest that these children seem to follow the development pattern of typically developing 6-year-old children in syntactic awareness abilities, only delayed.

  11. Non-verbal development of children with deafness with and without cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Emilie; Narbona, Juan; Manrique, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    Deprivation of sensory input affects neurological development. Our objective was to explore clinically the role of hearing in development of sensorimotor integration and non-verbal cognition. The study involved 54 children (15 males, 839 females; 5 to 9 years old) with severe or profound bilateral prelocutive deafness but without neurological or cognitive impairment. Of these, 25 had received an early cochlear implant (CIm). Patients were compared with 40 children with normal hearing. All were given a battery of non-verbal neuropsychological tests and a balance test, and were timed for simple and complex movement of limbs. Deafness, whether treated by CIm or not, resulted in a delay in development of complex motor sequences and balance. Lack of auditory input was also associated with lower, but non-pathological, scores in visual gnoso-praxic tasks and sustained attention. Such differences were not observed in children with CIm. Hearing contributes to clinical development of spatial integration, motor control, and attention. An early CIm enables good verbal development and might also improve non-verbal capacities.

  12. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions.

  13. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  14. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  15. Non-verbal Communication and Foreign Language Teaching%非言语交际与外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳

    2010-01-01

    本文通过分析言语交际与非言语交际的关系,非言语交际在外语教学中的主要表现以及实现非言语交际在外语教学中重要作用的主要途径,揭示了在外语教学中非言语交际的重要性不容忽视.%By analyzing the relationship between verbal communication and non-verbal communication ,as well as the important role that non-verbal communication plays in foreign language teaching, this paper discusses the content and method of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching. And the equal stress should be laid to both verbal communication and non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching.

  16. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  17. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure

  18. [Evaluation of intelligence with non-verbal tests in aphasic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, J S; Melaragno Filho, R; Brauer, M J; Parente, M A

    1979-09-01

    Eight patients with cerebral vascular disease and aphasia were studied just after the stroke. The clinical, neuropsychiatric, EEG and neuro-radiological aspects were evaluated. The patients were submitted to the psychological and phonoaudiological studies. The authors correlated the neurological lesions to the structural alteration of the intelligence, to the praxic and estheognostic alterations and also to the language disturbances. The criterions adopted by the World Health Organization and the genetics classification of Jean Piaget were used for the intellectual level classification. The results suggest that the intelligence evaluated through Leither's non-verbal test is better preserved in some asphasics.

  19. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-VERBAL BARRIERS TO ENGLISH LISTENING COMPREHENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper explains,with concrete examples,that the non-verbal barriers also obstruct students’correct understanding of listening materials,and ana-lyzes the problems resulting from students lack of cul-tural knowledge of the target language.Suggestionsare offered to help students have a better understand-ing by introducing the origin of English words,intro-ducing the cultural traits of native speakers,theircustoms and introduce the relative cultural knowledgeto promote students’comprehension of the target lan-guage.

  1. Repetition suppression to faces in the fusiform face area: A personal and dynamic journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard N

    2016-07-01

    I review a number of fMRI studies that investigate the effects of repeating faces on responses in the fusiform face area (FFA). These studies show that repetition suppression (RS), as well as repetition enhancement (RE), are sensitive to multiple factors, including pre-existing stimulus representations, cognitive task, lag between repetitions and spatial attention. Parallel EEG studies provide additional constraints on the timing of these repetition effects. Together, the results suggest that RS is not a unitary phenomenon, but likely subsumes multiple mechanisms that operate under different conditions. These mechanisms of course need to relate to single-cell data and known physiological mechanisms; but to make further progress, I believe we need dynamical neural network models that relate these mechanisms to the properties of neural populations that are measured by fMRI and EEG data. One example model is sketched, in which RS reflects an acceleration of neural dynamics, owing to reduced prediction error within a recurrent visual processing hierarchy.

  2. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  3. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  4. Factors influencing the processing of visual information from non-verbal communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenya; Shibata, Sanae; Seiji, Shimosato; Mori, Chizuru; Shioe, Kunihiko

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the relationship between observational behavior and the observers' result assumptions, using a contained diagram that includes significant non-verbal information, such as gestures. The ability of care workers to assess a patient's mental status on the basis of non-verbal information would be considered an important skill necessary to understanding patient condition. One hundred and eleven subjects were asked to take a test exploring two types of psychological status, and their eye movements were monitored during testing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships among eye movements, individual personalities, and test results. In stimulus 1, the neuroticism of the personality was determined. In stimulus 2, openness was determined in the range of eye movement. There is a relationship between the total length of eye fixation time and the answer time at the eye fixation point. Although there was no significant influence found in stimulus 1, the openness still tended to influence the eye fixation point. The eye fixation point increased among those people with high openness scores. It was theorized that they attempted to obtain information from the stimulus being provided.

  5. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  6. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana A Liao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM involves the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in mind. Neuroimaging studies have shown that secondary motor areas activate during WM for verbal content (e.g., words or letters, in the absence of primary motor area activation. This activation pattern may reflect an inner speech mechanism supporting online phonological rehearsal. Here, we examined the causal relationship between motor system activity and WM processing by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to manipulate motor system activity during WM rehearsal. We tested WM performance for verbalizable (words and pseudowords and non-verbalizable (Chinese characters visual information. We predicted that disruption of motor circuits would specifically affect WM processing of verbalizable information. We found that TMS targeting motor cortex slowed response times on verbal WM trials with high (pseudoword vs. low (real word phonological load. However, non-verbal WM trials were also significantly slowed with motor TMS. WM performance was unaffected by sham stimulation or TMS over visual cortex. Self-reported use of motor strategy predicted the degree of motor stimulation disruption on WM performance. These results provide evidence of the motor system’s contributions to verbal and non-verbal WM processing. We speculate that the motor system supports WM by creating motor traces consistent with the type of information being rehearsed during maintenance.

  7. How physician electronic health record screen sharing affects patient and doctor non-verbal communication in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Young, Henry N; Chewning, Betty; Montague, Enid

    2015-03-01

    Use of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary-care exam rooms changes the dynamics of patient-physician interaction. This study examines and compares doctor-patient non-verbal communication (eye-gaze patterns) during primary care encounters for three different screen/information sharing groups: (1) active information sharing, (2) passive information sharing, and (3) technology withdrawal. Researchers video recorded 100 primary-care visits and coded the direction and duration of doctor and patient gaze. Descriptive statistics compared the length of gaze patterns as a percentage of visit length. Lag sequential analysis determined whether physician eye-gaze influenced patient eye gaze, and vice versa, and examined variations across groups. Significant differences were found in duration of gaze across groups. Lag sequential analysis found significant associations between several gaze patterns. Some, such as DGP-PGD ("doctor gaze patient" followed by "patient gaze doctor") were significant for all groups. Others, such DGT-PGU ("doctor gaze technology" followed by "patient gaze unknown") were unique to one group. Some technology use styles (active information sharing) seem to create more patient engagement, while others (passive information sharing) lead to patient disengagement. Doctors can engage patients in communication by using EHRs in the visits. EHR training and design should facilitate this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Human Face as a Dynamic Tool for Social Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2015-07-20

    As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures.

  9. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy.

  10. Verschueren的语境顺应论下的非言语交际%The Non-verbal Communication in Verschueren's Context Adaptability Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琎

    2014-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important form of communication. This thesis is based on Verschueren's context adaptability theory to propose that the non-verbal communication is a dynamic course, utterer and interpreter should adapt their linguistic choice to the communicative context consisting of the social world, the physical world and the mental world of language users,so as to achieve the goal of communication.%非语言交际是交际的一种重要形式。本文以Verschueren的语境顺应论为理论基础,提出非言语交际是一个动态过程,交际双方语言的选择必须与语言使用者的社交世界、物理世界和心理世界等所构成的交际语境相顺应,从而达到交际的目的。

  11. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  12. 非言语交际与大学英语教学%Non-verbal communication and college English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锋萍

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an essential part of all human communication. It is also of special significance to college English teaching. This paper introduces the concept, categories, functions of non-verbal communication, and proposes views on how to make full use of non-verbal communication to promote English teaching.%非言语交际是人类交际活动中的重要组成部分。对于大学英语教学也具有特殊的意义。本文阐述了非言语交际的概念、分类和作用,对如何在课堂上充分应用非言语交际来促进教学活动提出了自己的看法和见解。

  13. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  14. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Gilmore

    Full Text Available Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  15. Individual differences in inhibitory control, not non-verbal number acuity, correlate with mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Attridge, Nina; Clayton, Sarah; Cragg, Lucy; Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Simms, Victoria; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Given the well-documented failings in mathematics education in many Western societies, there has been an increased interest in understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mathematical achievement. Recent research has proposed the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) which allows individuals to represent and manipulate non-verbal numerical information. Evidence has shown that performance on a measure of the ANS (a dot comparison task) is related to mathematics achievement, which has led researchers to suggest that the ANS plays a critical role in mathematics learning. Here we show that, rather than being driven by the nature of underlying numerical representations, this relationship may in fact be an artefact of the inhibitory control demands of some trials of the dot comparison task. This suggests that recent work basing mathematics assessments and interventions around dot comparison tasks may be inappropriate.

  16. 非言语交际与功能对等翻译%Non-verbal Communication and functional equivalence translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友军

    2011-01-01

    翻译是一种跨文化交际活动,非言语符号作为非言语交流方式,在人类交际中起着极其重要的作用。因而,如何积极有效地处理非言语符号英汉互译的跨文化因素以及其功能对等问题是一个值得重视的研究课题。本论文将从功能对等角度全面地探讨解决翻译过程中遇到的非言语翻译问题,探讨译者如何合理地处理原文中的非言语符号信息,如何在译文中用言语描述出在原文文化中非言语符号所拥有的信息功能和所负载的文化涵义。%Translation is a cross-cultural communication activity,non-verbal symbols as non-verbal communication plays an important role in human communication.Thus,It is a worthy research topic on how to actively and effectively deal with cross-cultural factors and their functions of non-verbal symbol translation.This paper will be fully try to encounter and solve the problem of the non-verbal translation from the perspective of the functional equivalence,explore how to rationally use the original information in the non-verbal symbols,using acurate words to describe the the original culture meaning of non-verbal symbols and its information function.

  17. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  18. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  19. Investigating Face-to-Face Peer Interaction Patterns in a Collaborative Web Discovery Task: The Bene?ts of a Shared Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C-W.; Lee, C-C.; Liu, C-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computers are now increasingly applied to facilitate face-to-face collaborative learning. However, the factors affecting face-to-face peer interactions are complex as they involve rich communication media. In particular, non-verbal interactions are necessary to convey critical communication messages in face-to-face communication. Through…

  20. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  1. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  2. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  3. Role of Auditory Non-Verbal Working Memory in Sentence Repetition for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. Aims: To…

  4. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A network meta-analysis on the effects of non-verbal therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Bocking, Claudi L.H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomize

  5. Treating depressive symptoms in psychosis : A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, L. A.; Nauta, M. H.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomize

  6. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  7. Verbal and non-verbal behavior of doctors and patients in primary care consultations - how this relates to patient enablement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlikowska, T.; Zhang, W.; Griffiths, F.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between observable patient and doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors and the degree of enablement in consultations according to the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) (a patient-reported consultation outcome measure). METHODS: We analyzed 88 recorded routine p

  8. The Silent Language of Fingers and Hands-The Role of Finger and Hand Motions in Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2013-01-01

    This paper engages in the discussion about nonverbal intercultural communication from the perspective of hand and finger gestures, probing into the functions of non-verbal cues in cross-cultural interaction, talking over two different attitudes to⁃ward gestures, and giving a detailed analysis about the silent language of some specific gestures with fingers and hands in different cultures.

  9. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  10. Linking Childhood Poverty and Cognition: Environmental Mediators of Non-Verbal Executive Control in an Argentine Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Sebastián; Segretin, Soledad; Hermida, Julia; Prats, Lucía; Fracchia, Carolina; Camelo, Jorge López; Colombo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Tests of attentional control, working memory, and planning were administered to compare the non-verbal executive control performance of healthy children from different socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition, mediations of several sociodemographic variables, identified in the literature as part of the experience of child poverty, between…

  11. Relationship of Non-Verbal Intelligence Materials as Catalyst for Academic Achievement and Peaceful Co-Existence among Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Aminu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines students' performance in Non-verbal Intelligence tests relative academic achievement of some selected secondary school students. Two hypotheses were formulated with a view to generating data for the ease of analyses. Two non-verbal intelligent tests viz: Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and AH[subscript 4] Part II…

  12. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  13. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher’s teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. PMID:27175053

  14. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions : a dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Talitha L; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in terms of costs p

  15. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: A dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-Van Reenen (Heleen); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in term

  16. Evaluation of non-verbal cognitive function in infants with severe hearing impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyu Wang; Xiaoming Li; Li Zhao; Jianhong Li; Yuxia Pan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between hearing impairment and verbal developmental deficits in infants has become a hotspot in research, focusing on improving hearing and promoting verbal development. However, language is only one element of cognition. There are other elements of non-verbal cognitive deficits in infants with hearing impairment.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the differences in gross motor, fine motor, adaptability, and behavioral development between infants with severe hearing impairment and ordinary children of the same age. DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two infants with hearing impairment, who received treatment in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital from February to December 2007, were confirmed to suffer from severe (or extremely severe) sensorineural deafness by auditory brain-stem response (ABR) and were recruited for this study. The infants comprised 30 males and 22 females. Among them, 18 were aged 0-1 year, 18 were aged 1-2 years, and 16 were aged 2-3 years. An additional 60 individuals, aged 0-3 years, who received developmental monitoring simultaneously, and were confirmed to have normal hearing and verbal ability, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 31 males and 29 females: 20 were 0.05). The behavioral developmental quotient was significantly less in hearing-impaired infants compared to control infants, who were between 1 and 2 years of age (P < 0.05). The development quotients of fine motor and behavioral development were significantly less in hearing-impaired infants than in control infants, who were 2-3 years of age (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Compared to control infants, severe hearing-impaired infants have a lower behavioral developmental quotient after 1 year and a lower fine motor developmental quotient after 2 years of age.

  17. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  18. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics and laterality effects of face inversion, feature presence and configuration, and face outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija eMarinkovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a crucial role of the fusiform gyrus in face processing has been demonstrated with a variety of methods, converging evidence suggests that face processing involves an interactive and overlapping processing cascade in distributed brain areas. Here we examine the spatio-temporal stages and their functional tuning to face inversion, presence and configuration of inner features, and face contour in healthy subjects during passive viewing. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG combines high-density whole-head MEG recordings and distributed source modeling with high-resolution structural MRI. Each person's reconstructed cortical surface served to constrain noise-normalized minimum norm inverse source estimates. The earliest activity was estimated to the occipital cortex at ~100 ms after stimulus onset and was sensitive to an initial coarse level visual analysis. Activity in the right-lateralized ventral temporal area (inclusive of the fusiform gyrus peaked at ~160ms and was largest to inverted faces. Images containing facial features in the veridical and rearranged configuration irrespective of the facial outline elicited intermediate level activity. The M160 stage may provide structural representations necessary for downstream distributed areas to process identity and emotional expression. However, inverted faces additionally engaged the left ventral temporal area at ~180 ms and were uniquely subserved by bilateral processing. This observation is consistent with the dual route model and spared processing of inverted faces in prosopagnosia. The subsequent deflection, peaking at ~240ms in the anterior temporal areas bilaterally, was largest to normal, upright faces. It may reflect initial engagement of the distributed network subserving individuation and familiarity. These results support dynamic models suggesting that processing of unfamiliar faces in the absence of a cognitive task is subserved by a distributed and

  20. Towards a physiological signal-based access solution for a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Negar; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    To find physiologically arousing stimuli and labile physiological channels in a non-verbal adolescent with severe and multiple congenital disabilities, who did not have a reliable means of communication. The client was repeatedly presented with visual and audiovisual stimuli, representing variations of six contextual factors over three sessions in a one month period. For each stimulus, reactions were detected in the client's four peripheral autonomic nervous system signals using a rule-based classification algorithm. During the presentation of audiovisual stimuli, the number of physiological reactions significantly differed from that observed in baseline (χ(2) = 3.93, p = 0.0476). Aural stimuli articulated in an unfamiliar voice, and aural stimuli containing anticipatory patterns were also physiologically arousing. Fingertip temperature was the client's most labile physiological signal. The results of this case study suggest that physiological data may complement caregiver acumen in deciphering the reactions of non-verbal clients with severe and multiple disabilities.

  1. Non-verbal communication method based on a biochemical marker for people with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Takeda, K; Onishi, M; Deguchi, M; Higashi, T

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated a novel non-verbal communication method for people with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) based on a biochemical marker, salivary amylase. The physical and psychological status of 10 people with SMID was quantitatively evaluated using a hand-held salivary amylase activity monitor. Each patient needed daily gastric and/or bronchial tube exchanges and these medical procedures were thought to cause severe distress and pain. Salivary amylase activity and heart rate were simultaneously measured during 32 medical procedures. The medical procedures resulted in a significant mean increase for individuals of 70% in salivary amylase activity. The increase in salivary amylase activity was more than four-fold that observed for heart rate. The structural equation modelling analysis also demonstrated a significant correlation between pain and salivary amylase activity. Our data indicate that salivary amylase activity might be used as a non-verbal method of assessing pain in people with SMID.

  2. Non-verbal communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; O'Connor-Fenelon, Maureen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with an intellectual disability is then comprehensively examined in light of existing literature. Issues including knowledge of the person with intellectual disability, mismatch of communication ability, and knowledge of communication arose as predominant themes. A critical review of the importance of communication in nursing practice follows. The paucity of literature relating to intellectual disability nursing and non-verbal communication clearly indicates a need for research.

  3. Treating Depressive Symptoms in Psychosis: A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Non-Verbal Therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Steenhuis

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether non-verbal therapies are effective in treating depressive symptoms in psychotic disorders.A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Picarta, Embase and ISI Web of Science, up to January 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing a non-verbal intervention to a control condition in patients with psychotic disorders, whilst measuring depressive symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome, were included. The quality of studies was assessed using the 'Clinical Trials Assessment Measure for psychological treatments' (CTAM scale. Cohen's d was calculated as a measure of effect size. Using a Network Meta-analysis, both direct and indirect evidence was investigated.10 RCTs were included, of which three were of high quality according to the CTAM. The direct evidence demonstrated a significant effect on the reduction in depressive symptoms relative to treatment as usual (TAU, in favor of overall non-verbal therapy (ES: -0.66, 95% C.I. = -0.88, -0.44 and music therapy (ES: -0.59, 95% C.I. = -0.85, -0.33. Combining both direct and indirect evidence, yoga therapy (ES: -0.79, 95% C.I. = -1.24, -0.35 had a significant effect on depressive symptoms, and occupational therapy (ES: 1.81, 95% C.I. = 0.81, 2.81 was less effective, relative to TAU. Exercise therapy did not show a significant effect on depressive symptoms in comparison to TAU (ES: -0.02 95% C.I. = -0.67, 0.62. Due to inconsistency of study evidence, the indirect effects should be interpreted cautiously.Non-verbal therapies appear to be effective in reducing depressive symptomatology in psychotic disorders, in particular music therapy and yoga therapy.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  5. Non-Verbal Episodic Memory Deficits in Primary Progressive Aphasias are Highly Predictive of Underlying Amyloid Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Flanagan, Emma; Leyton, Cristian E; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic distinction of primary progressive aphasias (PPA) remains challenging, in particular for the logopenic (lvPPA) and nonfluent/agrammatic (naPPA) variants. Recent findings highlight that episodic memory deficits appear to discriminate these PPA variants from each other, as only lvPPA perform poorly on these tasks while having underlying amyloid pathology similar to that seen in amnestic dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most memory tests are, however, language based and thus potentially confounded by the prevalent language deficits in PPA. The current study investigated this issue across PPA variants by contrasting verbal and non-verbal episodic memory measures while controlling for their performance on a language subtest of a general cognitive screen. A total of 203 participants were included (25 lvPPA; 29 naPPA; 59 AD; 90 controls) and underwent extensive verbal and non-verbal episodic memory testing, with a subset of patients (n = 45) with confirmed amyloid profiles as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B and PET. The most powerful discriminator between naPPA and lvPPA patients was a non-verbal recall measure (Rey Complex Figure delayed recall), with 81% of PPA patients classified correctly at presentation. Importantly, AD and lvPPA patients performed comparably on this measure, further highlighting the importance of underlying amyloid pathology in episodic memory profiles. The findings demonstrate that non-verbal recall emerges as the best discriminator of lvPPA and naPPA when controlling for language deficits in high load amyloid PPA cases.

  6. Exploring the benefits of a computer-based language intervention programme for non-verbal children with autism.

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    An exploratory study to investigate the performance of six non-verbal children with autism on a computer touch-screen based language intervention programme with a focus related improvements in comprehension abilities. Children were trained to criterion on successive levels of a sentence production game starting with two-word combinations and progressing to a maximum of four, with animated events as feedback. Comprehension probes were administered at specific points using material direct f...

  7. Non-verbal behaviors in counseling%心理咨询中的非言语行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春晓; 江光荣; 林秀彬

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviors are defined as behaviors without linguistic content.As an art of interpersonal communication,psychological counseling emphasizes the use of non-verbal behaviors.Existing researches have demonstrated that appropriate non-verbal behaviors could enhance the counseling process.On the other hand,inappropriate non-verbal behaviors have impeded the counseling process.By reviewing previous studies,main problems in this field were summarized as follows:1) lack of empirical research;2) limited to counseling process research;as well as 3) monotonous research methods which lead to stagnation of research.There is a call for a breakthrough in this field,and methods from other relevant fields may help to eliminate the bottleneck.%非言语行为一般指不包含语言内容的人际交流行为.心理咨询作为人际沟通的一门艺术,非常强调非言语行为的重要性.已有研究发现心理咨询中的非言语行为在咨询师和当事人的互动中对咨询有促进作用,同时咨询师不当的非言语行为也会阻碍心理咨询.总结前人研究发现心理咨询中非言语行为的研究现状存在实证研究不足、孤立于咨询进程进行研究等问题,并且研究方法较为单一.如果要突破目前的研究瓶颈,需要借鉴其他领域的研究方法.

  8. How verbs and non-verbal categories navigate the syntax/semantics interface: insights from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Rawlins, Kyle; Rapp, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    We report on two individuals with acquired language impairment who made thematic role confusion errors in both comprehension and production. Their confusions were remarkably specific, affecting the roles associated with spatial prepositions ("The box is in the bag" confused with The bag is in the box) and adjectival comparatives ("The glove is darker than the hat" confused with The hat is darker than the glove) but not the roles associated with verbs (e.g., in The woman helps the man). Additional results showed that the confusions did not arise from spatial deficits, deficits affecting the semantics of spatial terms and adjectives, or difficulties with spatial and comparative relationships. Interestingly, the selective deficits are well-explained by linguistic theories that propose that non-verbal lexical categories, when used as predicates, depend on special mechanisms and structures for linking their thematic roles to syntactic argument structures. These are the first neuropsychological results to show that thematic role assignment is supported by distinct brain mechanisms for verbal and non-verbal lexical categories. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the linguistic knowledge associated with verbal vs. non-verbal word classes and of the conditions under which these forms of knowledge support sentence processing.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Verbal and Non-Verbal Mental Activity Components Regarding the Young People with Different Intellectual Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Revenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper maintains that for developing the educational pro- grams and technologies adequate to the different stages of students’ growth and maturity, there is a need for exploring the natural determinants of intel- lectual development as well as the students’ individual qualities affecting the cognition process. The authors investigate the differences of the intellect manifestations with the reference to the gender principle, and analyze the correlations be- tween verbal and non-verbal components in boys and girls’ mental activity depending on their general intellect potential. The research, carried out in Si- berian State Automobile Road Academy and focused on the first year stu- dents, demonstrates the absence of gender differences in students’ general in- tellect levels; though, there are some other conformities: the male students of different intellectual levels show the same correlation coefficient of verbal and non-verbal intellect while the female ones have the same correlation only at the high intellect level. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the need for the integral ap- proach to raising students’ mental abilities considering the close interrelation between the verbal and non-verbal component development. The teaching materials should stimulate different mental qualities by differentiating the educational process to develop students’ individual abilities. 

  10. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  11. Matching novel face and voice identity using static and dynamic facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harriet M J; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom; Stacey, Paula C

    2016-04-01

    Research investigating whether faces and voices share common source identity information has offered contradictory results. Accurate face-voice matching is consistently above chance when the facial stimuli are dynamic, but not when the facial stimuli are static. We tested whether procedural differences might help to account for the previous inconsistencies. In Experiment 1, participants completed a sequential two-alternative forced choice matching task. They either heard a voice and then saw two faces or saw a face and then heard two voices. Face-voice matching was above chance when the facial stimuli were dynamic and articulating, but not when they were static. In Experiment 2, we tested whether matching was more accurate when faces and voices were presented simultaneously. The participants saw two face-voice combinations, presented one after the other. They had to decide which combination was the same identity. As in Experiment 1, only dynamic face-voice matching was above chance. In Experiment 3, participants heard a voice and then saw two static faces presented simultaneously. With this procedure, static face-voice matching was above chance. The overall results, analyzed using multilevel modeling, showed that voices and dynamic articulating faces, as well as voices and static faces, share concordant source identity information. It seems, therefore, that above-chance static face-voice matching is sensitive to the experimental procedure employed. In addition, the inconsistencies in previous research might depend on the specific stimulus sets used; our multilevel modeling analyses show that some people look and sound more similar than others.

  12. Method for Face-Emotion Retrieval Using A Cartoon Emotional Expression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Vlaho; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi; Johansson, Martin; Fukuda, Shuichi

    A simple method for extracting emotion from a human face, as a form of non-verbal communication, was developed to cope with and optimize mobile communication in a globalized and diversified society. A cartoon face based model was developed and used to evaluate emotional content of real faces. After a pilot survey, basic rules were defined and student subjects were asked to express emotion using the cartoon face. Their face samples were then analyzed using principal component analysis and the Mahalanobis distance method. Feature parameters considered as having relations with emotions were extracted and new cartoon faces (based on these parameters) were generated. The subjects evaluated emotion of these cartoon faces again and we confirmed these parameters were suitable. To confirm how these parameters could be applied to real faces, we asked subjects to express the same emotions which were then captured electronically. Simple image processing techniques were also developed to extract these features from real faces and we then compared them with the cartoon face parameters. It is demonstrated via the cartoon face that we are able to express the emotions from very small amounts of information. As a result, real and cartoon faces correspond to each other. It is also shown that emotion could be extracted from still and dynamic real face images using these cartoon-based features.

  13. Construction and validation of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, Jacob Arie; Tellegen, Peter Johannes

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis the construction and validation of the SON-R 5,5-17 is described, the recent revision of the Snijders-Oomen non-verbal intelligence test. The SON-R is an individual test of (non-verbal) intelligence for children in the ages of 51/2 to 17 years. The test was published in 1989 with an e

  14. Online courses do not help us to interpret non-verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Karen

    Daniel Allen's 'Learning in a virtual world' (Careers December 18) pondered the future of nursing education as massive open online courses (MOOCs) gain popularity and expand their content and offerings. Could MOOCs eventually replace face-to-face courses in a nursing degree programme?

  15. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal, e investigar a prevalência de assimetria inter-hemisférica neste grupo populacional. Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças e adolescentes encaminhados para uma avaliação interdisciplinar, com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem e que receberam diagnóstico interdisciplinar de transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal. As variáveis avaliadas foram prevalência por sexo, sistema de ensino, hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais e respectivas prevalências, prevalência de condições em relação à amostra total, prevalência geral do transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal

  16. Nurses' Perception of Necessary Factors in Gaining Consent from Patients: Verbal-mediated Communication and Non-verbal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Takao, Kenji; Mizuko, Manabu; KANEMITSU, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This research analyzed factors necessary for obtaining consent from the patient as perceived by nurses. Explaining things to patients and listening to the patient's voice were defined as factors of verbal-mediated communication. The attitude toward patients (such as nods, making eye contact) and the tone of voice were defined as factors of non-verbal communication. A questionnaire survey was administered to nurses (n=142) (Mean age=30.2, SD=8.7) in December, 2007. The respondents were asked t...

  17. Face recognition based on matching of local features on 3D dynamic range sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeagaray-Patrón, B. A.; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    3D face recognition has attracted attention in the last decade due to improvement of technology of 3D image acquisition and its wide range of applications such as access control, surveillance, human-computer interaction and biometric identification systems. Most research on 3D face recognition has focused on analysis of 3D still data. In this work, a new method for face recognition using dynamic 3D range sequences is proposed. Experimental results are presented and discussed using 3D sequences in the presence of pose variation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of conventional face recognition algorithms based on descriptors.

  18. Untold stories: the human face of poverty dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Key Points • Life histories offer an important window for policy makers, and should be brought to the policy table much more frequently. • Life histories show the human face of chronic poverty. Such vignettes provide concrete examples of poverty traps – such as insecurity, social discrimination a...... have ambivalent effects. • Whilst life histories are not representative, they highlight key themes and processes which are ‘typical’ of individuals with similar sets of sociobiographical characteristics who live in similar social, economic and political circumstances....

  19. Locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation for local matching based face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC has attracted a lot of attention for its applications to various tasks, especially in biometric techniques such as face recognition. However, factors such as lighting, expression, pose and disguise variations in face images will decrease the performances of SRC and most other face recognition techniques. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose a robust face recognition method named Locality Constrained Joint Dynamic Sparse Representation-based Classification (LCJDSRC in this paper. In our method, a face image is first partitioned into several smaller sub-images. Then, these sub-images are sparsely represented using the proposed locality constrained joint dynamic sparse representation algorithm. Finally, the representation results for all sub-images are aggregated to obtain the final recognition result. Compared with other algorithms which process each sub-image of a face image independently, the proposed algorithm regards the local matching-based face recognition as a multi-task learning problem. Thus, the latent relationships among the sub-images from the same face image are taken into account. Meanwhile, the locality information of the data is also considered in our algorithm. We evaluate our algorithm by comparing it with other state-of-the-art approaches. Extensive experiments on four benchmark face databases (ORL, Extended YaleB, AR and LFW demonstrate the effectiveness of LCJDSRC.

  20. Verbal and non-verbal behavior of doctors and patients in primary care consultations - how this relates to patient enablement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowska, Teresa; Zhang, Wenjuan; Griffiths, Frances; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between observable patient and doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors and the degree of enablement in consultations according to the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) (a patient-reported consultation outcome measure). We analyzed 88 recorded routine primary care consultations. Verbal and non-verbal communications were analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and the Medical Interaction Process System, respectively. Consultations were categorized as patient- or doctor-centered and by whether the patient or doctor was verbally dominant using the RIAS categorizations. Consultations that were regarded as patient-centered or verbally dominated by the patient on RIAS coding were considered enabling. Socio-emotional interchange (agreements, approvals, laughter, legitimization) was associated with enablement. These features, together with task-related behavior explain up to 33% of the variance of enablement, leaving 67% unexplained. Thus, enablement appears to include aspects beyond those expressed as observable behavior. For enablement consultations should be patient-centered and doctors should facilitate socio-emotional interchange. Observable behavior included in communication skills training probably contributes to only about a third of the factors that engender enablement in consultations. To support patient enablement in consultations, clinicians should focus on agreements, approvals and legitimization whilst attending to patient agendas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  2. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  3. Developmental changes in attention to faces and bodies in static and dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Brenda M; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2014-01-01

    Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviors of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes-a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one's attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviors in typical and atypical development.

  4. Developmental Changes in Attention to Faces and Bodies in Static and Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Stoesz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing individuals show a strong visual preference for faces and face-like stimuli; however, this may come at the expense of attending to bodies or to other aspects of a scene. The primary goal of the present study was to provide additional insight into the development of attentional mechanisms that underlie perception of real people in naturalistic scenes. We examined the looking behaviours of typical children, adolescents, and young adults as they viewed static and dynamic scenes depicting one or more people. Overall, participants showed a bias to attend to faces more than on other parts of the scenes. Adding motion cues led to a reduction in the number, but an increase in the average duration of face fixations in single-character scenes. When multiple characters appeared in a scene, motion-related effects were attenuated and participants shifted their gaze from faces to bodies, or made off-screen glances. Children showed the largest effects related to the introduction of motion cues or additional characters, suggesting that they find dynamic faces difficult to process, and are especially prone to look away from faces when viewing complex social scenes – a strategy that could reduce the cognitive and the affective load imposed by having to divide one’s attention between multiple faces. Our findings provide new insights into the typical development of social attention during natural scene viewing, and lay the foundation for future work examining gaze behaviours in typical and atypical development.

  5. 从非言语行为看中日文化的异同%China-Japan Cultural Differences in Non-verbal Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯璜莹; 何艺娇

    2014-01-01

    人的行为有言语行为和非言语行为,非语言行为是人们日常生活中经常存在的表现。要表达同一种意思的时候,国家不同,所使用的非言语行为就不一样。理解两国的非言语行为对中日两国人民之间的交流是很重要的。弄清两国的非言语行为特点,有利于跨文化交流,跨越文化障碍,有利于加强两国人民的理解和交流。%Human behaviors have verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Non-verbal behavior is often present in people's daily life performance. The use of non-verbal behavior is not the same to express the same kind of meaning in different countries. Understanding non-verbal behavior between the two peoples is very important for the exchange. Clarifying the characteristics of non-verbal behavior of the two countries is conducive to cross-cultural barriers, and helps strengthen understanding and exchanges between two peoples.

  6. Politeness in the Non-verbal Communication between Chinese and Americans%中美非言语交际中的礼貌问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日

    2011-01-01

    Studies about politeness mainly focus on verbal communication, but neglect non-verbal communication. This paper tries to give some helpful advice about intercultural non-verbal communication by analyzing the different opinions about what is polite in non-verbal communication between Chinese culture and American culture.%有关礼貌问题的研究大多注重的是言语交际,往往忽视了非言语交际中的礼貌问题.本文通过对有关中美非言语交际中怎么做才是礼貌的这个问题的探讨,以期能够对人们在中美跨文化交际时有所帮助.

  7. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings.

  8. Sex differences in the ability to recognise non-verbal displays of emotion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Voyer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the magnitude of sex differences in humans' ability to accurately recognise non-verbal emotional displays. Studies of relevance were those that required explicit labelling of discrete emotions presented in the visual and/or auditory modality. A final set of 551 effect sizes from 215 samples was included in a multilevel meta-analysis. The results showed a small overall advantage in favour of females on emotion recognition tasks (d=0.19). However, the magnitude of that sex difference was moderated by several factors, namely specific emotion, emotion type (negative, positive), sex of the actor, sensory modality (visual, audio, audio-visual) and age of the participants. Method of presentation (computer, slides, print, etc.), type of measurement (response time, accuracy) and year of publication did not significantly contribute to variance in effect sizes. These findings are discussed in the context of social and biological explanations of sex differences in emotion recognition.

  9. "Communication by impact" and other forms of non-verbal communication: a review of transference, countertransference and projective identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, M W

    2010-07-01

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try and understand what is happening between psychiatrist and patient. The importance of being aware of the subtleties of this interaction is argued, as are the roles of phenomena such as transference, counter-transference and projective identification. The workings and use of these phenomena are explored as central in the doctor-patient interaction, as well as the consequences of failure to utilize and understand these phenomena. The author reviews - amongst others - the work of the analysts Casement, Gabbard, Goldstein, Ogden and Symington.

  10. Dynamics of flow behind backward-facing step in a narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The results and their analysis from experiments obtained by TR-PIV are presented on the model of backward-facing step in a narrow channel. The recirculation zone is studied in details. Mean structures are evaluated from fluctuating velocity fields. Then dynamics of the flow is characterized with help of POD (BOD technique. Substantial differences in high energy dynamical structures behaviour within the back-flow region and further downstream behind the flow reattachment have been found.

  11. Using the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness to Design Strategies and Actions to Face Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Dona; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e., Belgium, Cyprus, England, Greece, and The…

  12. Using the dynamic model of educational effectiveness to design strategies and actions to face bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P.M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Donna; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e.,

  13. Using the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness to Design Strategies and Actions to Face Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Muijs, Daniel; Rekers-Mombarg, Lyset; Papastylianou, Dona; Van Petegem, Peter; Pearson, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the impact of the dynamic approach to school improvement (DASI) aiming to help schools face and reduce bullying through integrating research on bullying with educational effectiveness research (EER). A network of approximately 15 schools in each participating country (i.e., Belgium, Cyprus, England, Greece, and The…

  14. Developmental changes in visual scanning of dynamic faces and abstract stimuli in infants : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunnius, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of scanning patterns between the ages of 6 and 26 weeks were investigated through repeated assessments of 10 infants. Eye movements were recorded using a corneal-reflection system while the infants looked at 2 dynamic stimuli: the naturally moving face of their mother and an abst

  15. A sex difference in interference between identity and expression judgments with static but not dynamic faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, Brenda M; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2013-04-26

    Facial motion cues facilitate identity and expression processing (Pilz, Thornton, & Bülthoff, 2006). To explore this dynamic advantage, we used Garner's speeded classification task (Garner, 1976) to investigate whether adding dynamic cues alters the interactions between the processing of identity and expression. We also examined whether facial motion affected women and men differently, given that women show an advantage for several aspects of static face processing (McClure, 2000). Participants made speeded identity or expression judgments while the irrelevant cue was held constant or varied. Significant interference occurred with both tasks when static stimuli were used (as in Ganel & Goshen-Gottstein, 2004), but interference was minimal with dynamic displays. This suggests that adult viewers are either better able to selectively attend to relevant cues, or better able to integrate multiple facial cues, when viewing moving as opposed to static faces. These gains, however, come with a cost in processing time. Only women showed asymmetrical interference with static faces, with variations in identity affecting expression judgments more than the opposite. This finding may reflect sex differences in global-local processing biases (Godard & Fiori, 2012). Our findings stress the importance of using dynamic displays and of considering sex distributions when characterizing typical face processing mechanisms.

  16. The role of the prefrontal cortex in familiarity and recollection processes during verbal and non-verbal recognition memory: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Semenza, Carlo; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2010-08-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have documented the involvement of the frontal lobes in recognition memory. However, the precise nature of prefrontal contributions to verbal and non-verbal memory and to familiarity and recollection processes remains unclear. The aim of the current rTMS study was to investigate for the first time the role of the DLPFC in encoding and retrieval of non-verbal and verbal memoranda and its contribution to recollection and familiarity processes. Recollection and familiarity processes were studied using the ROC and unequal variance signal detection methodologies. We found that rTMS delivered over left and right DLPFC at encoding resulted in material specific laterality effects with a disruption of recognition of verbal and non-verbal memoranda. Interestingly, rTMS over DLPFCs at encoding significantly affected both recollection and familiarity. However, at retrieval rTMS did not affect recollection and familiarity. Our results suggest that DLPFC has a degree of functional specialisation and plays an important role in the encoding of verbal and non-verbal memoranda.

  17. Anger and happiness in virtual teams: emotional influences of text and behavior on others' affect in the absence of non-verbal cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cheshin; A. Rafaeli; N. Bos

    2011-01-01

    Emotions carry social influence, as evident by emotion contagion - an unconscious process attributed to mimicking of non-verbal cues. We investigate whether emotion contagion can occur in virtual teams; specifically, the emotional influence of text-based and behavior-based cues on participants’ emot

  18. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  19. A comparison of processing load during non-verbal decision-making in two individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima Suleman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION A growing body of evidence suggests people with aphasia (PWA can have impairments to cognitive functions such as attention, working memory and executive functions.(1-5 Such cognitive impairments have been shown to negatively affect the decision-making (DM abilities adults with neurological damage. (6,7 However, little is known about DM abilities of PWA.(8 Pupillometry is “the measurement of changes in pupil diameter”.(9;p.1 Researchers have reported a positive relationship between processing load and phasic pupil size (i.e., as processing load increases, pupil size increases.(10 Thus pupillometry has the potential to be a useful tool for investigating processing load during DM in PWA. AIMS The primary aim of this study was to establish the feasibility of using pupillometry during a non-verbal DM task with PWA. The secondary aim was to explore non-verbal DM performance in PWA and determine the relationship between DM performance and processing load using pupillometry. METHOD DESIGN. A single-subject case-study design with two participants was used in this study. PARTICIPANTS. Two adult males with anomic aphasia participated in this study. Participants were matched for age and education. Both participants were independent, able to drive, and had legal autonomy. MEASURES. PERFORMANCE ON A DM TASK. We used a computerized risk-taking card game called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT as our non-verbal DM task.(11 In the IGT, participants made 100 selections (via eye gaze from four decks of cards presented on the computer screen with the goal of maximizing their overall hypothetical monetary gain. PROCESSING LOAD. The EyeLink 1000+ eye tracking system was used to collect pupil size measures while participants deliberated before each deck selection during the IGT. For this analysis, we calculated change in pupil size as a measure of processing load. RESULTS P1. P1 made increasingly advantageous decisions as the task progressed (Fig.1. When

  20. The functional role of neural oscillations in non-verbal emotional communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E Symons

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective interpersonal communication depends on the ability to perceive and interpret nonverbal emotional expressions from multiple sensory modalities. Current theoretical models propose that visual and auditory emotion perception involves a network of brain regions including the primary sensory cortices, the superior temporal sulcus (STS, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC. However, relatively little is known about how the dynamic interplay between these regions gives rise to the perception of emotions. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of neural oscillations in mediating neural communication within and between functional neural networks. Here we review studies investigating changes in oscillatory activity during the perception of visual, auditory, and audiovisual emotional expressions, and aim to characterise the functional role of neural oscillations in nonverbal emotion perception. Findings from the reviewed literature suggest that theta band oscillations most consistently differentiate between emotional and neutral expressions. While early theta synchronisation appears to reflect the initial encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, later fronto-central theta synchronisation may reflect the further integration of sensory information with internal representations. Additionally, gamma synchronisation reflects facilitated sensory binding of emotional expressions within regions such as the OFC, STS, and, potentially, the amygdala. However, the evidence is more ambiguous when it comes to the role of oscillations within the alpha and beta frequencies, which vary as a function of modality (or modalities, presence or absence of predictive information, and attentional or task demands. Thus, the synchronisation of neural oscillations within specific frequency bands mediates the rapid detection, integration, and evaluation of emotional expressions. Moreover, the functional coupling of oscillatory activity

  1. The Functional Role of Neural Oscillations in Non-Verbal Emotional Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ashley E; El-Deredy, Wael; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interpersonal communication depends on the ability to perceive and interpret nonverbal emotional expressions from multiple sensory modalities. Current theoretical models propose that visual and auditory emotion perception involves a network of brain regions including the primary sensory cortices, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, relatively little is known about how the dynamic interplay between these regions gives rise to the perception of emotions. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of neural oscillations in mediating neural communication within and between functional neural networks. Here we review studies investigating changes in oscillatory activity during the perception of visual, auditory, and audiovisual emotional expressions, and aim to characterize the functional role of neural oscillations in nonverbal emotion perception. Findings from the reviewed literature suggest that theta band oscillations most consistently differentiate between emotional and neutral expressions. While early theta synchronization appears to reflect the initial encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, later fronto-central theta synchronization may reflect the further integration of sensory information with internal representations. Additionally, gamma synchronization reflects facilitated sensory binding of emotional expressions within regions such as the OFC, STS, and, potentially, the amygdala. However, the evidence is more ambiguous when it comes to the role of oscillations within the alpha and beta frequencies, which vary as a function of modality (or modalities), presence or absence of predictive information, and attentional or task demands. Thus, the synchronization of neural oscillations within specific frequency bands mediates the rapid detection, integration, and evaluation of emotional expressions. Moreover, the functional coupling of oscillatory activity across multiples

  2. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  3. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  4. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Dynamic Eye Tracking Based Metrics for Infant Gaze Patterns in the Face-Distractor Competition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtola, Eero; Stjerna, Susanna; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Nelson, Charles A.; Leppänen, Jukka M.; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants’ gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm. Method Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45), as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22) in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants’ initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability) and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus). Results The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants. Conclusion The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants’ cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals. Significance Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development. PMID:24845102

  6. Dynamic eye tracking based metrics for infant gaze patterns in the face-distractor competition paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahtola

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop new standardized eye tracking based measures and metrics for infants' gaze dynamics in the face-distractor competition paradigm. METHOD: Eye tracking data were collected from two samples of healthy 7-month-old (total n = 45, as well as one sample of 5-month-old infants (n = 22 in a paradigm with a picture of a face or a non-face pattern as a central stimulus, and a geometric shape as a lateral stimulus. The data were analyzed by using conventional measures of infants' initial disengagement from the central to the lateral stimulus (i.e., saccadic reaction time and probability and, additionally, novel measures reflecting infants gaze dynamics after the initial disengagement (i.e., cumulative allocation of attention to the central vs. peripheral stimulus. RESULTS: The results showed that the initial saccade away from the centrally presented stimulus is followed by a rapid re-engagement of attention with the central stimulus, leading to cumulative preference for the central stimulus over the lateral stimulus over time. This pattern tended to be stronger for salient facial expressions as compared to non-face patterns, was replicable across two independent samples of 7-month-old infants, and differentiated between 7 and 5 month-old infants. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that eye tracking based assessments of infants' cumulative preference for faces over time can be readily parameterized and standardized, and may provide valuable techniques for future studies examining normative developmental changes in preference for social signals. SIGNIFICANCE: Standardized measures of early developing face preferences may have potential to become surrogate biomarkers of neurocognitive and social development.

  7. Amygdala temporal dynamics: temperamental differences in the timing of amygdala response to familiar and novel faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Richard C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibited temperament - the predisposition to respond to new people, places or things with wariness or avoidance behaviors - is associated with increased risk for social anxiety disorder and major depression. Although the magnitude of the amygdala's response to novelty has been identified as a neural substrate of inhibited temperament, there may also be differences in temporal dynamics (latency, duration, and peak. We hypothesized that persons with inhibited temperament would have faster responses to novel relative to familiar neutral faces compared to persons with uninhibited temperament. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the temporal dynamics of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD response to both novel and familiar neutral faces in participants with inhibited or uninhibited temperament. Results Inhibited participants had faster amygdala responses to novel compared with familiar faces, and both longer and greater amygdala response to all faces. There were no differences in peak response. Conclusion Faster amygdala response to novelty may reflect a computational bias that leads to greater neophobic responses and represents a mechanism for the development of social anxiety.

  8. Dynamics Behavior Research on Variable Linear Vibration Screen with Flexible Screen Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlong Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable the variable linear vibration screen with ideal movement behavior of screen surface and efficient screening capacity, five-freedom dynamic model and stability equations of the variable linear vibration screen were established based on power balance method and Hamilton principle. The motion behaviour of screen face was investigated, and − 0.10 m ≤ xf ≤ − 0.04 m was confirmed as the best range of exciting position. With analysis of stability equations, the stable requirement of vibration screen was obtained: the direction angle of exciting force should be 0 ≤ θ ≤ 45°. Screening processes of variable linear vibration screen with flexible screen face, variable linear vibration screen with fixed screen face and linear vibration screen were investigated and compared by numerical simulation method, the results show that variable linear vibration screen with flexible screen face have such characteristics as higher intensity of projection and efficient screening. The correctness of theoretical research and simulation research were verified through experiment, and all of the work would provide some guidance for designing and studying variable linear vibration screen with flexible screen face.

  9. Dynamics Behavior Research on Variable Linear Vibration Screen with Flexible Screen Face

    OpenAIRE

    Changlong Du; Kuidong Gao; Jianping Li; Hao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to enable the variable linear vibration screen with ideal movement behavior of screen surface and efficient screening capacity, five-freedom dynamic model and stability equations of the variable linear vibration screen were established based on power balance method and Hamilton principle. The motion behaviour of screen face was investigated, and − 0.10 m ≤ xf ≤ − 0.04 m was confirmed as the best range of exciting position. With analysis of stability equations, the stable requirement ...

  10. Research in non verbal communication: a paradigma for the analysis of kinesic behavior of political leaders and for the determination of its strategic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María HERNÁNDEZ HERRARTE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a proposal of a methodology for the analysis of non verbal behaviour of a series of political representatives constantly exposed to the media. The proposal is intended to contribute to the progress of knowledge of kinesic behaviour (gestures, postures and ways having as a main purpose the evaluation through descriptive analysis, of attitudes and feelings of politicians. It is comprised of a theoretical background where the non verbal communication and the kinesic behaviour definitions are detailed together with their constituent elements, and a methodology where the whole process is explained through content analysis: categorization, sampling, encoding and finally, a proposal of analysis card. with this work one tries to facilitate a methodological useful tool to all those experts been interested in the research of the meaning of the corporal communication of the political leaders transmitted across the media of social communication.

  11. On Non-verbal Communication in the English Class%谈英语课堂中的非言语交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巍

    2014-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important component of communicative behavior. In the English class, the teachers should adopt non-verbal communication appropriately so as to achieve the purpose of stimulating students' enthusiasm about English learning, strengthening the communication between themselves and students and having a good teaching effect.%非言语交际是交际行为的一个重要组成部分。在英语课堂教学中,教师可以恰当地运用非言语交际来提高学生的学习积极性,加强师生的交流,从而达到良好的教学效果。

  12. 非语言沟通:一种独特的人际沟通方式%Non-verbal Communication:A Unique Interpersonal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓; 江玲雅; 史逸华

    2015-01-01

    As a unique method of interpersonal communication, non-verbal communication plays an important role in doctor-patient relationship. This paper analyzed the causes of intense doctor-patient relationship from the perspective of non-verbal communication based on two typical cases and put forward solutions and suggestions.%作为一种独特的人际沟通方式,非语言沟通在医患关系中发挥着非常重要的作用。本文结合医院两个典型案例,从非语言沟通的视角入手,分析由此产生医患关系紧张的原因,并提出相应的对策、建议。

  13. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. While Part 1 outlined the study background, context and methodology along with the overarching, multi-dimensional category of 'familiarity/knowing the person', the current article critically discusses the themes and subthemes encapsulated in this category. Each theme is considered in the light of current policies, strategies and philosophies shaping the provision of services to people with an intellectual disability in Ireland. The results suggest that the RNID is ideally located and key to supporting the implementation of these policies and strategies due to their highly developed and proficient skill set as well as experience of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally.

  14. Family dynamics in face of Alzheimer's in one of its members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alana Vizzachi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To understand the family dynamics when there is a member in the residence with Alzheimer's disease. METHOD A study of qualitative approach, using the creative sensitive method (CSM, and with participation of two families who had a member with Alzheimer's disease at home. RESULTS Three categories emerged: Effects of Alzheimer's disease and the family dynamics; Development process of Alzheimer's disease and Coping strategies in face of the disease. CONCLUSION It was possible to know the manifestations and consequences of Alzheimer's disease in the family, such as mutual help, the mobilization of resources to activate memories of the past, spirituality and faith. There was also understanding of the structure of family dynamics.

  15. Impaired Spatial Category Representations in Williams Syndrome; an investigation of the mechanistic contributions of non-verbal cognition and spatial language performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kate Farran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to: provide a precise characterisation of spatial category representations in Williams syndrome (WS; to determine the nature of the mechanistic contributions from spatial language performance and non-verbal cognition to spatial category representations in WS; and to explore the stability of spatial category representations in WS using error analysis. Spatial category representation was assessed across nine spatial categories (In, On, Under, In Front, Behind, Above, Below, Left and Right using an odd-one-out task. The performance of individuals with WS (N=24; 12;00 years; months to 30;07 years; months was compared to data from typically developing children aged four to seven years (N=75, published in Farran & Atkinson (2016. The WS group performed at the level of typical 4- and 5-year-olds. Despite this low level of ability, they demonstrated typical variation in their representation of easier to harder spatial categories, in line with the spatial category representation model (Farran & Atkinson, 2016. Error analysis of broad category understanding (i.e. category understanding which includes non-prototypical category members, however, showed that errors reflected fewer guess responses than expected by chance in the WS group only, which could suggest strategic responding in this group. Developmental trajectory analyses demonstrated a significant contributing influence of both non-verbal mental age and spatial language in the TD group. For the WS group, non-verbal mental age significantly contributed to spatial category representations, whilst the contributing influence of spatial language ability was marginally significant. With reference to level of ability, spatial category representations in the WS group were consistently lower than would be expected for non-verbal mental age, but on a par with their (low spatial language mental age. Spatial category representations in WS are discussed with reference to their

  16. Non-verbal behaviour of patients with schizophrenia in medical consultations--a comparison with depressed patients and association with symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; McCabe, Rosemarie; Hassan, Imren; Barnes, Thomas R E; Priebe, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch psychiatrist Rümke introduced the notion that patients with schizophrenia could be recognised intuitively by an experienced psychiatrist, naming the process as the 'praecox feeling'. This feeling may reflect aspects of the non-verbal behaviour of patients as shown in a medical consultation. The aim of this study was to test whether aspects of the initial non-verbal behaviour of patients with schizophrenia and depression in medical consultations differ and are associated with symptom levels in each group. The first 2 min of videotaped outpatient consultations with 78 patients (39 each with schizophrenia and depression) were analysed by researchers who were masked to the diagnosis and symptom levels of the patients. Non-verbal behaviour was assessed using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom levels were rated by independent researchers on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. The 2 diagnostic groups showed significant differences on 1 out of 6 aspects of non-verbal communication, with patients with schizophrenia exhibiting more 'flight' behaviour, i.e. more looking down or away, crouching and freezing. Within the group of patients with schizophrenia, more 'flight' and less 'assertion' were associated with higher symptom levels. Initial 'flight' behaviour of patients in medical consultations may be specific for schizophrenia and associated with the symptoms of that illness. Such behaviour might indicate an avoidance of potentially adverse communication, and future research should investigate whether it can also be identified in everyday social interactions other than medical consultations. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Impaired Spatial Category Representations in Williams Syndrome; an Investigation of the Mechanistic Contributions of Non-verbal Cognition and Spatial Language Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K; Atkinson, Lauren; Broadbent, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: provide a precise characterisation of spatial category representations in Williams syndrome (WS); to determine the nature of the mechanistic contributions from spatial language performance and non-verbal cognition to spatial category representations in WS; and to explore the stability of spatial category representations in WS using error analysis. Spatial category representation was assessed across nine spatial categories (In, On, Under, In Front, Behind, Above, Below, Left, and Right) using an odd-one-out task. The performance of individuals with WS (N = 24; 12;00 years;months to 30;07 years;months) was compared to data from typically developing children aged four to 7 years (N = 75), published in Farran and Atkinson (2016). The WS group performed at the level of typical 4- and 5-year-olds. Despite this low level of ability, they demonstrated typical variation in their representation of easier to harder spatial categories, in line with the spatial category representation model (Farran and Atkinson, 2016). Error analysis of broad category understanding (i.e., category understanding which includes non-prototypical category members), however, showed that errors reflected fewer guess responses than expected by chance in the WS group only, which could suggest strategic responding in this group. Developmental trajectory analyses demonstrated a significant contributing influence of both non-verbal mental age and spatial language ability in the TD group. For the WS group, non-verbal mental age significantly contributed to spatial category representations, whilst the contributing influence of spatial language ability was marginally significant. With reference to level of ability, spatial category representations in the WS group were consistently lower than would be expected for non-verbal mental age, but on a par with their (low) spatial language mental age. Spatial category representations in WS are discussed with reference to their

  18. Finite Element Analysis of the Misalignment Effects on the Dynamic Force Coefficients of Spiral Groove Gas Face Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marco Tulio C.

    This paper presents a finite element procedure specially devised to analyze the misalignment effects on the behavior of spiral groove gas face seals operating at high speeds. In this study, the seal stationary face is slightly misaligned and the flexibly mounted face is perfectly aligned. Predictions of some steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics versus misalignment angle are presented for spirally grooved gas seals operating under stringent conditions. Curves of dynamic force coefficients versus the static misalignment angle of the seal face indicate that the seal misalignment affects considerably the dynamic response of gas lubricated face seals. At high speeds, the static seal misalignment not only results in increased stiffness coefficients but also leads to negative damping coefficients, which may be a sign of the seal susceptibility to excessive angular motions.

  19. Sandplay therapy in non verbal behavior of visitors%沙盘游戏治疗中来访者非言语行为初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂莉娜; 蔡宝鸿

    2014-01-01

    沙盘游戏治疗,又称为非言语心理治疗,非言语的交流过程有着极其重要作用。来访者的面部表情,眼神,身体姿态,空间距离以及治疗过程中所伴随的生理反应等非言语信息,沙盘分析师应当给予关注和记录。对来访者非言语行为进行观察时,应注意综合各方面信息,进行准确分析判断。%The Sandplay therapy, also called non verbal psychotherapy, has the extremely important role in the process of non verbal communication. The visitor's eyes, facial expressions, body posture, the space distance and treatment in the physiological reaction of nonverbal information, analysts should be given attention and record table. Non verbal behaviour of the visitors were observed when, should pay attention to the various aspects of information, accurate analysis and judgement.

  20. 讯问犯罪嫌疑人过程中的非语言沟通技巧%Non-verbal Communication Skills in Interrogating Criminal Suspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马李芬

    2012-01-01

    Alongside with the usage of interrogate language,investigators should also make analysis of non-verbal information from criminal suspects and perfect adoption of it,because non-verbal language have distinct effect and sometimes even indispensable in interrogating.Investigators could use non-verbal communication skills to convey information to criminal suspects to confess.%侦查人员在讯问犯罪嫌疑人的过程中,除了巧妙运用讯问语言外,还应当准确地对犯罪嫌疑人的非语言信息进行解读并且恰如其分地运用非语言,因为非语言在讯问沟通过程中同样具有举足轻重的作用,有时甚至可以产生讯问语言无法替代的功效,侦查人员可以利用它向犯罪嫌疑人传递有利于促使他们如实陈述的信息。

  1. Measuring verbal and non-verbal communication in aphasia: reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W Mieke E; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive communication partner. To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Scenario Test and discuss its clinical value. The Scenario Test was administered to 122 persons with aphasia after stroke and to 25 non-aphasic controls. Analyses were performed for the entire group of persons with aphasia, as well as for a subgroup of persons unable to communicate verbally (n = 43). Reliability (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, inter-judge, and intra-judge reliability) and validity (internal validity, convergent validity, known-groups validity) and sensitivity to change were examined using standard psychometric methods. The Scenario Test showed high levels of reliability. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96; item-rest correlations = 0.58-0.82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.98) were high. Agreement between judges in total scores was good, as indicated by the high inter- and intra-judge reliability (ICC = 0.86-1.00). Agreement in scores on the individual items was also good (square-weighted kappa values 0.61-0.92). The test demonstrated good levels of validity. A principal component analysis for categorical data identified two dimensions, interpreted as general communication and communicative creativity. Correlations with three other instruments measuring communication in aphasia, that is, Spontaneous Speech interview from the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT), Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), and Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI), were moderate to strong (0.50-0.85) suggesting good convergent validity. Group differences were observed between persons with aphasia and non-aphasic controls

  2. Social Dynamic of Yogyakarta Citizens in Facing the Uncertainty of Traditional Value and Modernity: The Integrated Value of Social Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridiyatmiko, Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    The principal issue of this study is "how does the society dynamic of Yogyakarta in facing the polemic of traditional, modernity, and social study values which can be developed in social study learning at school? The general aim of this study is to find how the society dynamic phenomenon which happened in Yogyakarta mainly in Kraton, Kauman,…

  3. Efficacy of identifying neural components in the face and emotion processing system in schizophrenia using a dynamic functional localizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Iaria, Giuseppe; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-02-28

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in face perception and emotion recognition. Despite consistent behavioural results, the neural mechanisms underlying these cognitive abilities have been difficult to isolate, in part due to differences in neuroimaging methods used between studies for identifying regions in the face processing system. Given this problem, we aimed to validate a recently developed fMRI-based dynamic functional localizer task for use in studies of psychiatric populations and specifically schizophrenia. Previously, this functional localizer successfully identified each of the core face processing regions (i.e. fusiform face area, occipital face area, superior temporal sulcus), and regions within an extended system (e.g. amygdala) in healthy individuals. In this study, we tested the functional localizer success rate in 27 schizophrenia patients and in 24 community controls. Overall, the core face processing regions were localized equally between both the schizophrenia and control group. Additionally, the amygdala, a candidate brain region from the extended system, was identified in nearly half the participants from both groups. These results indicate the effectiveness of a dynamic functional localizer at identifying regions of interest associated with face perception and emotion recognition in schizophrenia. The use of dynamic functional localizers may help standardize the investigation of the facial and emotion processing system in this and other clinical populations.

  4. 跨文化视域下的非言语交流探析%On Non-verbal Communication of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娣

    2015-01-01

    非言语( NOV)语言在交流过程中起着重要的作用,它可使人们在无意识情形下传递自己真实的情感。非言语交流( NVC)可分为四种基本类型:体态语、副语言、环境语和对象语。非言语交流具有一定的文化载体,中西方文化存在着较为明显的差异。跨文化视角下的非言语交流探究,能够帮助人们更好地理解和运用非言语交流手段,尽量避免跨文化交流中不应有的障碍,增进不同文化与语言背景下人们的相互理解,提高交流水平。%Non-verbal ( NOV) language plays a significant part in communication, which gives away people’s true feelings without their awareness. Non-verbal communication ( NVC) is roughly divided into four groups:body lan-guage, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. NOV is the carrier of a certain culture and there is great difference between Chinese and western culture. Cultural comparison is of great help to the communi-cation for the people from different nations, with which we will have a better understanding on non-verbal communi-cation to avoid the problems in cross cultural communication.

  5. Application of non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing%非语言性沟通在儿科护理工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate application effect by non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing. Methods A total of children patients were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 40 cases in each group. The control group received conventional pediatric nursing, and the experimental group received pediatric nursing with non-verbal communication. Comparison was made on satisfaction degree in both groups through questionnaire filled by parents. Results The experimental group had obviously higher satisfaction degree than the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Implement of non-verbal communication in pediatric nursing can build good nurse-patient relationship. This method can improve children’s cooperation for carrying out pediatric nursing, and it is worth clinical promotion and application.%目的:探讨非语言性沟通在儿科护理中的应用效果。方法80例儿科患儿,随机分为对照组和实验组,各40例。对照组采用儿科常规护理,实验组采用非语言性沟通儿科护理,患儿出院后由患儿父母填写满意度调查表,比较两组的满意度调查结果。结果实验组的满意度明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在儿科护理中,实施非语言性沟通能够建立良好的护患关系,有利于儿科护理工作的展开,使患儿更好的配合治疗,临床可推广应用。

  6. Non-verbal Communication and Sino-Japan Cross-Cultural Communication%非言语交际与中日跨文化交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳成

    2011-01-01

    非言语交际是跨文化交际的重要组成部分,与言语交际互为补充,相辅相成。非言语交际包括诸多要素,并受到民族文化背景的影响与制约。受古代日本相对封闭的村落社会结构与言灵思想的影响,日语的非言语交际非常发达。在中日跨文化交际过程中,必须重视非言语交际的重要作用,尤其要注意把握好交际过程中的各种非言语要素,中日间对于同一非言语要素的不同理解,以及日方对于某些非言语要素的独特解读。%As an important part of cross-cultural communication,non-verbal communication complements verbal.It consists of various kinds of elements and is constrained by ethnic cultural background.Due to relatively closed village settlement and admiration of lingual spells,non-verbal communication in Japanese grows rich.Therefore,it should be laid an emphasis in Sino-Japan cross-cultural communication,especially on the following three aspects: a good command of various elements,different decoding of the same non-verbal element between Chinese and Japanese people,and Japanese specific decoding of some certain elements.

  7. 跨文化交际中的非言语交际%On Non-verbal Communication in Cross-cultural Com-munication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛梅

    2013-01-01

    Non-verbal communication, an important means to pass information and express feelings, complements mutually with verbal communication and plays an important role in cross-cultural communication. However, non-verbal communi-cation has not been paid enough attention and has been neglected for a long time. Misunderstanding on nonverbal communication leads to the failure of the communication and affects the quality of communication. The essay analyzes the differences of non-verbal communication in cross-cultural communication from several as-pects, such as gestures, facial expressions and visual behaviors, so as to improve people's sensitivity and quality of the cross-cul-tural communication.%在跨文化交际中,非言语交际是人们传递信息、表达情感的一个重要手段,与语言交际互为补充,在跨文化交际中起着不可忽视的作用。然而,人们并没有给予非言语交际以足够的重视,使其长期处于被忽视的地位。在跨文化交际过程中,经常发生因非言语交际误解导致交际无法顺畅进行,因而影响交际质量的情况。本文从手势,面部表情,目视行为等几个方面分析非言语行为在跨文化交际中的差异,以期提高人们跨文化交际的敏感性和质量。

  8. 跨文化视域下的非言语交流探析%On Non-verbal Communication of Cross-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娣

    2014-01-01

    非言语( NOV)语言在交流过程中起着重要的作用,它可使人们在无意识情形下传递自己真实的情感。非言语交流( NVC)可分为四种基本类型:体态语、副语言、环境语和对象语。非言语交流具有一定的文化载体,中西方文化存在着较为明显的差异。跨文化视角下的非言语交流探究,能够帮助人们更好地理解和运用非言语交流手段,尽量避免跨文化交流中不应有的障碍,增进不同文化与语言背景下人们的相互理解,提高交流水平。%Non-verbal ( NOV) language plays a significant part in communication, which gives away people’s true feelings without their awareness. Non-verbal communication ( NVC) is roughly divided into four groups:body lan-guage, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. NOV is the carrier of a certain culture and there is great difference between Chinese and western culture. Cultural comparison is of great help to the communi-cation for the people from different nations, with which we will have a better understanding on non-verbal communi-cation to avoid the problems in cross cultural communication.

  9. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  10. The neural basis of non-verbal communication-enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  11. Oscillating dipole layer facing a conducting plane: a classical analogue of the dynamical Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, César D. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, R8402AGP, Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C., E-mail: lombardo@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Física Juan José Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We study the properties of the classical electromagnetic radiation produced by two physically different yet closely related systems, which may be regarded as classical analogues of the dynamical Casimir effect. They correspond to two flat, infinite, parallel planes, one of them static and imposing perfect-conductor boundary conditions, while the other performs a rigid oscillatory motion. The systems differ just in the electrical properties of the oscillating plane: one of them is just a planar dipole layer (representing, for instance, a small-width electret). The other, instead, has a dipole layer on the side which faces the static plane, but behaves as a conductor on the other side: this can be used as a representation of a conductor endowed with patch potentials (on the side which faces the conducting plane). We evaluate, in both cases, the dissipative flux of energy between the system and its environment, showing that, at least for small mechanical oscillation amplitudes, it can be written in terms of the dipole layer autocorrelation function. We show that there are resonances as a function of the frequency of the mechanical oscillation.

  12. Oscillating dipole layer facing a conducting plane: a classical analogue of the dynamical Casimir effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, Cesar D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA y IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    We study the properties of the classical electromagnetic radiation produced by two physically different yet closely related systems, which may be regarded as classical analogues of the dynamical Casimir effect. They correspond to two flat, infinite, parallel planes, one of them static and imposing perfect-conductor boundary conditions, while the other performs a rigid oscillatory motion. The systems differ just in the electrical properties of the oscillating plane: one of them is just a planar dipole layer (representing, for instance, a small-width electret). The other, instead, has a dipole layer on the side which faces the static plane, but behaves as a conductor on the other side: this can be used as a representation of a conductor endowed with patch potentials (on the side which faces the conducting plane). We evaluate, in both cases, the dissipative flux of energy between the system and its environment, showing that, at least for small mechanical oscillation amplitudes, it can be written in terms of the dipole layer autocorrelation function. We show that there are resonances as a function of the frequency of the mechanical oscillation. (orig.)

  13. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  14. Dynamics of Trimming the Content of Face Representations for Categorization in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2009-01-01

    To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1) over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2) concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes) to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in ‘fear’; the detailed mouth in ‘happy’). Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300. PMID:19911045

  15. Radiation from an oscillating dipole layer facing a conducting plane: resonances and Dynamical Casimir Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, César D

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of the classical electromagnetic (EM) radiation produced by two phys- ically different yet closely related systems, which may be regarded as classical analogues of the Dynamical Casimir Effect (DCE). They correspond to two flat, infinite, parallel planes, one of them static and imposing perfect conductor boundary conditions, while the other performs a rigid oscil- latory motion. The systems differ just in the electrical properties of the oscillating plane: one of them is just a planar dipole layer (representing, for instance, a small-width electret). The other, instead, has a dipole layer on the side which faces the static plane, but behaves as a conductor on the other side: this can be used as a representation of a conductor endowed with patch potentials (on the side which faces the conducting plane). We evaluate, in both cases, the dissipative flux of energy between the system and its environment, showing that, at least for small mechanical oscillation amplitudes, it can be written i...

  16. Influence analysis of secondary O-ring seals in dynamic behavior of spiral groove gas face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Songtao; Huang, Weifeng; Liu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yuming

    2016-05-01

    The current research on secondary O-ring seals used in mechanical seals has begun to focus on their dynamic properties. However, detailed analysis of the dynamic properties of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals is lacking. In particular a transient study and a difference analysis of steady-state and transient performance are imperative. In this paper, a case study is performed to gauge the effect of secondary O-ring seals on the dynamic behavior (steady-state performance and transient performance) of face seals. A numerical finite element method (FEM) model is developed for the dynamic analysis of spiral groove gas face seals with a flexibly mounted stator in the axial and angular modes. The rotor tilt angle, static stator tilt angle and O-ring damping are selected to investigate the effect of O-ring seals on face seals during stable running operation. The results show that the angular factor can be ignored to save time in the simulation under small damping or undamped conditions. However, large O-ring damping has an enormous effect on the angular phase difference of mated rings, affecting the steady-state performance of face seals and largely increasing the possibility of face contact that reduces the service life of face seals. A pressure drop fluctuation is carried out to analyze the effect of O-ring seals on the transient performance of face seals. The results show that face seals could remain stable without support stiffness and O-ring damping during normal stable operation but may enter a large-leakage state when confronting instantaneous fluctuations. The oscillation-amplitude shortening effect of O-ring damping on the axial mode is much greater than that on the angular modes and O-ring damping prefers to cater for axial motion at the cost of angular motion. This research proposes a detailed dynamic-property study of O-ring seals in spiral groove gas face seals, to assist in the design of face seals.

  17. Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y Wan

    Full Text Available Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide 'proof of concept' for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism.

  18. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.

  20. Auditory-Motor Mapping Training as an Intervention to Facilitate Speech Output in Non-Verbal Children with Autism: A Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y.; Bazen, Loes; Baars, Rebecca; Libenson, Amanda; Zipse, Lauryn; Zuk, Jennifer; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide ‘proof of concept’ for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism. PMID:21980480

  1. Challenges of implementing a personalized mental task near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interface for a non-verbal young adult with motor impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyand, Sabine; Chau, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy brain-computer interfaces (NIRS-BCIs) have been proposed as potential motor-free communication pathways. This paper documents the challenges of implementing an NIRS-BCI with a non-verbal, severely and congenitally impaired, but cognitively intact young adult. A 5-session personalized mental task NIRS-BCI training paradigm was invoked, whereby participant-specific mental tasks were selected either by the researcher or by the user, on the basis of prior performance or user preference. Although the personalized mental task selection and training framework had been previously demonstrated with able-bodied participants, the participant was not able to exceed chance-level accuracies. Challenges to the acquisition of BCI control may have included disinclination to BCI training, structural or functional brain atypicalities, heightened emotional arousal and confounding haemodynamic patterns associated with novelty and reward processing. Overall, we stress the necessity for further clinical NIRS-BCI research involving non-verbal individuals with severe motor impairments.

  2. Non-Verbal Symbol Communication of On-Camera Correspondents%电视新闻出镜记者的非语言符号传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠

    2012-01-01

    电视新闻出镜记者的非语言符号传播,是出现频率不亚于语言符号却往往被业内人士忽视的一种传播行为。在出镜记者的现场报道中,非语言符号起到了补充、丰富语言符号的作用,并和语言符号交融在一起,实现新闻事件信息的有效传播。%Non-verbal symbol communications of TV news on-camera correspondents has the same frequency of appearance as language symbols but are often ignored by the industry insiders.In the live reporting of on-camera correspondents,non-verbal symbols play a supplementary role and blend together with language symbols to achieve the effective dissemination of news events information.

  3. Language representation of the emotional state of the personage in non-verbal speech behavior (on the material of Russian and German languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherbakova Irina Vladimirovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of actualization of emotions in a non-verbal speech behavior of the character of a literary text. Emotions are considered basic, the most actively used method of literary character reaction to any object, action, or the communicative situation. Nonverbal ways of expressing emotions more fully give the reader an idea of the emotional state of the character. The main focus in the allocation of non-verbal means of communication in art is focused on the description of kinetic, proxemic and prosodic components. The material of the study is the microdialogue fragments extracted by continuous sampling of their works of art texts of the Russian-speaking and German-speaking classical and modern literature XIX - XX centuries. Fragments of the dialogues were analyzed, where the recorded voice of nonverbal behavior of the character of different emotional content (surprise, joy, fear, anger, rage, excitement, etc. was fixed. It was found that means of verbalization and descriptions of emotion of nonverbal behavior of the character are primarily indirect nomination, expressed verbal vocabulary, adjectives and adverbs. The lexical level is the most significant in the presentation of the emotional state of the character.

  4. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  5. Analysis of the training of cross-cultural non-verbal communication ability in foreign language teaching%浅析跨文化非语言交际能力在外语教学中的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀艳

    2012-01-01

      Non-verbal communication, as an important component of interpersonal communication, plays an irreplaceable part of verbal communication in interpersonal communication. However, foreign language teaching is the basis of fostering students’ communicative ability. So the training of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching is self-evident. This paper aims to state how to cultivate students’ non-verbal communication by introducing the functions and characteristics of non-verbal communication and the application of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching.%  非语言交际作为人类交际的重要组成部分,在人类交际中起着语言交际无法替代的作用,而外语教学是培养学生交际能力的基础,因此非语言交际能力的培养在外语教学中的重要性不言而喻。本文拟通过介绍非语言交际的功能和特点,非语言交际在外语教学中的应用来阐述如何培养学生的非语言交际能力。

  6. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control.

  7. Growth from Solutions: Kink dynamics, Stoichiometry, Face Kinetics and stability in turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; DeYoreo, J. J.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    1. Kink dynamics. The first segment of a polygomized dislocation spiral step measured by AFM demonstrates up to 60% scattering in the critical length l*- the length when the segment starts to propagate. On orthorhombic lysozyme, this length is shorter than that the observed interkink distance. Step energy from the critical segment length based on the Gibbs-Thomson law (GTL), l* = 20(omega)alpha/(Delta)mu is several times larger than the energy from 2D nucleation rate. Here o is tine building block specific voiume, a is the step riser specific free energy, Delta(mu) is the crystallization driving force. These new data support our earlier assumption that the classical Frenkel, Burton -Cabrera-Frank concept of the abundant kink supply by fluctuations is not applicable for strongly polygonized steps. Step rate measurements on brushite confirms that statement. This is the1D nucleation of kinks that control step propagation. The GTL is valid only if l* face rates of a non-Kossel complex molecular monocomponent or any binary, AB, lattice was found theoretically to be proportional to 1/(zeta(sup 1/2) + zeta(sup - 1/2)), where zeta = [B]/[A] is the stoichiometry ratio in solution. The velocities reach maxima at zeta = 1. AFM studies of step rates on CaOxalate monohydrate (kidney stones) from aqueous solution was found to obey the law mentioned above. Generalization for more complex lattice will be discussed. 3. Turbulence. In agreement with theory, high precision in-situ laser interferometry of the (101) KDP crystal face shows step

  8. Dynamical analysis of innovative core designs facing unprotected transients with the MAT5 DYN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmet, G.; Massara, S. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du general de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2012-07-01

    Since 2007, advanced Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) are investigated by CEA, AREVA and EDF in the framework of a joint French collaboration. A prototype called ASTRID, sets out to demonstrate progress made in SFR technology, is due to operate in the years 2020's. The modeling of unprotected transients by computer codes is one of the key safety issues in the design approach to such SFR systems. For that purpose, the activity on CATHARE, which is the reference code for the transient analysis of ASTRID, has been strengthened during last years by CEA. In the meantime, EDF has developed a simplified and multi-channel code, named MAT5 DYN, to analyze and validate innovative core designs facing protected and unprotected transients. First, the paper consists in a description of MAT5 DYN: a code based on the existing code MAT4 DYN including major improvements on geometry description and physical modeling. Second, two core designs based on the CFV core design developed at CEA are presented. Then, the dynamic response of those heterogeneous cores is analyzed during unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) transient and unprotected transient of power (UTOP). The results highlight the importance of the low void core effect specific to the CFV design. Such an effect, when combined with a sufficient primary pump halving time and an optimized cooling group scheme, allows to delay (or, possibly, avoid) the sodium boiling onset during ULOF accidents. (authors)

  9. Optimizing the teaching of human anatomy by applying non-verbal communicative approaches%运用非语言交际优化解剖教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新庆; 梁邦领; 王旭; 吴效普; 皮全民

    2011-01-01

    菏泽医学专科学校解剖学教研室在教学改革中,提出了一种新的解剖学教学手段——非语言交际教学.合理地运用副语言、表情语、目光语、手势语、姿势语等非语言交际手段,可以优化解剖学教学,取得良好的教学效果.%In the teaching reform of anatomy,department of human anatomy in Heze medical college put forward a new teaching means-Non-verbal communication teaching.The reasonable use of the paralanguage,gesture,posture,eye contact,facial expressions can optimize the teaching of anatomy and achieve good teaching effect.

  10. Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Tripodi, Doriana; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-03-01

    This study examined forward and backward recall of locations and colours and the binding of locations and colours, comparing typically developing children - aged between 8 and 10 years - with two different groups of children of the same age with learning disabilities (dyslexia in one group, non-verbal learning disability [NLD] in the other). Results showed that groups with learning disabilities had different visuospatial working memory problems and that children with NLD had particular difficulties in the backward recall of locations. The differences between the groups disappeared, however, when locations and colours were bound together. It was concluded that specific processes may be involved in children in the binding and backward recall of different types of information, as they are not simply the resultant of combining the single processes needed to recall single features.

  11. Equilibrated Atomic Models of Outward-Facing P-glycoprotein and Effect of ATP Binding on Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms. PMID:25600711

  12. The Improvement of Non-Verbal Communication Skills of Five Females with Profound and Multiple Disabilities Using Song-Choices in Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina McFerran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facilitating the expression of preferences and choices of non-verbal adults who have profound and multiple disabilities is important yet challenging. The present research project aimed to examine whether consistent opportunities for expressing song-choices within music therapy resulted in an improvement in communication abilities of five females with profound and multiple disabilities. A multiple case study design was used. Each participant attended weekly thirty-minute sessions comprising three song-preference assessment sessions followed by ten song-choice intervention sessions. Affective responses to songs in the song-preference assessment were analyzed to identify each participant’s preferred songs. Four song-choice opportunities consisting of a pair of preferred and less-preferred songs were offered during the intervention sessions, and intentional choice-making behaviors were facilitated. The descriptive video-analysis of the sessions shows that the participants were able to indicate consistent preferences for songs, make intentional choices of songs, and improve communication skills throughout the ten intervention sessions. Two participants developed clear choice-making skills, such as selecting a preferred song-card from two options and alternating eye-gaze between a song-card and the researcher. The other three participants demonstrated idiosyncratic but clear intentional behaviors using body movements, facial expressions, and vocalizations to indicate choices of preferred songs. Inter-rater reliability was calculated. These results suggest that some adults with profound and multiple disabilities are capable of improving non-verbal communication skills when appropriate interventions and strategies are provided and also highlight the potential of music therapy to promote communication development of these individuals.

  13. 日语翻译中的非语言文化交际分析%On Non-verbal Cultural Communication in the Japanese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申素芳

    2012-01-01

    The non-language cultural communication is a large proportion of the actual communication expression.Expressions implications which Many languages can not express or not inconvenient to express implications are all through non-verbal communication.The ability to understand the good non-passed language communication significance for correct and complete transfer has a very important role.Translation is a bridge connecting the two cultures,so how to describe the culture of non-verbal communication accurately becomes an important aspect of translation work.This paper aims to illustrate the characteristics of nonverbal cultural communication in the Japanese culture to analyze the non-language cultural communication in the Japanese translation.%非语言文化交际在实际交际中占有很大比重,许多语言不能表达或者不便表达的隐含意义都是通过非语言交际传递的,能否理解好非语言交际传递出的意义,对于思想的正确完整传递有着十分重要的作用。翻译是连接两种文化的桥梁,因此在翻译中如何将非语言文化交际准确地表述出来成为了翻译工作的一个重要方面。文章结合日本文化中非语言文化交际的特点,对日语翻译中的非语言文化交际进行了分析。

  14. Multisensory integration of dynamic emotional faces and voices: method for simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick David Schelenz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined EEG-fMRI analysis correlates time courses from single electrodes or independent EEG components with the hemodynamic response. Implementing information from only one electrode, however, may miss relevant information from complex electrophysiological networks. Component based analysis, in turn, depends on a priori knowledge of the signal topography. Complex designs such as studies on multisensory integration of emotions investigate subtle differences in distributed networks based on only a few trials per condition. Thus, they require a sensitive and comprehensive approach which does not rely on a-priori knowledge about the underlying neural processes. In this pilot study, feasibility and sensitivity of source localization-driven analysis for EEG-fMRI was tested using a multisensory integration paradigm. Dynamic audiovisual stimuli consisting of emotional talking faces and pseudowords with emotional prosody were rated in a delayed response task. The trials comprised affectively congruent and incongruent displays.In addition to event-locked EEG and fMRI analyses, induced oscillatory EEG responses at estimated cortical sources and in specific temporo-spectral windows were correlated with the corresponding BOLD responses. EEG analysis showed high data quality with less than 10% trial rejection. In an early time window, alpha oscillations were suppressed in bilateral occipital cortices and fMRI analysis confirmed high data quality with reliable activation in auditory, visual and frontal areas to the presentation of multisensory stimuli. In line with previous studies, we obtained reliable correlation patterns for event locked occipital alpha suppression and BOLD signal time course.Our results suggest a valid methodological approach to investigate complex stimuli using the present source localization driven method for EEG-fMRI. This novel procedure may help to investigate combined EEG-fMRI data from novel complex paradigms with high spatial and

  15. Multisensory integration of dynamic emotional faces and voices: method for simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Patrick D; Klasen, Martin; Reese, Barbara; Regenbogen, Christina; Wolf, Dhana; Kato, Yutaka; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Combined EEG-fMRI analysis correlates time courses from single electrodes or independent EEG components with the hemodynamic response. Implementing information from only one electrode, however, may miss relevant information from complex electrophysiological networks. Component based analysis, in turn, depends on a priori knowledge of the signal topography. Complex designs such as studies on multisensory integration of emotions investigate subtle differences in distributed networks based on only a few trials per condition. Thus, they require a sensitive and comprehensive approach which does not rely on a-priori knowledge about the underlying neural processes. In this pilot study, feasibility and sensitivity of source localization-driven analysis for EEG-fMRI was tested using a multisensory integration paradigm. Dynamic audiovisual stimuli consisting of emotional talking faces and pseudowords with emotional prosody were rated in a delayed response task. The trials comprised affectively congruent and incongruent displays. In addition to event-locked EEG and fMRI analyses, induced oscillatory EEG responses at estimated cortical sources and in specific temporo-spectral windows were correlated with the corresponding BOLD responses. EEG analysis showed high data quality with less than 10% trial rejection. In an early time window, alpha oscillations were suppressed in bilateral occipital cortices and fMRI analysis confirmed high data quality with reliable activation in auditory, visual and frontal areas to the presentation of multisensory stimuli. In line with previous studies, we obtained reliable correlation patterns for event locked occipital alpha suppression and BOLD signal time course. Our results suggest a valid methodological approach to investigate complex stimuli using the present source localization driven method for EEG-fMRI. This novel procedure may help to investigate combined EEG-fMRI data from novel complex paradigms with high spatial and temporal

  16. Dynamic outgassing of deuterium, helium and nitrogen from plasma-facing materials under DEMO relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, S.; Matveev, D.; Martynova, Y.; Unterberg, B.; Rasinski, M.; Wegener, T.; Kreter, A.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    In confined plasma magnetic fusion devices significant amounts of the hydrogen isotopes used for the fusion reaction can be stored in the plasma-facing materials by implantation. The desorption of this retained hydrogen was seen to follow a t α law with α  ≈  -0.7 in tokamaks. For a pulsed fusion reactor this outgassing can define the inter-pulse waiting time. This work presents new experimental data on the dynamic outgassing in ITER grade tungsten exposed under the well-defined conditions of PSI-2 to pure and mixed D2 plasmas. A peak ion flux of 1022 D+ m-2 s is applied for up to 6 h at sample temperatures of up to 900 K. Pure D2 and mixed D2  +  He, D2  +  N2 and D2  +  He  +  N2 plasmas are applied to the sample at 68 V bias. The D2, He, N outgassing at 293 K and 580 k are observed via in-vacuo quadrupole mass spectrometry covering the range of 40 s-200 000 s after exposure. The outgassing decay follows a single power law with exponents α  =  -0.7  to  -1.1 at 293 K, but at 580 K a drop from α  =  -0.25 to  -2.35 is found. For DEMO a pump-down time to 0.5 mPa in the order of 1-5 h can be expected. The outgassing is in all cases dominated by D2.

  17. The Dynamics of Chinese Face Mechanisms and Classroom Behaviour: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2009-01-01

    Research on cross-cultural psychology, anthropology and sociology reveals that the impact of face on social interactions is both pervasive and powerful in Asia. Face, however, has not gained general acceptance as an important theoretical concept in the literature on Asian (Chinese in particular) classroom behaviour and management. This article…

  18. DynaFace: Discrimination between Obligatory and Non-obligatory Protein-Protein Interactions Based on the Complex's Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Soner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interfaces have been evolutionarily-designed to enable transduction between the interacting proteins. Thus, we hypothesize that analysis of the dynamics of the complex can reveal details about the nature of the interaction, and in particular whether it is obligatory, i.e., persists throughout the entire lifetime of the proteins, or not. Indeed, normal mode analysis, using the Gaussian network model, shows that for the most part obligatory and non-obligatory complexes differ in their decomposition into dynamic domains, i.e., the mobile elements of the protein complex. The dynamic domains of obligatory complexes often mix segments from the interacting chains, and the hinges between them do not overlap with the interface between the chains. In contrast, in non-obligatory complexes the interface often hinges between dynamic domains, held together through few anchor residues on one side of the interface that interact with their counterpart grooves in the other end. In automatic analysis, 117 of 139 obligatory (84.2% and 203 of 246 non-obligatory (82.5% complexes are correctly classified by our method: DynaFace. We further use DynaFace to predict obligatory and non-obligatory interactions among a set of 300 putative protein complexes. DynaFace is available at: http://safir.prc.boun.edu.tr/dynaface.

  19. Face-name association task reveals memory networks in patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamer, Silke; Milian, Monika; Erb, Michael; Rona, Sabine; Lerche, Holger; Ethofer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify reorganization processes of episodic memory networks in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis as well as their relations to neuropsychological memory performance. We investigated 28 healthy subjects, 12 patients with left TLE (LTLE) and 9 patients with right TLE (RTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a face-name association task, which combines verbal and non-verbal memory functions. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined based on the group results of the healthy subjects. In each ROI, fMRI activations were compared across groups and correlated with verbal and non-verbal memory scores. The face-name association task yielded activations in bilateral hippocampus (HC), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left superior temporal gyrus, bilateral angular gyrus (AG), bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and right anterior temporal lobe (ATL). LTLE patients demonstrated significantly less activation in the left HC and left SFG, whereas RTLE patients showed significantly less activation in the HC bilaterally, the left SFG and right AG. Verbal memory scores correlated with activations in the left and right HC, left SFG and right ATL and non-verbal memory scores with fMRI activations in the left and right HC and left SFG. The face-name association task can be employed to examine functional alterations of hippocampal activation during encoding of both verbal and non-verbal material in one fMRI paradigm. Further, the left SFG seems to be a convergence region for encoding of verbal and non-verbal material.

  20. Recognition memory for words and faces in the very old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H; Vink, M

    1989-09-01

    The assessment of very elderly people is hindered by a scarcity of normative and reliability data for non-verbal memory tests. We tested the suitability of Warrington's Recognition Memory Test (RMT) for use with the elderly. The RMT consists of verbal (Recognition Memory for Words, RMW) and non-verbal (Recognition Memory for Faces, RMF) subtests. The facial recognition test was used in the standard format and a Dutch-language version of the word recognition test was developed using low frequency (10 or less/million) monosyllabic words. Eighty-nine subjects, varying in age from 69 to 93, were tested with the RMF. Means and SD are provided for three age groups (69-79, 80-84 and 85-93). Forty-five consecutive subjects were tested both with the RMW and the RMF. Recognition memory for words was better than recognition memory for faces in this sample. Moderate correlations (0.30-0.48) were found between RMT and WAIS Vocabulary and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices scores. Warrington's RMT was well tolerated, even by very elderly adults. The standardization data for the elderly over 70 add to the usefulness of this test of verbal and non-verbal episodic memory.

  1. 商务英语教学中非言语交际能力提高探析%On Enhancing the Ability of Non-verbal Communication in Business English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘集成

    2015-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important approach for human beings to convey information and its function is equal to that of verbal communication. However, the non-verbal communication teaching is often ignored in business English teaching, which leads to the students' not being able to accomplish efficient communication in international business environment. Based on the analysis of theory of non-verbal communication, the paper brings forwards some effective teaching methods and tactics to improve the students' ability of non-verbal communication by taking into account the current business English teaching.%非言语交际是人类传递信息的重要途径,其作用不亚于言语交际.然而,目前的商务英语教学忽视了非言语交际教学,导致学生无法在真实的国际商务环境中进行有效沟通. 本文在分析非言语交际理论的基础上,结合当前商务英语教学实际,提出有效的教学方法和策略以提高学生的非言语交际能力.

  2. Play an Effective Application of Non-Verbal Language in Public Relations Communication%有效发挥公共关系传播中非语言的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠林

    2014-01-01

    In the spread and communication of public relations,verbal communication is an important means of communication, and non-verbal communication also plays an important role.Effective use of non-verbal language can express thoughts and feelings that get aid and enhance communication.Sometimes,in the transmission of information,the non-verbal language is more expressive and contagious verbal language.Timely and accurate use of non-verbal communication has a positive effect on coordinating communication and enhancing the communication quality .%公共关系的传播沟通中,语言交流是重要的沟通手段,非语言沟通也起重要作用,有效用非语言表达思想感情,使交流得到辅助和增进。有时,就单一传递信息而言,公关非语言所表达出来的信息要比公关语言更富有表现力和感染力。适时准确地运用非语言传播沟通,对于协调双方交流,提高交流质量有积极作用。

  3. Comparative Study of Cultural Influence on Non-verbal Communicative Behavior%英日德文化因素对非言语交际行为影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯巧红; 祖静; 魏宏泽

    2014-01-01

    言语行为和非言语行为共同构成了人类的交际行为。与言语行为相比,后者的受重视程度显然不够。从文化差异角度出发,以英国、日本和德国的三部电视剧为研究对象,选取“道歉”这一场景的数据,对言语行为和非言语行为发生比例进行对比,分析文化和非言语行为的关系,从而得出结论:非言语行为与言语行为一样,是交际行为的重要组成部分,不同国家的人们非言语行为的不同往往源于文化的差异。%Human communicative behavior is composed of verbal and non-verbal behavior .non-verbal behav-ior is obviously paid less attention to , compared with the former .From the perspective of cultural differences , this paper is intended to compare the statistics in terms of percentage that both behaviors present in some scenes of “a-pology” in English , Japanese and German TV operas , to probe the relationship between culture and non-verbal be-havior.Through experiment and comparison , we find that non-verbal behavior is as a vital part as verbal behavior in human communicative behavior .The differences of non-verbal behavior are caused by the cultural differences .

  4. Exploring the Domain Specificity of Creativity in Children: The Relationship between a Non-Verbal Creative Production Test and Creative Problem-Solving Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, we explored whether creativity was domain specific or domain general. The relationships between students’ scores on three creative problem-solving activities (math, spa-tial artistic, and oral linguistic in the DIS-COVER assessment (Discovering Intellectual Strengths and Capabilities While Observing Varied Ethnic Responses and the TCT-DP (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Produc-tion, a non-verbal general measure of creativi-ty, were examined. The participants were 135 first and second graders from two schools in the Southwestern United States from linguisti-cally and culturally diverse backgrounds. Pearson correlations, canonical correlations, and multiple regression analyses were calcu-lated to describe the relationship between the TCT-DP and the three DISCOVER creative problem-solving activities. We found that crea-tivity has both domain-specific and domain-general aspects, but that the domain-specific component seemed more prominent. One im-plication of these results is that educators should consider assessing creativity in specific domains to place students in special programs for gifted students rather than relying only on domain-general measures of divergent think-ing or creativity.

  5. Non-verbal Communication and Communicative Understanding of the Liturgy and Liturgical Signs ... in the Light of Charles Sanders Peirce’s Theory of Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Krajnc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human person as a “triadic” creature needs ritual at all three levels − physical, psychological and spiritual − of his or her being. At the physical level, ritual serves as support for a healthier life-style. At the psychological level, ritual regulates intrapersonal and interpersonal communicatio. At the level of spirituality, it places him or her in the context of transcendence and “recent aims” and both individually and communally gives meaning to human life. Therefore, the author of the paper first This paper starts by considering the human person as a ritual creature that already with his body requires certain ritual acts and various forms of non- verbal communication. In the central part of the discussion, the author focuses on Peirce’s theory of signs and presents it as one model suitable for understanding and explaining liturgical signs. This is an interesting understanding of religious signs, which encourages an interpretative relationship between the human person and the liturgy, its signs and contents.

  6. The effect of Danquah Communication System (DanCS) boards on maladaptive behaviours among individuals with severe intellectual impairment and non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, S A; Mate-Kole, C C; Zehr, R T

    1996-06-01

    There is evidence that some individuals with severe intellectual impairment who are non-verbal may, out of frustration, display such inappropriate behaviour as aggression and self-injury as a means of communicating their needs to caregivers. The purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive augmented communication device and to teach individuals with multiple impairment to use this method to communicate their needs in order to reduce their aggressive behaviours. The Dan Communication System (DanCS) symbol boards were therefore designed with computerized voice interface to help the individuals communicate to caregivers by means of audio and visual signs. A working DanCS board has been successfully developed and can now be mass produced by a manufacturer. The DanCS board is illustrated and described. A measurement device called the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) that focused on three target behaviours; pressing of symbols, control of aggression, and social interaction with caregivers, was used to evaluate progress in the participating subjects (N = 30). Results showed that the multiply impaired individuals in the study significantly improved in all the targeted behaviours through the use of the DanCS. Details of the study are reported.

  7. 论日语翻译的非语言文化交际%Analysis of Japanese Interpreter's Non-Verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝阳

    2011-01-01

    本文旨在通过调查日资企业里的日语翻译在脸部表情、对人说话的距离、空间的使用方法、时间观念、说话时的音调等非语言交际方面的差异来考察耳语翻译在哪些方面难以适应。然后总结了为更好地推动日资企业内部跨文化间的交流与合作,有关方面应采取的应对方法。%This paper analyzes Japanese interpreter' s non-adaptive behavior in Japanese company from the aspect of non-verbal communication such as facial expressions, body distance, spatial elements, time sense and speaking tone. It points out some coping methods for relevant parties to ensure the successful cross-culture communication in Japanese company.

  8. Altered Dynamics of the fMRI Response to Faces in Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Greenson, Jessica; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal fMRI habituation in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been proposed as a critical component in social impairment. This study investigated habituation to fearful faces and houses in ASD and whether fMRI measures of brain activity discriminate between ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. Two identical fMRI runs presenting masked…

  9. Electrophysiological brain dynamics during the esthetic judgment of human bodies and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Francisco; Martín-Loeches, Manuel

    2015-01-12

    This experiment investigated how the esthetic judgment of human body and face modulates cognitive and affective processes. We hypothesized that judgments on ugliness and beauty would elicit separable event-related brain potentials (ERP) patterns, depending on the esthetic value of body and faces in both genders. In a pretest session, participants evaluated images in a range from very ugly to very beautiful, what generated three sets of beautiful, ugly and neutral faces and bodies. In the recording session, they performed a task consisting in a beautiful-neutral-ugly judgment. Cognitive and affective effects were observed on a differential pattern of ERP components (P200, P300 and LPC). Main findings revealed a P200 amplitude increase to ugly images, probably the result of a negativity bias in attentional processes. A P300 increase was found mostly to beautiful images, particularly to female bodies, consistent with the salience of these stimuli, particularly for stimulus categorization. LPC appeared significantly larger to both ugly and beautiful images, probably reflecting later, decision processes linked to keeping information in working memory. This finding was especially remarkable for ugly male faces. Our findings are discussed on the ground of evolutionary and adaptive value of esthetics in person evaluation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hold Item.

  10. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  11. Comunicação não-verbal durante cuidados prestados aos filhos por mães com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana Comunicación no-verbal durante cuidados prestados a los hijos por madres con Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana Non-verbal communication during child care by mothers with Human Inmunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Paiva

    2010-01-01

    cuidados, promoviendo estímulos para el desarrollo infantil.PURPOSE: To examine the non-verbal communication during child care by mothers with the human immune deficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: This study was conducted in the second semester of 2007 in an experimental setting with 5 HIV positive mothers. Data were collected through videotaping during child care such as bathing, clothes changes, feeding, playing, and cuddling. Data analysis focused on the aspects of non-verbal communication. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated differences between the mother and the child in all aspects of non-verbal communication during child care. Clothes changes and bathing were the most instrumental child care. Non-verbal communication is used by mothers to show affection and to perceive abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The study's findings suggest the need to encourage mothers to interact with the child during all aspects of child care to promote normal child development.

  12. Visual Search for Basic Emotional Expressions in Autism; Impaired Processing of Anger, Fear and Sadness, but a Typical Happy Face Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K.; Branson, Amanda; King, Ben J.

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression recognition was investigated in 20 males with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS), compared to typically developing individuals matched for chronological age (TD CA group) and verbal and non-verbal ability (TD V/NV group). This was the first study to employ a visual search, "face in the crowd" paradigm with a…

  13. Visual attention to dynamic faces and objects is linked to face processing skills: a combined study of children with autism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish-Morris, Julia; Chevallier, Coralie; Tonge, Natasha; Letzen, Janelle; Pandey, Juhi; Schultz, Robert T

    2013-01-01

    Although the extant literature on face recognition skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) shows clear impairments compared to typically developing controls (TDC) at the group level, the distribution of scores within ASD is broad. In the present research, we take a dimensional approach and explore how differences in social attention during an eye tracking experiment correlate with face recognition skills across ASD and TDC. Emotional discrimination and person identity perception face processing skills were assessed using the Let's Face It! Skills Battery in 110 children with and without ASD. Social attention was assessed using infrared eye gaze tracking during passive viewing of movies of facial expressions and objects displayed together on a computer screen. Face processing skills were significantly correlated with measures of attention to faces and with social skills as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Consistent with prior research, children with ASD scored significantly lower on face processing skills tests but, unexpectedly, group differences in amount of attention to faces (vs. objects) were not found. We discuss possible methodological contributions to this null finding. We also highlight the importance of a dimensional approach for understanding the developmental origins of reduced face perception skills, and emphasize the need for longitudinal research to truly understand how social motivation and social attention influence the development of social perceptual skills.

  14. Visual attention to dynamic faces and objects is linked to face processing skills: A combined study of children with autism and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eParish-Morris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the extant literature on face recognition skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD shows clear impairments compared to typically developing controls (TDC at the group level, the distribution of scores within ASD is broad. In the present research, we take a dimensional approach and explore how differences in social attention during an eye tracking experiment correlate with face recognition skills across ASD and TDC. Emotional discrimination and person identity perception face processing skills were assessed using the Let’s Face It! Skills Battery in 110 children with and without ASD. Social attention was assessed using infrared eye gaze tracking during passive viewing of movies of facial expressions and objects displayed together on a computer screen. Face processing skills were significantly correlated with measures of attention to faces and with social skills as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire. Consistent with prior research, children with ASD scored significantly lower on face processing skills tests but, unexpectedly, group differences in amount of attention to faces (versus objects were not found. We discuss possible methodological contributions to this null finding. We also highlight the importance of a dimensional approach for understanding the developmental origins of reduced face perception skills, and emphasize the need for longitudinal research to truly understand how social motivation and social attention influence the development of social perceptual skills.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between energetic dust and plasma-facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Guo-jian, E-mail: niugj@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi [Hefei Center Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-nan [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Hefei Center Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of CAS, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    The interactions between dust and plasma-facing material (PFM) relate to the lifetime of PFM and impurity production. Series results have been obtained theoretically and experimentally but more detailed studies are needed. In present research, we investigate the evolution of kinetic, potential and total energy of plasma-facing material (PFM) in order to understand the dust/PFM interaction process. Three typical impacting energy are selected, i.e., 1, 10 and 100 keV/dust for low-, high- and hyper-energy impacting cases. For low impacting energy, dust particles stick on PFM surface without damaging it. Two typical time points exist and the temperature of PFM grows all the time but PFM structure experience a modifying process. Under high energy case, three typical points appear. The temperature curve fluctuates in the whole interaction process which indicates there are dust/PFM and kinetic/potential energy exchanges. In the hyper-energy case in present simulation, the violence dust/PFM interactions cause sputtering and crater investigating on energy evolution curves. We further propose the statistics of energy distribution. Results show that about half of impacting energy consumes on heating plasma-facing material meanwhile the other half on PFM structure deformation. Only a small proportion becomes kinetic energy of interstitial or sputtering atoms.

  16. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. A influência da comunicação não verbal no cuidado de enfermagem La influencia de la comunicación no verbal en la atención de enfermería The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Viana Santos

    2005-08-01

    Nursing School Alfredo Pinto UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  18. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crewther Sheila G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  19. Faces on Her and His Mind: Female and Likable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Mayer, Annika; Hösl, Franziska; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Faces are a valuable source of non-verbal information for daily life social interaction. Mounting evidence points to gender specificity in face perception. Here we search for the factors that can potentially trigger gender differences in tuning to faces. By using a set of Face-n-Food images slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style, we examine: (i) whether face resemblance is linked to gender specific face impression, and, if so, whether this association is perceiver gender specific; and (ii) whether images most resembling a face are also most likable for female and male perceivers. First, in a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of Face-n-Food images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Then in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task, participants judged whether each face appeared for them (i) either female or male (Exp. 1); or (ii) either likable or unlikable (Exp. 2). Remarkably, face resemblance is closely connected to gender specific impressions: images more resembling a face elicit also more female-face responses. This link is not perceiver gender specific as it occurs for both females and males. Moreover, face resemblance is positively linked to face likability, but this holds true only for female perceivers. The findings shed light on gender specificity in tuning to faces, and help to clarify abnormalities of the social brain in neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders.

  20. La communication non verbale de l'enseignant d'EPS lors de la phase d'échauffement au secondaire II: étude de cas : enseignants chevronnés VS enseignants débutants

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Patrick; Schulé, Nicolas; Méard, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude vise à observer la communication non verbale (CNV) de l’enseignant d’éducation physique lors de la phase d’échauffement au secondaire II. Elle va confronter les CNV des enseignants « débutants » aux CNV des enseignants « chevronnés » afin de comprendre s’il y a des différences au niveau de son utilisation entre les deux groupes d’enseignants. Par conséquent, l'objectif général visé par notre étude de cas est l'influence de la communication non verbale en EPS. Quels sont les gestes...

  1. Research on Training Strategies of Non-verbal Communication Abilities in Foreign Language Teaching%外语教学中非言语交际能力培养策略之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐日宣

    2011-01-01

    外语教学中通常重视言语交际能力的培养,而忽视非言语交际。本文论述了非言语交际能力在外语教学中的重要性,并提出了三种模式的能力培养策略:传授讲解式,模拟互动式,观察理解式。%Verbal communication abilities in foreign language teaching usually receive much attention but non-verbal communication abilities are neglected. This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal communication abilities in foreign language teaching and pro

  2. THE LANGUAGE, TONE AND PROSODY OF EMOTIONS: NEURAL DYNAMICS OF SPOKEN-WORD VALENCE PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Liebenthal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala – a subcortical center for emotion perception – are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry, in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, appears more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of

  3. The Effect of Strike Face Geometry on the Dynamic Delamination of Composite Back Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that...specimen allowed for capture of dynamic delamination images with high-speed photography . The projected delamination area was quantified using commercially...14 Fig. B-1 Delaminations outlined using tools in Image Pro Plus ..................................................22 Fig. B-2 Yellow

  4. Autism and the development of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition, characterized by impairments in non-verbal communication, social relationships and stereotypical patterns of behavior. A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism, including anomalies in gaze processing, memory for facial identity and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In search of neural markers of anomalous face processing in autism, much interest has focused on a network of brain regions that are implicated in social cognition and face processing. In this review, we will focus on three such regions, namely the STS for its role in processing gaze and facial movements, the FFA in face detection and identification and the amygdala in processing facial expressions of emotion. Much evidence suggests that a better understanding of the normal development of these specialized regions is essential for discovering the neural bases of face processing anomalies in autism. Thus, we will also examine the available literature on the normal development of face processing. Key unknowns in this research area are the neuro-developmental processes, the role of experience and the interactions among components of the face processing system in shaping each of the specialized regions for processing faces during normal development and in autism.

  5. Dynamics of mechanical systems with multiple sliding contacts: new faces of Painlev\\'e's paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Várkonyi, Péter L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of finite degree-of-freedom, planar mechanical systems with multiple sliding, unilateral frictional point contacts. A complete classification of systems with 2 sliding contacts is given. The contact-mode based approach of rigid body mechanics is combined with linear stability analysis using a compliant contact model to determine the feasibility and the stability of every possible contact mode in each class. Special forms of non-stationary contact dynamics including "impact without collision" and "reverse chattering" are also investigated. Many types of solution inconsistency and the indeterminacy are identified and new phenomena related to Painlev\\'e"s non-existence and non-uniqueness paradoxes are discovered. Among others, we show that the non-existence paradox is not fully resolvable by considering impulsive contact forces. These results contribute to a growing body of evidence that rigid body mechanics cannot be developed into a complete and self-consistent theory in the presenc...

  6. The role of emotion in dynamic audiovisual integration of faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokinous, Jenny; Kotz, Sonja A; Tavano, Alessandro; Schröger, Erich

    2015-05-01

    We used human electroencephalogram to study early audiovisual integration of dynamic angry and neutral expressions. An auditory-only condition served as a baseline for the interpretation of integration effects. In the audiovisual conditions, the validity of visual information was manipulated using facial expressions that were either emotionally congruent or incongruent with the vocal expressions. First, we report an N1 suppression effect for angry compared with neutral vocalizations in the auditory-only condition. Second, we confirm early integration of congruent visual and auditory information as indexed by a suppression of the auditory N1 and P2 components in the audiovisual compared with the auditory-only condition. Third, audiovisual N1 suppression was modulated by audiovisual congruency in interaction with emotion: for neutral vocalizations, there was N1 suppression in both the congruent and the incongruent audiovisual conditions. For angry vocalizations, there was N1 suppression only in the congruent but not in the incongruent condition. Extending previous findings of dynamic audiovisual integration, the current results suggest that audiovisual N1 suppression is congruency- and emotion-specific and indicate that dynamic emotional expressions compared with non-emotional expressions are preferentially processed in early audiovisual integration.

  7. A Statistical Nonparametric Approach of Face Recognition: Combination of Eigenface & Modified k-Means Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Soumen; Sen, Prithwiraj; Sanyal, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Facial expressions convey non-verbal cues, which play an important role in interpersonal relations. Automatic recognition of human face based on facial expression can be an important component of natural human-machine interface. It may also be used in behavioural science. Although human can recognize the face practically without any effort, but reliable face recognition by machine is a challenge. This paper presents a new approach for recognizing the face of a person considering the expressions of the same human face at different instances of time. This methodology is developed combining Eigenface method for feature extraction and modified k-Means clustering for identification of the human face. This method endowed the face recognition without using the conventional distance measure classifiers. Simulation results show that proposed face recognition using perception of k-Means clustering is useful for face images with different facial expressions.

  8. A dynamic Shh expression pattern, regulated by SHH and BMP signaling, coordinates fusion of primordia in the amniote face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Diane; Young, Nathan M; Li, Xin; Xu, Yanhua; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph S

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms of morphogenesis are not well understood, yet shaping structures during development is essential for establishing correct organismal form and function. Here, we examine mechanisms that help to shape the developing face during the crucial period of facial primordia fusion. This period of development is a time when the faces of amniote embryos exhibit the greatest degree of similarity, and it probably results from the necessity for fusion to occur to establish the primary palate. Our results show that hierarchical induction mechanisms, consisting of iterative signaling by Sonic hedgehog (SHH) followed by Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), regulate a dynamic expression pattern of Shh in the ectoderm covering the frontonasal (FNP) and maxillary (MxP) processes. Furthermore, this Shh expression domain contributes to the morphogenetic processes that drive the directional growth of the globular process of the FNP toward the lateral nasal process and MxP, in part by regulating cell proliferation in the facial mesenchyme. The nature of the induction mechanism that we discovered suggests that the process of fusion of the facial primordia is intrinsically buffered against producing maladaptive morphologies, such as clefts of the primary palate, because there appears to be little opportunity for variation to occur during expansion of the Shh expression domain in the ectoderm of the facial primordia. Ultimately, these results might explain why this period of development constitutes a phylotypic stage of facial development among amniotes.

  9. [Comparative evaluation of efficacy of the upper part of the face endoscopic lifting in dynamics of postoperative period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozynets', H P; Pinchuk, V D; Tkach, O S

    2014-05-01

    Comparative estimation of results for endoscopic lifting of the face upper part in dynamics of early and late postoperative period was adduced. In accordance to results of analysis, concerning the eyebrows height in a control terms, there was established, that through one year postoperatively the eyebrows have a tendency towards ptosis due to activity of the eyes circular muscles. Deterioration of the result achieved post-operatively is less prominent in patients after preliminary chemical denervation of mimic muscles. Chemical denervation of the eyes circular muscles, using injections of botulinic toxine type A before 2 weeks preoperatively secures a stable fixation of tissues in early postoperative period, what permits to escape loss of the result achieved, secures the results improvement in late postoperative period in 3.7 times.

  10. Kinetics of Hexagonal Cylinders to Face-centered Cubic Spheres Transition of Triblock Copolymer in Selective Solvent: Brownian Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Minghai; Bansil, Rama

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of the transformation from the hexagonal packed cylinder (HEX) phase to the face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase was simulated using Brownian Dynamics for an ABA triblock copolymer in a selective solvent for the A block. The kinetics was obtained by instantaneously changing either the temperature of the system or the well-depth of the Lennard-Jones potential. Detailed analysis showed that the transformation occurred via a rippling mechanism. The simulation results indicated that the order-order transformation (OOT) was a nucleation and growth process when the temperature of the system instantly jumped from 0.8 to 0.5. The time evolution of the structure factor obtained by Fourier Transformation showed that the peak intensities of the HEX and FCC phases could be fit well by an Avrami equation.

  11. The Language, Tone and Prosody of Emotions: Neural Substrates and Dynamics of Spoken-Word Emotion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Silbersweig, David A.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Rapid assessment of emotions is important for detecting and prioritizing salient input. Emotions are conveyed in spoken words via verbal and non-verbal channels that are mutually informative and unveil in parallel over time, but the neural dynamics and interactions of these processes are not well understood. In this paper, we review the literature on emotion perception in faces, written words, and voices, as a basis for understanding the functional organization of emotion perception in spoken words. The characteristics of visual and auditory routes to the amygdala—a subcortical center for emotion perception—are compared across these stimulus classes in terms of neural dynamics, hemispheric lateralization, and functionality. Converging results from neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and lesion studies suggest the existence of an afferent route to the amygdala and primary visual cortex for fast and subliminal processing of coarse emotional face cues. We suggest that a fast route to the amygdala may also function for brief non-verbal vocalizations (e.g., laugh, cry), in which emotional category is conveyed effectively by voice tone and intensity. However, emotional prosody which evolves on longer time scales and is conveyed by fine-grained spectral cues appears to be processed via a slower, indirect cortical route. For verbal emotional content, the bulk of current evidence, indicating predominant left lateralization of the amygdala response and timing of emotional effects attributable to speeded lexical access, is more consistent with an indirect cortical route to the amygdala. Top-down linguistic modulation may play an important role for prioritized perception of emotions in words. Understanding the neural dynamics and interactions of emotion and language perception is important for selecting potent stimuli and devising effective training and/or treatment approaches for the alleviation of emotional dysfunction across a range of neuropsychiatric states. PMID

  12. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1. This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2. Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3. The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4. These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects. We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism, which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  13. Beyond face value: does involuntary emotional anticipation shape the perception of dynamic facial expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Letizia; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are immediate indicators of the affective dispositions of others. Recently it has been shown that early stages of social perception can already be influenced by (implicit) attributions made by the observer about the agent's mental state and intentions. In the current study possible mechanisms underpinning distortions in the perception of dynamic, ecologically-valid, facial expressions were explored. In four experiments we examined to what extent basic perceptual processes such as contrast/context effects, adaptation and representational momentum underpinned the perceptual distortions, and to what extent 'emotional anticipation', i.e. the involuntary anticipation of the other's emotional state of mind on the basis of the immediate perceptual history, might have played a role. Neutral facial expressions displayed at the end of short video-clips, in which an initial facial expression of joy or anger gradually morphed into a neutral expression, were misjudged as being slightly angry or slightly happy, respectively (Experiment 1). This response bias disappeared when the actor's identity changed in the final neutral expression (Experiment 2). Videos depicting neutral-to-joy-to-neutral and neutral-to-anger-to-neutral sequences again produced biases but in opposite direction (Experiment 3). The bias survived insertion of a 400 ms blank (Experiment 4). These results suggested that the perceptual distortions were not caused by any of the low-level perceptual mechanisms (adaptation, representational momentum and contrast effects). We speculate that especially when presented with dynamic, facial expressions, perceptual distortions occur that reflect 'emotional anticipation' (a low-level mindreading mechanism), which overrules low-level visual mechanisms. Underpinning neural mechanisms are discussed in relation to the current debate on action and emotion understanding.

  14. On the Cultivation of Non -verbal Communicative Competence for Japanese Majors%论日语专业学生非语言交际能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹阳

    2014-01-01

    当今外语教学研究的结果进一步明确了语言教学中互为关联的两个能力,即语言能力和非语言交际能力。而现在的日语专业教学现状应该说不容乐观。虽然近年来日语专业教育对日语表达能力的重视程度日益提高,但往往只停留在对日常用语和“说”日语的训练与练习上,学生运用日语进行跨文化交际的能力并没有真正得以提高。这其中,对非语言交际能力培养的疏忽是一个重要原因。所以,对日语专业学生非语言交际能力的培养已是当务之急。%The research results of modern foreign language teaching further point out two interactive competences in language teaching ,that is ,language competence and non -verbal communicative compe-tence .At present ,Japanese major teaching is beyond optimism .While Japanese major education has paid more attention to Japanese communicative competence ,the attention is mainly fixed on everyday language ,spoken drills and exercises .Thus ,intercultural communicative competence by using Japanese hasn’t been improved .The negligence for the cultivation of non -verbal communicative competence is a main factor ,so the cultivation of non-verbal communicative competence for Japanese majors is urgent . The article attempts to prove the point based on the teaching practice of everyday Japanese teaching .

  15. An Analysis of Non-verbal Pragmatic Failures Based on Geert Hofstede' s Cultural Dimensions%从Geert Hofstede的文化维度探究非言语语用失误

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑娟

    2012-01-01

    语用失误是造成跨文化交际失败的主要原因之一。至今,较多语用失误相关研究是从言语性的角度进行的。而实际上,在语用失误现象中竟存在高达70%左右的非言语语用失误现象。因此,非常有必要从言语性与非言语性两个角度对其重新界定、整合研究。论文根据C,eertHofstede的四个文化维度对非言语语用失误现象进行解析,以引起外语学习者对语用失误现象的再认识,进而大力推动跨文化交流的成功运行与发展。%The breakdown of cross-cultural communication results mainly from pragmatic failures. So far, more studies on pragmatic failures have been done from the verbal perspective. Non-verbal pragmatic failure, however, occupies about 70% in it. Consequently it is essential to redefine and examine integratively pragmatic failures verbally and non-verbally. This paper, based on Geert Hofstede' s cultural dimensions, aims to study non-verbal pragmatic failures, which will arouse English-learners' reconsideration of pragmatic failures to promote successfully the development of cross-cuhural communication.

  16. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Afshan Shaikh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The leucine transporter (LeuT has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS, and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold", a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF and inward-facing (IF states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural

  17. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saher Afshan; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2010-08-26

    The leucine transporter (LeuT) has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold"), a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF) and inward-facing (IF) states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural elements involved in

  18. Application of Non-verbal Communication in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language%非言语交际行为在对外汉语教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习觅哲

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the author in conjunction with their teaching practice,the analysis of non-verbal communication behavior in Teaching Chinese as a foreign language,in order to improve the sensitivity and plasticity of second language teaching and learners cross-cultural communication.%本文笔者结合自己的教学实践,分析研究了非言语交际行为在对外汉语教学中的应用,以提高第二语言教学者和学习者跨文化交际的敏感性和可塑性。

  19. First-principles path-integral molecular dynamics study of diffusion process of hydrogen in face-centered cubic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Ogata, Shigenobu

    We investigated the H diffusivity in face-centered cubic Pd and Al by performing path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) modeling in the framework of density functional theory (DFT); in our calculations, we took nuclear quantum effects into consideration. The DFT results showed that the H-migration barriers (Em) in Pd and Al exhibited similar values (approximately 0.16 eV), while the H atoms were stable at octahedral (O) sites for Pd and at tetrahedral (T) sites for Al. The PIMD-based free-energy profiles for H migration between the O-site and T-site were evaluated using the thermodynamic integration of the centroid forces at 150-600 K. We confirmed that the quantum effects significantly affected the Em and the difference between the energies of the H atom at the O-site and the T-site (EO - T); The Em and EO - T values in Pd at 300 K increased by 32% and 98%, respectively, relative to the classical limit. On the other hand, the Em and ET - O (i.e., -EO - T) values in Al at 300 K decreased by 3% and 41%, respectively. This suggested that the quantum nature of H nuclei was essential for understanding the H-diffusion kinetics in these metals even above ambient temperature.

  20. Mechanical Face Seal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    These liquids range from lubricants to highly toxic chemicals and acids. The applications range from helicopter transmissions to nuclear reactor... Analit ~is., N ,iontat ting lame St-ak"ts fnn. ASXIE namin Behaioir ni Nonmmuiam ing (knied-Fate Mechanikal Seals:* SL /I ub In h. 104. 1. 111 *)6ii-414

  1. 非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中的意义与实践%The Significance and Practice of Non-verbal Language Expression Skills in Participatory Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈量雄; 张友福

    2014-01-01

    非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中有着极其重要的作用,能较大弥补传统重“灌”、“填”的纯语言教学的缺陷,能充分发挥师生的主体性,满足学生对海量信息的需求,从而提升教学效果。文章从肢体语言教学、PPT课件教学和视频展示教学三个维度进行了非口头语言表达技巧在参与性教学中的意义与实践。%Non-verbal language expression skills play an impor-tant role in participatory teaching, as it can make up for the tradi-tional pure language teaching based on infiltration, give full play to teachers' and students' subjectivity, and meet the needs of stu-dents for huge amount of information, so as to improve the teach-ing effect. From such three dimensions as body language teach-ing, PPT courseware teaching and video display teaching, this paper discusses the significance and practice of non-verbal lan-guage expression skills in participatory teaching.

  2. [Comparative evaluation of speech disorders and verbal and non verbal communication within two groups of patients: patients with facial paralysis (FP) and those who had undergone hypoglosso-facial anastomosis (HFA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, P; Tankere, F; Clero, D; Lobryau, Ch; Soudant, J; Lamas, G

    2003-01-01

    Speech disorders were often allotted to hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (HFA) without being clearly shown. We have compared patients with a peripheral facial paralysis at those with HFA. Retrospective study comparing verbal communication (articulation) and non-verbal within two groups of patients: patients with patient FP versus with HFA. 10 patients with idiopathic FP versus 7 patients with HFA took part in this study. The series of tests includes an evaluation of the motor possibilities, bilabial pressure measurement (for the patients with FP), speech capacities and finally an evaluation of the verbal and non-verbal communication from a scale of satisfaction. The results highlight: the presence of real speech disorders (permanent) among patients with FP and their absence among patients having profited from HFA; a real satisfaction of the HFA versus FP on the quality of life compared to daily tasks, more specifically concerning verbal and food skills. The HFA is not responsible for speech disorders, and makes undeniable improvements confirmed subsequently by the patients.

  3. Spatial Development Of Senior Community With Non-verbal Symbol System%基于非语言符号系统的养老社区交往空间塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶舒晨; 曹康

    2015-01-01

    Senior people activities usualy happen in communities, therefore open community space is important for their social life. The paper analyzes the impact factors of senior communication from psychology, biology, and society, puts forwards non-verbal communication approach for senior people social life. The paper analyzes the non-verbal communication of senior people, and puts forwards design strategies from vision-action symbol system, eye contact system, space-temporal system, and auxiliary verbal system.%随着年龄的增长,老年人的生活范围逐渐缩小并主要集中于社区,社区交往空间成为老年人重建社交网络的重要平台。文章从生理、心理和社会三方面分析老年人交往行为的影响因素,提出非语言交往对促进老年人社区交往具有重大帮助;分析老年人非语言交往的主要类型和特征,并从视—动符号系统、目光接触系统、时空组织系统和辅助语言系统出发提出养老社区非语言交往空间设计建议。

  4. System dynamics model of the support-surrounding rock system in fully mechanized mining with large mining height face and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yong; Tu Shihao; Zhang Xiaogang; Li Bo

    2013-01-01

    Fully mechanized mining with large mining height (FMMLMH) is widely used in thick coal seam mining face for its higher recovery ratio, especially where the thickness is less than 7.0 m. However, because of the great mining height and intense rock pressure, the coal wall rib spalling, roof falling and the instabil-ity of support occur more likely in FMMLMH working face, and the above three types of disasters interact with each other with complicated relationships. In order to get the relationship between each two of coal wall, roof, floor and support, and reduce the occurrence probability of the three types of disasters, we established the system dynamics (SD) model of the support-surrounding rock system which is composed of‘coal wall-roof-floor-support’ (CW-R-F-S) in a FMMLMH working face based on the condition of No. 15104 working face in Sijiazhuang coal mine. With the software of Vensim, we also simulated the inter-action process between each two factors of roof, floor, coal wall and the support. The results show that the SD model of ‘CW-R-F-S’ system can reveal the complicated and interactive relationship clearly between the support and surrounding rock in the FMMLMH working face. By increasing the advancing speed of working face, the support resistance or the length of support guard, or by decreasing the tip-to-face distance, the stability of ‘CW-R-F-S’ system will be higher and the happening probability of the disasters such as coal wall rib spalling, roof falling or the instability of support will be lower. These research findings have been testified in field application in No. 15104 working face, which can provide a new approach for researching the interaction relationship of support and surrounding rock.

  5. The face is more than its parts--brain dynamics of enhanced spatial attention to schematic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymar, Mathias; Löw, Andreas; Ohman, Arne; Hamm, Alfons O

    2011-10-01

    A rapid response to environmental threat is crucial for survival and requires an appropriate attention allocation toward its location. Visual search paradigms have provided evidence for the enhanced capture of attention by threatening faces. In two EEG experiments, we sought to determine whether the detection of threat requires complete faces or salient features underlying the facial expression. Measuring the N2pc component as an electrophysiological indicator of attentional selection we investigated participants searching for either a complete discrepant schematic threatening or friendly face within an array of neutral faces, or single features (eyebrows and eyes vs. eyebrows) of threatening and friendly faces. Threatening faces were detected faster compared to friendly faces. In accordance, threatening angry targets showed a more pronounced occipital N2pc between 200 and 300 ms than friendly facial targets. Moreover, threatening configurations, were detected more rapidly than friendly-related features when the facial configuration contained eyebrows and eyes. No differences were observed when only a single feature (eyebrows) had to be detected. Threatening-related and friendly-related features did not show any differences in the N2pc across all configuration conditions. Taken together, the findings provide direct electrophysiological support for rapid prioritized attention to facial threat, an advantage that seems not to be driven by low level visual features.

  6. 谈护患之间的语言及非语言沟通%Discussion on Verbal and Non-verbal Communication be-tween Nurses and Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文从语言性沟通交流和非语言性沟通交流两个方面介绍了护患之间沟通交流的方式,为高职护理专业的学生在护患沟通交流方面提供了一定的理论知识。%This paper introduces the communication styles be-tween nurses and patients from such two aspects as verbal com-munication and non-verbal communication, aiming to provide certain theoretical knowledge for higher vocational nursing stu-dents in the nurse-patient communication.

  7. Study on the Impact of Non-verbal Communication on the Patients with Mechanical Ventilation%非语言沟通对神内机械通气患者影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 王素凤; 宋红香

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the impact of non-verbal communication on the patients with mechanical ventilatioi Methods:133 conscious cases from the intensive care unit in the department of Neurology during October 2009 to October 2010 whom were treated with mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into two groups. 67 was in experimental group while 66 was in the control group. The control group was treated with conventional treatment and general care of the Department of Neurology, prescribed to regulate breathing patterns and parameters. Experimental group was treated by strengthening the non-verbal communication, such as using eyes, smiling, touching, body language, emotional exchange to understand the inner world of mechanically ventilated patients and to enhance the patients' confidence to overcome the disease.Results: The non-verbal communication plays the role of stabling the heart rate, blood pressure, breathing and other vital indicators in mechanically ventilated patients.Conclusion: With the non-verbal communication, mechanical ventilation patient changed their cognitive to active coordinate with mechanical ventilation with a positive attitude, so that the effect of treatment was greatly enhanced and the duration of mechanical ventilation was shorten, the patient' s suffering was reduced.%目的:探讨非语言性沟通对神内机械通气患者的影响.方法:选择我院2009 年10 月至2010 年10 月入住神内重症监护病房的神志清楚,使用机械通气治疗的患者133 例,随机分为实验组67 例,对照组66 例.对照组患者给予神经内科常规治疗和一般护理,遵医嘱调节呼吸模式及参数,使用机械通气.实验组在此基础上加强对患者的非语言性沟通,运用眼神,微笑,触摸,肢体语言等方法进行情感交流,了解机械通气患者的内心世界,增强患者战胜疾病的信心.结果:非语言性交流具有稳定机械通气患者心率,血压,呼吸等生命指标的作用.结论:

  8. Application of Non-verbal Communication in College English Teaching%试谈非语言交际在大学英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乙夫合

    2006-01-01

    与语言交际一样,非语言交际(non-verbal communication)是人类交际中不可或缺的一部分,在人类交际起着无法替代的作用.大学英语教学中,非语言交际也有着十分重要的地位.文章论述了非语言交际的涵义、种类及功能,举例说明非语言交际在大学英语教学中的重要作用,并针对如何培养大学生跨文化非语言交际能力提出一些方法和策略.

  9. Dietary intake and micronutrient status of adolescents: effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on indices of status and performance in tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, S; Wright, A J; Finglas, P M; Bailey, A L; Loughridge, J M; Walker, A D

    1994-06-01

    Relationships between micronutrient intake and status, and micronutrient status and performance in tests of intelligence were investigated in a group of adolescents (13-14 years old). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Vitamin and trace mineral intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with those obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Micronutrient status was judged via a range of biochemical indices measured in blood samples taken after a 12-15 h fast. Blood samples were taken both before and after a 16-week period of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation. Individual tests of verbal and nonverbal intelligence were also performed pre- and post-supplementation. The results of this study indicate that the use of food table data may lead to substantial over- or underestimation of the intake of several micronutrients. In general, the total calculated or analysed amount of a specific micronutrient consumed did not adequately predict status, as judged by a range of biochemical indices. There were significant changes in status measurements over the 16-week study period, irrespective of supplementation, and these changes were markedly influenced by the initial status of the subject. There was no effect of supplementation on performance in tests of intelligence. However, there was a significant association between plasma ascorbic acid and initial non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in the boys, and between whole blood glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activity and non-verbal and verbal IQ in both sexes. These findings are discussed in relation to other recent studies of the influence of micronutrient supplementation on the psychological performance of children.

  10. The Application Value of Non-verbal Communication Between Nurse and Patient in Outpatient Infusion Room%门诊输液室护患沟通中非语言沟通的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴银萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the value of nonverbal communication about nurse-patient communication in outpatient infusion room. Methods 800 patients of outpatient infusion were selected from June 2012 to January 2013 and from February 2013 to September 2013 as control group and study group, trained outpatient infusion room staff about non-verbal communication, analysed changes in patient satisfaction and nurse-patient disputes before and after the training. Results The study group of nursing disputes were significantly lower than control group. Conclusion The application of non-verbal communication skills can signiifcantly improve the nursing quality in outpatient infusion room, promote the communication between nurses and patients.%目的:分析探究门诊输液室护患沟通中非语言沟通的应用价值。方法分别选取2012年6月~2013年1月和2013年2月~2013年9月间800例门诊输液患者作为对照组和研究组,研究组期间门诊输液室工作人员展开非语言沟通培训,对比培训前后患者满意度变化情况和护患纠纷发生几率。结果研究组护患纠纷发生几率明显较低。结论非语言沟通技巧应用能够显著提升门诊输液室工作质量,促进和谐护患优质沟通。

  11. Recognition of Expressions on Human Face using AI Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Nagpal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions convey non-verbal cues, which play animportant role in interpersonal relations. Facial expressionsrecognition technology helps in designing an intelligent humancomputer interfaces. This paper discusses a three phase techniquefor the facial expression recognition of the Indian faces. In thefirst phase the faces are tracked using Haar classifier in the livevideos of Indian student’s community. In the second phase 38facial feature points are detected using Active Appearance Model(AAM technique. In the last step the support vector machine(SVM is used to classify four primary facial expression.Integrating these broader techniques and obtaining a reasonablygood performance is a very big challenge. The performance ofthe proposed facial expressions recognizer is 82.7%.

  12. The composite face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Gray, Katie L H; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.

  13. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  14. Le sourire versus krisis, source de composition d'un mode de communication non verbale à diffuser avec modération"

    OpenAIRE

    Jauffret-Cervetti, Marie-Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Journées organisées par le LPED-Université de Provence - Site St Charles - Amphi Charve - Marseille; International audience; The smile versus Kris, source composition of a new mode of intercultural nonverbal communication There is evidence that we are in a crisis. In a dynamic adaptation, many organizations are struggling plural-so to communicate to establish the best relationship to others-carriers to transmit messages of positivism (Comte) with the intent to address the situation experience...

  15. Dynamic replenishment, production, and pricing decisions in the face of supply disruption and random price-sensitive demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2013-01-01

    We study a joint decision problem for replenishment, production, pricing strategies in the face of both supply and demand uncertainties. The supply of the raw material suffers from a potential supply disruption while the demand for the finished goods is price-sensitive and random. We assume that the

  16. The effect of slope exposition on the growth dynamics of Larix gmelinii in permafrost conditions of Central Siberia. I. Differences in tree radial dynamics growth in the north- and south-facing slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Benkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to revealing the distinctive characteristics of radial growth of larch trees (Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr. growing in permafrost contrast conditions of the north and south facing slopes (Central Siberia, 64°19´23˝ N, 100°13´28˝ E. Even-aged larch stems regenerated after strong fire in 1899 in opposite north and south facing slopes of the hills situated on the banks of Kulingdakan stream were under study. Two sample sites at the middle part of the slopes were established. 23 model trees in the north facing slope and 13 ones in the south-facing slope were selected for dendrochronological analysis. From each tree, disks at 1.3 m height of the stems were taken. Tree ring widths were measured, comparative analysis of dynamics of radial growth in the slopes was made. In order to separate time intervals, characterized by distinctive climate impact on radial increment, sliding response functions were calculated and analyzed. Daily solar radiation for both sample sites was calculated. The results showed that solar radiation in the north-facing slope is 20 % less than that in south-facing slope. Solar radiation regime promotes intensive thickening of moss-lichen cover, so that its thickness to 2009 was nearly two times thicker than in south-facing slope. Both factors affected the worth thermal soil growth conditions in the north facing slope. The latter was responsible for narrower ring widths formation in the stems and governed higher sensitivity of the trees to air temperature in the periods of cambium reactivation, start and intensive growth.

  17. Dynamics and structural changes induced by ATP and/or substrate binding in the inward-facing conformation state of P-glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yurika; Hsu, Wei-Lin; Chiba, Shuntaro; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2013-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that catalyzes the transport of a substrate. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of this type of substrate transport, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the X-ray crystal structure of P-gp, which has an inward-facing conformation. Our simulations indicated that the dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) is driven by the binding of ATP to the NBDs and/or the binding of the substrate to a cavity in the transmembrane domains (TMDs). Based on these results, we discuss a role of ATP in the allosteric communication that occurs between the NBDs and the TMDs.

  18. Analysis of the status quo of the application of two kinds of non-verbal pain assess-ment tools%两种非语言疼痛评估工具的应用现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷琦; 杨悦来; 李燕; 茅越丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relevant researches and literatures in terms of the two kinds of non-ver-bal pain assessment tools to provide references for the selection and study of non-verbal pain assessment tools of Chi-na. Methods The performance scoring system of pain assessment tools was used to analyze the relevant literatures searched on Internet. Results A total of 29 papers were included in this study. The average scores of the Behavioral Pain Scale ( BPS ) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool ( CPOT ) were 9. 20 and 9. 32 respectively. Conclusions The Behavioral Pain Scale ( BPS) and the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool ( CPOT) are gradually and widely used in the pain assessment for non-verbal pain patients. However, the reliability and validity of the two pain as-sessment tools are different for various groups, it is essential to test their reliability and validity further.%目的:通过对两种非语言疼痛评估工具相关研究进行文献分析,为我国非语言疼痛评估工具的选择提供参考。方法运用疼痛评估工具性能评分系统对计算机检索获取的相关文献进行分析。结果共纳入29篇文献,疼痛行为量表( BPS)与重症监护疼痛观察工具( CPOT)平均得分分别为9.20分、9.32分。结论疼痛行为量表( BPS)与重症监护疼痛观察工具( CPOT)逐渐被广泛应用于非语言疼痛患者的疼痛评估,但在不同人群中两者的信效度都存在差异,仍需进一步被验证。

  19. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bolsinger, V; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies finite range potentials are adequate resulting in the need of large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges which include also the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab-initio Multi-Layer Multi-Configurational Time- Dependent Hartee method for Bosons (ML-MCTDHB) [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134103 (2013)] can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps...

  20. Research on inversion high mining pressure distribution and technol-ogy of preventing dynamic disasters by MS monitoring in longwall face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hai; JIANG Fu-xing; ZOU Yin-hui

    2009-01-01

    Under two rock strata combination conditions, over 10,000 microseismic events were received with microseismic location monitoring technology which possessed by the author's studying team, used in fully mechanized coal face of Huafeng Mine of Xinwen Coal Mining Group Co., Shandong Province. On the basis of the achievement of the loca-tion results, the conclusions were drawn as follows: On the basis of the achievement of 3D strata fracturing situation and the section plane of microseimic events in different areas, the relationship between spatial structure of overlying strata and mining pressure field was found, and we might describe distribution range of dynamic pressure of advance pressure and lateral stress around long face, and range of structure ad-tivation. Quantitative guid-ance to prevent dynamic disasters was provided. The practice in coal mine got a effective results. According to the FLAC3D soft numerical simulation of diameter drilling hole (the diameter is 300 mm) to relieve pressure in specified geological condition in Huafeng Mine, the right distance of two dirlls is 2.5 m and the right depth is 12 m. The research pro-vided basic guiding and practical experiences for the underground microseismic monitoring and disaster prevention in side slopes or tunnels engineering.

  1. 医患沟通中语言与非语言技巧的应用%Application of Verbal and Non-verbal Skills in Doctor-patient Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪梅

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize the medical ethics for doctor-patient communication in traditional medicine such as "consider others in one's own place","think about others'feelings",this paper discussed how to grasp the verbal and non-verbal skills for doctor-patient communication,aiming to correct interpretate these skills,improve the professional quality in medical staff and promote and establish a harmonious doctor-patient relationship.%为实现“推己及人”、“他人之心,予忖度之”等传统医学医患伦理价值观念,更好的发挥传统医学中的医患观念的现实意义,探讨了如何掌握医患沟通的语言与非语言技巧,如何正确解读患者言语的技巧,以提升医务人员职业素养,促进和谐医患关系的构建.

  2. Sediment and vegetation spatial dynamics facing sea-level rise in microtidal salt marshes: Insights from an ecogeomorphic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliard, J.-P.; Di Marco, N.; Carniello, L.; Toffolon, M.

    2016-07-01

    Modeling efforts have considerably improved our understanding on the chief processes that govern the evolution of salt marshes under climate change. Yet the spatial dynamic response of salt marshes to sea-level rise that results from the interactions between the tidal landforms of interest and the presence of bio-geomorphic features has not been addressed explicitly. Accordingly, we use a modeling framework that integrates the co-evolution of the marsh platform and the embedded tidal networks to study sea-level rise effects on spatial sediment and vegetation dynamics in microtidal salt marshes considering different ecological scenarios. The analysis unveils mechanisms that drive spatial variations in sedimentation rates in ways that increase marsh resilience to rising sea-levels. In particular, marsh survival is related to the effectiveness of transport of sediments toward the interior marshland. This study hints at additional dynamics related to the modulation of channel cross-sections affecting sediment advection in the channels and subsequent delivery in the inner marsh, which should be definitely considered in the study of marsh adaptability to sea-level rise and posterior management.

  3. Beyond mean-field dynamics of ultra-cold bosonic atoms in higher dimensions: facing the challenges with a multi-configurational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, V. J.; Krönke, S.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring the impact of dimensionality on the quantum dynamics of interacting bosons in traps including particle correlations is an interesting but challenging task. Due to the different participating length scales, the modelling of the short-range interactions in three dimensions plays a special role. We review different approaches for the latter and elaborate that for multi-configurational computational strategies, finite-range potentials are adequate resulting in the need for large grids to resolve the relevant length scales. This results in computational challenges, which include the exponential scaling of complexity with the number of atoms. We show that the recently developed ab initio multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartee method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB) (2013 J. Chem. Phys. 139 134103) can face both numerical challenges and present an efficient numerical implementation of ML-MCTDHB in three spatial dimensions, particularly suited to describe the quantum dynamics for elongated traps. The beneficial scaling of our approach is demonstrated by studying the tunnelling dynamics of bosonic ensembles in a double well. Comparing three-dimensional with quasi-one dimensional simulations, we find dimensionality-induced effects in the density. Furthermore, we study the crossover from weak transversal confinement, where a mean-field description of the system is sufficient, towards tight transversal confinement, where particle correlations and beyond mean-field effects are pronounced.

  4. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  5. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  6. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  7. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    .... It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics...

  8. Non Verbal Talk in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sybil E.

    Nonverbal talk is presented as a legitimate language form of importance to teachers. Examples of how gestures, facial expressions, and the use of personal space communicate not only ideas but also emotions and reactions are given. In addition, the use of body language as an important accessory to speech is discussed, as it expands communication…

  9. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication is interpersonal communication involving people with cultural references different enough that it may pose a significant barrier that difficult communication efficiency. It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics and some senses like touch and smell, highly influenced by the cultural references of each person. These studies reveal some basic differences in potential intercultural communicative encounter.

  10. Elementary analysis on non-verbal communication between Darcy and Elizabeth in Pride and Prejudice%试析《傲慢与偏见》中达西与伊丽莎白之间的非语言交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战丽莉; 崔戈

    2012-01-01

    In Pride and Prejudice, the love affair between Darcy and Elizabeth undoubtedly stands out among the four love affairs depicted in the novel. This article illustrates the interaction between Darcy and Elizabeth from the perspec- tive of non-verbal communication, and at the same time displays the role performed by non-verbal means at different stages of their interaction.%小说《傲慢与偏见》描述了四个恋情,而达西与伊丽莎白之间的恋情无疑是最引人注目的。从非语言交际角度分析了达西与伊丽莎白之间的交往过程,展示了交往过程中不同阶段的非语言交际及其所扮演的角色和发挥的作用。

  11. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and ... to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How does PTSD affect loved ones? → Am ...

  13. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  14. 应聘者非言语信息对面试官评分的影响:解释、测量和控制%The impact of applicant's non-verbal information on interviewer's rating:Explanation, measurement and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 徐建平

    2016-01-01

    Applicant's non-verbal information is an important factor affecting the interviewer's rating accuracy in structural interview.Several theories,such as Social Interaction Theory and Dramaturgy Theory from the perspective of the interviewer,Social Influence Theory and Interdependence Theory from the perspective of the applicant,have been trying to explain the impact of applicant's non-verbal information on interviewer's rating.In addition to the traditional self-report questionnaire,some of the emerging computer recognition technologies have also been used to measure the non-verbal information.Some actions should be taken to eliminate the impact of non-verbal information on the accuracy of the interviewer's rating before,during and after an interview.Future research can be based on machine learning and big data analysis,to explore the impact mechanism of non-verbal information on interviewer's rating in structural interview and construct a new theory to explain the impact on the rating process.%应聘者非言语信息是影响结构化面试中面试官准确评分的一个重要因素.社会互动理论和拟剧论从面试官角度,社会影响理论和相互依赖理论从应聘者角度分别解释了非言语信息对面试官评分的影响.对非言语信息的测量,除了传统的自陈式问卷,一些新兴的计算机识别技术也被使用.为了消除非言语信息对面试评分准确性的影响,通常会从面试前、面试中和面试后三个阶段对其进行控制.未来可以基于机器学习和大数据分析,探索非言语信息对结构化面试评分的影响,建构新的理论以解释影响过程.

  15. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  16. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  17. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  18. Product of Likelihood Ratio Scores Fusion of Dynamic Face, Text Independent Speech and On-line Signature Based Biometrics Verification Application Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SOLTANE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of finite Gaussian mixture modal (GMM tuned using Expectation Maximization (EM estimating algorithms for score level data fusion is proposed. Automated biometric systems for human identification measure a “signature” of the human body, compare the resulting characteristic to a database, and render an application dependent decision. These biometric systems for personal authentication and identification are based upon physiological or behavioral features which are typically distinctive, Multi-biometric systems, which consolidate information from multiple biometric sources, are gaining popularity because they are able to overcome limitations such as non-universality, noisy sensor data, large intra-user variations and susceptibility to spoof attacks that are commonly encountered in mono modal biometric systems. Simulation result show that finite mixture modal (GMM is quite effective in modelling the genuine and impostor score densities, fusion based the product of Likelihood Ratio achieves a significant performance on eNTERFACE 2005 multi-biometric database based on dynamic face, on-line signature and text independent speech modalities.

  19. Facial expressions and speech acts: experimental evidences on the role of the upper face as an illocutionary force indicating device in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Passarelli, Marcello; Chiorri, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    Language scientists have broadly addressed the problem of explaining how language users recognize the kind of speech act performed by a speaker uttering a sentence in a particular context. They have done so by investigating the role played by the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs), i.e., all linguistic elements that indicate the illocutionary force of an utterance. The present work takes a first step in the direction of an experimental investigation of non-verbal IFIDs because it investigates the role played by facial expressions and, in particular, of upper-face action units (AUs) in the comprehension of three basic types of illocutionary force: assertions, questions, and orders. The results from a pilot experiment on production and two comprehension experiments showed that (1) certain upper-face AUs seem to constitute non-verbal signals that contribute to the understanding of the illocutionary force of questions and orders; (2) assertions are not expected to be marked by any upper-face AU; (3) some upper-face AUs can be associated, with different degrees of compatibility, with both questions and orders.

  20. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  1. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  2. 非语言性护理沟通对心肌梗死患者身心状态的影响%Impact of non-verbal communication in nursing care on the physical and mental state of patients with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖少琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the impact of non - verbal communication in nursing care on the physical and mental state of patients with myocardial infarction. Methods: 102 patients with myocardial infarction were randomly divided into observation and control groups ( 51 patients in each group ). The routine primary care,health education and psychological guidance were carried out in the control group and the proper non - verbal communication service was provided for the patients in the observation group based on the nursing measures in the control group. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the physical function and mental function of QOL - 30 between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The non - verbal communication in nursing care can increase the degree of patients comfort in the physical and mental state and improve their quality of life as well.%目的:探讨非语言性护理沟通对心肌梗死患者身心状态的影响.方法:将102例心肌梗死患者随机分为观察组和对照组各51例,对照组给予常规基础护理、健康教育和心理指导,观察组在此基础上给予针对性的非语言性护理沟通服务.结果:观察组QOL-30中躯体功能、心理功能评分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:非语言性护理沟通对提高患者身心舒适度,改善患者生活质量有重要意义.

  3. A importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor universitário no exercício de sua atividade profissional The importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa de Fátima Lucena de Sousa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor no exercício de sua atividade profissional. MÉTODOS: a presente pesquisa foi realizada no período de março a maio de 2008. A população de estudo foi composta por alunos de dois cursos de graduação (Ciências Biológicas e de Fonoaudiologia. Foram escolhidos, aleatoriamente, alunos de cada turma, independente de sexo ou idade, compondo um total de 63 alunos. RESULTADOS: os dados obtidos mostraram que, independente da sua formação (se fonoaudiólogo ou não, todos consideraram que a comunicação não-verbal do professor é um importante fator na transmissão das mensagens. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa mostrou que os entrevistados avaliaram a comunicação não-verbal como importante para a efetividade da interação, podendo interferir no desempenho do docente em sala de aula.PURPOSE: to check the importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities. METHODS: this research was conducted during the period from March to May, 2008. The studied population was made up of students from the two under-graduation courses the (Biological sciences and speech therapy. They were chosen randomly, 63 students, regardless of gender or age. RESULTS: data obtained showed that, regardless of their training (whether or not speech therapist, everybody considered that the non-verbal communication of the teacher is an important factor in the transmission of messages. CONCLUSION: the research showed that the investigated students and teachers evaluated the non-verbal communication as important for the effectiveness of interaction and can interfere in the performance of teachers in the classroom.

  4. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  5. Comparison of Face to Face Education with Other Methods to Pregnant Mothers in Increase Exclusive Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Saba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There is a direct relationship between the education and exclusive breast-feeding. Most of the educational programs have given after child birth, based on " Rooming in plan”, but because of difficult situation and busy thoughts of mothers, they were not desirable way of education, therefore in this study the role of verbal & nonverbal education was evaluated on the rate of breast-feeding by mothers before delivery.Materials & Methods: This is a randomized controlled-trial study on 108 pregnant women, 20-30 yrs old, paraone, without any systemic disease referring to Health Center of Hamadan. They were divided into two groups of 54 each , group Ι was given verbal education (lecture, movie, slide, question & answer and group ΙΙ nonverbal education (pamphlet of verbal abstracts. The two groups were followed up to 6 months after delivery in respect of restricted breast-feeding.Results: The rate of restricted breast-feeding was 82.7% for mothers on verbal education and 56.5% for nonverbal ones. This difference of percentile rise in two group was statistically meaningful, which showed verbal education was more efficient on outcome of restricted breast-feeding.Conclusion: We concluded that face to face education is more efficient compared to non-verbal education in increase exclusive breast feeding.

  6. Closed-loop dialog model of face-to-face communication with a photo-real virtual human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Bernadette; Benedek, Balázs; Szijárto, Gábor; Takács, Barnabás

    2004-01-01

    We describe an advanced Human Computer Interaction (HCI) model that employs photo-realistic virtual humans to provide digital media users with information, learning services and entertainment in a highly personalized and adaptive manner. The system can be used as a computer interface or as a tool to deliver content to end-users. We model the interaction process between the user and the system as part of a closed loop dialog taking place between the participants. This dialog, exploits the most important characteristics of a face-to-face communication process, including the use of non-verbal gestures and meta communication signals to control the flow of information. Our solution is based on a Virtual Human Interface (VHI) technology that was specifically designed to be able to create emotional engagement between the virtual agent and the user, thus increasing the efficiency of learning and/or absorbing any information broadcasted through this device. The paper reviews the basic building blocks and technologies needed to create such a system and discusses its advantages over other existing methods.

  7. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  8. Warmth and competence in your face! Visual encoding of stereotype content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eImhoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that stereotypes about a group’s warmth bias our visual representation of group members. Based on the Stereotype Content Model the current research explored whether the second big dimension of social perception, competence, is also reflected in visual stereotypes. To test this, participants created typical faces for groups either high in warmth and low in competence (male nursery teachers or vice versa (managers in a reverse correlation image classification task, which allows for the visualization of stereotypes without any a priori assumptions about relevant dimensions. In support of the independent encoding of both SCM dimensions hypotheses-blind raters judged the resulting visualizations of nursery teachers as warmer but less competent than the resulting image for managers, even when statistically controlling for judgments on one dimension. People thus seem to use facial cues indicating both relevant dimensions to make sense of social groups in a parsimonious, non-verbal and spontaneous manner.

  9. Estudo longitudinal da atenção compartilhada em crianças autistas não-verbais Longitudinal study of joint attention in non-verbal autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sandra Damião Farah

    2009-12-01

    desenvolvimento da comunicação das crianças autistas.PURPOSE: to identify and characterize abilities of Joint Attention of non-verbal autistic children through the observation of communicative behaviors. METHODS: the research involved 5 boys, between 5,9 and 8,6-year old, diagnosed as Autistic Disorder (DSM IV, 2002, recorded in two instances with a four months interval. Meanwhile, the children were submitted to a language therapy mediation based on Joint Attention stimulation. Each recording was 15 minutes long and involved one child or group of 2-3 children with the therapist within non-directed and semi-directed interaction situations, at school where they studied. We observed and registered behaviors regarding Joint Attention abilities. The used material involved percussion instruments. Data were analyzed in relation to time, interaction and interlocutor. RESULTS: the gaze behavior showed the greatest growth in each subject. Data analysis revealed that the subjects showed qualitative trends for evolution of the Joint Attention ability revealing important clinical meaning although there was lack of statistical significance. Each subject showed characteristics and evolution of the communicative behaviors regarding Joint Attention in an individualized manner. After the period of language therapy intervention, we observed a quantitative behavioral growth in the 5 subjects, specifically under child-therapist interaction. CONCLUSIONS: the gaze behavior is an important step for the development of others behaviors toward Joint Attention. The adult-child interaction situation facilitates the appearance of communication behaviors and sharing. Language therapy with focus on the Joint Attention abilities seems to contribute positively for communication development of autistic children.

  10. Advances in face detection and facial image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M; Smolka, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in face detection and analysis. It outlines new research directions, including in particular psychology-based facial dynamics recognition, aimed at various applications such as behavior analysis, deception detection, and diagnosis of various psychological disorders. Topics of interest include face and facial landmark detection, face recognition, facial expression and emotion analysis, facial dynamics analysis, face classification, identification, and clustering, and gaze direction and head pose estimation, as well as applications of face analysis.

  11. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  12. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  13. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  14. 非语言交际能力的培养对提高外语教学学习质量之我见——以中德文化差异为例%Non-verbal Communication Skills for Improving the Quality of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning-A Case Study on the Differences between the Chinese and the German Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2011-01-01

    随着现代电子科技的发展,互联网的普及以及经济的高度全球化,我们与不同国度、不同文化背景下人们之间的交流也随之越来越频繁。在这样的跨文化交际中,非语言交际起着非常重要的作用。但是由于每个国家和民族之间的文化差异,使得非语言交际在不同的文化中被赋予了不同的含义,使人们在交际过程中遇到了很大的困难。本文拟从中德文化差异比较入手,阐述在当前外语教学和学习中,不能只单纯地强调语言能力的培养,还应注重提高学生对跨文化交际能力的认识以及提高学生的非语言交际能力,实现外语教育的最终目的。%With the development of modern electronic technology,the popularity of the Internet,and the globalization of economy, the exchanges between the Chinese people and people from different countries and cultures have become more and more frequent. In such cross-cultural exchanges,the non-verbal communication also plays a very important role. However,due to cultural differences,the non-verbal communication in different countries takes different forms,which often present much difficulty in the process of cross-cultural communication. The author intends to compare the Chinese culture with the German culture to elaborate on the current foreign language teaching and learning,not just simply giving emphasis to the language abilities,but also to the importance of improving students'understanding of the cross-cultural communication skills,especially the non-verbal communication skills,so as to achieve the ultimate goal of the foreign language teaching.

  15. Can a Humanoid Face be Expressive? A Psychophysiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Nicole; Mazzei, Daniele; Greco, Alberto; Rotesi, Annalisa; Lanatà, Antonio; De Rossi, Danilo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Non-verbal signals expressed through body language play a crucial role in multi-modal human communication during social relations. Indeed, in all cultures, facial expressions are the most universal and direct signs to express innate emotional cues. A human face conveys important information in social interactions and helps us to better understand our social partners and establish empathic links. Latest researches show that humanoid and social robots are becoming increasingly similar to humans, both esthetically and expressively. However, their visual expressiveness is a crucial issue that must be improved to make these robots more realistic and intuitively perceivable by humans as not different from them. This study concerns the capability of a humanoid robot to exhibit emotions through facial expressions. More specifically, emotional signs performed by a humanoid robot have been compared with corresponding human facial expressions in terms of recognition rate and response time. The set of stimuli included standardized human expressions taken from an Ekman-based database and the same facial expressions performed by the robot. Furthermore, participants' psychophysiological responses have been explored to investigate whether there could be differences induced by interpreting robot or human emotional stimuli. Preliminary results show a trend to better recognize expressions performed by the robot than 2D photos or 3D models. Moreover, no significant differences in the subjects' psychophysiological state have been found during the discrimination of facial expressions performed by the robot in comparison with the same task performed with 2D photos and 3D models.

  16. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  17. 浅析非言语交际行为与高校外语教学改革%On the Relationship between Non-verbal Communicative Behavior and Foreign Language Teaching Reform in Universities---A Case Study of Japanese, German and English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯巧红; 祖静; 刘俊娟

    2015-01-01

    Communicative behavior is composed of verbal and non-verbal behavior, while the importance of the latter is always neglected. As the microcosm of communicative scenes, the effectiveness of foreign lan-guage classes in the higher education determines whether the professional graduates who meet the standards of social needs can be cultivated or not. However, traditional foreign teaching mode overemphasized the signifi-cance of verbal behaviors, and rarely used non-verbal behavior as a teaching method, which seriously impe-ded the improvement of students ’ comprehensive abilities including intercultural communication ability. Therefore, only by scaling up the nonverbal behavior and mixing the two together can we renovate the foreign language teaching mode and cultivate excellent foreign language talents.%交际行为分为言语行为和非言语行为,后者的重要性往往被人们忽视。高校外语课堂是交际场景的缩影,其交际的有效性决定了能否培养出符合社会需求的外语专业毕业生。传统的外语教学模式过分强调言语行为的作用,很少重视非言语行为的使用,严重阻碍了学生外语综合能力和跨文化交际能力的提升。因此,只有加大非言语交际行为的使用比重,革新外语教学模式,才能培养出优秀的外语人才。

  18. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  19. Comunicação não-verbal: uma contribuição para o aconselhamento em amamentação Comunicación no verbal: una contribución para la consejería en lactancia materna Non verbal communication: a contribution to breastfeeding counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moraes Leite

    2004-04-01

    . Los autores percibieron que las habilidades del curso están centradas en técnicas solamente orientadas hacia las actitudes de los profesionales. Es fundamental estar atento a las señales no verbales de la mujer, pues estas retratan sus emociones. Tales señales pueden ser los indicadores de las dificultades que la mujer enfrenta, de las interpretaciones a cerca de elementos interactivos en su contexto, y muchas veces, son los indicativos del curso que podrán imprimir al proceso de lactancia.The "Course on Breastfeeding Counseling", elaborated and implemented by the United Nation's Children's Emergency Fund - UNICEF in partnership with the World Health Organization - WHO, represents one of the most important initiatives towards the valorization of women as breastfeeding agents. With a view to understanding and facilitating the application of the nonverbal communication skills this course intends to develop among professionals, this study aims to organize the theoretical frameworks that will support the teaching of Listening and Learning Skills -1 - "Use of non verbal communication", considering the concepts of human communication found in different authors. We found out that the skills of the course are centered in techniques only directed at the professional's attitudes. However, it is necessary to pay attention to women's nonverbal signs, as they reflect their emotions. These signs can indicate the difficulties women are facing, their interpretations regarding the interaction elements in their context and, often, they are indicative of how they will direct the breastfeeding process.

  20. Social Psychological Face Perception: Why Appearance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Montepare, Joann M.

    2009-01-01

    We form first impressions from faces despite warnings not to do so. Moreover, there is considerable agreement in our impressions, which carry significant social outcomes. Appearance matters because some facial qualities are so useful in guiding adaptive behavior that even a trace of those qualities can create an impression. Specifically, the qualities revealed by facial cues that characterize low fitness, babies, emotion, and identity are overgeneralized to people whose facial appearance resembles the unfit (anomalous face overgeneralization), babies (babyface overgeneralization), a particular emotion (emotion face overgeneralization), or a particular identity (familiar face overgeneralization). We review studies that support the overgeneralization hypotheses and recommend research that incorporates additional tenets of the ecological theory from which these hypotheses are derived: the contribution of dynamic and multi-modal stimulus information to face perception; bidirectional relationships between behavior and face perception; perceptual learning mechanisms and social goals that sensitize perceivers to particular information in faces. PMID:20107613

  1. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Face-lift By Mayo Clinic Staff A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is ...

  2. A Novel Face Segmentation Algorithm from a Video Sequence for Real-Time Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaker Samuel RD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first step in an automatic face recognition system is to localize the face region in a cluttered background and carefully segment the face from each frame of a video sequence. In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient algorithm for segmenting a face suitable for recognition from a video sequence. The cluttered background is first subtracted from each frame, in the foreground regions, a coarse face region is found using skin colour. Then using a dynamic template matching approach the face is efficiently segmented. The proposed algorithm is fast and suitable for real-time video sequence. The algorithm is invariant to large scale and pose variation. The segmented face is then handed over to a recognition algorithm based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The online face detection, segmentation, and recognition algorithms take an average of 0.06 second on a 3.2 GHz P4 machine.

  3. The research on Face recognition technology based on dynamic video%基于动态视频的人脸识别技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹志鹃

    2016-01-01

    随着高科技的发展,人脸识别技术也在不断发展.如今市场上已经出现多种人脸识别技术.人脸识别技术作为一种生物特征识别的典型应用被应用到各个领域,如国防、司法、金融等,受到了社会的关注与认可.%With the development of high-tech,face recognition technology is also in constant development. Now It has appeared on the market a variety of facial recognition technology.Facial recognition technology,as a typical application of biometrics has been applied to various fields,such as national defen se,justice,finance,etc.,has received the attention and recognition.

  4. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  5. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  6. Single bubble dynamic behavior in AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O nanofluid on downward-facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Junmei [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-15

    After a severe accident to the nuclear reactor, the in-vessel retention strategy is a key way to prevent the leakage of radioactive material. Nanofluid is a steady suspension used to improve heat-transfer characteristics of working fluids, formed by adding solid particles with diameters below 100 nm to the base fluids, and its thermal physical properties and heat-transfer characteristics are much different from the conventional working fluids. Thus, nanofluids with appropriate nanoparticle type and volume concentration can enhance the heat-transfer process. In this study, the moving particle semi-implicit method-meshless advection using flow-directional local grid method is used to simulate the bubble growth, departure, and sliding on the downward-facing heating surface in pure water and nanofluid (1.0 vol.% Al2O3/H2O) flow boiling processes; additionally, the bubble critical departure angle and sliding characteristics and their influence are also investigated. The results indicate that the bubble in nanofluid departs from the heating surface more easily and the critical departure inclined angle of nanofluid is greater than that of pure water. In addition, the influence of nanofluid on bubble sliding is not significant compared with pure water.

  7. Non-verbal communication: aspects observed during nursing consultations with blind patients Comunicación no-verbal: aspectos observados durante la consulta de Enfermería con el paciente ciego Comunicação não-verbal: aspectos observados durante a consulta de Enfermagem com o paciente cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Brasil de Almeida Rebouças

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory-descriptive study on non-verbal communication among nurses and blind patients during nursing consultations to diabetes patients, based on Hall's theoretical reference framework. Data were collected by recording the consultations. The recordings were analyzed every fifteen seconds, totaling 1,131 non-verbal communication moments. The analysis shows intimate distance (91.0% and seated position (98.3%; no contact occurred in 83.3% of the interactions. Emblematic gestures were present, including hand movements (67.4%; looks deviated from the interlocutor (52.8%, and centered on the interlocutor (44.4%. In all recordings, considerable interference occurred at the moment of nurse-patient interaction. Nurses need to know about and deepen non-verbal communication studies and adequate its use to the type of patients attended during the consultations.Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo sobre comunicación no-verbal entre el enfermero y el paciente ciego durante la consulta de enfermería al diabético, desde el referencial teórico de Hall. Colecta de datos con filmación de la consulta, analizadas a cada quince segundos, totalizando 1.131 momentos de comunicación no-verbal. El análisis muestra alejamiento íntimo (91,0% y postura sentada (98,3%, en 83,3% de las intervenciones no hubo contacto. Estubo presente el gesto emblemático mover las manos (67,4%; el mirar desviado del interlocutor (52,8% y al mirar centrado en el interlocutor (44,4%. En todas las filmaciones, hubieron interferencias considerables en el momento de la interacción enfermero y paciente. Concluyese que el enfermero precisa conocer y profundizar los estudios en comunicación no-verbal y adecuar su utilización al tipo de pacientes asistidos durante las consultas.Estudo exploratório-descritivo sobre comunicação não-verbal entre o enfermeiro e o cego durante a consulta de enfermagem ao diabético, a partir do referencial teórico de Hall. Coleta de dados com filmagem da

  8. A Novel Face Recognition Algorithm for Distinguishing Faces with Various Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhong Lu

    2008-01-01

    In order to distinguish faces of various angles during face recognition, an algorithm of the combination of approximate dynamic programming (ADP) called action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented. ADP is used for dynamically changing the values of the PSO parameters. During the process of face recognition, the discrete cosine transformation (DCT) is first introduced to reduce negative effects. Then, Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) transformation can be used to compress images and decrease data dimensions. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the main parts of vectors are extracted for data representation. Finally, radial basis function (RBF) neural network is trained to recognize various faces. The training of RBF neural network is exploited by ADP-PSO. In terms of ORL Face Database, the experimental result gives a clear view of its accurate efficiency.

  9. Pattern Discovery for the Design of Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Maria Francisca; Nussbaum, Miguel; Marshall, Guillermo; Lagos, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of discovering social action patterns in collaborative learning activities for use in improving activity design, and in particular for restructuring existing designs involving face-to-face social actions to enhance their social dynamics and thus better ensure the achievement of a specified aim. An activity in this…

  10. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  11. Teachers faced with school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Rodríguez Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence is influenced by relationships of conflict among people, which sometimes may end up in violence and aggressiveness. Violence is the result of the accumulation of small hostile situations which arouse maladjustments in feelings and reactions. Recent empirical research has shown that the number of violent situations in the classroom has doubled. The answers offered by the administration and the educational centres are oriented to the setting up of programs for violence prevention, considering the school as an organisation which coexists with the conflict. Among the proposed alternatives, I emphasize individual and group tutorship and mediation processes as two viable resources which facilitate coexistence and improve the school’s climate together with a better understanding of the teacher’s use of non-verbal communication in the classroom

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidé, Saïkou Oumar; Manté, Claude; Dubroca, Laurent; Demarcq, Hervé; Mérigot, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species) at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1) the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2) relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages’ structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ) is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997–2010) from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance), logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort), sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a useful

  13. Self-face recognition in social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  14. 刮板输送机链传动系统动态仿真分析%Dynamic Simulation Analysis of the Ring Chain Transmission System of the Armoured Face Conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志高; 卢学军; 张颖越

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of the ring chain transmission system of the armoured face conveyor,its simulation model was established based on the finite element rigid body method. The dynamic behavior of the ring chain transmission system was simulated with Matlab/Simulink Package. The distribution of velocity,acceleration and tension on the chain was analyzed under normal and chain stuck conditions. The preloading force of the chain transmission system was also discussed. The results can provide some useful reference for the matching of comprehensive mechanized coal mining equipment.%为研究刮板输送机链传动系统的动力学特性,基于有限元刚体法建立其数学模型,并采用Matlab/Simulink软件包建立刮板输送机链传动系统的动力学仿真模型,分析其在正常启动、意外卡链等工况下,运行速度、加速度以及张力在链条上的分布规律,并分析了施加预紧力对系统造成的影响,可为综采设备的合理配置提供参考依据。

  15. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  16. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  17. Can a humanoid face be expressive? A psychophysiological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eLazzeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal signals expressed through body language play a crucial role in multi-modal human communication during social relations. Indeed, in all cultures facial expressions are the most universal and direct signs to express innate emotional cues. A human face conveys important information in social interactions and helps us to better understand our social partners and establish empathic links.Latest researches show that humanoid and social robots are becoming increasingly similar to humans, both aesthetically and expressively. However, their visual expressiveness is a crucial issue that must be improved to make these robots more realistic and intuitively perceivable by humans as not different from them.This study concerns the capability of a humanoid robot to exhibit emotion through facial expressions. More specifically, emotional signs performed by a humanoid robot have been compared with corresponding human facial expressions in terms of recognition rate and response time. The set of stimuli included standardized human expressions taken from an Ekman-based database and the same facial expressions performed by the robot. Furthermore, participants' psychophysiological responses have been explored to investigate whether there could be differences induced by interpreting robot or human emotional stimuli.Preliminary results show a trend to better recognize expressions performed by the robot than 2D photos or 3D models. Moreover no significant differences in the subjects' psychophysiological state have been found during the discrimination of facial expressions performed by the robot in comparison with the same task performed with 2D photos and 3D models.

  18. Incremental Supervised Subspace Learning for Face Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Subspace learning algorithms have been well studied in face recognition. Among them, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most widely used supervised subspace learning method. Due to the difficulty of designing an incremental solution of the eigen decomposition on the product of matrices, there is little work for computing LDA incrementally. To avoid this limitation, an incremental supervised subspace learning (ISSL) algorithm was proposed, which incrementally learns an adaptive subspace by optimizing the maximum margin criterion (MMC). With the dynamically added face images, ISSL can effectively constrain the computational cost. Feasibility of the new algorithm has been successfully tested on different face data sets.

  19. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  20. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  1. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  2. Nakama : A companion for non-verbal affective communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Munters, G.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Heylen, D.K.J.

    2015-01-01

    We present "Nakama": A communication device that supports affective communication between a child and its - geographically separated - parent. Nakama consists of a control unit at the parent's end and an actuated teddy bear for the child. The bear contains several communication channels, including

  3. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Włodarczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence, short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  4. Annotating Non-verbal Behaviours in Informal Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that unit taxes increase the quality consumed in a market, since unit taxes reduce the relative price of high quality goods. Ad valorem taxes, on the other hand, have no effect on relative prices, and should not affect product quality. The hypothesis is tested empirically in the U...

  5. Nakama: a companion for non-verbal affective communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian Jacob Arendt Maria; Munters, Gerald M.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We present "Nakama": A communication device that supports affective communication between a child and its - geographically separated - parent. Nakama consists of a control unit at the parent's end and an actuated teddy bear for the child. The bear contains several communication channels, including

  6. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczak, Marcin; Heldner, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  7. Non-verbal persuasion and communication in an affective agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk; Niewiadomski, Radoslaw; Pelachaud, Catherine; Peters, Christopher; Poggi, Isabella; Rehm, Matthias; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining

  8. The Art of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, Paivi

    A researcher who does not master the art of speech, who does not know how to write about results in the most outstanding and efficient manner is less likely to be able to persue investors to fund experiments, to receive support from other researchers, and is less likely to be able to publish the results. In many universities it is common to only focus in the particular subject matter. Less emphasis is set on learning to manage innovations, to understand the big picture, to study basics of corporate finance or strategic management, patent rights. Scientific writing and debate, teaching 'tutorials' is one of the keys of education in New England Liberal Arts Colleges, Harvard and MIT, Oxford and Cambridge in the UK, however, tutorials are not commonly used elsewhere. Hands on education -is another key that is similarily often overseen either due to lack of resources or simply due to lack of teaching skills. The discussion is based on past teaching and lectures as visiting professor at Williams College (2008-2009) and Howard University / NASA Marshall Space Center Lunar Base project (2009-2010). The discussion compares also teaching at MIT aero-astro, Aalto University /Helsinki University of Technology-School of Art and Design-School of Economics, Strate College in Paris, and Vienna University of Technology and Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst. u

  9. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  10. Cluster-based distributed face tracking in camera networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Josiah; Medeiros, Henry; Park, Johnny; Kak, Avinash C

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed multicamera face tracking system suitable for large wired camera networks. Unlike previous multicamera face tracking systems, our system does not require a central server to coordinate the entire tracking effort. Instead, an efficient camera clustering protocol is used to dynamically form groups of cameras for in-network tracking of individual faces. The clustering protocol includes cluster propagation mechanisms that allow the computational load of face tracking to be transferred to different cameras as the target objects move. Furthermore, the dynamic election of cluster leaders provides robustness against system failures. Our experimental results show that our cluster-based distributed face tracker is capable of accurately tracking multiple faces in real-time. The overall performance of the distributed system is comparable to that of a centralized face tracker, while presenting the advantages of scalability and robustness.

  11. Parsing the recognition memory components of the WMS-III face memory subtest: normative data and clinical findings in dementia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Delis, Dean C

    2004-06-01

    The WMS-III face memory subtest was developed as a quick, reliable, measure of non-verbal recognition memory. While the face memory subtest has demonstrated clinical sensitivity, the test has been criticized for low correlation with other WMS-III visual memory subtests and for failing to differentiate performance between clinical groups. One possible reason for these findings may be due to the impact of response bias associated with recognition memory tests. Four studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of applying signal detection measures to the face memory subtests. The first two studies used the WMS-III standardization data set to determine age and education effects and to present normative and reliability data for hits, false positives, discriminability and response bias. The third study tested the hypothesis that using response components and signal detection measures would enhance the correlation between face memory and the other WMS-III visual memory subtests. The fourth study compared performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome and demographically matched controls on the new face memory scores. The new measures did not have higher correlation with other WMS-III visual memory measures than the standard scoring of the test. Analysis of the clinical samples indicated that the discriminability index best differentiated patients from controls. The response components, particularly delayed false positives, differentiated performance among the clinical groups. Normative and reliability data are presented.

  12. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  13. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  14. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  15. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  16. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  17. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  18. Stirring faces: mixing in a quiescent fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Brunton, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the mixing that occurs as a two-dimensional flat plate plunges sinusoidally in a quiescent fluid. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents reveal sets that are attracting or repelling. As the flow field develops, strange faces emerge.

  19. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  20. Informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state reflected in prefrontal cortex activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichiro eWatanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS.We also observed that the verbal WM task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC activity accompanied by working memory (WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.

  1. Informal Face-to-Face Interaction Improves Mood State Reflected in Prefrontal Cortex Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS). We also observed that the verbal working memory (WM) task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity accompanied by WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:27199715

  2. Autism and emotional face-viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob; Hovey, Daniel; Zürcher, Nicole; Hippolyte, Loyse; Lemonnier, Eric; Gillberg, Christopher; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-11-28

    Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other. Results showed that children/adolescents with ASD fixated the mouth of happy and angry faces less than their typically developing (TD) peers, and conversely looked more to the eyes of happy faces. Moreover, while all groups fixated the mouth in happy faces more than in other expressions, children/adolescents with ASD did relatively less so. Correlation analysis showed a similar lack of relative orientation toward the mouth of smiling faces in TD children/adolescents with high autistic traits, as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Among adults, participants with ASD attended less to the eyes only for neutral faces. Our study shows that the emotional content of a face influences gaze behavior, and that this effect is not fully developed in children/adolescents with ASD. Interestingly, this lack of differentiation observed in the younger ASD group was also seen in younger TD individuals with higher AQ scores. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  4. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  5. PARTIAL MATCHING FACE RECOGNITION METHOD FOR REHABILITATION NURSING ROBOTS BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei LIANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish face recognition system in rehabilitation nursing robots beds and achieve real-time monitor the patient on the bed. We propose a face recognition method based on partial matching Hu moments which apply for rehabilitation nursing robots beds. Firstly we using Haar classifier to detect human faces automatically in dynamic video frames. Secondly we using Otsu threshold method to extract facial features (eyebrows, eyes, mouth in the face image and its Hu moments. Finally, we using Hu moment feature set to achieve the automatic face recognition. Experimental results show that this method can efficiently identify face in a dynamic video and it has high practical value (the accuracy rate is 91% and the average recognition time is 4.3s.

  6. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  7. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  8. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  9. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  10. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  11. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  12. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Q.

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  13. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  14. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  15. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  16. Autonomous Face Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Rhea Diamond. "From Piecemeal to Configurational Repre- sentation of Faces," Science, 195:312-314 (Jan 1977). 3. Damasio , Antonio R...34Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132-135 (1985). 4. Damasio , Antonio R. and others. "Prosopagnosia: Anatomic Basis and Behav- ioral Mechanisms

  17. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  18. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  19. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  20. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  1. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  2. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  3. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  4. Exemplar-based Face Recognition from Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Zhou, Shaohua; Chellappa, Rama

    2005-01-01

    -temporal relations: This allows the system to use dynamics as well as to generate warnings when 'implausible' situations occur or to circumvent these altogether. We have studied the effectiveness of temporal integration for recognition purposes by using the face recognition as an example problem. Face recognition...... is a prominent problem and has been studied more extensively than almost any other recognition problem. An observation is that face recognition works well in ideal conditions. If those conditions, however, are not met, then all present algorithms break down disgracefully. This probelm appears to be general...... to all vision techniques that intend to extract visual information out of a low snr. image. It is exactly a strength of cognitive systems that they are able to cope with non-ideal situations. In this chapter we will present a techniques that allows to integrate visual information over time and we...

  5. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  6. Neurophysiological Correlates of Featural and Spacing Processing for Face and Non-face Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Marcello; Brkić, Diandra; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Premoli, Isabella; Rivolta, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The peculiar ability of humans to recognize hundreds of faces at a glance has been attributed to face-specific perceptual mechanisms known as holistic processing. Holistic processing includes the ability to discriminate individual facial features (i.e., featural processing) and their spatial relationships (i.e., spacing processing). Here, we aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of featural- and spacing-processing of faces and objects. Nineteen healthy volunteers completed a newly created perceptual discrimination task for faces and objects (i.e., the “University of East London Face Task”) while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density (128 electrodes) electroencephalogram. Our results showed that early event related potentials at around 100 ms post-stimulus onset (i.e., P100) are sensitive to both facial features and spacing between the features. Spacing and features discriminability for objects occurred at circa 200 ms post-stimulus onset (P200). These findings indicate the existence of neurophysiological correlates of spacing vs. features processing in both face and objects, and demonstrate faster brain processing for faces. PMID:28348535

  7. Passing faces: sequence-dependent variations in the perceptual processing of emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Christian; Hewig, Johannes; Osinsky, Roman

    2016-10-01

    There is broad evidence that contextual factors influence the processing of emotional facial expressions. Yet temporal-dynamic aspects, inter alia how face processing is influenced by the specific order of neutral and emotional facial expressions, have been largely neglected. To shed light on this topic, we recorded electroencephalogram from 168 healthy participants while they performed a gender-discrimination task with angry and neutral faces. Our event-related potential (ERP) analyses revealed a strong emotional modulation of the N170 component, indicating that the basic visual encoding and emotional analysis of a facial stimulus happen, at least partially, in parallel. While the N170 and the late positive potential (LPP; 400-600 ms) were only modestly affected by the sequence of preceding faces, we observed a strong influence of face sequences on the early posterior negativity (EPN; 200-300 ms). Finally, the differing response patterns of the EPN and LPP indicate that these two ERPs represent distinct processes during face analysis: while the former seems to represent the integration of contextual information in the perception of a current face, the latter appears to represent the net emotional interpretation of a current face.

  8. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  9. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  10. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  11. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  12. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  13. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    The title “Many faces of migration”, connecting contributions in this special issue, is borrowed from the already mentioned Gallup Institute’s report on global migration (Esipova, 2011. The guiding principle in the selection of the contributions has been their diversity, reflected also in the list of disciplines represented by the authors: sociology, geography, ethnology and cultural anthropology, history, art history, modern Mediterranean studies, gender studies and media studies. Such an approach necessarily leads not only to a diverse, but at least seemingly also incompatib

  14. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  15. Análise da comunicação verbal e não-verbal de crianças com deficiencia visual durante interação com a mãe Analysis of the verbal and non-verbal communication of children with visual impairment during interaction with their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    blind children, with low vision capacity and children with normal vision and, therefore, to analyze the particularities of the maternal communication during the interaction within free and planned contexts. Six children participated in the study: two blind; two with low vision capacity and; two with normal vision, who were selected from specific criteria. Two recordings of each were carried out in the familiar environment: free and planned situations. The analysis was performed by means of functional characterization of the verbal and non-verbal communication of the children with their mothers. The data showed that the verbal communicative resources were predominant in both free and planned situations. Overall, the results of this study indicate that although there were particularities during its use, the language of the visual impairment children does not present deficit in relation to the one of those with normal vision. Moreover, the mothers of the blind children and with low vision capacity used strategies such as descriptions of the environment, indications and localization of objects during their interactions that favored their performance.

  16. Facial movements strategically camouflage involuntary social signals of face morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Daniel; Garrod, Oliver G B; Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G

    2014-05-01

    Animals use social camouflage as a tool of deceit to increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction. We tested whether humans can also strategically deploy transient facial movements to camouflage the default social traits conveyed by the phenotypic morphology of their faces. We used the responses of 12 observers to create models of the dynamic facial signals of dominance, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. We applied these dynamic models to facial morphologies differing on perceived dominance, trustworthiness, and attractiveness to create a set of dynamic faces; new observers rated each dynamic face according to the three social traits. We found that specific facial movements camouflage the social appearance of a face by modulating the features of phenotypic morphology. A comparison of these facial expressions with those similarly derived for facial emotions showed that social-trait expressions, rather than being simple one-to-one overgeneralizations of emotional expressions, are a distinct set of signals composed of movements from different emotions. Our generative face models represent novel psychophysical laws for social sciences; these laws predict the perception of social traits on the basis of dynamic face identities.

  17. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R Skelly

    Full Text Available Emotionally expressive faces are processed by a distributed network of interacting sub-cortical and cortical brain regions. The components of this network have been identified and described in large part by the stimulus properties to which they are sensitive, but as face processing research matures interest has broadened to also probe dynamic interactions between these regions and top-down influences such as task demand and context. While some research has tested the robustness of affective face processing by restricting available attentional resources, it is not known whether face network processing can be augmented by increased motivation to attend to affective face stimuli. Short videos of people expressing emotions were presented to healthy participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Motivation to attend to the videos was manipulated by providing an incentive for improved recall performance. During the motivated condition, there was greater coherence among nodes of the face processing network, more widespread correlation between signal intensity and performance, and selective signal increases in a task-relevant subset of face processing regions, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus and right amygdala. In addition, an unexpected task-related laterality effect was seen in the amygdala. These findings provide strong evidence that motivation augments co-activity among nodes of the face processing network and the impact of neural activity on performance. These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains.

  18. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  19. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  20. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  1. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  2. A Method for Determining the Timing of Displaying the Speaker's Face and Captions for a Real-Time Speech-to-Caption System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hayato; Ino, Shuichi; Nakano, Satoko; Hori, Kotaro; Ifukube, Tohru

    The authors of this paper have been studying a real-time speech-to-caption system using speech recognition technology with a “repeat-speaking” method. In this system, they used a “repeat-speaker” who listens to a lecturer's voice and then speaks back the lecturer's speech utterances into a speech recognition computer. The througoing system showed that the accuracy of the captions is about 97% in Japanese-Japanese conversion and the conversion time from voices to captions is about 4 seconds in English-English conversion in some international conferences. Of course it required a lot of costs to achieve these high performances. In human communications, speech understanding depends not only on verbal information but also on non-verbal information such as speaker's gestures, and face and mouth movements. So the authors found the idea to display information of captions and speaker's face movement images with a suitable way to achieve a higher comprehension after storing information once into a computer briefly. In this paper, we investigate the relationship of the display sequence and display timing between captions that have speech recognition errors and the speaker's face movement images. The results show that the sequence “to display the caption before the speaker's face image” improves the comprehension of the captions. The sequence “to display both simultaneously” shows an improvement only a few percent higher than the question sentence, and the sequence “to display the speaker's face image before the caption” shows almost no change. In addition, the sequence “to display the caption 1 second before the speaker's face shows the most significant improvement of all the conditions.

  3. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  4. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  5. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  6. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  7. The new face of innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Erich

    2000-05-01

    The rapid changes in technology, the changes in the national and global economy and the emergence of many new nations that acquire an increasing competence to innovate is presenting us with new issues and opportunities. In particular, it affects the innovation system of the country, namely the scientific and technological infrastructure, the workforce and the policy environment in which government, industry, and academia operates. From a sequential or serial model we are moving or have moved to a dynamic, interactive one that encompasses more stakeholders in a realtime way. Of late, the work of the Council on Competitiveness has focused on the capacity for innovation as a pre-requisite for national competitiveness. This talk will discuss the results from its report "Going Global: The New Shape of American Innovation" and its "Findings from the Innovation Index" and assess the forces that affect the future. The main conclusion will be that the changes we have and will be facing are irreversible and require the active and positive participation of the technical professional and technical institutions. It also requires new relationships between the main participants of the innovation system.

  8. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  9. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  10. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  11. [A review of face illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  12. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  13. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  14. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  15. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  16. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  17. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  18. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  19. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic.

  20. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  1. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  2. Winning Faces Vary By Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  3. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  4. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  5. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-09

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  6. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salah, A.A.; Alyuz, N.; Akarun, L.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all faces in the g

  7. Addressee Identification In Face-to-Face Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, N.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Nijholt, Antinus; McCarthy, D.; Wintner, S.

    We present results on addressee identification in four-participants face-to-face meetings using Bayesian Network and Naive Bayes classifiers. First, we investigate how well the addressee of a dialogue act can be predicted based on gaze, utterance and conversational context features. Then, we explore

  8. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  9. Finding Hope in the Face-to-Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgoose, Jennifer Y C; Edgoose, Julian M

    2017-05-01

    What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Why the long face? The importance of vertical image structure for biological "barcodes" underlying face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Morgan L; Storrs, Katherine R; Arnold, Derek H

    2014-07-29

    Humans are experts at face recognition. The mechanisms underlying this complex capacity are not fully understood. Recently, it has been proposed that face recognition is supported by a coarse-scale analysis of visual information contained in horizontal bands of contrast distributed along the vertical image axis-a biological facial "barcode" (Dakin & Watt, 2009). A critical prediction of the facial barcode hypothesis is that the distribution of image contrast along the vertical axis will be more important for face recognition than image distributions along the horizontal axis. Using a novel paradigm involving dynamic image distortions, a series of experiments are presented examining famous face recognition impairments from selectively disrupting image distributions along the vertical or horizontal image axes. Results show that disrupting the image distribution along the vertical image axis is more disruptive for recognition than matched distortions along the horizontal axis. Consistent with the facial barcode hypothesis, these results suggest that human face recognition relies disproportionately on appropriately scaled distributions of image contrast along the vertical image axis.

  11. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  12. Age-invariant face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Unsang; Tong, Yiying; Jain, Anil K

    2010-05-01

    One of the challenges in automatic face recognition is to achieve temporal invariance. In other words, the goal is to come up with a representation and matching scheme that is robust to changes due to facial aging. Facial aging is a complex process that affects both the 3D shape of the face and its texture (e.g., wrinkles). These shape and texture changes degrade the performance of automatic face recognition systems. However, facial aging has not received substantial attention compared to other facial variations due to pose, lighting, and expression. We propose a 3D aging modeling technique and show how it can be used to compensate for the age variations to improve the face recognition performance. The aging modeling technique adapts view-invariant 3D face models to the given 2D face aging database. The proposed approach is evaluated on three different databases (i.g., FG-NET, MORPH, and BROWNS) using FaceVACS, a state-of-the-art commercial face recognition engine.

  13. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  14. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  15. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  16. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Biggelaar , van den Olivier

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss th

  17. Modeling Social Perception of Faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, A.T.; Oosterhof, N.N.

    2011-01-01

    The face is our primary source of visual information for identifying people and reading their emotional and mental states. With the exception of prosopagnosics (who are unable to recognize faces) and those suffering from such disorders of social cognition as autism, people are extremely adept at the

  18. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  19. Emotion-independent face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  20. Effective indexing for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.