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Sample records for non-vbd bh men

  1. Melting Behavior and Thermolysis of NaBH4−Mg(BH42 and NaBH4−Ca(BH42 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties and the hydrogen release of NaBH4–Mg(BH42 and NaBH4−Ca(BH42 composites are investigated using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and temperature programmed photographic analysis. The composite, xNaBH4–(1 − xMg(BH42, x = 0.4 to 0.5, shows melting/frothing between 205 and 220 °C. However, the sample does not become a transparent molten phase. This behavior is similar to other alkali-alkaline earth metal borohydride composites. In the xNaBH4–(1 − xCa(BH42 system, eutectic melting is not observed. Interestingly, eutectic melting in metal borohydrides systems leads to partial thermolysis and hydrogen release at lower temperatures and the control of sample melting may open new routes for obtaining high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  2. Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Men Historically, men have not been comfortable discussing issues about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression or sexual dysfunction. This has resulted in shorter ...

  3. Melting Behavior and Thermolysis of NaBH4−Mg(BH4)2 and NaBH4−Ca(BH4)2 Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Morten; Roedern, Elsa; Thygesen, Peter; Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The physical properties and the hydrogen release of NaBH 4 –Mg(BH 4 ) 2 and NaBH 4 −Ca(BH 4 ) 2 composites are investigated using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and temperature programmed photographic analysis. The composite, x NaBH 4 –(1 − x )Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , x = 0.4 to 0.5, shows melting/frothing between 205 and 220 °C. However, the sample does not become a transparent molten phase. This behavior is similar to other alkali-alkaline earth metal borohydr...

  4. Hydrogen generation behaviors of NaBH4-NH3BH3 composite by hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanmin; Wu, Chaoling; Chen, Yungui; Huang, Zhifen; Luo, Linshan; Wu, Haiwen; Liu, Peipei

    2014-09-01

    In this work, NH3BH3 (AB) is used to induce hydrogen generation during NaBH4 (SB) hydrolysis in order to reduce the use of catalysts, simplify the preparation process, reduce the cost and improve desorption kinetics and hydrogen capacity as well. xNaBH4-yNH3BH3 composites are prepared by ball-milling in different proportions (from x:y = 1:1 to 8:1). The experimental results demonstrate that all composites can release more than 90% of hydrogen at 70 °C within 1 h, and their hydrogen yields can reach 9 wt% (taking reacted water into account). Among them, the composites in the proportion of 4:1 and 5:1, whose hydrogen yields reach no less than 10 wt%, show the best hydrogen generation properties. This is due to the impact of the following aspects: AB additive improves the dispersibility of SB particles, makes the composite more porous, hampers the generated metaborate from adhering to the surface of SB, and decreases the pH value of the composite during hydrolysis. The main solid byproduct of this hydrolysis system is NaBO2·2H2O. By hydrolytic kinetic simulation of the composites, the fitted activation energies of the complexes are between 37.2 and 45.6 kJ mol-1, which are comparable to the catalytic system with some precious metals and alloys.

  5. Dehydriding and rehydriding reactions of LiBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimo, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Kitahara, G.; Miwa, K.; Ohba, N.; Towata, S.; Zuettel, A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural differences in LiBH 4 before and after the melting reaction at approximately 550-bar K were investigated to clarify the experimental method for the confirmation of reversible dehydriding and rehydriding reactions. Since the long-range order of LiBH 4 begins to disappear after the melting reaction was achieved, investigation of the atomistic vibrations of the [BH 4 ]-anion in LiBH 4 was found to be effective for the confirmation of the reversibility. In the present study, LiBH 4 was successively dehydrided (decomposed) into LiH and B under 1-bar MPa of hydrogen at 873-bar K, and then rehydrided (recombined) into LiBH 4 under 35-bar MPa of hydrogen at the same temperature (873-bar K). The temperatures at the beginning and ending of the dehydriding reaction are lowered, by approximately 30-bar K, for LiBH 4 substituted (or mixed) with Mg (atomic ratio of Li:Mg=9:1) as compared to those for LiBH 4 alone. This is similar to the tendency exhibited by LiNH 2

  6. A liquid-based eutectic system: LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3 with high dehydrogenation capacity at moderate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Yingbin; Guo, Yanhui; Li, Shaofeng; Sun, Weiwei; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Qi; Yu, Xuebin

    2011-01-01

    A novel eutectic hydrogen storage system, LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3, which exists in a liquid state at room temperature, was synthesized through a simple mixing of LiBH 4·NH3 and NH3BH3 (AB). In the temperature range of 90-110 °C, the eutectic system

  7. Vapor Pressure Measurements of LiBH4, NaBH 4 and Ca(BH4)2 using Knudsen Torsion Effusion Gravimetric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyan, Mohammad Masoumi

    Hydrogen storage is one of the critical technologies needed on the path towards commercialization for mobile applications. In the past few years, a range of new light weight hydrogen containing material has been discovered with good storage properties. Among them, lithium borohydride (LiBH 4) sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and calcium borohydride (Ca(BH 4)2) have shown promising results to be used as solid state hydrogen storage material. In this work, we have determined equilibrium vapor pressures of LiBH 4 NaBH4 and Ca(BH4)2 obtained by Torsion effusion thermogravimetric method. Results for all the three hydrides exhibited that a small fraction of the materials showed congruency, and sublimed as gaseous compound, but the majority of the material showed incongruent vaporization. Two Knudsen cells of 0.3 and 0.6mm orifice size was employed to measure the total vapor pressures. A Whitman-Motzfeldt method is used to extrapolate the measured vapor pressures to zero orifice size to calculate the equilibrium vapor pressures. In the case of LiBH4 we found that 2% of the material evaporated congruently (LiBH4(s) → LiBH4(g)) according to the equation: logPLiBH4/P 0 =-3263.5 +/-309/T + (1.079 +/-0.69) and rest as incongruent vaporization to LiH, B, and hydrogen gas according to the equation logPeq/P0 =(-3263.5 +/-309)/T+ (2.458 +/-0.69) with DeltaH evap.= 62.47+/-5.9 kJ/mol of H2, DeltaSevap. = 47.05+/-13 J/mol of H2.K. The NaBH4 also had somewhat similar behavior, with 9% congruent evaporation and equilibrium vapor pressure equation of logPLiBH4=-7700+/-335/ T+ (6.7+/-1.5) and 91% incongruent decomposition to Na and Boron metal, and hydrogen gas. The enthalpy of vaporization; DeltaHevap. = 147.2+/-6.4kJ/molH2 and DeltaSevap.= 142 +/-28 kJ/molH2.K (550-650K). The Ca(BH4) 2 exhibited similar vaporization behavior with congruency of 3.2%. The decomposition products are CaH2 and Boron metal with evolution of hydrogen gas varying with the pressure equation as logPeq /P0 =(-1562

  8. Increasing Hydrogen Density with the Cation-Anion Pair BH4−-NH4+ in Perovskite-Type NH4Ca(BH43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Schouwink

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel metal borohydride ammonia-borane complex Ca(BH42·NH3BH3 is characterized as the decomposition product of the recently reported perovskite-type metal borohydride NH4Ca(BH43, suggesting that ammonium-based metal borohydrides release hydrogen gas via ammonia-borane-complexes. For the first time the concept of proton-hydride interactions to promote hydrogen release is applied to a cation-anion pair in a complex metal hydride. NH4Ca(BH43 is prepared mechanochemically from Ca(BH42 and NH4Cl as well as NH4BH4 following two different protocols, where the synthesis procedures are modified in the latter to solvent-based ball-milling using diethyl ether to maximize the phase yield in chlorine-free samples. During decomposition of NH4Ca(BH43 pure H2 is released, prior to the decomposition of the complex to its constituents. As opposed to a previously reported adduct between Ca(BH42 and NH3BH3, the present complex is described as NH3BH3-stuffed α-Ca(BH42.

  9. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  10. Gemini spectroscopy of the outer disk star cluster BH176

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, M. E.; Donzelli, C. J.; Davoust, E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Charbonnel, C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. BH176 is an old metal-rich star cluster. It is spatially and kinematically consistent with belonging to the Monoceros Ring. It is larger in size and more distant from the Galactic plane than typical open clusters, and it does not belong to the Galactic bulge. Aims: Our aim is to determine the origin of this unique object by accurately determining its distance, metallicity, and age. The best way to reach this goal is to combine spectroscopic and photometric methods. Methods: We present medium-resolution observations of red clump and red giant branch stars in BH176 obtained with the Gemini South Multi-Object Spectrograph. We derive radial velocities, metallicities, effective temperatures, and surface gravities of the observed stars and use these parameters to distinguish member stars from field objects. Results: We determine the following parameters for BH176: Vh = 0 ± 15 km s-1, [Fe/H] = -0.1 ± 0.1, age 7 ± 0.5 Gyr, E(V - I) = 0.79 ± 0.03, distance 15.2 ± 0.2 kpc, α-element abundance [α/Fe] ~ 0.25 dex (the mean of [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe]). Conclusions: BH176 is a member of old Galactic open clusters that presumably belong to the thick disk. It may have originated as a massive star cluster after the encounter of the forming thin disk with a high-velocity gas cloud or as a satellite dwarf galaxy. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Theoretical investigation of structure and stability of molecules of borohydrides B2H6, AlBH6 and ScBH6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaev, D.G.; Zyubin, A.S.; Charkin, O.P.; Bonakkorsi, R.; Tomazi, Ya.

    1988-01-01

    Geometry of alternative structures of M 3+ BH 6 molecules are optimized on the two-exponent bases; their energies are refined with a fuller basis DEHD taking into account electron correlation within the frames of the MP3 method. The tendencies in the change of relative energies of the structures and their stability to decomposition are analyzed. It is noted that AlBH 6 and ScBH 6 molecules are not rigid to migration of M 3+ H 2 + ''cation'' round BH 4 - anion, as well ScBH 6 molecules are flexible to rotation of H 2 Sc group round the Sc-B axis. The data are compared with the results of previous similar calculations of borohydrides of elements in the first two groups (Li-Cu and Be-Zn)

  12. Ionic conductivity and the formation of cubic CaH2 in the LiBH4-Ca(BH4)2 composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Blanchard, Didier; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2014-01-01

    LiBH4–Ca(BH4)2 composites were prepared by ball milling. Their crystal structures and phase composition were investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, and their ionic conductivity was measured using impedance spectroscopy. The materials were found to form a physical...... treatment. Concurrent formation of elemental boron may also occur. The ionic conductivity of the composites was measured using impedance spectroscopy, and was found to be lower than that of ball milled LiBH4. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that cubic CaH2 with hydrogen defects...... is electronically conducting. Its formation along with the possible precipitation of boron therefore has an effect on the measured conductivity of the LiBH4–Ca(BH4)2 composites and may increase the risk of an internal short-circuit in the cells....

  13. Overcoming EMT-driven therapeutic resistance by BH3 mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Ulrike; Scheel, Christina; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the progression of cancer through enhanced invasion and stem-like properties of cancer cells. Additionally, EMT confers resistance towards many chemotherapeutics. We recently described a mechanism that mediates EMT-driven chemoresistance through augmented levels of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family (Keitel et al., Oncotarget, in press). Here, we elaborate on how these findings pertain to cancer cells dispersed in the tumor-adjacent stroma of breast cancer tissues, and how BH3-mimetics may provide a therapeutic strategy to eliminate cancer cell populations that have passed through an EMT.

  14. A liquid-based eutectic system: LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3 with high dehydrogenation capacity at moderate temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Yingbin

    2011-01-01

    A novel eutectic hydrogen storage system, LiBH4·NH 3-nNH3BH3, which exists in a liquid state at room temperature, was synthesized through a simple mixing of LiBH 4·NH3 and NH3BH3 (AB). In the temperature range of 90-110 °C, the eutectic system showed significantly improved dehydrogenation properties compared to the neat AB and LiBH 4·NH3 alone. For example, in the case of the LiBH4·NH3/AB with a mole ratio of 1:3, over 8 wt.% hydrogen could be released at 90 °C within 4 h, while only 5 wt.% hydrogen released from the neat AB at the same conditions. Through a series of experiments it has been demonstrated that the hydrogen release of the new system is resulted from an interaction of AB and the NH3 group in the LiBH4·NH3, in which LiBH4 works as a carrier of ammonia and plays a crucial role in promoting the interaction between the NH3 group and AB. The enhanced dehydrogenation of LiBH 4·NH3/AB may result from the polar liquid state reaction environments and the initially promoted formation of the diammoniate of diborane, which will facilitate the B-H⋯H-N interaction between LiBH4·NH3 and AB. Kinetics analysis revealed that the rate-controlling steps of the dehydrogenation process are three-dimensional diffusion of hydrogen at temperatures ranging from 90 to 110 °C. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Li-Ion Conductivity of LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Cl, Br, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payandeh GharibDoust, SeyedHosein; Brighi, Matteo; Sadikin, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new type of addition reaction between La(BH4)3 and LiX, X = Cl, Br, I, is used to synthesize LiLa(BH4)3Cl and two new compounds LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Br, I. This method increases the amounts of LiLa(BH4)3X and the sample purity. The highest Li-ion conductivity is observed for LiLa(BH4)...

  16. New fundamental experimental studies on α-Mg(BH4)2 and other borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, Hans; D'Anna, Vincenza; Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Cerny, Radovan; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Kim, Ki Chul; Sholl, David S.; Parker, Stewart F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Eutectic behavior is observed in the LiBH4 -Mg(BH4)2 system. → New INS data show good agreement with theoretical DFT calculations. → Temperature dependent Raman spectra complement previous NMR studies. - Abstract: Several new studies of Mg(BH 4 ) 2 are reported. A 1:1 LiBH 4 :Mg(BH 4 ) 2 mixture was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and reveals an eutectic behavior with the eutectic composition more rich in Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , and the eutectic temperature lower than 456 K. No dual cation compound was observed in this experiment. New vibrational spectra including INS data have been obtained and are compared with theoretical DFT calculations and recent NMR studies, showing good agreement.

  17. New fundamental experimental studies on {alpha}-Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and other borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Hans, E-mail: Hans-Rudolf.Hagemann@unige.ch [Dept. de Chim. Phys, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); D' Anna, Vincenza [Dept. de Chim. Phys, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Cerny, Radovan [Lab. Crystallography, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, Grenoble (France); Kim, Ki Chul; Sholl, David S. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta (United States); Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > Eutectic behavior is observed in the LiBH4 -Mg(BH4)2 system. > New INS data show good agreement with theoretical DFT calculations. > Temperature dependent Raman spectra complement previous NMR studies. - Abstract: Several new studies of Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} are reported. A 1:1 LiBH{sub 4}:Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} mixture was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and reveals an eutectic behavior with the eutectic composition more rich in Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, and the eutectic temperature lower than 456 K. No dual cation compound was observed in this experiment. New vibrational spectra including INS data have been obtained and are compared with theoretical DFT calculations and recent NMR studies, showing good agreement.

  18. Characteristics of Al Alloy as a Material for Hydrolysis Reactor of NaBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyeon-Seong; Oh, Sung-June; Jeong, Jae-Jin; Na, Il-Chai; Chu, Cheun-Ho; Park, Kwon-Pil; Chu, Cheun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum alloy was examined as a material of low weight reactor for hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . Aluminum is dissolved with alkali, but there is NaOH as a stabilizer in NaBH 4 solution. To decrease corrosion rate of aluminum, decrease NaOH concentration and this result in loss of NaBH 4 during storage of NaBH 4 solution. Therefore stability of NaBH 4 and corrosion of aluminum should be considered in determining the optimum NaOH concentration. NaBH 4 stability and corrosion rate of aluminum were measured by hydrogen evolution rate. NaBH 4 stability was tested at 20-50 .deg. C and aluminum corrosion was measured at 60-90 .deg. C. The optimum concentration of NaOH was 0.3 wt%, considering both NaBH 4 stability and aluminun corrosion. NaBH 4 hydrolysis reaction continued 200min in aluminum No 6061 alloy reactor with 0.3 wt% NaOH at 80-90 .deg. C.

  19. Characteristics of Al Alloy as a Material for Hydrolysis Reactor of NaBH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyeon-Seong; Oh, Sung-June; Jeong, Jae-Jin; Na, Il-Chai; Chu, Cheun-Ho; Park, Kwon-Pil [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Cheun-Ho [ETIS Co, Gimpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Aluminum alloy was examined as a material of low weight reactor for hydrolysis of NaBH{sub 4}. Aluminum is dissolved with alkali, but there is NaOH as a stabilizer in NaBH{sub 4} solution. To decrease corrosion rate of aluminum, decrease NaOH concentration and this result in loss of NaBH{sub 4} during storage of NaBH{sub 4} solution. Therefore stability of NaBH{sub 4} and corrosion of aluminum should be considered in determining the optimum NaOH concentration. NaBH{sub 4} stability and corrosion rate of aluminum were measured by hydrogen evolution rate. NaBH{sub 4} stability was tested at 20-50 .deg. C and aluminum corrosion was measured at 60-90 .deg. C. The optimum concentration of NaOH was 0.3 wt%, considering both NaBH{sub 4} stability and aluminun corrosion. NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis reaction continued 200min in aluminum No 6061 alloy reactor with 0.3 wt% NaOH at 80-90 .deg. C.

  20. Seeking for toroidal event horizons from initially stationary BH configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Marcelo; Lousto, Carlos; Zlochower, Yosef

    2011-01-01

    We construct and evolve non-rotating vacuum initial data with a ring singularity, based on a simple extension of the standard Brill-Lindquist multiple BH initial data, and search for event horizons with spatial slices that are toroidal when the ring radius is sufficiently large. While evolutions of the ring singularity are not numerically feasible for large radii, we find some evidence, based on configurations of multiple BHs arranged in a ring, that this configuration leads to singular limit where the horizon width has zero size, possibly indicating the presence of a naked singularity, when the radius of the ring is sufficiently large. This is in agreement with previous studies that have found that there is no apparent horizon surrounding the ring singularity when the ring's radius is larger than about twice its mass.

  1. BH3-only proteins and BH3 mimetics induce autophagy by competitively disrupting the interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Criollo, Alfredo; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Vicencio, José Miguel; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Hickman, John A; Geneste, Olivier; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Beclin 1 has recently been identified as novel BH3-only protein, meaning that it carries one Bcl-2-homology-3 (BH3) domain. As other BH3-only proteins, Beclin 1 interacts with anti-apoptotic multidomain proteins of the Bcl-2 family (in particular Bcl-2 and its homologue Bcl-X(L)) by virtue of its BH3 domain, an amphipathic alpha-helix that binds to the hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L). The BH3 domains of other BH3-only proteins such as Bad, as well as BH3-mimetic compounds such as ABT737, competitively disrupt the inhibitory interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L). This causes autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy) but not of the endoplasmic reticulum (reticulophagy). Only ER-targeted (not mitochondrion-targeted) Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) can inhibit autophagy induced by Beclin 1, and only Beclin 1-Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) complexes present in the ER (but not those present on heavy membrane fractions enriched in mitochondria) are disrupted by ABT737. These findings suggest that the Beclin 1-Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) complexes that normally inhibit autophagy are specifically located in the ER and point to an organelle-specific regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, these data suggest a spatial organization of autophagy and apoptosis control in which BH3-only proteins exert two independent functions. On the one hand, they can induce apoptosis, by (directly or indirectly) activating the mitochondrion-permeabilizing function of pro-apoptotic multidomain proteins from the Bcl-2 family. On the other hand, they can activate autophagy by liberating Beclin 1 from its inhibition by Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Preparation of Zn(BH4)2 and diborane and hydrogen release properties of Zn(BH4)2+xMgH2 (x=1, 5, 10, and 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Young Jun; Kwon, Sung Nam; Song, Myoung Youp

    2015-09-01

    Zn(BH4)2 was prepared by milling ZnCl2 and NaBH4 in a planetary ball mill under Ar atmosphere, and Zn(BH4)2+xMgH2 (x=1, 5, 10, and 15) samples were prepared. Diborane (B2H6) and hydrogen release characteristics of the Zn(BH4)2 and Zn(BH4)2+xMgH2 samples were studied. The samples synthesized by milling ZnCl2 and NaBH4 contained Zn(BH4)2 and NaCl, together with small amounts of ZnCl2 and NaBH4. We designated these samples as Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl). The weight loss up to 400 °C of the Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl) sample synthesized by milling 4 h was 11.2 wt%. FT-IR analysis showed that Zn(BH4)2 was formed in the Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl) samples. MgH2 was also milled in a planetary ball mill, and mixed with the Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl) synthesized by milling for 4 h in a mortar and pestle. The weight loss up to 400 °C of Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl)+MgH2 was 8.2 wt%, corresponding to the weight % of diborane and hydrogen released from the Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl)+MgH2 sample, with respect to the sample weight. DTA results of Zn(BH4)2(+NaCl)+xMgH2 showed that the decomposition peak of Zn(BH4)2 was at about 61 °C, and that of MgH2 was at about 370-389 °C.

  3. Dehydrogenation mechanism of LiBH{sub 4} by Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yan, Yurong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory for Fuel Cell Technology in Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Min, E-mail: memzhu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • LiBH{sub 4} is amorphous after modified with PMMA. • Dehydrogenation temperature of LiBH{sub 4} decreases by 120 °C after modifying with PMMA. • The LiBH{sub 4}@PMMA composite releases 10 wt.% hydrogen at 360 °C within 1 h. • C=O group of PMMA weakens the B−H bonds to lower dehydrogenation temperature. - Abstract: We investigated the dehydrogenation properties and mechanism of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) confined LiBH{sub 4}. Thermal stability of LiBH{sub 4} was reduced by PMMA, with a decrease in dehydrogenation temperature by 120 °C. At 360 °C, the composite showed fast dehydrogenation kinetics with 10 wt.% of hydrogen released within 1 h. The improved dehydrogenation performance was mainly attributed to the reaction between LiBH{sub 4} and PMMA forming Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as a final product. Furthermore, the presence of electrostatic interaction between B atom of LiBH{sub 4} and O atom in the carbonyl group of PMMA may weaken the B−H bonding of [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} and lower the hydrogen desorption temperature.

  4. BH5047 type depth sand moisture-meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Xie Liangnian; Zhang Shulan; Zhang Shuheng

    2000-01-01

    A new depth neutron moisture meter BH5047 has been developed. BH5047 neutron moisture meter is characterised by it is high sensitivity and used for sand water content measurement at concrete mixer. Calibration function is obtained by the Method of Least Squares. Linear correlation efficiency is as good as 0.9977

  5. Near infrared magnetic circular dichroism of uranium borohydride, U(BH4)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiderling, T.A.; Schulz, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic circular dichroism of U(BH 4 ) 4 in Hf(BH 4 ) 4 at low temperatures has been measured in the near. The A terms resulting can be interpreted to confirm the E symmetry ground state and three excited state assignments. (orig.)

  6. Nanostructured graphite-induced destabilization of LiBH4 for reversible hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wang, K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available been conducted to gain insight into the promoting effect of nano-G on the reversible dehydrogenation of the LiBH(sub4). Our study found that nano-G exerts its promoting effect via interaction with LiBH(sub4) and as grinding aid....

  7. XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh and the nature of gamma-ray burst supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Z.; Bersier, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wiersema, K.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fruchter, A.S.; Garnavich, P.; Gomboc, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Kasen, D.; Kopač, D.; Margutti, R.; Mazzali, P.A.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C.G.; Nugent, P.E.; Pian, E.; Smith, R.J.; Steele, I.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Woosley, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical and infrared observations of Swift XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh. It is seen that the optical light curves of SN 2010bh evolve at a faster rate than the archetype gamma-ray burst supernova (GRB-SN) 1998bw, but at a similar rate to SN 2006aj, an SN

  8. Determinants of the net interest margins in BH banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakalović Novo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the subject of analysis is influence of certain macroeconomic and microeconomic variables on bank net interest margins in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH for the period from 2008 to 2013 through a multiple linear regression models. The level and dynamics of NIM indicate the efficiency of financial intermediation. The observed period is characterized by the reduction in net interest margins of banks over the previous decade, which was characterized by high GDP growth, bank loans and high-interest rates and high profitability. Therefore, this study examines the factors that affect the level of net interest margins in the domestic banking industry. The main objective of this paper is to determine whether there is interdependence in the movement between the independent and dependent variables through a multiple linear regression. The net interest margin will be observed as a dependent variable, and liquidity risk, operating costs, credit risk, the index of market concentration, funding risk, the growth rate of gross domestic product and consumer price index will be used as independent variables.

  9. Theoretical study of the properties of BH3NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkley, J.S.; Thorne, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    Borane monoammoniate (BH 3 NH 3 ) has been studied using several ab initio electronic structure methods and Gaussian basis sets. Equilibrium geometries have been computed at the Hartree--Fock level and, using the electron-correlated Moller--Plesset perturbation method, carried out to third order (MP3) with double-zeta polarized quality basis sets. The computed MP3 geometry is in close agreement with recent microwave data; electron correlation is found to be necessary for a proper description of the B--N distance. Hartree--Fock dipole moments and harmonic vibrational frequencies are presented and discussed. Moller--Plesset perturbation theory carried out to fourth order with triple-zeta plus polarization basis sets is used to compute a B--N dissociation energy of 34.7 kcal mol -1 and a (Hartree--Fock zero-point corrected) rotational barrier of 2.065 kcal mol -1 , which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value. Analysis of the dissociation energy as a function of perturbation order indicates that terms involving triple and quadruple substitutions are required in the dissociation energy

  10. Biofouling inhibition in MBR by Rhodococcus sp. BH4 isolated from real MBR plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Cheong, Won-Suk; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2013-12-01

    It has been reported that an indigenous quorum quenching bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. BH4, which was isolated from a real plant of membrane bioreactor (MBR) has promising potential to control biofouling in MBR. However, little is known about quorum quenching mechanisms by the strain BH4. In this study, various characteristics of strain BH4 were investigated to elucidate its behavior in more detail in the mixed liquor of MBR. The N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase (AHL-lactonase) gene of strain BH4 showed a high degree of identity to qsdA in Rhodococcus erythropolis W2. The LC-ESI-MS analysis of the degradation product by strain BH4 confirmed that it inactivated AHL activity by hydrolyzing the lactone bond of AHL. It degraded a wide range of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), but there was a large difference in the degradation rate of each AHL compared to other reported AHL-lactonase-producing strains belonging to Rhodococcus genus. Its quorum quenching activity was confirmed not only in the Luria-Bertani medium, but also in the synthetic wastewater. Furthermore, the amount of strain BH4 encapsulated in the vessel as well as the material of the vessel substantially affected the quorum quenching activity of strain BH4, which provides useful information, particularly for the biofouling control in a real MBR plant from an engineering point of view.

  11. An Energy Dense-AI-NaBH4-PEMFC Based Power Generator for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    From- To) 03/01/2016 Final 01/28/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER An Energy-Dense AI-NaBH4- PEMFC Based Power Generator for...combination of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) with a compact hydrogen generator util izing AI-NaBH4 composite fuel. The conditions...ANSI Std. Z39.18 FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER. Crl’nrmg EnPrgy lnrll’pendrnr£’ An Energy-Dense Al-NaBH4- PEMFC Based Power Generator for Unmanned

  12. Non-Covalent Interactions in Hydrogen Storage Materials LiN(CH32BH3 and KN(CH32BH3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Sagan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an in-depth, qualitative and quantitative description of non-covalent interactions in the hydrogen storage materials LiN(CH32BH3 and KN(CH32BH3 was performed by means of the charge and energy decomposition method (ETS-NOCV as well as the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA approach. It was determined that both crystals are stabilized by electrostatically dominated intra- and intermolecular M∙∙∙H–B interactions (M = Li, K. For LiN(CH32BH3 the intramolecular charge transfer appeared (B–H→Li to be more pronounced compared with the corresponding intermolecular contribution. We clarified for the first time, based on the ETS-NOCV and IQA methods, that homopolar BH∙∙∙HB interactions in LiN(CH32BH3 can be considered as destabilizing (due to the dominance of repulsion caused by negatively charged borane units, despite the fact that some charge delocalization within BH∙∙∙HB contacts is enforced (which explains H∙∙∙H bond critical points found from the QTAIM method. Interestingly, quite similar (to BH∙∙∙HB intermolecular homopolar dihydrogen bonds CH∙∙∙HC appared to significantly stabilize both crystals—the ETS-NOCV scheme allowed us to conclude that CH∙∙∙HC interactions are dispersion dominated, however, the electrostatic and σ/σ*(C–H charge transfer contributions are also important. These interactions appeared to be more pronounced in KN(CH32BH3 compared with LiN(CH32BH3.

  13. Fluoride substitution in LiBH4; destabilization and decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Bo; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Sharma, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride substitution in LiBH4 is studied by investigation of LiBH4-LiBF4 mixtures (9:1 and 3:1). Decomposition was followed by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (in situ SR-PXD), thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry with gas analysis (TGA/DSC-MS) and in ......Fluoride substitution in LiBH4 is studied by investigation of LiBH4-LiBF4 mixtures (9:1 and 3:1). Decomposition was followed by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (in situ SR-PXD), thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry with gas analysis (TGA...

  14. Destabilized LiBH4-NaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qing; Yu, Xuebin; Feidenhans'l, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the hydrogen storage properties of the mixed complex hydride LiBH4-NaAlH4 system, both undoped and doped with a TiCl3 additive. The mixed system is found to initiate a transformation to LiBH4-NaAlH4 after ball-milling, and the doped system is found to have a significant lower hydro...

  15. Photochemistry of U(BH4)4 and U(BD4)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.; Schonberg, P.R.; Light, R.W.; Danen, W.C.; Freund, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    U(BH 4 ) 4 and U(BD 4 ) 4 are observed to undergo complex degradation reactions promoted by broadband UV radiation. The primary products of these reactions appear to be U(BH 4 ) 3 , B 2 H 6 , H 2 , U(BD 4 ) 3 , B 2 D 6 and D 2 . Further, U(BD 4 ) 4 undergoes a related decomposition reaction under the influence of CO 2 laser irradiation at 924.97 cm -1 . (author)

  16. An Integrated Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Approach Identifies New BH3-Only Protein Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Robert G; Chen, Yuzhong; Riz, Irene; Zeng, Chen

    2012-05-04

    In this study, we utilized an integrated bioinformatics and computational biology approach in search of new BH3-only proteins belonging to the BCL2 family of apoptotic regulators. The BH3 (BCL2 homology 3) domain mediates specific binding interactions among various BCL2 family members. It is composed of an amphipathic α-helical region of approximately 13 residues that has only a few amino acids that are highly conserved across all members. Using a generalized motif, we performed a genome-wide search for novel BH3-containing proteins in the NCBI Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) database. In addition to known pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, 197 proteins were recovered that satisfied the search criteria. These were categorized according to α-helical content and predictive binding to BCL-xL (encoded by BCL2L1) and MCL-1, two representative anti-apoptotic BCL2 family members, using position-specific scoring matrix models. Notably, the list is enriched for proteins associated with autophagy as well as a broad spectrum of cellular stress responses such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, antiviral defense, and the DNA damage response. Several potential novel BH3-containing proteins are highlighted. In particular, the analysis strongly suggests that the apoptosis inhibitor and DNA damage response regulator, AVEN, which was originally isolated as a BCL-xL-interacting protein, is a functional BH3-only protein representing a distinct subclass of BCL2 family members.

  17. Hydrolysis mechanism of BH4- in moist acetonitrile. III. Kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, B.S. Jr.; Kreevoy, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The present work and a concurrent paper show that, in the presence of acetic acid, BH 4 - in acetonitrile is rapidly converted to BH 3 OCOCH 3 - and that previous kinetic studies of the hydrolysis of BH 4 - in such solutions actually referred to the hydrolysis of BH 3 OCOCH 3 - . As previously shown, the substrate (now shown to be BH 3 OCOCH 3 - ) complexes with acetic acid, with a complexing constant of about 160. That complex hydrolyzes by spontaneous and water-catalyzed paths. The present paper shows that the latter reaction is accelerated 15 to 40% by the substitution of D for H on boron. The rate is reduced, by a factor of approx. 1.75, by replacing all the hydroxylic hydrogen with deuterium. These results are consistent with BH 3 OC(CH 3 )O . HOCOCH 3 as the acetic acid-substrate complex. The displacement of the incipient biacetate ion by water is rate determining in this process. Isotopic substitution at either position reduces the rate of the spontaneous process. Its mechanism is uncertain. 2 figures, 3 tables

  18. Hindered rotational energy barriers of BH4- tetrahedra in β-Mg(BH4)2 from quasielastic neutron scattering and DFT calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Maronsson, Jon Bergmann; Riktor, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    , around the 2-fold (C2) and 3-fold (C3) axes were observed at temperatures from 120 to 440 K. The experimentally obtained activation energies (EaC2 = 39 and 76 meV and EaC3 = 214 meV) and mean residence times between reorientational jumps are comparable with the energy barriers obtained from DFT......In this work, hindered rotations of the BH4- tetrahedra in Mg(BH4)2 were studied by quasielastic neutron scattering, using two instruments with different energy resolution, in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Two thermally activated reorientations of the BH4- units...... calculations. A linear dependency of the energy barriers for rotations around the C2 axis parallel to the Mg-Mg axis with the distance between these two axes was revealed by the DFT calculations. At the lowest temperature (120 K) only 15% of the BH4- units undergo rotational motion and from comparison with DFT...

  19. B-H Bond Activation by an Amidinate-Stabilized Amidosilylene: Non-Innocent Amidinate Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sabrina; Shan, Yu-Liang; Yang, Ming-Chung; Li, Yongxin; Su, Ming-Der; So, Cheuk-Wai

    2018-05-21

    The activation of B-H and B-Cl bonds in boranes by base-stabilized low-valent silicon compounds is described. The reaction of the amidinato amidosilylene-borane adduct [L{Ar(Me 3 Si)N}SiBH 3 ] [1; L = PhC(N tBu) 2 , and Ar = 2,6- iPr 2 C 6 H 3 ] with MeOTf in toluene at room temperature formed [L{Ar(Me 3 Si)N}SiBH 2 OTf] (2). [LSiN(SiMe 3 )Ar] in compound 2 then underwent a B-H bond activation with BH 2 OTf in refluxing toluene to afford the B-H bond activation product [LB(H)Si(H)(OTf){N(SiMe 3 )Ar}] (3). On the other hand, when compound 2 was reacted with 4-dimethylaminopyridine in refluxing toluene, another B-H bond activation product [(μ-κ1:κ1-L)B(H)(DMAP)Si(H){N(Ar)SiMe 3 }]OTf (4) was afforded. Mechanistic studies show that "(μ-κ1:κ1-L)B(H)(OTf)Si(H){N(Ar)SiMe 3 }" (2A) is the key intermediate in the reactions mentioned above. The formation of 2A is further evidenced by the activation of the B-Cl bond in PhBCl 2 by the amidinato silicon(I) dimer [LSi:] 2 to form the B-Cl bond activation product [(μ-κ1:κ1-L)B(Cl)(Ph)Si(Cl)] 2 (6). Compounds 2-4 and 6 were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

  20. Investigation of the role of NaBH4 in the chemical synthesis of gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, Akshaya K.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2010-01-01

    An improvement in the previously reported seed-mediated chemical synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported. Monodisperse GNRs have been synthesized in a one-step protocol. The addition of controlled quantity of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) directly into the growth solution produced uniform GNRs, formed by in situ nucleation and growth. In order to arrive at the conclusion, we studied the formation of GNRs with various seeds, of metals of widely differing crystal structures, and there were no variations in the properties of the GNRs formed. The role of NaBH 4 in the growth of GNR, which has not been covered in previous reports, is discussed in detail. The dependence of longitudinal plasmon peak on the concentration of NaBH 4 is compared with the dependence of residual concentration of NaBH 4 in the seed solution, which is added to the growth solution in seed-mediated synthesis. The study shows that NaBH 4 plays an important role in the formation of GNRs. This proposed protocol offers a number of advantages: one-step preparation of GNRs, significant reduction in the preparation time to 10 min, high monodispersity of GNRs, and tailorability of the aspect ratio depending on NaBH 4 concentration. It is suggested that NaBH 4 added to the growth solution leads to in situ formation of the seed particles of the size of 3-5 nm which enables the growth of GNRs. The growth of GNRs suggested here is likely to have an impact on the preparation of other anisotropic structures. Our single-pot methodology makes the procedure directly adaptable for commercial-scale production of GNRs and for their synthesis even in undergraduate laboratories.

  1. Molecular epidemiology, genotype-phenotype correlation and BH4 responsiveness in Spanish patients with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Llarena, Marta; Bueno, María A; Dalmau, Jaime; Vitoria, Isidro; Fernández-Marmiesse, Ana; Andrade, Fernando; Blasco, Javier; Alcalde, Carlos; Gil, David; García, María C; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Ruiz, Mónica; Ruiz, María A; Peña-Quintana, Luis; González, David; Sánchez-Valverde, Felix; Desviat, Lourdes R; Pérez, Belen; Couce, María L

    2016-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism, is caused by mutations in the phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase (PAH) gene. This study aimed to assess the genotype-phenotype correlation in the PKU Spanish population and the usefulness in establishing genotype-based predictions of BH4 responsiveness in our population. It involved the molecular characterization of 411 Spanish PKU patients: mild hyperphenylalaninemia non-treated (mild HPA-NT) (34%), mild HPA (8.8%), mild-moderate (20.7%) and classic (36.5%) PKU. BH4 responsiveness was evaluated using a 6R-BH4 loading test. We assessed genotype-phenotype associations and genotype-BH4 responsiveness in our population according to literature and classification of the mutations. The mutational spectrum analysis showed 116 distinct mutations, most missense (70.7%) and located in the catalytic domain (62.9%). The most prevalent mutations were c.1066-11G>A (9.7%), p.Val388Met (6.6%) and p.Arg261Gln (6.3%). Three novel mutations (c.61-13del9, p.Ile283Val and p.Gly148Val) were reported. Although good genotype-phenotype correlation was observed, there was no exact correlation for some genotypes. Among the patients monitored for the 6R-BH4 loading test: 102 were responders (87, carried either one or two BH4-responsive alleles) and 194 non-responders (50, had two non-responsive mutations). More discrepancies were observed in non-responders. Our data reveal a great genetic heterogeneity in our population. Genotype is quite a good predictor of phenotype and BH4 responsiveness, which is relevant for patient management, treatment and follow-up.

  2. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  3. Effect of MoS2 on hydrogenation storage properties of LiBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Dan; Han, Shumin; Wang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen storage properties of LiBH 4 ball milled with 20 wt% MoS 2 have been investigated. It shows that the LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 exhibits favorable hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties in terms of decomposition temperature and hydriding/dehydriding reversibility. The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C and has a decrease of 80 °C in contrast with pristine LiBH 4 . Furthermore, for the second cycle, the LiBH 4 with MoS 2 maintains a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of about 8.0 wt% which is almost identical with the first cycle under 5 MPa at 550 °C. Analyzed by the XRD and the FTIR results, LiBH 4 can be regenerated after re-hydrogenation under a relatively mild condition by adding MoS 2 . The improvement of the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties mainly results from the formation of Li 2 S and MoB 2 during ball milling. -- Graphical abstract: Hydrogen absorption curves of LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 for five cycles at 400 °C. Highlights: • The hydrogen absorption capacity is nearly the same for 5 cycles at 400 °C. • The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C. • The coexistence of MoB 2 and Li 2 S catalyzes the decomposition of LiBH 4

  4. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  5. THE M bh-σ DIAGRAM AND THE OFFSET NATURE OF BARRED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Li Ihui

    2009-01-01

    From a sample of 50 predominantly inactive galaxies with direct supermassive black hole mass measurements, it has recently been established that barred galaxies tend to reside rightward of the M bh -σ relation defined by nonbarred galaxies. Either black holes in barred galaxies tend to be anemic or the central velocity dispersions in these galaxies have a tendency to be elevated by the presence of the bar. The latter option is in accord with studies connecting larger velocity dispersions in galaxies with old bars, while the former scenario is at odds with the observation that barred galaxies do not deviate from the M bh -luminosity relation. Using a sample of 88 galaxies with active galactic nuclei, whose supermassive black hole masses have been estimated from their associated emission lines, we reveal for the first time that they also display this same general behavior in the M bh -σ diagram depending on the presence of a bar or not. A new symmetrical and nonsymmetrical 'barless' M bh -σ relation is derived using 82 nonbarred galaxies. The barred galaxies are shown to reside on or up to ∼1 dex below this relation. This may explain why narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies appear offset from the 'barless' M bh -σ relation, and has far-reaching implications given that over half of the disk galaxy population are barred.

  6. Li7(BH)5(+): a new thermodynamically favored star-shaped molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Juan J; Vásquez-Espinal, Alejandro; Beltran, Maria J; Ruiz, Lina; Islas, Rafael; Tiznado, William

    2015-07-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of Lin(BH)5(n-6) systems (where n = 5, 6, and 7) were explored using the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) program, in order to find their global minima conformations. This search predicts that the lowest-energy isomers of Li6(BH)5 and Li7(BH)5(+) contain a (BH)5(6-) pentagonal fragment, which is isoelectronic and structurally analogous to the prototypical aromatic hydrocarbon anion C5H5(-). Li7(BH)5(+), along with Li7C5(+), Li7Si5(+) and Li7Ge5(+), joins a select group of clusters that adopt a seven-peak star-shape geometry, which is favored by aromaticity in the central five-membered ring, and by the preference of Li atoms for bridging positions. The theoretical analysis of chemical bonding, based on magnetic criteria, supports the notion that electronic delocalization is an important stabilization factor in all these star-shaped clusters.

  7. Co@MWNTs-Plastic: A novel electrode for NaBH4 oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Ye, Ke; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Bin; Cheng, Kui; Li, Yiju; Wang, Guiling; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MP substrate was fabricated by adhering MWNTs on a piece of obsoleted plastic bag. • Co nano-thorns were prepared by a simple electrodeposition method on the MP surface. • MP owns a superior stability in strong alkaline environment. • CMP exhibits a high catalytic activity for NaBH 4 electrooxidation. • The possible mechanisms of NaBH 4 electrooxidation on CMP was discussed. - Abstract: A novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-Plastic (MP) substrate was first fabricated by adhering MWNTs on a piece of obsoleted plastic bag, and Co nano-thorns were subsequently prepared by a simple electrodeposition method on the MP surface. The morphology and phase structure of the as-prepared Co@MWNTs-Plastic (CMP) catalytic electrode are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer. The catalytic activity of the CMP electrode for NaBH 4 electrooxidation is investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The employing of waste plastic bags reduces white pollution and the MP substrate exhibits superior stability in alkaline solution. The 3D CMP catalytic electrode owns a high electrochemical activity for NaBH 4 oxidation. Moreover, we discussed the possible mechanisms of NaBH 4 electrooxidation on the CMP

  8. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  9. Synthesis, Structure, and Li-Ion Conductivity of LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Cl, Br, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GharibDoust, Seyed Hosein Payandeh; Brighi, Matteo; Sadikin, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new type of addition reaction between La(BH4)3 and LiX, X = Cl, Br, I, is used to synthesize LiLa(BH4)3Cl and two new compounds LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Br, I. This method increases the amounts of LiLa(BH4)3X and the sample purity. The highest Li-ion conductivity is observed for LiLa(BH4...... with increasing lattice parameter, that is, increasing size of the halide ion in the structure. Thus, we conclude that the sizes of both windows are important for the lithium ion conduction in LiLa(BH4)3X compounds. The lithium ion conductivity is measured over one to three heating cycles and with different...

  10. Effect of Mg, Ca, and Zn on stability of LiBH{sub 4} through computational thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Liu, Zi-Kui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of divalent metal-dopants, Mg, Ca, and Zn, on the stability of LiBH{sub 4} is studied by using the first-principles calculations and CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) modeling. The ground states of Mg{sub 1/2}BH{sub 4}, Ca{sub 1/2}BH{sub 4}, and Zn{sub 1/2}BH{sub 4} are shown to be I anti 4m2, F2dd, and I anti 4m2, respectively, through first-principles calculations. Positive enthalpy of mixing between Li and the alloying element is predicted, indicating unfavorable solubility of alloying elements in LiBH{sub 4} and thus offering possibility to decrease the stability of LiBH{sub 4}. The ionic sublattice model of (Li{sup +}, M{sup 2+}, Va){sub 1}(BH{sub 4}{sup -}){sub 1} is adopted for the metal substituted LiBH{sub 4} phase. It is observed that the addition of Mg or Zn has limited effect as the decomposition temperature is between those of LiBH{sub 4} and M{sub 1/2}BH{sub 4} for Mg and Zn substitutions. LiBH{sub 4} is destabilized with magnesium borides or LiZn{sub 4} formation but its decomposition temperature is higher than that of M{sub 1/2}BH{sub 4}. On the other hand, the addition of Ca significantly reduces the H{sub 2} releasing temperature due to the formation of highly stable CaB{sub 6}. (author)

  11. XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh AND THE NATURE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Z.; Bersier, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; D'Avanzo, P.; Margutti, R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Garnavich, P.; Gomboc, A.; Kopac, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Kasen, D.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pian, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical and infrared observations of Swift XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh. It is seen that the optical light curves of SN 2010bh evolve at a faster rate than the archetype gamma-ray burst supernova (GRB-SN) 1998bw, but at a similar rate to SN 2006aj, an SN that was spectroscopically linked with XRF 060218, and at a similar rate to the non-GRB associated Type Ic SN 1994I. We estimate the rest-frame extinction of this event from our optical data to be E(B - V) = 0.18 ± 0.08 mag. We find the V-band absolute magnitude of SN 2010bh to be M V = -18.62 ± 0.08, which is the faintest peak V-band magnitude observed to date for spectroscopically confirmed GRB-SNe. When we investigate the origin of the flux at t - t 0 = 0.598 days, it is shown that the light is not synchrotron in origin, but is likely coming from the SN shock breakout. We then use our optical and infrared data to create a quasi-bolometric light curve of SN 2010bh, which we model with a simple analytical formula. The results of our modeling imply that SN 2010bh synthesized a nickel mass of M Ni ∼ 0.1 M sun , ejected M ej ∼ 2.2 M sun , and has an explosion energy of E k ∼ 1.4 x 10 52 erg. Thus, while SN 2010bh is an energetic explosion, the amount of nickel created during the explosion is much less than that of SN 1998bw and only marginally more than SN 1994I. Finally, for a sample of 22 GRB-SNe we check for a correlation between the stretch factors and luminosity factors in the R band and conclude that no statistically significant correlation exists.

  12. Getting the sigma in the M_BH - sigma relation right

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, Roeland

    2017-08-01

    The relation between the mass of the central supermassive black hole (M_BH) and the velocity dispersion of its host spheroid (sigma) is fundamental for our understanding of galaxy evolution and its relation to their nuclei. Correspondingly many HST orbits have been invested in determining accurate M_BH masses. Surprisingly little has been done on standardizing the other axis, i.e. sigma measurements. These values are often derived from various long-slit datasets at different physical radii of the galaxy and no homogeneous definition has been given. We propose to remedy this situation by using our dataset of MUSE and PPAK kinematic maps out to 1 R_e of galaxies with a secure black hole mass. These data are useful for large scale kinematics, however, obtaining velocity dispersions at small radii is not possible. To measure velocity dispersions at small radii we require high-spatial resolution spectroscopy as provided by HST/STIS. In addtion, high-resolution photometric data is needed to define consistent apertures in each galaxy. We therefore propose to use the unique capabilities of HST and harvest years of efforts to collect archival spectroscopic and imaging data for BH host galaxies. This will allow creating a catalog of sigma values, calculated in various ways and at various radii and to re-calibrate the M_BH - sigma relation.

  13. BH3 mimetics inhibit growth of chondrosarcoma--a novel targeted-therapy for candidate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Kouki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Akira; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Hornicek, Francis J; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2014-11-01

    Chondrosarcoma is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. BH-3 mimetics ABT-737 and ABT-263 are synthetic small-molecule inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) and Bcl-xL, which play a critical role in survival of chondrosarcoma cells. Chondrosarcoma cell lines SW-1353 and CS-1 were used as the disease model. We used immunoblotting to assess the expression of target molecules Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, and the apoptotic inducers Bcl2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl2-antagonist/killer (Bak). In vitro growth inhibition by BH-3 mimetics was confirmed by photomicroscopic cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Apoptotic induction was confirmed by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). In vivo growth inhibition was assessed in a non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mouse model. Expression of the target and effector molecules was confirmed in chondrosarcoma cell lines. BH3 mimetics significantly inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro. Administration of ABT-263 inhibited chondrosarcoma growth and improved survival in a mouse model. BH3 mimetics represent a novel treatment modality for chondrosarcoma. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. The development of BH3105E type neutron dose-equivalent meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Wang Tingting; Zhang Shuheng; Tan Baozeng

    2011-01-01

    A new BH3105E Type Neutron Dose-equivalent Meter has been developed. The 'multi-stick' ab- sorption method is used for thermal -14 MeV neutron equal dose-equivalent detection, what gives a high neutron sensitivity of 5 cps/μSv · h-1. RS-232 interface is accepted for signal communication (authors)

  15. Structural stability of complex hydrides LiBH4 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodziana, Zbigniew; Vegge, Tejs

    2004-01-01

    A systematic approach to study the phase stability of LiBH4 based on ab initio calculations is presented. Three thermodynamically stable phases are identified and a new phase of Cc symmetry is proposed for the first time for a complex hydride. The x-ray diffraction pattern and vibrational spectra...

  16. First-principles calculated decomposition pathways for LiBH4 nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Quan; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Majzoub, Eric H.; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds

    2016-05-01

    We analyze thermodynamic stability and decomposition pathways of LiBH4 nanoclusters using grand-canonical free-energy minimization based on total energies and vibrational frequencies obtained from density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. We consider (LiBH4)n nanoclusters with n = 2 to 12 as reactants, while the possible products include (Li)n, (B)n, (LiB)n, (LiH)n, and Li2BnHn; off-stoichiometric LinBnHm (m ≤ 4n) clusters were considered for n = 2, 3, and 6. Cluster ground-state configurations have been predicted using prototype electrostatic ground-state (PEGS) and genetic algorithm (GA) based structural optimizations. Free-energy calculations show hydrogen release pathways markedly differ from those in bulk LiBH4. While experiments have found that the bulk material decomposes into LiH and B, with Li2B12H12 as a kinetically inhibited intermediate phase, (LiBH4)n nanoclusters with n ≤ 12 are predicted to decompose into mixed LinBn clusters via a series of intermediate clusters of LinBnHm (m ≤ 4n). The calculated pressure-composition isotherms and temperature-pressure isobars exhibit sloping plateaus due to finite size effects on reaction thermodynamics. Generally, decomposition temperatures of free-standing clusters are found to increase with decreasing cluster size due to thermodynamic destabilization of reaction products.

  17. Mechanism for formation of NaBH4 proposed as low-pressure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrogen cell. It was determined that ... catalyst was studied in batch reactors. It was suggested ... NaBH4 is a non-reversible chemical hydride that was used ... Based on reaction chemistry, when hydrogen gas was to be stored in .... The solid–liquid.

  18. Structural Phase Transitions of Mg(BH4)2 under Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.; Drozd, V.; Saxena, S.; Bardaji, E.; Fichtner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The structural stability of Mg(BH4)2, a promising hydrogen storage material, under pressure has been investigated in a diamond anvil cell up to 22 GPa with combined synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses show a structural phase transition around 2.5 GPa and again around 14.4 GPa. An ambient-pressure phase of Mg(BH4)2 has a hexagonal structure (space group P61, a = 10.047(3) A, c = 36.34(1) A, and V = 3176(1) A3 at 0.2 GPa), which agrees well with early reports. The structure of high-pressure phase is found to be different from reported theoretical predictions; it also does not match the high-temperature phase. The high-pressure polymorph of Mg(BH4)2 is found to be stable on decompression, similar to the case of the high-temperature phase. Raman spectroscopic study shows a similarity in high-pressure behavior of as-prepared Mg(BH4)2 and its high-temperature phase.

  19. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  20. A dental perspective on the taxonomic affinity of the Balanica mandible (BH-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Matthew M; de Vries, Dorien; Gunz, Philipp; Kupczik, Kornelius; Klassen, R Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Pleistocene represents a period of critical importance in human evolution, marked by encephalisation and dental reduction, and increasing diversification of temporally and spatially distributed hominin lineages in Africa, Asia and Europe. New specimens, especially from areas less well represented in the fossil record, can inform the debate on morphological changes to the skeleton and teeth and the phylogenetic course of human evolution during this period. The mandible from the cave of Mala Balanica, Serbia has recently been re-dated to at least 400 ka, and its well-preserved dentition presents an excellent opportunity to characterize molar crown morphology at this time period, and re-examine claims for a lack of Neandertal affinities in the specimen. In this study we employ microtomography to image the internal structure of the mandibular molars (focusing on the morphology of the enamel-dentine junction, or EDJ) of the BH-1 specimen and a comparative sample (n = 141) of Homo erectus sensu lato, Homo neanderthalensis, Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and recent H. sapiens. We quantitatively assess EDJ morphology using 3D geometric morphometrics and examine the expression of discrete dental traits at the dentine surface. We also compare third molar enamel thickness in BH-1 to those of H. neanderthalensis and both Pleistocene and recent H. sapiens, and document previously unreported morphology of the BH-1 premolar and molar roots. Our results highlight the reliability of the EDJ surface for classifying hominin taxa, indicate a primitive dental morphology for BH-1 molars, and confirm a general lack of derived Neandertal features for the Balanica individual. The plesiomorphic character of BH-1 is consistent with several competing models of Middle Pleistocene hominin evolution and provides an important regional and temporal example for reconstructing morphological changes in the mandible and teeth during this time period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Studies of biological effects of fluoride stannous and UV short in Escherichia coli BH110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da C, R., E-mail: rogercosta1@hotmail.com [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Goias, Campus Uruacu, Rua Formosa Qd 28 e 29, Loteamento Santana, 76400-000 Uruacu, Goias (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The amount of UV rays on the Earth's surface has increased due to depletion of the ozone layer, and this has worried society, since these radiation although not considered ionizing can cause damage to biological membrane and especially to DNA. The DNA has cell repair mechanisms that can work in lesions caused by electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet -short (UV C)and agents causing oxidative stress, such as tin salts. Among the repair mechanisms can highlight the adaptive repair, which consists of smaller doses to cells pre-exposure of an oxidizing agent, and when these cells are exposed to larger doses of the agent even if there is a reduction in mortality rate which leads to complete that repair mechanisms are activated in the pre-exposure reducing cell mortality. Several publications have shown the genotoxic effects of stannous salts such as stannous fluoride (SnF{sub 2}), which shows the importance of the study, since these salts are widely used in industry as components in toothpastes and mouthwashes. So we check whether pretreatment with UV C is able to induce adaptive response reducing the cytotoxic effects caused by exposure of the strains to SnF{sub 2}. We use a strain of Escherichia coli BH110 (BH110 E. coli) deficient in three genes (fpg, nfo and xth) involved in the excision repair bases. To verify the induction of adaptive response to strain BH110 was exposed to various doses of UV C and then treated with SnF{sub 2} a concentration of 110 u M. Our results showed that the LD10 of strain BH110 is 20 J/m{sup 2} and pre-treatment with UV C does not seem to induce adaptive repair in BH110 strains. (Author)

  2. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Properties and Reversibility of LiBH4 Confined in Two-Dimensional Ti3C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lei; Sun, Weiyi; Liu, Song; Huang, Yike; Yuan, Huatang; Tao, Zhanliang; Wang, Yijing

    2018-05-30

    LiBH 4 is of particular interest as one of the most promising materials for solid-state hydrogen storage. Herein, LiBH 4 is confined into a novel two-dimensional layered Ti 3 C 2 MXene through a facile impregnation method for the first time to improve its hydrogen storage performance. The initial desorption temperature of LiBH 4 is significantly reduced, and the de-/rehydrogenation kinetics are remarkably enhanced. It is found that the initial desorption temperature of LiBH 4 @2Ti 3 C 2 hybrid decreases to 172.6 °C and releases 9.6 wt % hydrogen at 380 °C within 1 h, whereas pristine LiBH 4 only releases 3.2 wt % hydrogen under identical conditions. More importantly, the dehydrogenated products can partially rehydrogenate at 300 °C and under 95 bar H 2 . The nanoconfined effect caused by unique layered structure of Ti 3 C 2 can hinder the particles growth and agglomeration of LiBH 4 . Meanwhile, Ti 3 C 2 could possess superior effect to destabilize LiBH 4 . The synergetic effect of destabilization and nanoconfinement contributes to the remarkably lowered desorption temperature and improved de-/rehydrogenation kinetics.

  3. The M BH versus M Gσ2 relation and the accretion of supermassive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a possible scenario that can explain the physical processes underlying the relation log 10 (M BH ) = b + mlog 10 (M G σ 2 /c 2 ) between the mass M BH of supermassive black holes, growing in the center of many galaxies, and the kinetic energy of the corresponding bulges (M G being the bulge mass and σ the velocity dispersion). In a series of papers, this scaling law proved to be very useful to describe the evolution of galaxies thanks to its close similarity to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Studying the relation with different samples of galaxies, we have generally found a slope that can vary between two extremal theoretical possibilities, m = 3/4 and m = 1. We will try to describe a possible scenario compatible with the second one. Finally, we also examine a case of a relation that is linear, not in kinetic energy, but in momentum parameter.

  4. A crossover-crossback prospective study of dibutyl-phthalate exposure from mesalamine medications and serum reproductive hormones in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassan, Feiby L; Coull, Brent A; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2018-01-01

    models. RESULTS: When B1HB2-arm (26 men,134 samples) crossed-over, luteinizing hormone decreased 13.9% (95% confidence interval(CI): -23.6,-3.0) and testosterone, inhibin-B, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) marginally decreased; after crossback all increased 8-14%. H1BH2-arm, H1≥3yrs (25 men,107......samples) had no changes at crossover or crossback whereas in H1BH2-arm,H1marginally increased. CONCLUSIONS: High...

  5. The role of Bh4 in parallel evolution of hull colour in domesticated and weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueira, C C; Li, W; Olsen, K M

    2013-08-01

    The two independent domestication events in the genus Oryza that led to African and Asian rice offer an extremely useful system for studying the genetic basis of parallel evolution. This system is also characterized by parallel de-domestication events, with two genetically distinct weedy rice biotypes in the US derived from the Asian domesticate. One important trait that has been altered by rice domestication and de-domestication is hull colour. The wild progenitors of the two cultivated rice species have predominantly black-coloured hulls, as does one of the two U.S. weed biotypes; both cultivated species and one of the US weedy biotypes are characterized by straw-coloured hulls. Using Black hull 4 (Bh4) as a hull colour candidate gene, we examined DNA sequence variation at this locus to study the parallel evolution of hull colour variation in the domesticated and weedy rice system. We find that independent Bh4-coding mutations have arisen in African and Asian rice that are correlated with the straw hull phenotype, suggesting that the same gene is responsible for parallel trait evolution. For the U.S. weeds, Bh4 haplotype sequences support current hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationship between the two biotypes and domesticated Asian rice; straw hull weeds are most similar to indica crops, and black hull weeds are most similar to aus crops. Tests for selection indicate that Asian crops and straw hull weeds deviate from neutrality at this gene, suggesting possible selection on Bh4 during both rice domestication and de-domestication. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Photometry of the SW Sextantis-type nova-like BH Lyncis in high state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishev, V.; Kraicheva, Z.; Genkov, V.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We present a photometric study of the deeply eclipsing SW Sex-type nova-like cataclysmic variable star BH Lyn. Methods: .Time-resolved V-band CCD photometry was obtained for seven nights between 1999 and 2004. Results: .We determined 11 new eclipse timings of BH Lyn and derived a refined orbital ephemeris with an orbital period of 0.155875577(14) °. During the observations, BH Lyn was in high-state with V≃15.5 mag. The star presents ~1.5 mag deep eclipses with mean full-width at half-flux of 0.0683(±0.0054)P_orb. The eclipse shape is highly variable, even changing form cycle to cycle. This is most likely due to accretion disc surface brightness distribution variations, most probably caused by strong flickering. Time-dependent accretion disc self-occultation or variations of the hot spot(s) intensity are also possible explanations. Negative superhumps with period of ˜0.145 ° are detected in two long runs in 2000. A possible connection between SW Sex and negative superhump phenomena through the presence of tilted accretion disc is discussed, and a way to observationally test this is suggested.

  7. BCL2-BH4 antagonist BDA-366 suppresses human myeloma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiusheng; Park, Dongkyoo; Wang, Mengchang; Nooka, Ajay; Deng, Qiaoya; Matulis, Shannon; Kaufman, Jonathan; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H; Galipeau, Jacques; Deng, Xingming

    2016-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy and remains incurable. B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) protein correlates with the survival and the drug resistance of myeloma cells. BH3 mimetics have been developed to disrupt the binding between BCL2 and its pro-apoptotic BCL2 family partners for the treatment of MM, but with limited therapeutic efficacy. We recently identified a small molecule BDA-366 as a BCL2 BH4 domain antagonist, converting it from an anti-apoptotic into a pro-apoptotic molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that BDA-366 induces robust apoptosis in MM cell lines and primary MM cells by inducing BCL2 conformational change. Delivery of BDA-366 substantially suppressed the growth of human MM xenografts in NOD-scid/IL2Rγnull mice, without significant cytotoxic effects on normal hematopoietic cells or body weight. Thus, BDA-366 functions as a novel BH4-based BCL2 inhibitor and offers an entirely new tool for MM therapy.

  8. Anomalous B-H behaviour of electrical steels at very low flux density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Stan [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ZurekS@cardiff.ac.uk; Al-Naemi, Faris; Moses, Anthony J.; Marketos, Philip [Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The behaviour of ferromagnetic materials under very low magnetic field was investigated more than a century ago by Lord Rayleigh. However, it has been shown since that the so-called Rayleigh law fails for very low magnetic fields, although the explanation for this phenomenon was not given. An anomalous B-H behaviour at very low alternating peak flux density in conventional grain-oriented (GO) and non-oriented (NO) electrical steels is reported. It has been found that the initial permeability is constant for all the measured frequencies (from 20 to 400 Hz) at peak flux density below 0.1 mT, and in this region the magnetisation is almost reversible (for both GO and NO). At higher flux density the B-H loops become visibly irreversible, with a relatively narrow (for GO) or very wide (for NO) transition region. For GO the B-H loop becomes visibly 'distorted' for all frequencies at around 2 mT. The eddy current loss calculated from the so-called 'classical' equation gives values higher than the measured total losses at lower frequencies. Both these measured results are difficult to explain.

  9. All-MOCVD-grown BH laser on P-InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tadashi; Ishimura, E.; Nakajima, Yasuo; Tada, Hitoshi; Kimura, T.; Ohkura, Y.; Goto, Katsuhiko; Omura, Etsuji; Aiga, Masao

    1993-07-01

    A very low cw threshold current of 2.5 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 8.0 mA ( 80 degree(s)C) with high reliability has been realized in the all-MOCVD grown BH lasers on p-InP substrates. A strained MQW active layer of 1.3 micrometers wavelength and the precise carrier confinement buried structure by MOCVD is employed for the BH lasers. The excellent potential of long lifetime of the all-MOCVD grown laser has also been confirmed. After the high temperature and the high current (100 degree(s)C, 200 mA) aging test, no significant degradation is observed which is comparable with the well-established LPE grown lasers. The BH laser is also operating stably over 3700 hrs under the APC condition of 50 degree(s)C, 10 mW. Finally, an extremely uniform 10-element all-MOCVD grown LD array is demonstrated, which has the threshold current uniformity of 2.4 +/- 0.1 mA ( 25 degree(s)C) and 9.2 +/- 0.2 mA ( 80 degree(s)C). The growth mechanism in the MOCVD is also described.

  10. Synthesis of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and Gas Absorption and Release Characteristics of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, Ni, or Ti-Added MgH{sub 2}–Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Jun; Lee, Seong Ho; Kwon, Sung Nam; Park Il Woo; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A sample [named Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)] was synthesized by milling ZnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} at 400 rpm under argon gas for 2 h. And Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} sample was prepared by milling MgH{sub 2} in a planetary ball mill and mixing with the Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) synthesized by milling for 4 h in a mortar with a pestle. Then the gas-release characteristics of the two samples were investrigated. Analyses of XRD patterns and FT-IR spectra, as well as TGA, DTA, and SEM observations, were also performed. After heating the samples to 400 ℃, the weight losses of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) and Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} were 11.2 and 8.2 wt%, respectively, with respect to the sample weight. The DTA results for the two samples showed a decomposition peak for Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} at about 61 ℃. The DTA result of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl) + MgH{sub 2} showed a decomposition peak for MgH{sub 2} at about 374 ℃. A sample of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)+MgH{sub 2} to which Ni, and Ti were added, with a composition of 90 wt% MgH{sub 2}-5 wt% Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl)-2.5 wt% Ni-2.5 wt% Ti, in which a large amount of MgH2 is contained in order to make a large quantity of hydrogen be absorbed and released reversibly, was also prepared. The experimental results showed that addition of Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(+NaCl), Ni, or Ti increased the dehydriding rate of MgH{sub 2}, while decreased its initial hydriding rate.

  11. Direct Rehydrogenation of LiBH4 from H-Deficient Li2B12H12−x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Li2B12H12 is commonly considered as a boron sink hindering the reversible hydrogen sorption of LiBH4. Recently, in the dehydrogenation process of LiBH4 an amorphous H-deficient Li2B12H12−x phase was observed. In the present study, we investigate the rehydrogenation properties of Li2B12H12−x to form LiBH4. With addition of nanostructured cobalt boride in a 1:1 mass ratio, the rehydrogenation properties of Li2B12H12−x are improved, where LiBH4 forms under milder conditions (e.g., 400 °C, 100 bar H2 with a yield of 68%. The active catalytic species in the reversible sorption reaction is suggested to be nonmetallic CoxB (x = 1 based on 11B MAS NMR experiments and its role has been discussed.

  12. Cycloheximide Can Induce Bax/Bak Dependent Myeloid Cell Death Independently of Multiple BH3-Only Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Goodall

    Full Text Available Apoptosis mediated by Bax or Bak is usually thought to be triggered by BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. BH3-only proteins can directly bind to and activate Bax or Bak, or indirectly activate them by binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby relieving their inhibition of Bax and Bak. Here we describe a third way of activation of Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis that does not require triggering by multiple BH3-only proteins. In factor dependent myeloid (FDM cell lines, cycloheximide induced apoptosis by a Bax/Bak dependent mechanism, because Bax-/-Bak-/- lines were profoundly resistant, whereas FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Addition of cycloheximide led to the rapid loss of Mcl-1 but did not affect the expression of other Bcl-2 family proteins. In support of these findings, similar results were observed by treating FDM cells with the CDK inhibitor, roscovitine. Roscovitine reduced Mcl-1 abundance and caused Bax/Bak dependent cell death, yet FDM lines lacking one or more genes for BH3-only proteins remained highly sensitive. Therefore Bax/Bak dependent apoptosis can be regulated by the abundance of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1, independently of several known BH3-only proteins.

  13. Vibration-rotation spectrum of BH X1Σ+ by Fourier transform emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianalto, F. S.; O'Brien, L. C.; Keller, P. C.; Bernath, P. F.

    1988-06-01

    The vibration-rotation emission spectrum of the BH X1Σ+ state was observed with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer at Kitt Peak. The 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 bands were observed in a microwave discharge of B2H6 in He. Spectroscopic constants of the individual vibrational levels and equilibrium molecular constants were determined. An RKR potential curve was calculated from the equilibrium constants. Alfred P. Sloan Fellow; Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar.

  14. Berberis karnaliensis Bh. Adhikari (Berberidaceae: a new addition to the Flora of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Umeshkumar L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berberis karnaliensis Bh. Adhikari, a recently described species was recorded for the first time from the Indian territory. Hence, it is being reported herewith as an addition to the Flora of India. The species differs from its closely related taxon viz. Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. usteriana Schneid. in having coriaceous leaves and 5-6 primary veins on each side of the midrib. Detailed information on taxonomy, morphology, habitat, ecology and distribution of B. karnaliensis as well as photographs and illustrations are provided here for the species identification.

  15. Nanoconfined LiBH4 as a Fast Lithium Ion Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a fraction of the confined borohydride that shows no phase transition, and most likely located close to the interface with the SiO2 pore walls. These results point to a new strategy to design low-temperature ion conducting solids for application in all solid-state lithium ion batteries, which......Designing new functional materials is crucial for the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices such as all solid-state batteries. LiBH 4 is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries. It displays high lithium mobility, although only above 110 °C at which a transition...

  16. ACCURATE MAGNETIZABILITIES OF THE ISOELECTRONIC SERIES BEH-, BH, AND CH+ - THE MCSCF-GIAO APPROACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, K.; Helgaker, T.; Bak, Keld L.

    1995-01-01

    is investigated and shown to be small. It is demonstrated that BeH- is diamagnetic, contrary to the prediction of a recent study. Our calculated magnetizabilities for the three molecules are: (204-207) x 10(-30) J T-2 (BH), (313-318) x 10(-30) J T-2 (CH+), and (- 62 +/- 5) x 10(-30) J T-2 (BeH-).......We present the first calculations of molecular magnetizabilities using London atomic orbitals at the multiconfigurational self-consistent field level. The natural connection is introduced to ensure a numerically stable evaluation of the magnetizability. Furthermore, the natural connection enables...

  17. Dharmawangśa’s heritage On the appreciation of the Old Javanese Mahābhārata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem van der Molen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, the Old Javanese Mahābhārata was not created from scratch by a Javanese author but was translated (in some sense from the Sanskrit. The story of Hiḍimbī reveals an interesting difference between the Old Javanese version and the Sanskrit version of the text. In the latter2 Hiḍimbī appeals to Kuntī, Bhīma’s mother, after Bhīma keeps rejecting her. However, it is not Kuntī who gives the answer but Yudhiṣṭhira, her son: he is the one who gives permission to Hiḍimbī to take Bhīma as her husband. We should remember that Kuntī at this point in the story is a widow; her husband died a long time ago. Yudhiṣṭhira is her eldest son. In the Old Javanese version it is Kuntī herself who answers Hiḍimbī.This difference between the Sanskrit Mahābhārata and the Old Javanese Mahābhārata is interesting, because it reflects a well-known difference between traditional Indian and Indonesian societies concerning the position of women. It is archetypical for the difference between the two versions of the text in general: the Old Javanese version follows the story faithfully but gives its own twist to it. This interpretation, I have to admit, is not generally accepted. The established scholarly opinion has it that the Old Javanese Mahābhārata is a shortened derivative, meaning that it copies or imitates the Sanskrit story, shortening it without adding anything new to the story.

  18. Conformations of 1,3,3,5,7,7-Hexamethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane and Its Bis-BH(3) Adduct. Mono- and Bis-BH(3) Adducts of Di-Tertiary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livant, P.; Majors, A. W.; Webb, T. R.

    1996-05-03

    A variable-temperature (1)H- and (13)C-NMR study revealed a conformational equilibrium for 1,3,3,5,7,7-hexamethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane (4) having DeltaG() = 8.8 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol at 184 K. This activation barrier connects a major and a minor form of 4. Molecular mechanics calculations on 4 led to the conclusion that the major form is a set of twist-chair-chairs interconverting rapidly via the chair-chair and that the minor form is most likely a set of twist-boat-boats interconverting rapidly via the boat-boat. The proximity of the two nitrogen lone pairs in the major form of 4 made plausible the expectation that 4, as well as a related diamine with apposed nitrogens, 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (3), might bind a Lewis acid, namely BH(3), using both lone pairs simultaneously and equally. This proved not to be the case: for 3 only the bis-BH(3) adduct was found and for 4 the mono-BH(3) adduct utilized only one nitrogen lone pair. The structure of the bis-BH(3) adduct of 4 (12) was determined by X-ray crystallography to be a twist-boat-boat with BH(3)s cis. Molecular mechanics calculations on 12 were consistent with the solid state conformation found.

  19. Interaction of a putative BH3 domain of clusterin with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Hwa; Ha, Ji-Hyang [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yul [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kwang-Hee [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Yong [Department of Physiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wan Sung [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Sup [Division of Structural and Computational Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637511 (Singapore); Park, Sung Goo; Park, Byoung Chul [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Gwan-Su, E-mail: gsyi@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seung-Wook, E-mail: swchi@kribb.re.kr [Medical Proteomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} Identification of a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil region of nCLU. {yields} The nCLU BH3 domain binds to BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. {yields} A conserved binding mechanism of nCLU BH3 and the other pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides with Bcl-X{sub L}. {yields} The absolutely conserved Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L.} {yields} Molecular understanding of the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU as a novel BH3-only protein. -- Abstract: Clusterin (CLU) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate and breast cancers. Although CLU is known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis and cell survival, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the pro-apoptotic function of nuclear CLU (nCLU) remains unclear. In this study, we identified a conserved BH3 motif in C-terminal coiled coil (CC2) region of nCLU by sequence analysis and characterized the molecular interaction of the putative nCLU BH3 domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The chemical shift perturbation data demonstrated that the nCLU BH3 domain binds to pro-apoptotic BH3 peptide-binding grooves in both Bcl-X{sub L} and Bcl-2. A structural model of the Bcl-X{sub L}/nCLU BH3 peptide complex reveals that the binding mode is remarkably similar to those of other Bcl-X{sub L}/BH3 peptide complexes. In addition, mutational analysis confirmed that Leu323 and Asp328 of nCLU BH3 domain, absolutely conserved in the BH3 motifs of BH3-only protein family, are critical for binding to Bcl-X{sub L}. Taken altogether, our results suggest a molecular basis for the pro-apoptotic function of nCLU by elucidating the residue specific interactions of the BH3 motif in nCLU with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.

  20. Historia de los MSS BH 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Barceló, Javier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El investigador que inspeccione los volúmenes UCM BH MSS 133 y 128 de Alfonso de Palencia encontrará un buen número de marcas y cotas librarias acumuladas a lo largo de su historia. Como veremos en este trabajo, estas signaturas tienen su correspondencia en los inventarios y catálogos de la biblioteca del Colegio de San Ildefonso desde 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. Además, la historia de estos manuscritos se puede rastrear hasta la fundación del Colegio mediante un examen analítico de los primitivos inventarios de la librería ildefonsina incluso más allá del año 1517.The researcher who inspects volumes UCM BH MSS 133 and 128 of Alfonso de Palencia will encounter a great variety of old call numbers and librarian marks accumulated throughout their history. As we will find out in this paper, these call numbers have also a parallel existence in the inventories and catalogues of the Library of the Colegio de San Ildefonso produced since 1720, 1745, 1800 y 1878. But the history of these manuscripts can be also traced back to the foundation of the College, as it is demonstrated by an analytical examination of the earlier Library inventories as far as 1517 and beyond.

  1. The Commitment of B&H Companies to Innovation or Imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijada Rahimić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovations have become an increasingly important factor in the struggle to preserve and improve the competitive position of enterprises in domestic and international markets. Innovative companies are those that react to sudden changes in the environment but are also the very cause of change. Dynamic and turbulent changes in the environment and constantly increasing competition, among other factors, have affected the shortening product life cycle and the duration of innovative solutions. Starting from the model creation value, a company may decide to create a new model for value creation or create an imitation - an adaptation of a dominant model in the industry. Both extreme positions (innovator vs. follower require exceptional organizational skills. The aim of this paper is that, the life cycle of products and companies’ reactions to changes, determines whether the B&H companies are inventors or followers. In order to get a complete picture of the innovative strength of the observed B&H enterprises, we will, in addition, analyze the dynamics of investment in research and development, as well as top management’s view of the importance of innovation in achieving competitive advantages for their companies.

  2. METALLICITY IN THE GRB 100316D/SN 2010bh HOST COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Berger, Edo; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chornock, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The recent long-duration GRB 100316D, associated with supernova SN 2010bh and detected by Swift, is one of the nearest gamma-ray burst (GRB)-supernovae (SNe) ever observed (z = 0.059). This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the explosion environment on ∼kpc scale in relation to the host galaxy complex. Here we present spatially resolved spectrophotometry of the host galaxy, focusing on both the explosion site and the brightest star-forming regions. Using these data, we extract the spatial profiles of the relevant emission features (Hα, Hβ, [O III]λ5007, and [N II]λ6584) and use these profiles to examine variations in metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) as a function of position in the host galaxy. We conclude that GRB 100316D/SN2010bh occurred in a low-metallicity host galaxy, and that the GRB-SN explosion site corresponds to the region with the lowest metallicity and highest SFR sampled by our observations.

  3. Y(BH4)3--an old-new ternary hydrogen store aka learning from a multitude of failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroń, Tomasz; Grochala, Wojciech

    2010-01-07

    Fourteen different synthetic approaches towards pure solvent-free Y(BH(4))(3) have been tested, thirteen of which have failed. Attempted reactions of YCl(3) or Y(OC(4)H(9))(3) with LiBH(4) in THF, those of YCl(3) with (C(4)H(9))(4)N(+) BH(4)(-), as well as between YH(x approximately 3) and R(4)NBH(3) (R = CH(3), C(2)H(5)) in the presence or absence of a solvent (n-hexane or CH(2)Cl(2)) did not lead to the expected product. The mechanochemical solid/solid reactions (MBH(4) + 3 YX(3)--> Y(BH(4))(3) + 3 LiCl, where M = Li, Na; X = F, Cl) have succeeded only for the LiBH(4) and YCl(3) reagents, but the separation of the crystalline reaction products (Y(BH(4))(3) in its Pa3 phase and LiCl) by dissolution or flotation in various solvents has not been successful. The thermal decomposition process of Y(BH(4))(3) in a mixture with LiCl has been investigated with thermogravimetric (TGA) and calorimetric analysis (DSC) combined with spectroscopic evolved gas analysis (EGA). Three major endothermic steps could be distinguished in the DSC profile at ca. 232, 282, 475 degrees C (heating rate 10 K min(-1)) corresponding to a phase transition and two steps of thermal decomposition. Solid decomposition products are amorphous except for the new cubic polymorph of Y(BH(4))(3) overlooked in previous work. The high-temperature phase forms at the onset of thermal decomposition and it may be prepared by heating of the low-temperature phase up to a narrow temperature range (194-210 degrees C) followed by rapid quenching. Y(BH(4))(3) constitutes a novel highly efficient hydrogen storage material (theor. 9.0 wt% H) but, unfortunately, the evolved H(2) is contaminated by toxic boron hydrides and products of their pyrolysis.

  4. Li2 NH-LiBH4 : a Complex Hydride with Near Ambient Hydrogen Adsorption and Fast Lithium Ion Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Cao, Hujun; Zhang, Weijin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Hui; Pistidda, Claudio; Ju, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Guotao; Etter, Martin; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-26

    Complex hydrides have played important roles in energy storage area. Here a complex hydride made of Li 2 NH and LiBH 4 was synthesized, which has a structure tentatively indexed using an orthorhombic cell with a space group of Pna2 1 and lattice parameters of a=10.121, b=6.997, and c=11.457 Å. The Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample (in a molar ratio of 1:1) shows excellent hydrogenation kinetics, starting to absorb H 2 at 310 K, which is more than 100 K lower than that of pristine Li 2 NH. Furthermore, the Li + ion conductivity of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample is about 1.0×10 -5  S cm -1 at room temperature, and is higher than that of either Li 2 NH or LiBH 4 at 373 K. Those unique properties of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 complex render it a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and Li ion conduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hydrolysis of Mg(BH4)2 and its coordination compounds as a way to obtain hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovev, Mikhail V.; Chashchikhin, Oleg V.; Dorovatovskii, Pavel V.; Khrustalev, Victor N.; Zyubin, A. S.; Zyubina, T. S.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Zaytsev, Alexey A.; Dobrovolsky, Yu. A.

    2018-02-01

    Three ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2-based complexes have been synthesized and evaluated as potential hydrogen storage media for portable fuel cell applications. The new borohydrides: Mg(BH4)2 × 0.5Et2O and Mg(BH4)2 × diglyme (diglyme - CH3O(CH2)2O(CH2)2OCH3) have been synthesized and examined by X-ray single crystal diffraction method. Hydrolysis reactions of the compounds liberate hydrogen in quantities ranging from 46 to 96% of the theoretical yield. The hydrolysis of Mg(BH4)2 and other borohydrides is also accompanied by the diborane formation. The amount of liberated diborane depends on the Mg-coordination environment. To explain this fact quantum-chemical calculations have been performed. It is shown that formation of Mg-O-Mg-bridges enables the side process of diborane generation. It means that the size and denticity of the ligand directly affects the amount of released diborane. In general, the larger the ligand and the higher its denticity, the smaller is amount of diborane produced. The new compound Mg(BH4)2 × diglyme decomposes without diborane formation that allows one to be considered as a new promising chemical hydrogen storage compound for the practical usage.

  6. Hydrogen dynamics in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4} probed by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remhof, Arndt, E-mail: arndt.remhof@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Züttel, Andreas [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Hydrogen and Energy, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ramirez-Cuesta, Timmy; García-Sakai, Victoria [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Frick, Bernhard [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38002 Grenoble (France)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • Inelastic fixed window sans offer new possibilities in neutron backscattering spectrometers. • Two different kind of reorientational motion were identified in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4}. • Thermally activated jump rotation. - Abstract: LiBH{sub 4} contains 18.5 wt% hydrogen and undergoes a structural phase transition (orthorhombic → hexagonal) at 381 K which is associated with a large increase in hydrogen and lithium solid-state mobility. We investigated the hydrogen dynamics in the low temperature phase of LiBH{sub 4} by quasielastic neutron scattering, including a new kind of inelastic fixed window scan (IFWS). In the temperature range from 175 to 380 K the H-dynamics is dominated by thermally activated rotational jumps of the [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} anion around the c3 axis with an activation energy of about 162 meV. In agreement with earlier NMR data, a second type of thermally activated motion with an activation energy of about 232 meV could be identified using the IFWS. The present study of hydrogen dynamics in LiBH{sub 4} illustrates the feasibility of using IFWS on neutron backscattering spectrometers as a probe of localised motion.

  7. Hydrogen generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture affected by lanthanum metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen Qiang; Fan, Mei-Qiang; Fei, Yong; Pan, Hua; Wang, Liang Liang; Yao, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The effect of La on Al/NaBH(4) hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) weight ratio, 1 : 3) has 126 mL g(-1 )min(-1) maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g(-1) hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl(2), La has great effect on NaBH(4) hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl(2) in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni(2)B is highly distributed into Al(OH)(3) and the catalytic reactivity of Ni(2)B/Al(OH)(3) is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH)(3) deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl(2)/NaBH(4) mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material.

  8. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH{sub 4}-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.H. [Department of Materials and Engineering, Zhejiang University (China); Li, Z.P.; Chen, L.L. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-05-15

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH{sub 4} gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH{sub 4} concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl{sub 2} catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH{sub 4} gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution. The NaBH{sub 4} gel also successfully powered a NaBH{sub 4}-air battery. (author)

  9. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH 4-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, L. L.

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH 4 gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH 4 concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl 2 catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH 4 gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH 4 solution. The NaBH 4 gel also successfully powered a NaBH 4-air battery.

  10. Density functional theory study of neutral and singly-charged (NaBH{sub 4}){sub n} (n = 1–6) nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongpeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wu, Xiangming [Ping Xiang Sports School, Jiangxi 337000 (China); Liu, Chuan [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Shiping, E-mail: huangsp@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Structures of (NaBH{sub 4}){sub n} (n = 1–6) clusters are optimized by DFT calculation. • The Kubas interaction is observed in each cationic cluster. • Hydrogen molecule interacts with attached boron atom by Kubas interaction. • Cationic NaBH{sub 4} nanoclusters exhibit more easily H{sub 2} desorption. - Abstract: We report the global minimum structures of (NaBH{sub 4}){sub n} (n = 1–6) clusters by combining the particle swarm optimization algorithm with density functional theory. A newly formed hydrogen molecule is observed in each cationic structure, and the H{sub 2} interacts with adjacent boron atom by Kubas interaction. The results of localized orbital locator and natural bond orbital analysis reveal that the hydrogen molecule interacts with attached boron atom by the σ-bond and σ{sup ∗}-antibond of H{sub 2} in [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub n}{sup +} (n = 1, 2, 3 and 5), and the σ{sup ∗}-antibond dominates this interaction in [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 4}{sup +} and [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 6}{sup +}. The desorption energy of the hydrogen molecule is relatively small for [NaBH{sub 4}]{sup +} (1.05 eV), [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 2}{sup +} (0.99 eV) and [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 3}{sup +} (0.97 eV). It is also found that the negative desorption energy of the [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 4}{sup +} (−0.26 eV), [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 5}{sup +} (−0.26 eV) and [NaBH{sub 4}]{sub 6}{sup +} (−0.54 eV) shows that the hydrogen molecule can be released easily.

  11. ?The Devil has entered you?: A qualitative study of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and the stigma and discrimination they experience from healthcare professionals and the general community in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Stojisavljevic, Stela; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Matejic, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are often exposed to unequal treatment in societies worldwide as well as to various forms of stigma and discrimination in healthcare services. Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is a postconflict developing country located in Southeast Europe and the Western Balkans, where little is known about the experiences of MSM regarding their communities and interactions with healthcare services. The aim of this study was to explore the types of experiences MSM face and to ass...

  12. The deprotonation energies of BH5 and AlH5: Comparisons to GaH5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speakman, Lucas D.; Turney, Justin M.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2007-01-01

    Hypercoordinate boron is most unusual, leading to considerable theoretical and experimental research on the parent BH 5 molecule. The deprotonation energies of BH 5 and the related molecules AlH 5 and GaH 5 have been of particular interest. Here the energy differences for XH 5 ->XH 4 - +H(X=BandAl) are computed to be 332.4 and 326.3kcalmol -1 , respectively, with an aug-cc-pVQZ basis set at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Vibrational frequencies for BH 4 - and AlH 4 - are also reported as 1098, 1210, 2263, and 2284cm -1 and 760, 779, 1658, and 1745cm -1 , respectively, again at the CCSD(T) aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. Comparisons with the valence isoelectronic GaH 5 molecule are made

  13. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sarah L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35$+19\\atop{-9}$ ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki

  14. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Sarah L; Nelson, Sarah L

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studied with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus at or near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via different nuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrance channel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' model is nearly identical for the two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, the exit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs; cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrance channel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusion leading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35 ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' theory

  15. BH3-only protein Bim inhibits activity of antiapoptotic members of Bcl-2 family when expressed in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová, Barbora; Mentel, Marek; Bhatia-Kiššová, Ingrid; Zeman, Igor; Kolarov, Jordan; Forte, Michael; Polčic, Peter

    2011-09-02

    Proteins of the Bcl-2 family regulate programmed cell death in mammals by promoting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria in response to various proapoptotic stimuli. The mechanism by which BH3-only members of the family activate multidomain proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak to form a pore in mitochondrial membranes remains under dispute. We report that cell death promoting activity of BH3-only protein Bim can be reconstituted in yeast when both Bax and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) are present, suggesting that Bim likely activates Bax indirectly by inhibiting antiapoptotic proteins. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural stability and decomposition of Mg(BH4)2 isomorphs - an ab initio free energy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo; Lodziana, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive comparison between free energies, based on a phonon dispersion calculation within density functional theory, of theoretically predicted structures and the experimentally proposed a (P6(1)) and beta (Fddd) phases of the promising hydrogen storage material Mg(BH4...... of the unstable modes, we have obtained a new F222 structure, which has a lower energy than all previously experimentally and theoretically proposed phases of Mg( BH4) 2 and is free of imaginary eigenmodes. A new meta-stable high-density I4(1)/amd structure is also derived from the I (4) over bar m2 phase...

  17. All-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH4 electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4 in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4 has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport...... number (t+ = 0.96), close to unity, demonstrates a purely cationic conductor. The electrolyte has an excellent stability against lithium metal. The behavior of the batteries is studied by cyclic voltammetry and repeated charge/discharge cycles in galvanostatic conditions. The batteries show very good...

  18. Photochemistry of U(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and U(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paine, R T; Schonberg, P R; Light, R W [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Danen, W C; Freund, S M

    1979-01-01

    U(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and U(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ are observed to undergo complex degradation reactions promoted by broadband UV radiation. The primary products of these reactions appear to be U(BH/sub 4/)/sub 3/, B/sub 2/H/sub 6/, H/sub 2/, U(BD/sub 4/)/sub 3/, B/sub 2/D/sub 6/ and D/sub 2/. Further, U(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ undergoes a related decomposition reaction under the influence of CO/sub 2/ laser irradiation at 924.97 cm/sup -1/.

  19. RDBMS Based Lexical Resource for Indian Heritage: The Case of Mahābhārata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Diwakar

    The paper describes a lexical resource in the form of a relational database based indexing system for Sanskrit documents - Mahābhārata (MBh) as an example. The system is available online on http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/mb with input and output in Devanāgarī Unicode, using technologies such as RDBMS and Java Servlet. The system works as an interactive and multi-dimensional indexing system with search facility for MBh and has potentials for use as a generic system for all Sanskrit texts of similar structure. Currently, the system allows three types of searching facilities- 'Direct Search', 'Alphabetical Search' and 'Search by Classes'. The input triggers an indexing process by which a temporary index is created for the search string, and then clicking on any indexed word displays the details for that word and also a facility to search that word in some other online lexical resources.

  20. Rare earth metal oxides as BH4-tolerance cathode electrocatalysts for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xuemin; WANG Yadong; GUO Feng; YAO Pei; PAN Mu

    2012-01-01

    Rare earth metal oxides (REMO) as cathode electrocatalysts in direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) were investigated.The REMO electrocatalysts tested showed favorable activity to the oxygen electro-reduction reaction and strong tolerance to the attack of BH4- in alkaline electrolytes.The simple membraneless DBFCs using REMO as cathode electrocatalyst and using hydrogen storage alloy as anodic electrocatalyst exhibited an open circuit of about 1 V and peak power of above 60 mW/cm2.The DBFC using Sm2O3 as cathode electrocatalyst showed a relatively better performance.The maximal power density of 76.2 mW/cm2 was obtained at the cell voltage of 0.52 V.

  1. FD_BH: a program for simulating electromagnetic waves from a borehole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program FD_BH is used to simulate the electromagnetic waves generated by an antenna in a borehole. The model representing the antenna may include metallic parts, a coaxial cable as a feed to the driving point, and resistive loading. The program is written in the C programming language, and the program has been tested on both the Windows and the UNIX operating systems. This Open-File Report describes • The contents and organization of the Zip file (section 2). • The program files, the installation of the program, the input files, and the execution of the program (section 3). • Address to which suggestions for improving the program may be sent (section 4).

  2. Identification and biosynthesis of a novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol-hybrid from Azoarcus sp. BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A Schöner

    Full Text Available A novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol hybrid named arcuflavin was identified in Azoarcus sp. BH72 by a combination of feeding experiments, HPLC-MS and MALDI-MS and gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of this non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene containing pigment are reported. A chorismate-utilizing enzyme from the XanB2-type producing 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and an AMP-ligase encoded by these gene clusters were characterized, that might perform the first two steps of the polyene biosynthesis. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the already known or novel biosynthesis gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of polyene containing pigments like arcuflavin, flexirubin and xanthomonadin revealed the presence of similar gene clusters in a wide range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that polyene and polyene-dialkylresorcinol pigments are more widespread than previously realized.

  3. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  4. The BH3 Mimetic Obatoclax Accumulates in Lysosomes and Causes Their Alkalinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamelos, Vasileios A; Fisher, Natalie; Bamrah, Harnoor; Voisey, Carolyn; Price, Joshua C; Farrell, William E; Redman, Charles W; Richardson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Obatoclax belongs to a class of compounds known as BH3 mimetics which function as antagonists of Bcl-2 family apoptosis regulators. It has undergone extensive preclinical and clinical evaluation as a cancer therapeutic. Despite this, it is clear that obatoclax has additional pharmacological effects that contribute to its cytotoxic activity. It has been claimed that obatoclax, either alone or in combination with other molecularly targeted therapeutics, induces an autophagic form of cell death. In addition, obatoclax has been shown to inhibit lysosomal function, but the mechanism of this has not been elucidated. We have evaluated the mechanism of action of obatoclax in eight ovarian cancer cell lines. Consistent with its function as a BH3 mimetic, obatoclax induced apoptosis in three cell lines. However, in the remaining cell lines another form of cell death was evident because caspase activation and PARP cleavage were not observed. Obatoclax also failed to show synergy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, chemotherapeutic agents which we have previously shown to be synergistic with authentic Bcl-2 family antagonists. Obatoclax induced a profound accumulation of LC-3 but knockdown of Atg-5 or beclin had only minor effects on the activity of obatoclax in cell growth assays suggesting that the inhibition of lysosomal function rather than stimulation of autophagy may play a more prominent role in these cells. To evaluate how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function, confocal microscopy studies were conducted which demonstrated that obatoclax, which contains two basic pyrrole groups, accumulates in lysosomes. Studies using pH sensitive dyes demonstrated that obatoclax induced lysosomal alkalinization. Furthermore, obatoclax was synergistic in cell growth/survival assays with bafilomycin and chloroquine, two other drugs which cause lysosomal alkalinization. These studies explain, for the first time, how obatoclax inhibits lysosomal function and suggest that lysosomal

  5. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  6. First -principles calculations of the crystal structure, electronic structure, and thermodynamic stability of Be(BH4)2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Setten, Michiel J.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2008-01-01

    Alanates and boranates are intensively studied because of their potential use as hydrogen storage materials. In this paper, we present a first-principles study of the electronic structure and the energetics of beryllium boranate BeBH42. From total energy calculations, we show that—in contrast to the

  7. A first-principles study of the electronic structure and stability of Be(BH4)2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setten, M.J. van; Wijs, G.A. de; Brocks, G.

    2007-01-01

    Alanates and boranates are studied intensively because of their potential use as hydrogen storage materials. In this paper we present a first-principles study of the electronic structure and the energetics of beryllium boranate, Be(BH4)2. From total energy calculations we show that - in contrast to

  8. First-principles determination of the ground-state structure of Mg(BH4)(2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, R.; Tekin, Adem; Sikora, W.

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state structure of magnesium tetrahydroborate, Mg(BH4)(2), is still under debate. The experimentally and theoretically proposed structures mismatch, and even among the computationally determined structures a disagreement still exists. The main debated question is related to the lattice...

  9. Electrostatics and Flexibility Drive Membrane Recognition and Early Penetration by Antimicrobial Peptide Dendrimer bH1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Harish Kumar; Stach, Michaela; Soares, Thereza A.; Darbre, Tamis; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Cascella, Michele

    2013-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of polycationic antimicrobial peptide dendrimer bH1 (Leu)8(DapLeu)4(DapPhe)2DapLys- NH2 binding to membranes suggest that electrostatic 10 interactions with the polyanionic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and conformational flexibility of the 2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (Dap) branching units drive its selective insertion into microbial membranes.

  10. BWR-spent fuel transport and storage with the TN trademark 9/4 and TN trademark 24BH casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattez, L.; Marguerat, Y.; Hoesli, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Utilities have started in 2001 to store spent fuel in dry metallic dual-purpose casks in ZWILAG, the Swiss interim storage facility. BKW FMB Energy Ltd., as Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant owner, is involved in this process and has selected to store its spent fuel, a new high capacity dual-purpose cask, the TN trademark 24BH. For the transport in a medium size cask, COGEMA LOGISTICS has developed a new cask, the TN trademark 9/4, to replace the NTL9 cask, which performed numerous transports of BWR spent fuel in the past decades. Licensed IAEA 1996, the TN trademark 9/4 is a 40 ton transport cask, for 7 BWR high burn-up spent fuel assemblies. The spent fuel assemblies can be transferred in the ZWILAG hot cell in the TN trademark 24BH cask. The first use of these casks took place in 2003. Ten TN trademark 9/4 transports were performed, and one TN trademark 24BH was loaded. After a brief presentation of the operational aspects, the paper will focus on the TN trademark 24BH high capacity dual purpose cask, the TN trademark 9/4 transport cask and describe in detail their characteristics and possibilities

  11. The First Simultaneous X-Ray/Radio Detection of the First Be/BH System MWC 656

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribó, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Marcote, B.; Moldón, J.; Paredes-Fortuny, X. [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Munar-Adrover, P. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casares, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Migliari, S. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado/P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    MWC 656 is the first known Be/black hole (BH) binary system. Be/BH binaries are important in the context of binary system evolution and sources of detectable gravitational waves because they are possible precursors of coalescing neutron star/BH binaries. X-ray observations conducted in 2013 revealed that MWC 656 is a quiescent high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), opening the possibility to explore X-ray/radio correlations and the accretion/ejection coupling down to low luminosities for BH HMXBs. Here we report on a deep joint Chandra /VLA observation of MWC 656 (and contemporaneous optical data) conducted in 2015 July that has allowed us to unambiguously identify the X-ray counterpart of the source. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a power law with Γ ∼ 2, providing a flux of ≃4 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.5–8 keV energy range and a luminosity of L {sub X} ≃ 3 × 10{sup 30} erg s{sup −1} at a 2.6 kpc distance. For a 5 M{sub ⊙} BH this translates into ≃5 × 10{sup −9} L {sub Edd}. These results imply that MWC 656 is about 7 times fainter in X-rays than it was two years before and reaches the faintest X-ray luminosities ever detected in stellar-mass BHs. The radio data provide a detection with a peak flux density of 3.5 ± 1.1 μ Jy beam{sup −1}. The obtained X-ray/radio luminosities for this quiescent BH HMXB are fully compatible with those of the X-ray/radio correlations derived from quiescent BH low-mass X-ray binaries. These results show that the accretion/ejection coupling in stellar-mass BHs is independent of the nature of the donor star.

  12. Cosmic Evolution of Black Holes And Spheroids. 1, the M(BH)-Sigma Relation at Z=0.36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Treu, Tommaso; /UC, Santa Barbara; Malkan, Matthew A.; /UCLA; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-17

    We test the evolution of the correlation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion (M{sub BH} - {sigma}), using a carefully selected sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies at z = 0.36 {+-} 0.01. We measure velocity dispersion from stellar absorption lines around Mgb (5175 {angstrom}) and Fe (5270 {angstrom}) using high S/N Keck spectra, and estimate black hole mass from the H{beta} line width and the optical luminosity at 5100 {angstrom}, based on the empirically calibrated photo-ionization method. We find a significant offset from the local relation, in the sense that velocity dispersions were smaller for given black hole masses at z = 0.36 than locally. We investigate various sources of systematic uncertainties and find that those cannot account for the observed offset. The measured offset is {Delta} log M{sub BH} = 0.62 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.25, i.e. {Delta} log {sigma} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.06, where the error bars include a random component and an upper limit to the systematics. At face value, this result implies a substantial growth of bulges in the last 4 Gyr, assuming that the local M{sub BH} - {sigma} relation is the universal evolutionary end-point. Along with two samples of active galaxies with consistently determined black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion taken from the literature, we quantify the observed evolution with the best fit linear relation, {Delta} log M{sub BH} = (1.66 {+-} 0.43)z + (0.04 {+-} 0.09) with respect to the local relationship of Tremaine et al. (2002), and {Delta} log M{sub BH} = (1.55 {+-} 0.46)z +(0.01 {+-} 0.12) with respect to that of Ferrarese (2002). This result is consistent with the growth of black holes predating the final growth of bulges at these mass scales (<{sigma}> = 170 km s{sup -1}).

  13. BWR - Spent Fuel Transport and Storage with the TNTM9/4 and TNTM24BH Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattez, L.; Marguerat, Y.; Hoesli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Utilities have started in 2001 to store spent fuel in dry metallic dual-purpose casks at ZWILAG, the Swiss interim storage facility. BKW FMB Energy Ltd., the Muehleberg Nuclear Power Plant owner, is involved in this process and has elected to store its BWR spent fuel in a new high capacity dual-purpose cask, the TNeTeM24BH from the COGEMA Logistics/TRANSNUCLEAR TN TM 24 family. The Muehleberg BWR spent fuels are transported by road in a medium size shuttle transport cask and then transferred to a heavy transport/storage cask (dry transfer) in the hot cell of ZWILAG site. For that purpose, COGEMA Logistics designed and supplied: - Two shuttle casks, TN TM 9/4, mainly devoted to transport of spent fuel from Muehleberg NPP to ZWILAG. Licensed according to IAEA 1996, the TN TM 9/4 is a 40 ton transport cask, for 7 BWR high bum-up spent fuel assemblies. - A series of new high capacity dual-purpose casks, TN TM 24BH, holding 69 BWR spent fuels. Two transport campaigns took place in 2003 and 2004. For each campaign, ten TN TM 9/4 round trips are performed, and one TN TM 24BH is loaded. 5 additional TN TM 24BH are being manufactured for BKW, and the next transport campaigns are scheduled from 2006. The TN TM 24BH high capacity dual purpose cask and the TN TM 9/4 transport cask characteristics and capabilities will then be detailed. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen Generation from Al-NiCl2/NaBH4 Mixture Affected by Lanthanum Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Qiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of La on Al/NaBH4 hydrolysis was elaborated in the present paper. Hydrogen generation amount increases but hydrogen generation rate decreases with La content increasing. There is an optimized composition that Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture (Al-15 wt% La-5 wt% NiCl2/NaBH4 weight ratio, 1 : 3 has 126 mL g−1 min−1 maximum hydrogen generation rate and 1764 mL g−1 hydrogen generation amount within 60 min. The efficiency is 88%. Combined with NiCl2, La has great effect on NaBH4 hydrolysis but has little effect on Al hydrolysis. Increasing La content is helpful to decrease the particle size of Al-La-NiCl2 in the milling process, which induces that the hydrolysis byproduct Ni2B is highly distributed into Al(OH3 and the catalytic reactivity of Ni2B/Al(OH3 is increased therefore. But hydrolysis byproduct La(OH3 deposits on Al surface and leads to some side effect. The Al-La-NiCl2/NaBH4 mixture has good stability in low temperature and its hydrolytic performance can be improved with increasing global temperature. Therefore, the mixture has good safety and can be applied as on board hydrogen generation material.

  15. Strange Men

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, William Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Haamid lives a modest life running a restaurant in a small market town in Uganda. A member of the minority Indian population, he is estranged from his family for reasons he prefers not to discuss. At night he cooks elaborate dinners that he eats alone. When an openly gay Peace Corps volunteer comes to town looking for more than a good meal, Haamid's comfortable routine is broken, and his life is put in danger. STRANGE MEN explores the limits of good intentions and the uneven stakes for Americ...

  16. Hydrogen storage properties of rare earth (RE) borohydrides (RE = La, Er) in composite mixtures with LiBH{sub 4} and LiH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommen, Christoph; Heere, Michael [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Riktor, Marit D. [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Forskningsveien 1, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Sørby, Magnus H. [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Hauback, Bjørn C., E-mail: bjorn.hauback@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 6LiBH{sub 4}–RECl{sub 3}–3LiH composites (RE = La, Er) studied for the first time. • Drastically reduced decomposition temperature (300 {sup o}C) compared to LiBH{sub 4} (>400 °C). • Partial reversibility for 6LiBH{sub 4}–LaCl{sub 3}–3LiH: (19% at 340 °C, 10 MPa). • Excellent reversibility for 6LiBH{sub 4}–ErCl{sub 3}–3LiH: (80% at 340 °C, 10 MPa). • Reversibility comparable to that obtained for pure LiBH{sub 4} (76% at 600 °C and 15.5 MPa). - Abstract: Mixtures of 6LiBH{sub 4}–RECl{sub 3}–3LiH (RE = La, Er) have been produced by mechanochemical milling and their structure, thermal decomposition and reversibility have been studied. Hydrogen desorption starts around 300 °C in both composites. Heating to 400 °C yields LaB{sub 6}, ErB{sub 4} and REH{sub 2+δ} as major decomposition products. LiBH{sub 4} is destabilized by REH{sub 2+δ} formed through decomposition of the parent borohydrides LiLa(BH{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl and Er(BH{sub 4}){sub 3}, respectively, and its hydrogen release temperature is reduced by 100 °C as compared to pure ball-milled LiBH{sub 4}. The lanthanum-containing composite releases 4.2 wt.% H between 300 and 350 °C and shows a limited reversibility of ∼20% (340 °C, 10 MPa) probably due to hydrogen uptake by some amorphous boron-containing phases. For 6LiBH{sub 4}–ErCl{sub 3}–3LiH about 3 wt.% H is evolved up to 400 °C. Desorption against 0.5 MPa backpressure results in an increased reversibility (∼80%) as compared to vacuum (∼66%). Rehydrogenation (340 °C, 10 MPa) shows the formation of ErH{sub 3} and LiBH{sub 4} at drastically reduced conditions compared to pure LiBH{sub 4} (>400 °C, >10 MPa)

  17. Measurement of 3H in soil cores from the Hyrax Event (U3bh) subsidence crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreek, S.; Hudson, G.B.; Ruth, M.

    1996-01-01

    Core samples were collected from two boreholes drilled in the subsidence crater of the Hyrax event (U3bh). The moisture in the core samples was extracted via freeze drying and tritiw-n was measured in the extracted moisture via 'He accumulation mass spectrometry or liquid scintillation counting. Elevated tritium concentrations (IE4 - IE6 pCi/L extracted moisture as of the time of measurement) were observed in the extracted moisture from virtually all of the core samples with significant increases beginning at about 30 ft depth. No longer-lived fission products (144 Ce) or activation products ('OCo, 'Eu, 114 En) were observed by gamma-ray spectroscopy in a subset of the core samples. This likely indicates that a catastrophic failure of containment (if it occurred) did not release significant radioactivities to this shallow depth (30 ft). The presence of 'Cs at much greater depths (at sign 210 ft, 64 m) may indicate that gaseous and/or vapor products were released shortly after the Hyrax event to a depth of about 210 ft. The relatively shallow depth where the elevated tritium is observed makes highly improbable any significant linkage between the elevated tritium concentrations and a Hyrax event containment failure. This may indicate that an additional source of enriched 'H was introduced at this site

  18. The role of the BH3-only protein Noxa in bone homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Erik; Nakashima, Tomoki; Wang, Ling; Hayashi, Mikihito; Okamoto, Kazuo; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2011-07-08

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by a dynamic balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Since excessive osteoclast activity is implicated in pathological bone resorption, understanding the mechanism underlying osteoclast differentiation, function and survival is of both scientific and clinical importance. Osteoclasts are monocyte/macrophage lineage cells with a short life span that undergo rapid apoptosis, the rate of which critically determines the level of bone resorption in vivo. However, the molecular basis of rapid osteoclast apoptosis remains obscure. Here we report the role of a BH3-only protein, Noxa (encoded by the Pmaip1 gene), in bone homeostasis using Noxa-deficient mice. Among the Bcl-2 family members, Noxa was selectively induced during osteoclastogenesis. Mice lacking Noxa exhibit a severe osteoporotic phenotype due to an increased number of osteoclasts. Noxa deficiency did not have any effect on the number of osteoclast precursor cells or the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, but led to a prolonged survival of osteoclasts. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated Noxa overexpression remarkably reduced bone loss in a model of inflammation-induced bone destruction. This study reveals Noxa to be a crucial regulator of osteoclast apoptosis, and may provide a molecular basis for a new therapeutic approach to bone diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrocatalytic activity of Pt and PtCo deposited on Ebonex by BH reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavcheva, E.; Nikolova, V.; Petkova, T.; Lefterova, E.; Dragieva, I.; Vitanov, T.; Budevski, E.

    2005-01-01

    The method of borohydride reduction (BH) has been applied to synthesize Pt and PtCo nanoparticles supported on Magneli phase titanium oxides, using Pt and Co ethylenediamine complexes as metal precursors. The phase composition of the synthesized catalysts, their morphology and surface structure were studied by physical methods for bulk and surface analysis, such as electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and BET technique. The catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline aqueous solution was investigated using the common electrochemical techniques. It was found that PtCo/Ebonex facilitates essentially the oxygen evolution which starts at lower overpotentials and proceeds with higher rate compared to both the supported Pt and unsupported PtCo catalysts. The observed effect is prescribed to metal-metal and metal-support interactions. The Ebonex possesses a good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance at high anodic potentials and despite its low surface area is considered as a potential catalyst carrier for the oxygen evolution reaction

  20. Recalibration of the M {sub BH}– σ {sub ⋆} Relation for AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Raimundo, Sandra I.; Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Onken, Christopher A., E-mail: batiste@astro.gsu.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-03-20

    We present a recalibration of the M {sub BH}– σ {sub ⋆} relation, based on a sample of 16 reverberation-mapped galaxies with newly determined bulge stellar velocity dispersions ( σ {sub ⋆}) from integral-field spectroscopy (IFS), and a sample of 32 quiescent galaxies with publicly available IFS. For both samples, σ {sub ⋆} is determined via two different methods that are popular in the literature, and we provide fits for each sample based on both sets of σ {sub ⋆}. We find the fit to the active galactic nucleus sample is shallower than the fit to the quiescent galaxy sample, and that the slopes for each sample are in agreement with previous investigations. However, the intercepts to the quiescent galaxy relations are notably higher than those found in previous studies, due to the systematically lower σ {sub ⋆} measurements that we obtain from IFS. We find that this may be driven, in part, by poorly constrained measurements of bulge effective radius ( r{sub e}) for the quiescent galaxy sample, which may bias the σ {sub ⋆} measurements low. We use these quiescent galaxy parameterizations, as well as one from the literature, to recalculate the virial scaling factor f . We assess the potential biases in each measurement, and suggest f = 4.82 ± 1.67 as the best currently available estimate. However, we caution that the details of how σ {sub ⋆} is measured can significantly affect f , and there is still much room for improvement.

  1. Measurement of 3H in soil cores from the Hyrax Event (U3bh) subsidence crater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreek, S.; Hudson, G.B.; Ruth, M.

    1996-07-01

    Core samples were collected from two boreholes drilled in the subsidence crater of the Hyrax event (U3bh). The moisture in the core samples was extracted via freeze drying and tritiw-n was measured in the extracted moisture via `He accumulation mass spectrometry or liquid scintillation counting. Elevated tritium concentrations (IE4 - IE6 pCi/L extracted moisture as of the time of measurement) were observed in the extracted moisture from virtually all of the core samples with significant increases beginning at about 30 ft depth. No longer-lived fission products (144 Ce) or activation products (`OCo, `Eu, 114 En) were observed by gamma-ray spectroscopy in a subset of the core samples. This likely indicates that a catastrophic failure of containment (if it occurred) did not release significant radioactivities to this shallow depth (30 ft). The presence of `Cs at much greater depths (@210 ft, 64 m) may indicate that gaseous and/or vapor products were released shortly after the Hyrax event to a depth of about 210 ft. The relatively shallow depth where the elevated tritium is observed makes highly improbable any significant linkage between the elevated tritium concentrations and a Hyrax event containment failure. This may indicate that an additional source of enriched `H was introduced at this site.

  2. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: THE M BH-σ* RELATION FOR REVERBERATION-MAPPED ACTIVE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Treu, Tommaso; Bennert, Vardha N.; Barth, Aaron J.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Bentz, Misty C.; Wright, Shelley A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Martini, Paul; Canalizo, Gabriela; Gates, Elinor; Greene, Jenny; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stern, Daniel; Minezaki, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the black hole mass versus stellar velocity dispersion (M BH -σ * ) relation of active galaxies, we measured the velocity dispersions of a sample of local Seyfert 1 galaxies, for which we have recently determined black hole masses using reverberation mapping. For most objects, stellar velocity dispersions were measured from high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra centered on the Ca II triplet region (∼8500 A), obtained at the Keck, Palomar, and Lick Observatories. For two objects, in which the Ca II triplet region was contaminated by nuclear emission, the measurement was based on high-quality H-band spectra obtained with the OH-Suppressing Infrared Imaging Spectrograph at the Keck-II telescope. Combining our new measurements with data from the literature, we assemble a sample of 24 active galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions and reverberation-based black hole mass measurements in the range of black hole mass 10 6 BH /M sun 9 . We use this sample to obtain reverberation-mapping constraints on the slope and intrinsic scatter of the M BH -σ * relation of active galaxies. Assuming a constant virial coefficient f for the reverberation-mapping black hole masses, we find a slope β = 3.55 ± 0.60 and the intrinsic scatter σ int = 0.43 ± 0.08 dex in the relation log(M BH /M sun ) = α + β log(σ * /200 km s -1 ), which are consistent with those found for quiescent galaxies. We derive an updated value of the virial coefficient f by finding the value which places the reverberation masses in best agreement with the M BH -σ * relation of quiescent galaxies; using the quiescent M BH -σ * relation determined by Gueltekin et al., we find log f = 0.72 +0.09 -0.10 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.44 ± 0.07 dex. No strong correlations between f and parameters connected to the physics of accretion (such as the Eddington ratio or line-shape measurements) are found. The uncertainty of the virial coefficient remains one of the main sources of the

  3. Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0-0.8), a cation solid solution in a bimetallic borohydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, Radovan, E-mail: radovan.cerny@unige.ch [Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Penin, Nicolas [Laboratory of Crystallography, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France); D' Anna, Vincenza; Hagemann, Hans [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Durand, Etienne [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Ruzicka, Jakub [Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Hlavova 2030, 128 40, Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The magnesium and manganese borohydrides form a solid solution Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0-0.8) which conserves the trigonal structure of Mn{sub (}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. {yields} Coexistence of both trigonal and hexagonal borohydrides occurs within nominal composition ranging from x{sub Mg} = 0.8-0.9. {yields} The decomposition temperature of trigonal Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0-0.8) does not vary significantly with magnesium content (433-453 K). {yields} The desorbed gas contains mostly hydrogen and 3-7.5 mol.% of diborane B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. - Abstract: A solid solution of magnesium and manganese borohydrides was studied by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. A combination of thermogravimetry, mass and infrared spectroscopy, and atomic emission spectroscopy were applied to clarify the thermal gas desorption of pure Mn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and a solid solution of composition Mg{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0-0.8) conserves the trigonal structure of Mn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} at room temperature. Manganese is dissolved in the hexagonal structure of {alpha}-Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, with the upper solubility limit not exceeding 10 mol.% at room temperature. There exists a two-phase region of trigonal and hexagonal borohydrides within the compositional range x = 0.8-0.9 at room temperature. Infrared spectra show splitting of various vibrational modes, indicating the presence of two cations in the trigonal Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} solid solutions, as well as the appearance of a second phase, hexagonal {alpha}-Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, at higher magnesium contents. All vibrational frequencies are shifted to higher values with increasing magnesium content. The decomposition temperature of the trigonal Mg{sub x}Mn{sub (1-x)}(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0-0.8) does not vary significantly as a function of the magnesium

  4. Improved metabolic control in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), responsive phenylketonuria with sapropterin administered in two divided doses vs. a single daily dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kör, Deniz; Yılmaz, Berna Şeker; Bulut, Fatma Derya; Ceylaner, Serdar; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli

    2017-07-26

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) often requires a lifelong phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Introduction of 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) has made a huge difference in the diets of patients with PKU. BH4 is the co-factor of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and improves PAH activity and, thus, Phe tolerance in the diet. A limited number of published studies suggest a pharmacodynamic profile of BH4 more suitable to be administered in divided daily doses. After a 72-h BH4 loading test, sapropterin was initiated in 50 responsive patients. This case-control study was conducted by administering the same daily dose of sapropterin in group 1 (n=24) as a customary single dose or in two divided doses in group 2 (n=26) over 1 year. Mean daily consumption of Phe increased significantly after the first year of BH4 treatment in group 2 compared to group 1 (p<0.05). At the end of the first year of treatment with BH4, another dramatic difference observed between the two groups was the ability to transition to a Phe-free diet. Eight patients from group 2 and two from group 1 could quit dietary restriction. When given in two divided daily doses, BH4 was more efficacious than a single daily dose in increasing daily Phe consumption, Phe tolerance and the ability to transition to a Phe-unrestricted diet at the end of the first year of treatment.

  5. Development of Al2O3 carrier-Ru composite catalyst for hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH4 hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yao-Hui; Su, Chia-Chi; Wang, Shu-Ling; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A recyclable and reusable Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst is prepared for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis process of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) solution. The hydrogen generation rate by the hydrolysis and methanolysis of alkaline NaBH 4 was explored as a function of NaOH concentration. Meantime, the byproducts derived from the spent alkaline NaBH 4 solution were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electro microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The effect of NaOH concentration on the hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 significantly depends on the type of catalysts. With increasing NaOH concentration, the hydrogen generation rates decrease when using ruthenium (Ru) composite as a catalyst. The hydrogen generation rate of the methanolysis of NaBH 4 is significantly inhibited in the presence of NaOH as compared with the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . The durability test of the Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst shows that the hydrogen generation rate decreases with recycling and reuse. The XRD and NMR analysis results show that the borate hydrate (NaBO 2 H 2 O) was derived from the hydrolysis of 20 wt% and 30 wt% NaBH 4 . -- Highlights: ► A recyclable Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst was synthesized for hydrogen generation. ► Ru/Al 2 O 3 significantly promotes the hydrogen generation rate from alkaline NaBH 4 solution. ► The prepared Ru/Al 2 O 3 catalyst can easily collect from the spent alkaline NaBH 4 solution.

  6. Modulation of NO and ROS production by AdiNOS transduced vascular cells through supplementation with L-Arg and BH4: implications for gene therapy of restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott P; Alferiev, Ivan S; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Levy, Robert J; Fishbein, Ilia

    2013-09-01

    Gene therapy with viral vectors encoding for NOS enzymes has been recognized as a potential therapeutic approach for the prevention of restenosis. Optimal activity of iNOS is dependent on the intracellular availability of L-Arg and BH4 via prevention of NOS decoupling and subsequent ROS formation. Herein, we investigated the effects of separate and combined L-Arg and BH4 supplementation on the production of NO and ROS in cultured rat arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells transduced with AdiNOS, and their impact on the antirestenotic effectiveness of AdiNOS delivery to balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Supplementation of AdiNOS transduced endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells with L-Arg (3.0 mM), BH4 (10 μM) and especially their combination resulted in a significant increase in NO production as measured by nitrite formation in media. Formation of ROS was dose-dependently increased following transduction with increasing MOIs of AdiNOS. Exposure of RASMC to AdiNOS tethered to meshes via a hydrolyzable cross-linker, modeling viral delivery from stents, resulted in increased ROS production, which was decreased by supplementation with BH4 but not L-Arg or L-Arg/BH4. Enhanced cell death, caused by AdiNOS transduction, was also preventable with BH4 supplementation. In the rat carotid model of balloon injury, intraluminal delivery of AdiNOS in BH4-, L-Arg-, and especially in BH4 and L-Arg supplemented animals was found to significantly enhance the antirestenotic effects of AdiNOS-mediated gene therapy. Fine-tuning of iNOS function by L-Arg and BH4 supplementation in the transduced vasculature augments the therapeutic potential of gene therapy with iNOS for the prevention of restenosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phospho-BAD BH3 Mimicry Protects β Cells and Restores Functional β Cell Mass in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Ljubicic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategies that simultaneously enhance the survival and glucose responsiveness of insulin-producing β cells will greatly augment β cell replacement therapies in type 1 diabetes (T1D. We show that genetic and pharmacologic mimetics of the phosphorylated BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3 domain of BAD impart β-cell-autonomous protective effects in the face of stress stimuli relevant to β cell demise in T1D. Importantly, these benefits translate into improved engraftment of donor islets in transplanted diabetic mice, increased β cell viability in islet grafts, restoration of insulin release, and diabetes reversal. Survival of β cells in this setting is not merely due to the inability of phospho-BAD to suppress prosurvival BCL-2 proteins but requires its activation of the glucose-metabolizing enzyme glucokinase. Thus, BAD phospho-BH3 mimetics may prove useful in the restoration of functional β cell mass in diabetes.

  8. Pressure Drop and Catalytic Dehydrogenation of NaBH{sub 4} Solution Across Pin Fin Structures in a Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Moon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok Hyun [Key Valve Technologies Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Dehydrogenation from the hydrolysis of a sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution has been of interest owing to its high theoretical hydrogen storage capacity (10.8 wt.%) and potentially safe operation. An experimental study has been performed on the catalytic reaction rate and pressure drop of a NaBH4 solution over both a single microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 300 μm and a staggered array of micro pin fins in the microchannel with hydraulic diameter of 50 μm. The catalytic reaction rates and pressure drops were obtained under Reynolds numbers from 1 to 60 and solution concentrations from 5 to 20 wt.%. Moreover, reacting flows were visualized using a high-speed camera with a macro zoom lens. As a result, both the amount of hydrogenation and pressure drop are 2.45 times and 1.5 times larger in a pin fin microchannel array than in a single microchannel, respectively.

  9. Canonical Bcl-2 motifs of the Na+/K+ pump revealed by the BH3 mimetic chelerythrine: early signal transducers of apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Heiny, Judith; Meller, Jarek; Lepera, Michael A; Koikov, Leonid; Alter, Gerald M; Brown, Thomas L; Adragna, Norma C

    2013-01-01

    Chelerythrine [CET], a protein kinase C [PKC] inhibitor, is a prop-apoptotic BH3-mimetic binding to BH1-like motifs of Bcl-2 proteins. CET action was examined on PKC phosphorylation-dependent membrane transporters (Na+/K+ pump/ATPase [NKP, NKA], Na+-K+-2Cl+ [NKCC] and K+-Cl- [KCC] cotransporters, and channel-supported K+ loss) in human lens epithelial cells [LECs]. K+ loss and K+ uptake, using Rb+ as congener, were measured by atomic absorption/emission spectrophotometry with NKP and NKCC inhibitors, and Cl- replacement by NO3ˉ to determine KCC. 3H-Ouabain binding was performed on a pig renal NKA in the presence and absence of CET. Bcl-2 protein and NKA sequences were aligned and motifs identified and mapped using PROSITE in conjunction with BLAST alignments and analysis of conservation and structural similarity based on prediction of secondary and crystal structures. CET inhibited NKP and NKCC by >90% (IC50 values ~35 and ~15 μM, respectively) without significant KCC activity change, and stimulated K+ loss by ~35% at 10-30 μM. Neither ATP levels nor phosphorylation of the NKA α1 subunit changed. 3H-ouabain was displaced from pig renal NKA only at 100 fold higher CET concentrations than the ligand. Sequence alignments of NKA with BH1- and BH3-like motifs containing pro-survival Bcl-2 and BclXl proteins showed more than one BH1-like motif within NKA for interaction with CET or with BH3 motifs. One NKA BH1-like motif (ARAAEILARDGPN) was also found in all P-type ATPases. Also, NKA possessed a second motif similar to that near the BH3 region of Bcl-2. Findings support the hypothesis that CET inhibits NKP by binding to BH1-like motifs and disrupting the α1 subunit catalytic activity through conformational changes. By interacting with Bcl-2 proteins through their complementary BH1- or BH3-like-motifs, NKP proteins may be sensors of normal and pathological cell functions, becoming important yet unrecognized signal transducers in the initial phases of apoptosis. CET

  10. Canonical Bcl-2 Motifs of the Na+/K+ Pump Revealed by the BH3 Mimetic Chelerythrine: Early Signal Transducers of Apoptosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Lauf

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chelerythrine [CET], a protein kinase C [PKC] inhibitor, is a prop-apoptotic BH3-mimetic binding to BH1-like motifs of Bcl-2 proteins. CET action was examined on PKC phosphorylation-dependent membrane transporters (Na+/K+ pump/ATPase [NKP, NKA], Na+-K+-2Cl+ [NKCC] and K+-Cl- [KCC] cotransporters, and channel-supported K+ loss in human lens epithelial cells [LECs]. Methods: K+ loss and K+ uptake, using Rb+ as congener, were measured by atomic absorption/emission spectrophotometry with NKP and NKCC inhibitors, and Cl- replacement by NO3ˉ to determine KCC. 3H-Ouabain binding was performed on a pig renal NKA in the presence and absence of CET. Bcl-2 protein and NKA sequences were aligned and motifs identified and mapped using PROSITE in conjunction with BLAST alignments and analysis of conservation and structural similarity based on prediction of secondary and crystal structures. Results: CET inhibited NKP and NKCC by >90% (IC50 values ∼35 and ∼15 µM, respectively without significant KCC activity change, and stimulated K+ loss by ∼35% at 10-30 µM. Neither ATP levels nor phosphorylation of the NKA α1 subunit changed. 3H-ouabain was displaced from pig renal NKA only at 100 fold higher CET concentrations than the ligand. Sequence alignments of NKA with BH1- and BH3-like motifs containing pro-survival Bcl-2 and BclXl proteins showed more than one BH1-like motif within NKA for interaction with CET or with BH3 motifs. One NKA BH1-like motif (ARAAEILARDGPN was also found in all P-type ATPases. Also, NKA possessed a second motif similar to that near the BH3 region of Bcl-2. Conclusion: Findings support the hypothesis that CET inhibits NKP by binding to BH1-like motifs and disrupting the α1 subunit catalytic activity through conformational changes. By interacting with Bcl-2 proteins through their complementary BH1- or BH3-like-motifs, NKP proteins may be sensors of normal and pathological cell functions, becoming important yet

  11. Female and male attractiveness as depicted in the Vanaparvan of the Mahābhārata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona MILEWSKA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the bodily attractiveness of heroines and heroes, as described in one of the two most important epics of India. The basis for this analysis is the love stories and episodes included in the main plot of the Vanaparvan, the third book of the Mahābhārata. The stories from this book have been taken into consideration due to their numerous occurrences, which are a sufficient ground for generalizations. Many characteristic features of their protagonists are repeated in different sub‑stories. Also, the images of female and male characters, princesses, queens and kings are presented and discussed in detail. The external beauty of such female heroines as Damayantī, Sāvitrī, Sukanyā, Suśobhanā and Sitā; as well as the attractiveness of two semi‑goddesses, called Apsarases, are described and analysed. The names of the Apsarases discussed in the context of female beauty are Urvaśī and Menakā. Besides this, the image of an unnamed courtesan is discussed, as it is the most detailed description of a female character and probably follows the ideal of female beauty as shown in the Mahābhārata. As far as the male protagonists are concerned, the images of heroes such as Nala, Bhīma, Aśvapati, Rāma and Daśaratha are taken into consideration. The examples of male attractiveness also include features of the five main heroes of the Mahābhārata: the Paṇḍava brothers.

  12. Studies of the effects of TiCl3 in LiBH4/CaH2/TiCl3 reversible hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongan; Yang Jun; Ni Jun; Drews, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We systematically studied the effects of TiCl 3 in LiBH 4 /CaH 2 /TiCl 3 hydrogen storage system. ► It is found that adding 0.25 TiCl 3 produces fully reversible hydrogen absorption and desorption and a lower desorption temperature. ► LiCl experiences four different states, i.e. “formed-solid solution-molten solution-precipitation”, in the whole desorption process of the system. ► The incorporation of LiCl into LiBH 4 forms more viscous molten LiBH 4 ·LiCl, leading to fast kinetics. ► The precipitation and re-incorporation of LiCl into LiBH 4 lead to a fully reversible complex hydrogen storage system. - Abstract: In the present study, the effects of TiCl 3 on desorption kinetics, absorption/desorption reversibility, and related phase transformation processes in LiBH 4 /CaH 2 /TiCl 3 hydrogen storage system was studied systematically by varying its concentration (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25). The results show that LiCl forms during ball milling of 6LiBH 4 /CaH 2 /xTiCl 3 and that as temperature increases, o-LiBH 4 transforms into h-LiBH 4 , into which LiCl incorporates, forming solid solution of LiBH 4 ·LiCl, which melts above 280 °C. Molten LiBH 4 ·LiCl is more viscous than molten LiBH 4 , preventing the clustering of LiBH 4 and the accompanied agglomeration of CaH 2 , and thus preserving the nano-sized phase arrangement formed during ball milling. Above 350 °C, the molten solution LiBH 4 ·LiCl further reacts with CaH 2 , precipitating LiCl. The main hydrogen desorption reaction is between molten LiBH 4 ·LiCl and CaH 2 and not between molten LiBH 4 and CaH 2 . This alters the hydrogen reaction thermodynamics and lowers the hydrogen desorption temperature. In addition, the solid–liquid nano-sized phase arrangement in the nano-composites improves the hydrogen reaction kinetics. The reversible incorporation/precipitation of LiCl at the hydrogen reaction temperature and during temperature cycling makes the 6LiBH 4 /CaH 2 /0.25TiCl 3

  13. Investigation of the Reversible Lithiation of an Oxide Free Aluminum Anode by a LiBH4 Solid State Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Weeks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze and compare the physical and electrochemical properties of an all solid-state cell utilizing LiBH4 as the electrolyte and aluminum as the active anode material. The system was characterized by galvanostatic lithiation/delithiation, cyclic voltammetry (CV, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Constant current cycling demonstrated that the aluminum anode can be reversibly lithiated over multiple cycles utilizing a solid-state electrolyte. An initial capacity of 895 mAh/g was observed and is close to the theoretical capacity of aluminum. Cyclic voltammetry of the cell was consistent with the constant current cycling data and showed that the reversible lithiation/delithiation of aluminum occurs at 0.32 V and 0.38 V (vs. Li+/Li respectively. XRD of the aluminum anode in the initial and lithiated state clearly showed the formation of a LiAl (1:1 alloy. SEM-EDS was utilized to examine the morphological changes that occur within the electrode during cycling. This work is the first example of reversible lithiation of aluminum in a solid-state cell and further emphasizes the robust nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. This demonstrates the possibility of utilizing other high capacity anode materials with a LiBH4 based solid electrolyte in all-solid-state batteries.

  14. Preparation of Au nanosheets supported on Ni foam and its electrocatalytic performance towards NaBH4 oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The unique Au nanosheets are electrodeposited uniformly on Ni foam substrate. • Au NSs/Ni foam electrode shows high catalytic activity for NaBH 4 electrooxidation. • The surface of a single Au sheet is consisted of many nano-scale corrugations. - Abstract: The unique Au nanosheets (Au NSs) are electrodeposited uniformly on Ni foam substrate via a one-step potentiostatic electrodeposition technique. The electrode is characterized by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray diffractometer. It shows a unique open structure allowing the full utilization of Au surface active sites. NaBH 4 electrooxidation in KOH solution on the Au NSs/Ni foam electrode are studied by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a high catalytic performance outperforming the Au particles made by the same method. At the oxidation potential of 0 V, the current density of 827 mA cm −2 can be achieved on Au NSs/Ni foam electrode, and only 219 mA cm −2 was obtained on Au NPs/Ni foam electrode, indicating that the catalytic activity is increased by 278%, which is attributed to the porous 3D structure, ensuring the full utilization of Au surfaces. Besides, H 2 generated by NaBH 4 hydrolysis can quickly diffuse away from the electrode, preventing surface active sites of Au from blocking by adsorbed gas bubbles

  15. Hydrolysis and regeneration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) - A combination of hydrogen production and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Ouyang, L. Z.; Liu, J. W.; Yao, X. D.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z. W.; Zhu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis is a promising approach for hydrogen generation, but it is limited by high costs, low efficiency of recycling the by-product, and a lack of effective gravimetric storage methods. Here we demonstrate the regeneration of NaBH4 by ball milling the by-product, NaBO2·2H2O or NaBO2·4H2O, with MgH2 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without any further post-treatment. Record yields of NaBH4 at 90.0% for NaBO2·2H2O and 88.3% for NaBO2·4H2O are achieved. This process also produces hydrogen from the splitting of coordinate water in hydrated sodium metaborate. This compensates the need for extra hydrogen for generating MgH2. Accordingly, we conclude that our unique approach realizes an efficient and cost-effective closed loop system for hydrogen production and storage.

  16. Compaction of LiBH4-LiAlH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers: Dehydrogenation kinetics, reversibility, and mechanical stability during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plerdsranoy, Praohatsorn; Javadian-Deylami, Seyd Payam; Jensen, Nicholai Daugaard

    2017-01-01

    To enhance volumetric hydrogen capacity for on-board fuel cells, compaction of LiAlH4-LiBH4 nanoconfined in activated carbon nanofibers (ACNF) is for the first time proposed. Loose powders of milled and nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 samples are compacted under 976 MPa to obtain the pellet samples...... with thickness and diameter of ∼1.20–1.30 and 8.0 mm, respectively. Dehydrogenation temperature of milled LiAlH4-LiBH4 increases from 415 to 434 °C due to compaction, while those of both compacted and loose powder samples of nanoconfined LiAlH4-LiBH4 are lower at comparable temperature of 330–335 °C. Hydrogen...

  17. The BH3 α-Helical Mimic BH3-M6 Disrupts Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and MCL-1 Protein-Protein Interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and Induces Apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sun, Jiazhi; Doi, Kenichiro; Sung, Shen-Shu; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yin, Hang; Rodriguez, Johanna M.; Becerril, Jorge; Berndt, Norbert; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Wang, Hong-Gang; Sebti, Saïd M.

    2011-01-01

    A critical hallmark of cancer cell survival is evasion of apoptosis. This is commonly due to overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function. We designed a BH3 α-helical mimetic BH3-M6 that binds to Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 and prevents their binding to fluorescently labeled Bak- or Bim-BH3 peptides in vitro. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that BH3-M6 is a pan-Bcl-2 antagonist that inhibits the binding of Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 to multi-domain Bax or Bak, or BH3-only Bim or Bad in cell-free systems and in intact human cancer cells, freeing up pro-apoptotic proteins to induce apoptosis. BH3-M6 disruption of these protein-protein interactions is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Using caspase inhibitors and Bax and Bak siRNAs, we demonstrate that BH3-M6-induced apoptosis is caspase- and Bax-, but not Bak-dependent. Furthermore, BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-XL/Bim, Bcl-2/Bim, and Mcl-1/Bim protein-protein interactions and frees up Bim to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells that depend for tumor survival on the neutralization of Bim with Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, or Mcl-1. Finally, BH3-M6 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor CEP-1612. PMID:21148306

  18. The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sun, Jiazhi; Doi, Kenichiro; Sung, Shen-Shu; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yin, Hang; Rodriguez, Johanna M; Becerril, Jorge; Berndt, Norbert; Hamilton, Andrew D; Wang, Hong-Gang; Sebti, Saïd M

    2011-03-18

    A critical hallmark of cancer cell survival is evasion of apoptosis. This is commonly due to overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function. We designed a BH3 α-helical mimetic BH3-M6 that binds to Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1 and prevents their binding to fluorescently labeled Bak- or Bim-BH3 peptides in vitro. Using several approaches, we demonstrate that BH3-M6 is a pan-Bcl-2 antagonist that inhibits the binding of Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 to multi-domain Bax or Bak, or BH3-only Bim or Bad in cell-free systems and in intact human cancer cells, freeing up pro-apoptotic proteins to induce apoptosis. BH3-M6 disruption of these protein-protein interactions is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Using caspase inhibitors and Bax and Bak siRNAs, we demonstrate that BH3-M6-induced apoptosis is caspase- and Bax-, but not Bak-dependent. Furthermore, BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L)/Bim, Bcl-2/Bim, and Mcl-1/Bim protein-protein interactions and frees up Bim to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells that depend for tumor survival on the neutralization of Bim with Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, or Mcl-1. Finally, BH3-M6 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor CEP-1612.

  19. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  20. Alpha-helical destabilization of the Bcl-2-BH4-domain peptide abolishes its ability to inhibit the IP3 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monaco

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is the founding member and namesake of the Bcl-2-protein family. It has recently been demonstrated that Bcl-2, apart from its anti-apoptotic role at mitochondrial membranes, can also directly interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, the primary Ca(2+-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Bcl-2 can thereby reduce pro-apoptotic IP3R-mediated Ca(2+ release from the ER. Moreover, the Bcl-2 homology domain 4 (Bcl-2-BH4 has been identified as essential and sufficient for this IP3R-mediated anti-apoptotic activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the reported inhibitory effect of a Bcl-2-BH4 peptide on the IP 3R1 was related to the distinctive α-helical conformation of the BH4 domain peptide. We therefore designed a peptide with two glycine "hinges" replacing residues I14 and V15, of the wild-type Bcl-2-BH4 domain (Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG. By comparing the structural and functional properties of the Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG peptide with its native counterpart, we found that the variant contained reduced α-helicity, neither bound nor inhibited the IP 3R1 channel, and in turn lost its anti-apoptotic effect. Similar results were obtained with other substitutions in Bcl-2-BH4 that destabilized the α-helix with concomitant loss of IP3R inhibition. These results provide new insights for the further development of Bcl-2-BH4-derived peptides as specific inhibitors of the IP3R with significant pharmacological implications.

  1. At the Perphery of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily: Bh0493 from Bacillus halodurans Catalyzes the Isomerization of D-Galacturonate to D-Tagaturonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen,T.; Brown, S.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Raushel, F.

    2008-01-01

    The amidohydrolase superfamily is a functionally diverse set of enzymes that catalyzes predominantly hydrolysis reactions involving sugars, nucleic acids, amino acids, and organophosphate esters. One of the most divergent members of this superfamily, uronate isomerase from Escherichia coli, catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucuronate to d-fructuronate and d-galacturonate to d-tagaturonate and is the only uronate isomerase in this organism. A gene encoding a putative uronate isomerase in Bacillus halodurans (Bh0705) was identified based on sequence similarity to uronate isomerases from other organisms. Kinetic evidence indicates that Bh0705 is relatively specific for the isomerization of d-glucuronate to d-fructuronate, confirming this functional assignment. Despite a low sequence identity to all other characterized uronate isomerases, phylogenetic and network-based analysis suggests that a second gene in this organism, Bh0493, is also a uronate isomerase, although it is an outlier in the group, with <20% sequence identity to any other characterized uronate isomerase from another species. The elucidation of the X-ray structure at a resolution of 2.0 Angstroms confirms that Bh0493 is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily with conserved residues common to other members of the uronate isomerase family. Functional characterization of this protein shows that unlike Bh0705, Bh0493 can utilize both d-glucuronate and d-galacturonate as substrates. In B. halodurans, Bh0705 is found in an operon for the metabolism of d-glucuronate, whereas Bh0493 is in an operon for the metabolism of d-galacturonate. These results provide the first identification of a uronate isomerase that operates in a pathway distinct from that for d-glucuronate. While most organisms that contain this pathway have only one gene for a uronate isomerase, sequence analysis and operon context show that five other organisms also appear to have two genes and one organism appears to have three genes for

  2. Dehydrogenation of Surface-Oxidized Mixtures of 2LiBH4 + Al/Additives (TiF3 or CeO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Carrillo-Bucio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research for suitable hydrogen storage materials is an important ongoing subject. LiBH4–Al mixtures could be attractive; however, several issues must be solved. Here, the dehydrogenation reactions of surface-oxidized 2LiBH4 + Al mixtures plus an additive (TiF3 or CeO2 at two different pressures are presented. The mixtures were produced by mechanical milling and handled under welding-grade argon. The dehydrogenation reactions were studied by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD at 400 °C and at 3 or 5 bar initial hydrogen pressure. The milled and dehydrogenated materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR The additives and the surface oxidation, promoted by the impurities in the welding-grade argon, induced a reduction in the dehydrogenation temperature and an increase in the reaction kinetics, as compared to pure (reported LiBH4. The dehydrogenation reactions were observed to take place in two main steps, with onsets at 100 °C and 200–300 °C. The maximum released hydrogen was 9.3 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/TiF3 material, and 7.9 wt % in the 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 material. Formation of CeB6 after dehydrogenation of 2LiBH4 + Al/CeO2 was confirmed.

  3. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  4. Matched predictions for the b anti bH cross section at the 13 TeV LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Center for Theoretical Physics; Papanastasiou, Andrew S. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Tackmann, Frank J. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-05-15

    We present up-to-date matched predictions for the b anti bH inclusive cross section at the LHC at √(s)=13 TeV. Using a previously developed method, our predictions consistently combine the complete NLO contributions that are present in the 4-flavor scheme calculation, including finite b-quark mass effects as well as top-loop induced Y{sub b}Y{sub t} interference contributions, with the resummation of collinear logarithms of m{sub b}/m{sub H} as present in the 5-flavor scheme calculation up to NNLO. We provide a detailed estimate of the perturbative uncertainties of the matched result by examining its dependence on the factorization and renormalization scales, the scale of the Yukawa coupling, and also the low b-quark matching scale in the PDFs. We motivate the use of a central renormalization scale of m{sub H}/2, which is halfway between the values typically chosen in the 4-flavor and 5-flavor scheme calculations. We evaluate the parametric uncertainties due to the PDFs and the b-quark mass, and in particular discuss how to systematically disentangle the parametric m{sub b} dependence and the unphysical b-quark matching scale dependence. Our best prediction for the b anti bH production cross section in the Standard Model at 13 TeV and for m{sub H}=125 GeV is σ(b anti bH)=.52pb[1±9.6%(perturbative){sup +2.9%}{sub -3.6%}(parametric)]. We also provide predictions for a range of Higgs masses m{sub H} element of [50,750] GeV. Our method to compute the matched prediction and to evaluate its uncertainty can be readily applied to other heavy-quark-initiated processes at the LHC.

  5. Improving the Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Mg(BH4)2 for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brandon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klebanoff, Lennie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Stavila, Vitalie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Heo, Tae Wook [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ray, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, Jonathan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kang, ShinYoung [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, Hui-Chia [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Thornton, Katsuyo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The objective of this project is to (1) combine theory, synthesis, and characterization across multiple scales to understand the intrinsic kinetic and thermodynamic limitations in MgB2/Mg(BH4)2; (2) construct and apply a flexible, validated, multiscale theoretical framework for modeling (de)hydrogenation kinetics of the Mg-B-H system and related metal hydrides; and (3) devise strategies for improving kinetics and thermodynamics, particularly through nanostructuring and doping. The project has an emphasis on understanding and improving rehydrogenation of MgB2, which has generally been less explored and is key to enabling practical use.

  6. Cosmetic Concerns Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J

    2018-01-01

    Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dehydriding Process and Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange of LiBH4–Mg2FeD6 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanqiao Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dehydriding process and hydrogen–deuterium exchange (H–D exchange of xLiBH4 + (1 − xMg2FeD6 (x = 0.25, 0.75 composites has been studied in detail. For the composition with x = 0.25, only one overlapping mass peak of all hydrogen and deuterium related species was observed in mass spectrometry. This implied the simultaneous dehydriding of LiBH4 and Mg2FeD6, despite an almost 190 °C difference in the dehydriding temperatures of the respective discrete complex hydrides. In situ infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that H–D exchange between [BH4]− and [FeD6]4− had occurred during ball-milling and was promoted upon heating. The extent of H–D exchange was estimated from the areas of the relevant mass signals: immediately prior to the dehydriding, more than two H atoms in [BH4]− was replaced by D atoms. For x = 0.75, H–D exchange also occurred and about one to two H atoms in [BH4]− was replaced by D atoms immediately before the dehydriding. In contrast to the situation for x = 0.25, firstly LiBH4 and Mg2FeD6 dehydrided simultaneously with a special molar ratio = 1:1 at x = 0.75, and then the remaining LiBH4 reacted with the Mg and Fe derived from the dehydriding of Mg2FeD6.

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster Eip74EF-PA transcription factor directly binds the sciarid BhC4-1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Henrique Oliveira; Sanchez, Danilo Garcia; de Freitas Oliveira, Lucas; Kobarg, Jörg; Monesi, Nadia

    2017-11-01

    The DNA puff BhC4-1 gene of Bradysia hygida (Diptera, Sciaridae) is amplified and expressed in the salivary glands at the end of the last larval instar. Even though there are no BhC4-1 orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster, the mechanisms that regulate BhC4-1 gene expression in B. hygida are for the most part conserved in D. melanogaster. The BhC4-1 promoter contains a 129bp (-186/-58) cis-regulatory module (CRM) that drives developmentally regulated expression in transgenic salivary glands at the onset of metamorphosis. Both in the sciarid and in transgenic D. melanogaster, BhC4-1 gene expression is induced by the increase in ecdysone titers that triggers metamorphosis. Genetic interaction experiments revealed that in the absence of the Eip74EF-PA early gene isoform BhC4-1-lacZ levels of expression in the salivary gland are severely reduced. Here we show that the overexpression of the Eip74EF-PA transcription factor is sufficient to anticipate BhC4-1-lacZ expression in transgenic D. melanogaster. Through yeast one-hybrid assays we confirm that the Eip74EF-PA transcription factor directly binds to the 129 bp sciarid CRM. Together, these results contribute to the characterization of an insect CRM and indicate that the ecdysone gene regulatory network that promotes metamorphosis is conserved between D. melanogaster and the sciarid B. hygida. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Young men using pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...

  10. The Fast Evolution of SN 2010bh Associated with XRF 100316D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares E., F.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Klose, S.; Kruhler, T.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Updike, A. C.; Nardini, M.; Filgas, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The first observational evidence of a connection between supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was found about a decade ago. Since then, only half a dozen spectroscopically confirmed associations have been discovered and XRF 1003160 associated with the type-Ic SN 20lObh is among the latest. Aims. We constrain the progenitor radius, the host-galaxy extinction, and the physical parameters of the explosion of XRF l00316D/SN 20lObh at z 0.059. We study the SN brightness and colours in the context of GRB-SNe. Methods. We began observations with the Gamma-Ray burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND) 12 hours after the GRB trigger and continued until 80 days after the burst. GROND provided excellent photometric data in six filter bands covering a wavelength range from approximately 350 to 1800 nm, significantly expanding the pre-existing data set for this event. Combining GROND and Swift data, the early broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) is modelled with a blackbody and afterglow component attenuated by dust and gas absorption. The temperature and radius evolution of the thermal component are analysed and combined with earlier measurements available from the literature. Templates of SN 1998bw are fitted to the SN itself to directly compare the lightcurve properties. Finally, a two-component parametrized model is fitted to the quasi-bolometric light curve. which delivers physical parameters of the explosion. Results. The best-fit models to the broad-band SEDs imply moderate reddening along the line of sight through the host galaxy (A(sub v.host = 1.2 +/- 0.1 mag). Furthermore, the parameters of the blackbody component reveal a cooling envelope at an apparent initial radius of 7 x 10(exp 11) cm, which is compatible with a dense wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star. A multicolor comparison shows that SN 2010bh is 60 - 70% as bright as SN 1998bw. Reaching maximum brightness at 8 - 9 days after the burst in the blue bands, SN 20lObh proves to be the

  11. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C

    2012-07-19

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  12. Method of preparing Ru-immobilized polymer-supported catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH{sub 4} solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ching-Wen; Chen, Chuh-Yung; Huang, Yao-Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A method of preparing a polymer-supported catalyst for hydrogen generation is introduced in this article. This polymer-supported catalyst is the structure of ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticle immobilized on a monodisperse polystyrene (PSt) microsphere. The diameter of the Ru nanoparticle is around 16 nm, and the diameter of the PSt microsphere is 2.65 um. This preparation method is accomplished by two unique techniques: one is sodium lauryl sulfate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (SLS/SFS) interface-initiated system, the other is 2-methacrylic acid 3-(bis-carboxymethylamino)-2-hydroxy-propyl ester (GMA-IDA) chelating monomer. By taking advantage of these two techniques, Ru{sup 3+} ion will be chelated and then reduced to Ru{sup (0)} nanoparticle over PSt surface predominantly. The hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution catalyzed by this Ru-immobilized polymer-supported catalyst is also examined in this article. It reveals that the hydrogen generation rate is 215.9 ml/min g-cat. in a diluted solution containing 1 wt.% NaBH{sub 4} and 1 wt.% NaOH, and this Ru-immobilized polymer-supported catalyst could be recycled during the reaction. (author)

  13. Minor cell-death defects but reduced tumor latency in mice lacking the BH3-only proteins Bad and Bmf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, F; Woess, C; Pedit, V; Tzankov, A; Labi, V; Villunger, A

    2013-01-31

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members of the Bcl-2 homology (BH)3-only subgroup are critical for the establishment and maintenance of tissue homeostasis and can mediate apoptotic cell death in response to developmental cues or exogenously induced forms of cell stress. On the basis of the biochemical experiments as well as genetic studies in mice, the BH3-only proteins Bad and Bmf have been implicated in different proapoptotic events such as those triggered by glucose- or trophic factor-deprivation, glucocorticoids, or histone deacetylase inhibition, as well as suppression of B-cell lymphomagenesis upon aberrant expression of c-Myc. To address possible redundancies in cell death regulation and tumor suppression, we generated compound mutant mice lacking both genes. Our studies revealed lack of redundancy in most paradigms of lymphocyte apoptosis tested in tissue culture. Only spontaneous cell death of thymocytes kept in low glucose or that of pre-B cells deprived of cytokines was significantly delayed when both genes were lacking. Of note, despite these minor apoptosis defects we observed compromised lymphocyte homeostasis in vivo that affected mainly the B-cell lineage. Long-term follow-up revealed significantly reduced latency to spontaneous tumor formation in aged mice when both genes were lacking. Together our study suggests that Bad and Bmf co-regulate lymphocyte homeostasis and limit spontaneous transformation by mechanisms that may not exclusively be linked to the induction of lymphocyte apoptosis.

  14. Relationship between apoptosis and the BH2 domain sequence of the VP5 peptide of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ortega S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether the level of apoptosis induced by infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is related to the amino acid sequence of the BH2 domain of the VP5 protein and the level of infectivity. Materials and methods. Three IPNV strains were used, the VP2 protein gene was amplified for genotyping and the VP5 sequence was also obtained. The infectivity of the strains was calculated using the viral titer obtained at 12, 24, 36 and 45 hpi in CHSE-214 cells. The percentage of apoptosis in infected cells was visualized by TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry (caspase 3 detection. Results. The V70/06 and V33/98 strains corresponded to genotype Sp, while V112/06 to VR-299; the amino acid analysis of the V70/06 strain allows its classification as middle virulent strain and V33/98 and V112/06 strains as low virulent ones; infection with the V112/06 strain produced a lower viral titer (p0.05. Conclusions. The results showed that the differences in the BH2 sequence of the VP5 protein, infectivity and the VP2 sequence are not associated with the modulation of apoptosis.

  15. Organised attempts at changes of the national identity of Serbs in BH in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukoičić Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author analyses the institutional attempts to change national identity of the Serb people in Bosnia & Herzegovina in XIX and XX century. It is emphasized that every great war, conquest and occupation in the contemporary Bosnian-Herzegovina history were followed by imposing some sort of common identity to the national communities in B&H, including Serb people, and that it could be said that the attempts to suffocate and, more-less, violently change the identity of the Serbs, are as old as the modern national identity of this part of Serb nation - invading rulers of Bosnia & Herzegovina had invested great efforts to suppress national consciousness of the Serbs while it was still in the early stages of its development, and national awakening of the Serbs was, at the same time, followed by rough imposing of the alternative Bosnian identity. However, all these attempts to create common identities as ways to achieve stability and secure coexistence have had, for the most part, adverse effects and have led to the creation of even greater gap between peoples in B&H and further deepening of interethnic differences and animosities.

  16. Structure-dependent vibrational dynamics of Mg(BH 4 ) 2 polymorphs probed with neutron vibrational spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; White, James L.; Zhou, Wei; Stavila, Vitalie; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Udovic, Terrence J.

    2016-01-01

    The structure-dependent vibrational properties of different Mg(BH4)2 polymorphs (..alpha.., ..beta.., ..gamma.., and ..delta.. phases) were investigated with a combination of neutron vibrational spectroscopy (NVS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, with emphasis placed on the effects of the local structure and orientation of the BH4- anions. DFT simulations closely match the neutron vibrational spectra. The main bands in the low-energy region (20-80 meV) are associated with the BH4- librational modes. The features in the intermediate energy region (80-120 meV) are attributed to overtones and combination bands arising from the lower-energy modes. The features in the high-energy region (120-200 meV) correspond to the BH4- symmetric and asymmetric bending vibrations, of which four peaks located at 140, 142, 160, and 172 meV are especially intense. There are noticeable intensity distribution variations in the vibrational bands for different polymorphs. This is explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of BH4- anions within various structures. An example of the possible identification of products after the hydrogenation of MgB2, using NVS measurements, is presented. These results provide fundamental insights of benefit to researchers currently studying these promising hydrogen-storage materials.

  17. Dehydriding and re-hydriding properties of high-energy ball milled LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Kyle; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Here we report the first investigation of the dehydriding and re-hydriding properties of 2LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2} mixtures in the solid state. Such a study is made possible by high-energy ball milling of 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixtures at liquid nitrogen temperature with the addition of graphite. The 2LiBH{sub 4}+MgH{sub 2} mixture ball milled under this condition exhibits a 5-fold increase in the released hydrogen at 265 C when compared with ineffectively ball milled counterparts. Furthermore, both LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2} contribute to hydrogen release in the solid state. The isothermal dehydriding/re-hydriding cycles at 265 C reveal that re-hydriding is dominated by re-hydriding of Mg. These unusual phenomena are explained based on the formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases, the increased defect concentration in crystalline compounds, and possible catalytic effects of Mg,MgH{sub 2} and LiBH{sub 4} on their dehydriding and re-hydriding properties. (author)

  18. B(H) B(H) ⊗ B(H)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [8] Lance C, On nuclear C∗. -algebras. J. Funct. Anal. 12 (1973) 157–176. [9] Ozawa N, An application of expanders to B(l2)⊗B(l2), J. Funct. Anal. 198 (2003) 499–. 510. [10] Pisier G, Introduction to operator space theory, London Mathematical Society Lecture. Note Series 294, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) ...

  19. Bcl-2 family of proteins as drug targets for cancer chemotherapy: the long way of BH3 mimetics from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Laura; Marzo, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Bcl-2 proteins are key determinants in the life-death balance. In recent years, proteins in this family have been identified as drug targets in the design of new anti-tumor therapies. Advances in the knowledge of the mechanism of action of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have enabled the development of the so-called 'BH3 mimetics'. These compounds act by inhibiting anti-apoptotic proteins of the family, imitating the function of the BH3-only subset of pro-apoptotic members. Combinations of BH3-mimetics with anti-tumor drugs are being evaluated in both preclinical models and clinical trials. Recent advances in these approaches will be reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the decomposition gases from α and β-Cd(BH4)2 synthesized by temperature controlled mechanical milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Zatti, Matteo; Vegge, Tejs

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study on the controlled phase synthesis and thermal decomposition of Cd(BH2)4, a material for solid state hydrogen storage obtained via the metathesis reaction of LiBH4 with CdCl2. By adjusting the stochiometry of the reactants and controlling the mechanical milling vial...... temperature, we have isolated the tetragonal (P42mn) low temperature phase and the cubic (View the MathML source) high temperature phase of the cadmium borohydride. Cd(BH2)4 has a low thermodynamic stability and decomposes with fast kinetic at 348 K, when heated at 1 K min−1 against a backpressure of 1 bar H2...

  1. SN2015bh: NGC2770's 4th supernova or a luminous blue variable on its way to a Wolf-Rayet star?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Leloudas, G.

    2017-01-01

    yr that experienced a possible terminal explosion as type IIn SN in 2015, named SN 2015bh. This possible SN (or " main event") had a precursor peaking similar to 40 days before maximum. The total energy release of the main event ;is similar to 1.8 X 10(49) erg, consistent with a ... 2015bh lies within a spiral arm of NGC2770 next to several small star-forming regions with a metallicity of similar to 0.5 solar and a stellar population age of 7-10 Myr. SN 2015bh shares many similarities with SN 2009ip and may form a new class of objects that exhibit outbursts a few decades prior...

  2. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crisis? For More Information Reprints Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... affects a large number of men. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable and has trouble ...

  3. When Men Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning

    men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...

  4. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  5. Insight to the Thermal Decomposition and Hydrogen Desorption Behaviors of NaNH2-NaBH4 Hydrogen Storage Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ziwei; Bai, Ying; Wang, Yue; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-09-20

    The lightweight compound material NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 is regarded as a promising hydrogen storage composite due to the high hydrogen density. Mechanical ball milling was employed to synthesize the composite NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 (2/1 molar ratio), and the samples were investigated utilizing thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis-mass spectroscopy (TG-DTA-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The full-spectrum test (range of the ratio of mass to charge: 0-200) shows that the released gaseous species contain H 2 , NH 3 , B 2 H 6 , and N 2 in the heating process from room temperature to 400 °C, and possibly the impurity gas B 6 H 12 also exists. The TG/DTA analyses show that the composite NaNH 2 -NaBH 4 (2/1 molar ratio) is conductive to generate hydrogen so that the dehydrogenation process can be finished before 400 °C. Moreover, the thermal decomposition process from 200 to 400 °C involves two-step dehydrogenation reactions: (1) Na 3 (NH 2 ) 2 BH 4 hydride decomposes into Na 3 BN 2 and H 2 (200-350 °C); (2) remaining Na 3 (NH 2 ) 2 BH 4 reacts with NaBH 4 and Na 3 BN 2 , generating Na, BN, NH 3 , N 2 , and H 2 (350-400 °C). The better mechanism understanding of the thermal decomposition pathway lays a foundation for tailoring the hydrogen storage performance of the composite complex hydrides system.

  6. Fechamento epifisário da extremidade distal do rádio de eqüinos da raça Brasileira de Hipismo (BH Distal radius physeal closure in the Brasileiro de Hipismo horse breed (BH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lice Buchmann de Godoy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a idade de fechamento epifisário da raça Brasileira de Hipismo (BH, um grupo de 24 cavalos, 12 machos inteiros e 12 fêmeas, teve a região epifisária da extremidade distal do rádio radiografada, mês a mês, em projeção crânio-caudal, a partir dos 18 meses de idade até o fechamento completo. Os dados do experimento foram analisados pelo método ANOVA de uma via, utilizando-se o teste "t" de Student para comparação entre as médias. Concluiu-se que o fechamento epifisário completo ocorreu aos 25,83 ± 1,58 meses nas fêmeas e aos 28,16 ± 1,40 meses nos machos (pTwenty-four Brasileiro de Hipismo horses (BH, 12 intact males and 12 females, were used in this study to determine the closure time of the distal radial physis. Craniocaudal radiographs of the distal radius were taken at 18 months of age and until the fusion of the physis. Data were analysed by One-way ANOVA and Student t-test to compare means between groups. The closure time of the distal radial physis occurred at 25.83 ± 1.58 months of age in females and 28.16 ± 1.40 months in males (p<0.001.

  7. Rundt om Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling...

  8. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737 targets selective Bcl-2 proteins and efficiently induces apoptosis via Bak/Bax if Mcl-1 is neutralized

    OpenAIRE

    van Delft, Mark F.; Wei, Andrew H.; Mason, Kylie D.; Vandenberg, Cassandra J.; Chen, Lin; Czabotar, Peter E.; Willis, Simon N.; Scott, Clare L.; Day, Catherine L.; Cory, Suzanne; Adams, Jerry M.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Huang, David C.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since apoptosis is impaired in malignant cells overexpressing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins, drugs mimicking their natural antagonists, BH3-only proteins, might overcome chemoresistance. Of seven putative BH3 mimetics tested, only ABT-737 triggered Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis. Despite its high affinity for Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, many cell types proved refractory to ABT-737. We show that this resistance reflects its inability to target another pro-survival relative, Mcl-1. Down-regulation of Mc...

  9. Improved hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution using cobalt catalysts supported on modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie; Yue, Xuehai [College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Dai, Ping [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Hydrogen production from alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution via hydrolysis process over activated carbon supported cobalt catalysts is studied. Activated carbons are used in their original form and after liquid phase oxidation with HNO{sub 3}. The changes in surface functional groups of the activated carbon are detected by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of HNO{sub 3} oxidation on the properties of the activated carbon and the resulting catalyst performance are investigated. FTIR analysis reveals that the oxidative treatment leads to the formation of various functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon. Cobalt catalysts supported on the modified activated carbon are found to exhibit higher activity and stability. (author)

  10. Theoretical Re-evaluations of Scaling Relations between SMBHs and Their Host Galaxies—1. Effect of Seed BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakata, Hikari [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Department of Economics, Management and Information Science, Onomichi City University, Onomichi (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Makiya, Ryu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Institute of Management and Information Technologies, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Matsuoka, Yoshiki [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro [Faculty of Education, Bunkyo University, Koshigaya (Japan); Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R., E-mail: shirakata@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Natural Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Kure College, Kure (Japan)

    2017-09-21

    We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and investigate how the mass of a seed black hole affect the scaling relation between black hole mass and bulge mass at z ~ 0. When the mass of the seed is set at 10{sup 5}M{sub ⊙}, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the scaling relation for dwarf galaxies. On the other hand, when we set seed black hole mass as 10{sup 3}M{sub ⊙} or as randomly chosen value within a 10{sup 3-5}M{sub ⊙} range, we find the results are consistent with observational results including the dispersion. We also find that black hole mass—bulge mass relations for less massive bulges at z ~ 0 put stronger constraints on the seed BH mass than the relations at higher redshifts.

  11. Microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production by a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Guangce

    2015-01-01

    Based on the transposon-mutagenized library of Pantoea agglomerans BH18, mutant screens were conducted to obtain the strain with the highest Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production. Of these transposon-mutagenized mutants, the mutant strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. The PCR amplification and kanamycin resistance selection results indicated that the transposon insertion of the mutant strain TB230 was stable. Hydrogen production of the mutant strain TB230 was (2.21 ± 0.34) mol H 2 /mol glucose, which increased hydrogen production by over 40% compared with that of the wild type strain. The accumulation concentration of Fe (II) in the medium of the mutant strain TB230 with Fe (OH) 3 as the sole electron acceptor was (7.39 ± 0.49) mmol/l, which was approximately 3-fold greater than that of the wild type strain. The mutant strain TB230 showed high Fe (III)-reducing activity and hydrogen production by adopting glucose and pyruvate as the carbon source. In addition, the mutant strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production under fresh or marine conditions. This result indicates that the mutant strain with high microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production is beneficial for the improvement of anaerobic performance. - Highlights: • The mutant strain TB230 was a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18. • Strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. • H 2 yield and Fe (III)-reducing activity were 2.21 ± 0.34 and 7.39 ± 0.49 in marine condition. • Strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production in fresh or marine condition

  12. Knockdown of BAG3 sensitizes bladder cancer cells to treatment with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Jens; Antonietti, Patrick; Rakel, Stefanie; Blaheta, Roman; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Kögel, Donat

    2016-02-01

    BAG3 is overexpressed in several malignancies and mediates a non-canonical, selective form of (macro)autophagy. By stabilizing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in complex with HSP70, BAG3 can also exert an apoptosis-antagonizing function. ABT-737 is a high affinity Bcl-2 inhibitor that fails to target Mcl-1. This failure may confer resistance in various cancers. Urothelial cancer cells were treated with the BH3 mimetics ABT-737 and (-)-gossypol, a pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor which inhibits also Mcl-1. To clarify the importance of the core autophagy regulator ATG5 and BAG3 in ABT-737 treatment, cell lines carrying a stable lentiviral knockdown of ATG5 and BAG3 were created. The synergistic effect of ABT-737 and pharmaceutical inhibition of BAG3 with the HSF1 inhibitor KRIBB11 or sorafenib was also evaluated. Total cell death and apoptosis were quantified by FACS analysis of propidium iodide, annexin. Target protein analysis was conducted by Western blotting. Knockdown of BAG3 significantly downregulated Mcl-1 protein levels and sensitized urothelial cancer cells to apoptotic cell death induced by ABT-737, while inhibition of bulk autophagy through depletion of ATG5 had no discernible effect on cell death. Similar to knockdown of BAG3, pharmacological targeting of the BAG3/Mcl-1 pathway with KRIBB11 was capable to sensitize both cell lines to treatment with ABT-737. Our results show that BAG3, but not bulk autophagy has a major role in the response of bladder cancer cells to BH3 mimetics. They also suggest that BAG3 is a suitable target for combined therapies aimed at synergistically inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer.

  13. Mass Measurements of AGN from Multi-Lorentzian Models of X-ray Variability. I. Sampling Effects in Theoretical Models of the rms^2-M_BH Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias

    2006-01-01

    Recent X-ray variability studies suggest that the log of the square of the fractional rms variability amplitude, rms^2, seems to correlate with the log of the AGN black-hole mass, M_BH, with larger black holes being less variable for a fixed time interval. This has motivated the theoretical...

  14. Expression, purification and characterization of hepatitis B virus X protein BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein for structural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kusunoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx is a multifunctional protein that interacts directly with many host proteins. For example, HBx interacts with anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, through its BH3-like motif, which leads to elevated cytosolic calcium levels, efficient viral DNA replication and the induction of apoptosis. To facilitate sample preparation and perform detailed structural characterization of the complex between HBx and Bcl-xL, we designed and purified a recombinant HBx BH3-like motif-linker-Bcl-xL fusion protein produced in E. coli. The fusion protein was characterized by size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the fusion protein is a monomer in aqueous solution, forms a stable intramolecular complex, and likely retains the native conformation of the complex between Bcl-xL and the HBx BH3-like motif. Furthermore, the HBx BH3-like motif of the intramolecular complex forms an α-helix. These observations indicate that the fusion protein should facilitate structural studies aimed at understanding the interaction between HBx and Bcl-xL at the atomic level.

  15. Li-ion conduction in the LiBH4:LiI system from Density Functional Theory calculations and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrdal, Jon Steinar Gardarsson; Blanchard, Didier; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2013-01-01

    The hexagonal high-temperature polymorph of LiBH4 is stabilized by solid solution with LiI to exhibit superionic Li+ ionic conductivity at room temperature. Herein, the mechanisms for the Li+ diffusion are investigated for the first time by density functional theory (DFT) calculations coupled...

  16. Evaluation of XD/A Plus and ST8G films for cephalometric radiography with Grenex G8 and BH-III screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakoh, M; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Shibuya, H; Nishikawa, K; Kuroyanagi, K

    1997-02-01

    Sensitometric properties, clinical image quality, and patient dose requirements are important considerations when selecting film for cephalometrics. Two recently released films, XD/A Plus and ST 8G green sensitive films, were studied. The films were each combined with Grenex G8 (Fuji Medical) green-fluorescing matched and BH-III (Kasei Optonix) blue-fluorescing mismatched intensifying screens. The density response and resolution for each screen-film combination were evaluated by use of the characteristic curve and modulation transfer function. The kilovoltage settings providing clinically acceptable images were assessed individually by 12 observers. Clinically acceptable images for each combination were also compared, and the skin entrance doses in the temporomandibular joint region were determined. The average contrast at the most effective density range was found to be slightly higher for the BH-III group than for the G8 group. The modulation transfer function for the BH-III group was inferior to that for the G8 screens. There were no significant differences in diagnostically acceptable image quality among the four combinations; nevertheless the BH-III screen group required two to three times more exposure than the G8 screen group. XD/A Plus and ST8G films provide acceptable image detail for cephalometrics. To minimize the patient dose they should be used with green-emitting screens.

  17. The LiBH4-LiI Solid Solution as an Electrolyte in an All-Solid-State Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Viskinde, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The charge and discharge performance of an all-solid-state lithium battery with the LiBH4-LiI solid solution as an electrolyte is reported. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. The performance of the all-solid-state cell...

  18. New hydrogen-rich ammonium metal borohydrides, NH4[M(BH4)4], M = Y, Sc, Al, as potential H2 sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starobrat, A; Jaroń, T; Grochala, W

    2018-03-26

    Three metal-ammonium borohydrides, NH4[M(BH4)4] M = Y, Sc, Al, denoted 1, 2, 3, respectively, were prepared via a low temperature mechanochemical synthesis and characterized using PXRD, FTIR and TGA/DSC/MS. The compounds 1 and 2 adopt the P21/c space group while the compound 3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell (Fddd). The first decomposition step of all three derivatives of ammonium borohydride has the maximum rate at 48 °C, 53 °C and 35 °C for 1, 2 and 3, respectively, which are comparable to that for NH4BH4 (53 °C). The thermal decomposition of these metal-ammonium borohydrides is a multistep process, with predominantly exothermic low-temperature stages. The compound 1 decomposes via known Y(BH4)3, however, some of the solid decomposition products of the other two compounds have not been fully identified. In the system containing compound 2, a new, more dense polymorph of the previously reported LiSc(BH4)4 has been detected as the intermediate of slow decomposition at room temperature.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lithium Ion Conduction of the LiBH4–LiI Solid Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson; Blanchard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The LiBH4–LiI solid solution is a good Li+ conductor and a promising crystalline electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium based batteries. The focus of the present work is on the effect of heat treatment on the Li+ conduction. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25–50% were synthesized by high...

  20. Inactivation of genes encoding extracellular proteases in bacillus halodurans BhFC01 and the impact on its modified flagellin type III secretion pathway towards improving peptide expression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berger, E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagellin type III secretion pathway of Bacillus halodurans BhFC01 (-hag) was modified by the inactivation of fliD. An in-frame flagellin gene fusion polypeptide construct was expressed, and the heterologous peptides were secreted as flagellin...

  1. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry study of the NH3BH3 oxidation reaction on gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belén Molina Concha, M.; Chatenet, Marian; Lima, Fabio H.B.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia borane (NH 3 BH 3 ) oxidation reaction (ABOR) was studied on gold electrodes using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) setup and coupled physical techniques: on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Non-negligible heterogeneous hydrolysis in the low-potential region was asserted via molecular H 2 detection. As a consequence, the number of electron exchanged per BH 3 OH − species is ca. 3 at low potential, and only reaches ca. 6 above 0.6 V vs. RHE. These figures were confirmed by Levich and Koutecki–Levich calculations using the RDE experiments data. The nature of the ABOR intermediates and products was determined using in situ FTIR. While BH 2 species were detected during the ABOR, it seems that its adsorption onto the Au electrode proceeds via the O atom, in opposition to what happens during the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR). Therefore, it is likely that the mechanism of the ABOR differs from that of the BOR. From the whole set of data (RDE, DEMS, FTIR), a relevant reaction pathway was proposed, including competition between the BH 3 OH − heterogeneous hydrolysis and oxidation at low potential, and preponderant oxidation at higher potential. Finally, a simplified kinetic modeling accounting with this reaction pathway was proposed, which nicely fits the stationary (i vs. E) ABOR plot

  2. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) originating from a conventional field in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Here, we present the 3,795,952 bp complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017580.

  3. Men in Feminised Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Kenn

    masculine than other men? Or do they rather represent a new, more tolerant and less stereotypical male gender role? If less restricted by stereotypes, are men then eager to challenge traditional dichotomised perceptions of man/masculinity and woman/femininity? By means of analyses of interviews with more......»Male nurses – Is that really what It’s called?« »Aren’t all male hairdressers gay?« »All preschool educators do is to wipe children’s bums, isn’t it?« »Cleaning is a job for women, not for menMen working in women’s professions often give rise to a lot of prejudices. But why? Are these men less...... than 160 Bulgarian, Danish, Italian and Polish men working in traditional women’s occupations, this publication tries to answer some of these questions....

  4. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...

  5. Reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) dependent structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Rani, B. Jansi; Ravi, G. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Thambidurai, M. [Luminous Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The Photonics Institute (TPI), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Yuvakkumar, R., E-mail: yuvakkumar@gmail.com [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    Nickel ferrite (Ni-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanorods were synthesized employing a simple chemical reduction method. Reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) influence on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was investigated. XRD results clearly revealed the presence of inverse cubic spinel nickel ferrite structure characteristic peaks and confirmed the site inversion of inverse spinel structure of Fe{sup 3+} tetrahedral A site and Ni{sup 2+} octahedral B site. The observed Raman characteristic peak at 488 and 683 cm{sup −1} were corresponded to E{sub 1} {sub g} and A{sub 1} {sub g} mode whereas A and B site respectively corresponded to tetrahedral and octahedral site of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} inverse spinel structure. The obtained PL peaks at 530 and 542 nm were attributed to the emission spectra of Fe{sup 3+} ions in site A of inverse spinel structure and Ni{sup 2+} ions in site B of inverse spinel structure respectively. SEM result clearly revealed that increase in NaBH{sub 4} concentration had remarkable impact on nanorods formation, nano-octahedron structure, homogeneity and regularity of Ni-Ferrites. VSM studies clearly revealed the soft ferromagnetic nature of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and increase in NaBH{sub 4} concentration further induced raise in metal cations concentration in A- and B- site which might impact the resultant magnetization of ferrites. - Highlights: • Nano rod formation has been initiated while increase of NaBH{sub 4} concentration. • Further increasing NaBH{sub 4} concentration favors nano-octahedron formation. • VSM studies revealed soft ferromagnetic nature of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  6. New CCD photometric investigation of the early-type overcontact binary BH Cen in the young star-forming Galactic cluster IC 2944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Er-Gang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jia

    2018-05-01

    BH Cen is a short-period early-type binary with a period of 0.792d in the extremely young star-forming cluster IC 2944. New multi-color CCD photometric light curves in U, B, V, R and I bands are presented and are analyzed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is detected that BH Cen is a high-mass-ratio overcontact binary with a fill-out factor of 46.4% and a mass ratio of 0.89. The derived orbital inclination i is 88.9 degrees, indicating that it is a totally eclipsing binary and the photometric parameters can be determined reliably. By adding new eclipse times, the orbital period changes in the binary are analyzed. It is confirmed that the period of BH Cen shows a long-term increase while it undergoes a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of A 3 = 0.024 d and a period of P 3 = 50.3 yr. The high mass ratio, overcontact configuration and long-term continuous increase in the orbital period all suggest that BH Cen is in the evolutionary state after the shortest-period stage of Case A mass transfer. The continuous increase in period can be explained by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of Ṁ 2 = 2.8 × 10‑6 M ⊙ per year. The cyclic change can be plausibly explained by the presence of a third body because both components in the BH Cen system are early-type stars. Its mass is determined to be no less than 2.2 M ⊙ at an orbital separation of about 32.5 AU. Since no third light was found during the photometric solution, it is possible that the third body may be a candidate for a compact object.

  7. Reducing agent (NaBH4) dependent structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Rani, B. Jansi; Ravi, G.; Thambidurai, M.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    Nickel ferrite (Ni-Fe 2 O 4 ) nanorods were synthesized employing a simple chemical reduction method. Reducing agent (NaBH 4 ) influence on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of NiFe 2 O 4 nanorods was investigated. XRD results clearly revealed the presence of inverse cubic spinel nickel ferrite structure characteristic peaks and confirmed the site inversion of inverse spinel structure of Fe 3+ tetrahedral A site and Ni 2+ octahedral B site. The observed Raman characteristic peak at 488 and 683 cm −1 were corresponded to E 1 g and A 1 g mode whereas A and B site respectively corresponded to tetrahedral and octahedral site of NiFe 2 O 4 inverse spinel structure. The obtained PL peaks at 530 and 542 nm were attributed to the emission spectra of Fe 3+ ions in site A of inverse spinel structure and Ni 2+ ions in site B of inverse spinel structure respectively. SEM result clearly revealed that increase in NaBH 4 concentration had remarkable impact on nanorods formation, nano-octahedron structure, homogeneity and regularity of Ni-Ferrites. VSM studies clearly revealed the soft ferromagnetic nature of NiFe 2 O 4 and increase in NaBH 4 concentration further induced raise in metal cations concentration in A- and B- site which might impact the resultant magnetization of ferrites. - Highlights: • Nano rod formation has been initiated while increase of NaBH 4 concentration. • Further increasing NaBH 4 concentration favors nano-octahedron formation. • VSM studies revealed soft ferromagnetic nature of NiFe 2 O 4 .

  8. Men and the Suffrage

    OpenAIRE

    Kristmundsdóttir, Sigríður Dúna

    2016-01-01

    Around the turn of the last century the suffrage was a crucial political issue in Europe and North America. Granting the disenfranchised groups, all women and a proportion of men, the suffrage would foreseeably have lasting effects on the structure of society and its gendered organization. Accordingly, the suffrage was hotly debated. Absent in this debate were the voices of disenfranchised men and this article asks why this was so. No research has been found on why these men did not fight for...

  9. UCM BH MSS 133: catalogación de los once manuscritos encuadernados en este volumen facticio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Barceló, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1878 Villa-Amil y Castro publicó el primer catálogo impreso de los manuscritos procedentes del Colegio de San Ildefonso de la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. Para su trabajo Villa-Amil dependió estrechamente de las catalogaciones efectuadas antes en 1745 y de nuevo en 1800. Recientemente, Paul Oskar Kristeller ha puesto su atención en los manuscritos humanistas de esta colección; la cual es esencial para el estudio del humanismo en la universidad hispana del Renacimiento temprano. Desde este punto de vista se hace necesaria una nueva catalogación de los manuscritos del Colegio de San Ildefonso. Por ejemplo, el volumen facticio MSS 133 contiene once manuscritos de mediados del siglo XV entre los cuales se conserva el único testimonio de una de las obras latinas de Alfonso de Palencia. El objeto de este trabajo es una descripción bibliográfica más detallada de estos once manuscritos encuadernados en UCM BH MSS 133. In 1878 Villa-Amil y Castro published the first printed catalogue of the manuscript collection of the old Colegio de San Ildefonso at the University of Alcalá de Henares. In his work Villa-Amil followed closely the catalogues produced earlier in 1745 and again in 1800. More recently, Paul Oskar Kristeller has focused his interest on the humanistic manuscripts of this collection, as this library becomes essential in the study of humanism in the hispanic universities during the early Renaissance. From this point of view it is necessary a closer examination to the manuscripts belonging to the old Colegio de San Ildefonso. For example, volume MSS 133 contains eleven manuscritpts from the mid 15th century among them a unique testimony of a Latin composition by Alfonso de Palencia. The object of this paper is a more detailed bibliographical description of these eleven manuscripts in UCM BH MSS 133.

  10. Effect of chloride substitution on the order–disorder transition in NaBH4 and Na11BD4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Jørn Eirik; Karen, Pavel; Sørby, Magnus H.; Hauback, Bjørn C.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Interactions that order the BD 4 - tetrahedra below the order–disorder transition became increasingly frustrated by the solute in the Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x solid solutions, and the order disappears at x = 0.158. Highlights: • The order–disorder transition temperature for Na(BH 4 ) 1−x Cl x and Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x is highly dependent on the Cl-content, x. • The transition is characterized by DSC for Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x for x = 0, 0.10 and 0.15. • No transition is observed for x ⩾ 0.20 on cooling to 8 K. • The crystal structures are reported for Na 11 BD 4 at room temperature and 8 K and Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) at 8 K from powder neutron diffraction. -- Abstract: Phase transition associated with anion disordering over two orientations in Na 11 BD 4 (NaBH 4 ) and its solid solutions with NaCl, Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x , is investigated with powder diffraction (neutron and synchrotron radiation), differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. Upon heating, the transition temperature extrapolated to zero rate of heating is 192.2 K for Na 11 BD 4 , ΔS = 4.41 J/mol K, hysteresis 1.7 K and the volume increase 0.43%. Thermal parameters of the transition in Na( 11 BD 4 ) 1−x Cl x follow a colligative-property model of an ideal solution, with x = 0.158(1) as the critical concentration at which the ordering interactions and the transition itself are eliminated. On approaching this limit, the tetragonal distortion of the ordered structure decreases somewhat towards the cubic average, and this is associated with a partial disorder of the tetrahedral anions seen by diffraction methods. In fact, a 3% disorder is already present in the pure solvent of the solid solution (Na 11 BD 4 ) at 8 K

  11. Men behaving nicely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Iredale, W.

    2012-01-01

    Insights from sexual selection and costly signalling theory suggest that competition for females underlies men's public good contributions. We conducted two public good experiments to test this hypothesis. First, we found that men contributed more in the presence of an opposite sex audience, but

  12. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  13. Men, Myth, and Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This issue on gender and the media contains the following (1) "Home, Home on the Remote"; (2) "Dads Through the Decades" (Mark Crispin Miller); (3) "The New Man: That's Entertainment!" (John Lehrer); (4) "Singing Men's Songs" (Kerry Skorlich); (5) "Media Myths and Men's Work" (Ian Harris); (6) "Why Are There No Asian Male Anchors?" (Ben…

  14. Osteoporosis in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Misiorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fractures are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among aging men. 30% of all hip fractures occur in men, and mortality resulting from not only the hip fracture, but also the spine and other major osteoporotic fractures, is significantly higher in men than in women. As in women, hypogonadism is the best documented risk factor for developing osteoporosis in men. In older men, testosterone levels are negatively correlated with the risk of fractures, and it seems that this age-related testosterone deficiency should not be considered as one of the many causes of secondary osteoporosis, rather one of the major and most important mechanisms of senile osteoporosis. Acute hypogonadism induced by ablation treatment for prostate cancer (surgical or pharmacological castration, antiandrogen therapy is associated with an extremely high risk of fracture. Other documented causes of bone loss in men are cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse, and a number of diseases that require corticosteroid treatment. Pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis should be recommended to all men with a diagnosed osteoporotic fracture and all men with a high 10-year absolute fracture risk (FRAXTM. Not all drugs registered for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis have been registered for the treatment of osteoporosis in men, and others have not been the subject of long-term and costly clinical trials required for such registration. The risk reduction of new fractures was documented only for treatment with zoledronic acid. Risedronate, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and denosumab in men increase in bone mineral density comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women.

  15. Stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dates of cored sediments (IrBH-2) from the Irosin caldera, the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabueno, Ma. Hannah T.; Laguerta, Eduardo P.; Delos Reyes, Perla J.; Bariso, Ericson B.; Torii, Masayuki; Fujiki, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Danhara, Tohru; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Core drilling at Site IrBH-2 within the Irosin caldera in Sorsogon Province, southern Luzon reached a depth of 50 m. Systematic logging and documentation were carried out to describe and interpret the sediments. The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates obtained from plant fragments at 7.02-10.40-m depth were 1000 to 1800 BP. Lahars and fluvial deposits were the predominant deposits in the core sequence. The upper 12 m consisted mostly of andesitic fluvial and minor lahar deposits. These deposits may be correlated with the reworking of eruptive products from resurgent andesitic volcanism. One pyroclastic flow and 12 fallout deposits, including five possible fallout deposits, were intercalated with reworked sediments at depths of 12-50 m. The refractive index of representative samples indicated that post-caldera eruptions involved mainly andesite to dacite, with minor rhyolite magmas. The rhyolite fallout in the core had similar petrographic characteristics to the 41 cal kBP Irosin ignimbrite, suggesting that the fallout and the ignimbrite were sourced from the same magma. (author)

  16. NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} fuel cells for air independent power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Nie; Miley, G.H.; Kim, Kyu-Jung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Illinois, 104 S. Wright, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Burton, Rodney [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, 104 S. Wright, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Huang, Xinyu [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The performance and characteristics of direct sodium-borohydride/hydrogen-peroxide (NaBH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) fuel cells are studied in the context of potential applications for air independent propulsion for outer space and underwater. Due to the existence of ocean (sea) water as a natural heat sink, this new fuel cell technology is best suited for underwater propulsion/power systems for small scale high performance marine vehicles. The characteristics of such a power system are compared to other options, specifically for the underwater scenario. The potential of this fuel cell is demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Power density over 1.5 W cm{sup -2}, at 65 C and ambient pressure, have been achieved with the help of some unique treatments of the fuel cell. One such treatment is an in-situ electroplating technique, which results in electrodes with power density 20-40% higher, than that of the electrodes produced by the ordinary ex-situ electroplating method. This unique process also makes repair or reconditioning of the fuel cell possible and convenient. (author)

  17. Fabrication of catalytically active Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles by rapid injection of NaBH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun, E-mail: zhanghaijun@wust.edu.cn [College of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430081 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Refractories and Ceramics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Lu, Lilin [College of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Cao, Yingnan; Du, Shuang [College of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430081 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Refractories and Ceramics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Cheng, Zhong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Shaowei [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Refractories and Ceramics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis and characterization of 2.0 nm-diameter Au/Pt/Pd nanoparticles are reported. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation of the nanoparticles is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with nearly same size. - Highlights: • PVP-protected Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) of 2.0 nm in diameter were prepared. • The catalytic activity of TNPs is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. • Negatively charged Au atoms in the TNPs were confirmed by DFT calculation. - Abstract: Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) with an alloyed structure and an average diameter of about 2.0 nm were prepared via reducing the corresponding ions with rapidly injected NaBH{sub 4}, and characterized by UV–vis, TEM and HR-TEM. The catalytic activity of as-prepared TNPs for the aerobic glucose oxidation is several times higher than that of Au monometallic nanoparticles with about the same average size, which could be attributed to the catalytically active sites provided by the negatively charged Au atoms as a result of the electron donation from the neighboring Pd atoms. This was well supported by the electron density calculations based on the density functional theory.

  18. Molecular interactions of prodiginines with the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseini

    Full Text Available Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

  19. Immunohistochemical expression study of proapoptotic BH3-only protein bad in canine nonneoplastic tissues and canine lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, M; Croci, M; Vaughan, L; Guscetti, F

    2013-09-01

    The BH3-only protein Bad is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member that acts as a sensitizer in intrinsic apoptosis by inactivating antiapoptotic members through heterodimer formation. Bad has been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis, including lymphoma formation in humans and mice, through alteration in expression or functional status. Here, its immunohistochemical expression was analyzed in canine nonneoplastic and lymphoma tissues using tissue microarrays. Bad was expressed in the cytoplasm of a wide range of nonneoplastic tissues, especially epithelial cells. Nonneoplastic lymph nodes displayed weak immunostaining in the follicular germinal centers only. Immunoblotting supported these observations but also revealed presence of nonspecific labeling in some organs. Of 81 lymphomas, 29 (35.8%) displayed moderate to strong immunohistochemical Bad labeling, and a significant expression increase was found in lymphomas (especially B cell and double negative) compared to nonneoplastic lymph nodes. These findings warrant further investigations of the functional status, the involvement of partner proteins, and a possible impact of Bad on prognosis in canine lymphoma.

  20. JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomeda Girnius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis. While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells. : Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause epithelial cell detachment. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis termed anoikis. Girnius and Davis show that anoikis is mediated by the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, which increases BIM expression and phosphorylates BMF to engage BAK/BAX-dependent apoptosis. Keywords: apoptosis, anoikis, epithelial cell, mammary gland, JNK, BAX, BAK, BH3-only protein, BIM, BMF

  1. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy of the tetrahedral uranium(IV) complex U(BH3CH3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, E.; Shinomoto, R.; Edelstein, N.; McGarvey, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the 1 H, 11 B, and 13 C NMR spectra of T/sub d/ U(BH 3 CH 3 ) 4 in solution is reported. The paramagnetic shifts are interpreted as originating purely from spin delocalization mechanisms with no contribution from the metal-orbital dipolar interaction. It is shown that the temperature dependence of both 1 H shifts (bridging and terminal protons) is identical with that calculated from a polarization theory which assumes the shift is proportional to the average value of electron spin in the inner 5f orbitals. The proportionality constant is -5.64 MHz for the bridging protons and -0.59 MHz for the terminal protons. The temperature dependences of 11 B and 13 shifts are found to depart significantly from that predicted by the polarization theory with the largest deviations shown by the 11 B shifts. It is shown how those deviations can be accounted for by postulating a second spin delocalization through direct covalency involving molecular orbitals formed from the uranium 5f orbitals and ligand s and p orbitals. 29 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  2. Fabrication of catalytically active Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles by rapid injection of NaBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Lilin; Cao, Yingnan; Du, Shuang; Cheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis and characterization of 2.0 nm-diameter Au/Pt/Pd nanoparticles are reported. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation of the nanoparticles is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with nearly same size. - Highlights: • PVP-protected Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) of 2.0 nm in diameter were prepared. • The catalytic activity of TNPs is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. • Negatively charged Au atoms in the TNPs were confirmed by DFT calculation. - Abstract: Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) with an alloyed structure and an average diameter of about 2.0 nm were prepared via reducing the corresponding ions with rapidly injected NaBH 4 , and characterized by UV–vis, TEM and HR-TEM. The catalytic activity of as-prepared TNPs for the aerobic glucose oxidation is several times higher than that of Au monometallic nanoparticles with about the same average size, which could be attributed to the catalytically active sites provided by the negatively charged Au atoms as a result of the electron donation from the neighboring Pd atoms. This was well supported by the electron density calculations based on the density functional theory

  3. Health screenings for men over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  4. Improvement of the dehydrogenating kinetics of the Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/LiH materials by inducing LiBH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingchuan, E-mail: wangjingchuan@caep.cn; Song, Jiangfeng; Chen, Changan; Luo, Deli

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • This work indicates that inducing 10 wt.% LiBH{sub 4} into the Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/LiH mixture significantly improves the dehydrogenating kinetics. It has a near 40 times as large as the effect of the Ti{sub 3}Cr{sub 3}V{sub 4} nanoparticles catalyst under the 200 °C and 0.1 MPa dehydrogenating environment. • Based on diffusion model, the dehydrogenating kinetic curve was fitted for illuminating the mechanism of dehydrogenation improvement. • The mechanism is proposed that the eutectic reaction takes a big role in the catalysis process as the arising of nanorods inside of the matrix after several re-/dehydrogenation cycles. - Abstract: The lightweight high-capacity Li-Mg-N-H system is a promising candidate for the hydrogen energy storage materials. Nevertheless, the slow dehydrogenating process limits its application. This work is focusing on the effect of LiBH{sub 4} on the dehydrogenating kinetics of the Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/LiH mixture. It indicates that inducing 10 wt.% LiBH{sub 4} into the Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}/LiH mixture significantly improves the dehydrogenating kinetics. As a result, it has a near 40 times as large as the effect of the Ti alloy nanoparticles catalyst, under the 200 °C and 0.1 MPa dehydrogenating environment. Based on our previous dehydrogenating kinetics model, the mechanism of this improving effect of LiBH{sub 4} is discussed as well, which shows that the eutectic reaction takes a big role in the catalysis process as the arising of nanorods inside of the matrix after several re-/dehydrogenation cycles.

  5. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventional field-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The genus Microbacterium contains bacteria that are ubiquitously distributed in various environments and includes plant-associated bacteria that are able to colonize tissue of agricultural crop plants. Here, we report the 3,508,491 bp complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017674.

  6. Hypoxic human cancer cells are sensitized to BH-3 mimetic–induced apoptosis via downregulation of the Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Luke R.E.; Micha, Dimitra; Brandenburg, Martin; Simpson, Kathryn L.; Morrow, Christopher J.; Denneny, Olive; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Yunus, Zaira; Dempsey, Clare; Roberts, Darren; Blackhall, Fiona; Makin, Guy; Dive, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Solid tumors contain hypoxic regions in which cancer cells are often resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cell death. Therapeutic strategies that specifically target hypoxic cells and promote apoptosis are particularly appealing, as few normal tissues experience hypoxia. We have found that the compound ABT-737, a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH-3) mimetic, promotes apoptotic cell death in human colorectal carcinoma and small cell lung cancer cell lines exposed to hypoxia. This hypoxic indu...

  7. A Mild and Convenient Method for the Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with NaBH4 in the Presence of Catalytic Amounts of MoCl5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Yahyaei, Saiedeh

    2003-01-01

    NaBH 4 with catalytic amounts of MoCl 5 can readily reduce a variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, α-diketones and conjugated enones to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed under aprotic condition in CH 3 CN at room temperature or reflux. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing system

  8. Sorption properties and reversibility of Ti(IV) and Nb(V)-fluoride doped-Ca(BH4)2-MgH2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonatto Minella, Christian; Garroni, Sebastiano; Pistidda, Claudio; Baró, Maria Dolors; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Faster desorption reaction for doped materials vs. the pure composite system. • Kinetic improvement concerning re-hydrogenation reaction showed by the addition of NbF 5 . • Full characterization of the de-hydrogenation reaction pathway by means of both SR-PXD and 11 B{ 1 H} MAS-NMR. • Study of the evolution of the chemical state of the additives upon both milling and sorption reactions. - Abstract: In the last decade, alkaline and alkaline earth metal tetrahydroborates have been the focuses of the research due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. Among them, Ca(BH 4 ) 2 and the Ca(BH 4 ) 2 + MgH 2 reactive hydride composites (RHC), were calculated to have the ideal thermodynamic properties which fall within the optimal range for mobile applications. In this study, the addition of NbF 5 or TiF 4 to the Ca(BH 4 ) 2 + MgH 2 reactive hydride composite system was attempted aiming to obtain a full reversible system with the simultaneous suppression of CaB 12 H 12 . Structural characterization of the specimens was performed by means of in-situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and 11 B{ 1 H} Solid State Magic Angle Spinning-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR). The evolution of the chemical state of the Nb- and Ti-based additives was monitored by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). The addition of NbF 5 or TiF 4 to the Ca(BH 4 ) 2 + MgH 2 system have not suppressed completely the formation of CaB 12 H 12 and only a slight improvement concerning the reversible reaction was displayed just in the case of Nb-doped composite material

  9. Osteoporosis in men: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and consequent fracture are not limited to postmenopausal women. There is increasing attention being paid to osteoporosis in older men. Men suffer osteoporotic fractures about 10 years later in life than women, but life expectancy is increasing faster in men than women. Thus, men are living long enough to fracture, and when they do the consequences are greater than in women, with men having about twice the 1-year fatality rate after hip fracture, compared to women. Men at high ri...

  10. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  11. Mens mobile health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...... applications affect the physical activity levels by men with little or no education and the frequency of how often they think and do something to promote their health. Men with little or no education have both the lowest life expectancy and longest patient delay, and there are not conducted researches...... of steps, minutes of physical activity. Every two weeks they receive a male health promotion sms. Checking steps, minutes of physical activity and the measurement of VAS every fourth week. Hypotheses – The intervention group will: • More often think of their own physical health • More often do something...

  12. HPV and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV and Men - Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  13. Men's Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Contraception and Birth Control About NICHD Research Information Find ... Contact Us Condition Information How effective is male contraception? How can men reduce the risk of STDs? ...

  14. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  15. Studies of the effects of TiCl{sub 3} in LiBH{sub 4}/CaH{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 3} reversible hydrogen storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Dongan [Ford Motor Company, Research and Advanced Engineering, MD 1170/RIC, Dearborn, MI 48121 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 1023 H. H. Dow Building 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States); Yang Jun, E-mail: jyang27@ford.com [Ford Motor Company, Research and Advanced Engineering, MD 1170/RIC, Dearborn, MI 48121 (United States); Ni Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 1023 H. H. Dow Building 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States); Drews, Andy [Ford Motor Company, Research and Advanced Engineering, MD 1170/RIC, Dearborn, MI 48121 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We systematically studied the effects of TiCl{sub 3} in LiBH{sub 4}/CaH{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 3} hydrogen storage system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that adding 0.25 TiCl{sub 3} produces fully reversible hydrogen absorption and desorption and a lower desorption temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LiCl experiences four different states, i.e. 'formed-solid solution-molten solution-precipitation', in the whole desorption process of the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of LiCl into LiBH{sub 4} forms more viscous molten LiBH{sub 4}{center_dot}LiCl, leading to fast kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The precipitation and re-incorporation of LiCl into LiBH{sub 4} lead to a fully reversible complex hydrogen storage system. - Abstract: In the present study, the effects of TiCl{sub 3} on desorption kinetics, absorption/desorption reversibility, and related phase transformation processes in LiBH{sub 4}/CaH{sub 2}/TiCl{sub 3} hydrogen storage system was studied systematically by varying its concentration (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25). The results show that LiCl forms during ball milling of 6LiBH{sub 4}/CaH{sub 2}/xTiCl{sub 3} and that as temperature increases, o-LiBH{sub 4} transforms into h-LiBH{sub 4}, into which LiCl incorporates, forming solid solution of LiBH{sub 4}{center_dot}LiCl, which melts above 280 Degree-Sign C. Molten LiBH{sub 4}{center_dot}LiCl is more viscous than molten LiBH{sub 4}, preventing the clustering of LiBH{sub 4} and the accompanied agglomeration of CaH{sub 2}, and thus preserving the nano-sized phase arrangement formed during ball milling. Above 350 Degree-Sign C, the molten solution LiBH{sub 4}{center_dot}LiCl further reacts with CaH{sub 2}, precipitating LiCl. The main hydrogen desorption reaction is between molten LiBH{sub 4}{center_dot}LiCl and CaH{sub 2} and not between molten LiBH{sub 4} and CaH{sub 2}. This alters the hydrogen reaction thermodynamics and

  16. Formation of CaB6 in the thermal decomposition of the hydrogen storage material Ca(BH4)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Christoph J; Sternemann, Christian; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Yan, Yigang; Weis, Christopher; Harder, Manuel; Forov, Yury; Spiekermann, Georg; Tolan, Metin; Krisch, Michael; Remhof, Arndt

    2016-07-20

    Using a combination of high resolution X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the B K- and Ca L2,3-edges, we analyzed the reaction products of Ca(BH4)2 after annealing at 350 °C and 400 °C under vacuum conditions. We observed the formation of nanocrystalline/amorphous CaB6 mainly and found only small contributions from amorphous B for annealing times larger than 2 h. For short annealing times of 0.5 h at 400 °C we observed neither CaB12H12 nor CaB6. The results indicate a reaction pathway in which Ca(BH4)2 decomposes to B and CaH2 and finally reacts to form CaB6. These findings confirm the potential of using Ca(BH4)2 as a hydrogen storage medium and imply the desired cycling capabilities for achieving high-density hydrogen storage materials.

  17. The deprotonation energies of BH{sub 5} and AlH{sub 5}: Comparisons to GaH{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speakman, Lucas D. [Center for Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia, 1004 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2556 (United States)], E-mail: speakman@ccqc.uga.edu; Turney, Justin M. [Center for Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia, 1004 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2556 (United States); Schaefer, Henry F. [Center for Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia, 1004 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602-2556 (United States)

    2007-01-08

    Hypercoordinate boron is most unusual, leading to considerable theoretical and experimental research on the parent BH{sub 5} molecule. The deprotonation energies of BH{sub 5} and the related molecules AlH{sub 5} and GaH{sub 5} have been of particular interest. Here the energy differences for XH{sub 5}->XH{sub 4}{sup -}+H(X=BandAl) are computed to be 332.4 and 326.3kcalmol{sup -1}, respectively, with an aug-cc-pVQZ basis set at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Vibrational frequencies for BH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} are also reported as 1098, 1210, 2263, and 2284cm{sup -1} and 760, 779, 1658, and 1745cm{sup -1}, respectively, again at the CCSD(T) aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory. Comparisons with the valence isoelectronic GaH{sub 5} molecule are made.

  18. Composition and B-H curve analysis of low carbon steel from Krakatau Steel company using VSM And EDX for magnet design of 13 MeV cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufik; Emy Mulyani; Kusminarto; Slamet Santosa

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotron is one type of particle accelerator that accelerate particle in circular trajectory, in order to obtain high kinetic energy. One of the main components is the cyclotron magnet system that serves to form a cyclic particle trajectories and made of forged low carbon steel. In the magnet design, the selection of magnetic materials is very important in determining whether cyclotron magnet can operate properly or not and even can be optimal. That is why we need to test samples of magnetic materials from local production in this case two samples of material produced by PT Krakatau Steel (KS). Tests performed include testing of BH curve using VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) and material composition using EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Obtained BH curve is used as material data in three-dimensional simulation using the Opera 3D with referee to magnetic model of Kirams 13. From this study it can be concluded that the position of the test object to the direction of the magnetic field induction gives different BH curve and the samples obtained from KS has a carbon content which is still high. The lower the carbon content in the iron will produce a better magnetic properties. Material samples analyzed will produce a field that is not optimal when it is used in a 13 MeV cyclotron magnet. (author)

  19. Micro poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) hydrogel synthesis for in situ metal nanoparticle preparation and hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of NaBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Tugce; Güvenilir, Yuksel Avcıbası; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric hydrogels derived from SPM (3-sulfopropyl methacrylate) of micrometer size were used in the preparation of a composite-catalyst system for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . In situ Co and Ni nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of absorbed Co (II) and Ni (II) ions inside the hydrogel networks, and the whole composite was used as a catalyst system. The catalytic activity of the metal nanoparticles within the p(SPM) hydrogel matrix was better and faster using Co than with Ni. Additionally, other parameters that affect the hydrogen generation rate, such as temperature, metal reloading, the catalyst amounts as well as reusability, were also investigated. It was found that p(SPM)–Co micro hydrogels were even effective for hydrogen generation at 0 °C with a hydrogen generation rate of 966 (mL H 2 ) (min) −1 (g of Co) −1 . The activation energy, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy for the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH 4 with micro p(SPM)–Co catalyst system were calculated as 44.3 kJ/mol, 43.26 kJ/mol K, and −150.93 J/mol K, respectively. - Highlights: ► Microgel embedding metal catalyst for H 2 production. ► Advanced materials for green energy. ► Soft microgel reactors for H 2 production from NaBH 4 hydrolysis

  20. In situ characterization of the decomposition behavior of Mg(BH4)2 by X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, Christoph J; Kujawski, Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Yan, Yigang; Stadie, Nicholas P; Al-Zein, Ali; Tolan, Metin; Huotari, Simo; Krisch, Michael; Sternemann, Christian

    2016-02-21

    We present an in situ study of the thermal decomposition of Mg(BH4)2 in a hydrogen atmosphere of up to 4 bar and up to 500 °C using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the boron K-edge and the magnesium L2,3-edges. The combination of the fingerprinting analysis of both edges yields detailed quantitative information on the reaction products during decomposition, an issue of crucial importance in determining whether Mg(BH4)2 can be used as a next-generation hydrogen storage material. This work reveals the formation of reaction intermediate(s) at 300 °C, accompanied by a significant hydrogen release without the occurrence of stable boron compounds such as amorphous boron or MgB12H12. At temperatures between 300 °C and 400 °C, further hydrogen release proceeds via the formation of higher boranes and crystalline MgH2. Above 400 °C, decomposition into the constituting elements takes place. Therefore, at moderate temperatures, Mg(BH4)2 is shown to be a promising high-density hydrogen storage material with great potential for reversible energy storage applications.

  1. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  2. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  3. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Franca, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Onori, Francesca [Netherlands Institute for Space Research, SRON, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sani, Eleonora [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Vignali, Cristian, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-04-18

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples. However, these measurements use the width of the broad line region (BLR) as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N{sub H}=8.5±0.4×10{sup 21}cm{sup -2}) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L{sub 14−195}/ergs{sup −1}) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A{sub V} = 3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the Hα, HeI, and Paβ lines (FWHM ~1400–2300 km s{sup −1}) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M{sub BH}=10{sup 6.6±0.3}M{sub ⊙}, λ{sub Edd} = 0.01−0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N{sub H} < 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) AGN.

  4. Characterization of B-H agostic compounds involved in the dehydrogenation of amine-boranes by group 4 metallocenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingwen; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Alikhani, Mohammad Esmaïl

    2016-12-01

    For over a decade, amine-borane has been considered as a potential chemical hydrogen vector in the context of a search for cleaner energy sources. When catalyzed by organometallic complexes, the reaction mechanisms currently considered involve the formation of β-BH agostic intermediates. A thorough understanding of these intermediates may constitute a crucial step toward the identification of ideal catalysts. Topological approaches such as QTAIM and ELF revealed to be particularly suitable for the description of β-agostic interactions. When studying model catalysts, accurate theoretical calculations may be carried out. However, for a comparison with experimental data, calculations should also be carried out on large organo-metallic species, often including transition metals belonging to the second or the third row. In such a case, DFT methods are particularly attractive. Unfortunately, triple-ζ all electrons basis sets are not easily available for heavy transition metal elements. Thus, a subtle balance should be reached between the affordable level of calculations and the required accuracy of the electronic description of the systems. Herein we propose the use of B3LYP functional in combination with the LanL2DZ pseudopotential for the metal atom and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set for the other atoms, followed by a single point using the DKH2 relativistic Hamiltonian in combination with the B3LYP/DZP-DKH level, as a "minimum level of theory" leading to a consistent topological description of the interaction within the ELF and QTAIM framework, in the context of isolated (gas-phase) group 4 metallocene catalysts.

  5. BH3-mimetics- and cisplatin-induced cell death proceeds through different pathways depending on the availability of death-related cellular components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Andreu-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Owing to their important function in regulating cell death, pharmacological inhibition of Bcl-2 proteins by dubbed BH3-mimetics is a promising strategy for apoptosis induction or sensitization to chemotherapy. However, the role of Apaf-1, the main protein constituent of the apoptosome, in the process has yet not been analyzed. Furthermore as new chemotherapeutics develop, the possible chemotherapy-induced toxicity to rapidly dividing normal cells, especially sensitive differentiated cells, has to be considered. Such undesirable effects would probably be ameliorated by selectively and locally inhibiting apoptosis in defined sensitive cells. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFS from Apaf-1 knock out mouse (MEFS KO Apaf-1 and Bax/Bak double KO (MEFS KO Bax/Bak, MEFS from wild-type mouse (MEFS wt and human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells were used to comparatively investigate the signaling cell death-induced pathways of BH3-mimetics, like ABT737 and GX15-070, with DNA damage-inducing agent cisplatin (cis-diammineplatinum(II dichloride, CDDP. The study was performed in the absence or presence of apoptosis inhibitors namely, caspase inhibitors or apoptosome inhibitors. BH3-mimetic ABT737 required of Apaf-1 to exert its apoptosis-inducing effect. In contrast, BH3-mimetic GX15-070 and DNA damage-inducing CDDP induced cell death in the absence of both Bax/Bak and Apaf-1. GX15-070 induced autophagy-based cell death in all the cell lines analyzed. MEFS wt cells were protected from the cytotoxic effects of ABT737 and CDDP by chemical inhibition of the apoptosome through QM31, but not by using general caspase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: BH3-mimetic ABT737 not only requires Bax/Bak to exert its apoptosis-inducing effect, but also Apaf-1, while GX15-070 and CDDP induce different modalities of cell death in the absence of Bax/Bak or Apaf-1. Inclusion of specific Apaf-1 inhibitors in topical and well

  6. Health Information Needs of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage to…

  7. College Men and Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…

  8. Great Men, Great Deeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    An excellent way to teach history is by focusing on the lives of individual historical figures. History is the story of living persons, who for good or ill have made history as it is. To understand history, students must learn about the men and women who shaped events. (RM)

  9. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  10. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    . 1. An electronic survey is distributed nationwide to municipal preventive home visitors in order to obtain information about their views on the men’s particular needs and the suitability of current health care services. 2. A group of elderly men living alone is interviewed about their own opinions...

  11. Eating disorders in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.

  12. Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cu as shaped catalyst in NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamoun, R. [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Universite Libanaise, Faculte des Sciences II, Laboratoire de physique appliquee, 90656 Jdeidet El Metn (Lebanon); Demirci, U.B.; Miele, P. [Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Zaatar, Y.; Khoury, A. [Universite Libanaise, Faculte des Sciences II, Laboratoire de physique appliquee, 90656 Jdeidet El Metn (Lebanon)

    2010-07-15

    A study about catalytic films of Co-supported-over-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is reported, the as-prepared shaped catalysts being intended to catalyze NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis. Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported over Cu substrate can be prepared by a 2-step route: (i) preparation of the supported catalyst Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in powder form) by wet impregnation of CoCl{sub 2} over {alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, followed by a reduction, and (ii) fabrication of Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cu (thin film over Cu) by EPD. Both types of catalysts, whatever their form, are highly efficient in hydrolyzing NaBH{sub 4}, conversions of 100% and HGRs of tens of mL(H{sub 2}) min{sup -1} being achieved at 60-80 C. The Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cu catalysts are even more reactive than the Co-{alpha}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts because the surface of the former materials becomes much more acid than that of the latter ones in the course of the EPD process. The respective rate laws and reaction kinetics have been determined. Independently on the catalyst form, apparent activation energies of about 52 kJ mol{sup -1} and positive reaction orders versus the initial NaBH{sub 4} concentration (i.e. 0.3-0.7) were calculated, suggesting that the EPD does not affect the reaction mechanisms. Besides, it is showed that the hydrolysis is really catalytic as well as typical of a heterogeneous process. For example, an apparent reaction order versus the Co content of 0.9 was calculated. All of these results among others are reported and discussed in the present article. (author)

  13. Enhanced catalytic performance in hydrogen generation from NaBH4 hydrolysis by super porous cryogel supported Co and Ni catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Fahriye; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2014-12-01

    The neutral 3-D superporous cryogel is prepared from a poly(acrylamide) (p(AAm)) hydrogel network modified with an amidoximation reaction to induce chemical changes to produce superporous amidoximated-p(AAm) (amid-p(AAm)) cryogel. The newly-formed strongly ionizable matrices can readily absorb metal ions such as Co(II) and Ni(II) enabling in situ preparation of corresponding metal nanoparticles by NaBH4 treatments. It is found that the superporous amid-p(AAm)-Co cryogel composite is very effective as a catalyst for H2 generation from hydrolysis of NaBH4 in alkaline medium. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the metal ion loading capacity and catalytic activity of superporous amid-p(AAm)-Co cryogel composites increased with 2nd and 3rd Co(II) ion loading and reduction cycles. The hydrogen generation rate of p(AAm)-Co metal composites is increased to 1926.3 ± 1.1 from 1130.2 ± 1.5 (mL H2) (min)-1 (g of M)-1. The effect of various parameters such as porosity, metal type, the number of reloading and reduction cycles of the metal ion, and temperature are investigated for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The kinetic parameters such as energy, enthalpy and entropy are determined as Ea = 39.7 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, ΔH = 37.2 ± 0.1 kJ mol-1 and ΔS = -171.9 ± 0.5 J mol-1 K-1, respectively.

  14. Reaction of BH4- with [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)n] species to give tetrahydroborato, hydrido or dimetallaborane compounds: control of product by ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabon, Nolwenn; Petillon, Francois Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean; Muir, Kenneth W

    2004-09-07

    The reaction of mono- or dichloro-dimolybdenum(III) complexes [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-Cl)(mu-Y)] (Cp=eta5-C5H5; 1, Y=SMe; 2, Y=PPh2; 3, Y=Cl) with NaBH4 at room temperature gave in high yields tetrahydroborato (8), hydrido (9) or metallaborane (12) complexes depending on the ancillary ligands. The correct formulation of derivatives and has been unambigously determined by X-ray diffraction methods. That of the hydrido compound 9 has been established in solution by NMR analysis and confirmed by an X-ray study of the mu-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-PPh2)(mu-N=CHMe)] (10) obtained from the insertion of acetonitrile into the Mo-H bond of 9. Reaction of NaBH4 with nitrile derivatives, [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)4-n(CH3CN)2n]n+(5, n=1; 6 n=2), afforded the tetrahydroborato compound 8, together with a mu-azavinylidene species [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)3(mu-N=CHMe)](14), when n=1, and the metallaborane complex 12, together with a mixed borohydrato-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-BH4)(mu-N=CHMe)] (13), when n=2. The molecular structures of these complexes have been confirmed by X-ray analysis. Preparations of some of the starting complexes (3 and 4) are also described, as are the molecular structures of the precursors [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-X)(mu-Y)] (1, X/Y=Cl/SMe; 2, X/Y=Cl/PPh2; 4, X/Y=SMe/PPh2).

  15. Unexpected dehydrogenation behaviors of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 composite confined in a mesoporous carbon scaffold

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wang, K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry C Vol. 118(46) Unexpected Dehydrogenation Behaviors of the 2LiBH4−MgH2 Composite Confined in a Mesoporous Carbon Scaffold Kuikui Wang,†,‡ Xiangdong Kang,*,‡ Yujie Zhong,‡ Chaohao Hu,§ Jianwei Ren,⊥ and Ping Wang*,‡ †University... of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China ‡Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, P. R. China §Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials...

  16. Sorption properties and reversibility of Ti(IV) and Nb(V)-fluoride doped-Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}-MgH{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto Minella, Christian, E-mail: christian.minella@kit.edu [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Garroni, Sebastiano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Universitá di Sassari and INSTM, Via Vienna 2, I-07100 Sassari (Italy); Pistidda, Claudio [Institute of Materials Research, Materials Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Baró, Maria Dolors [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutfleisch, Oliver [Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin [Institute of Materials Research, Materials Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH, Max Planck Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Faster desorption reaction for doped materials vs. the pure composite system. • Kinetic improvement concerning re-hydrogenation reaction showed by the addition of NbF{sub 5}. • Full characterization of the de-hydrogenation reaction pathway by means of both SR-PXD and {sup 11}B{"1H} MAS-NMR. • Study of the evolution of the chemical state of the additives upon both milling and sorption reactions. - Abstract: In the last decade, alkaline and alkaline earth metal tetrahydroborates have been the focuses of the research due to their high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities. Among them, Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} reactive hydride composites (RHC), were calculated to have the ideal thermodynamic properties which fall within the optimal range for mobile applications. In this study, the addition of NbF{sub 5} or TiF{sub 4} to the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} reactive hydride composite system was attempted aiming to obtain a full reversible system with the simultaneous suppression of CaB{sub 12}H{sub 12}. Structural characterization of the specimens was performed by means of in-situ Synchrotron Radiation Powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and {sup 11}B{"1H} Solid State Magic Angle Spinning-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR). The evolution of the chemical state of the Nb- and Ti-based additives was monitored by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). The addition of NbF{sub 5} or TiF{sub 4} to the Ca(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} + MgH{sub 2} system have not suppressed completely the formation of CaB{sub 12}H{sub 12} and only a slight improvement concerning the reversible reaction was displayed just in the case of Nb-doped composite material.

  17. Binuclear Copper(I Borohydride Complex Containing Bridging Bis(diphenylphosphino Methane Ligands: Polymorphic Structures of [(µ2-dppm2Cu2(η2-BH42] Dichloromethane Solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Belkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bis(diphenylphosphinomethane copper(I tetrahydroborate was synthesized by ligands exchange in bis(triphenylphosphine copper(I tetrahydroborate, and characterized by XRD, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy. According to XRD the title compound has dimeric structure, [(μ2-dppm2Cu2(η2-BH42], and crystallizes as CH2Cl2 solvate in two polymorphic forms (orthorhombic, 1, and monoclinic, 2 The details of molecular geometry and the crystal-packing pattern in polymorphs were studied. The rare Twisted Boat-Boat conformation of the core Cu2P4C2 cycle in 1 is found being more stable than Boat-Boat conformation in 2.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of nitrogen fixation and the role of NifA in the diazotrophic endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The model endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is known to contribute fixed nitrogen to its host Kallar grass and also expresses nitrogenase genes endophytically in rice seedlings. Availability of nitrogen is a signal regulating the transcription of nitrogenase genes. Therefore, we analysed global transcription in response to differences in the nitrogen source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A DNA microarray, comprising 70-mer oligonucleotides representing 3989 open reading frames of the genome of strain BH72, was used for transcriptome studies. Transcription profiles of cells grown microaerobically on N2 versus ammonium were compared. Expression of 7.2% of the genes was significantly up-regulated, and 5.8% down-regulated upon N2 fixation, respectively. A parallel genome-wide prediction of σ(54-type promoter elements mapped to the upstream region of 38 sequences of which 36 were modulated under the N2 response. In addition to modulation of genes related to N2 fixation, the expressions of gene clusters that might be related to plant-microbe interaction and of several transcription factors were significantly enhanced. While comparing under N2-fixation conditions the transcriptome of wild type with a nifLA(- insertion mutant, NifA being the essential transcriptional activator for nif genes, 24.5% of the genome was found to be affected in expression. A genome-wide prediction of 29 NifA binding sequences matched to 25 of the target genes whose expression was differential during microarray analysis, some of which were putatively negatively regulated by NifA. For selected genes, differential expression was corroborated by real time RT-PCR studies. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that life under conditions of nitrogen fixation is an important part of the lifestyle of strain BH72 in roots, as a wide range of genes far beyond the nif regulon is modulated. Moreover, the NifA regulon in strain BH72 appears to encompass a wider range of

  19. Gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cell lines expressing mutant EGFR requires BIM and can be enhanced by BH3 mimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Cragg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR plays a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Abnormalities in EGF-EGFR signaling, such as mutations that render the EGFR hyperactive or cause overexpression of the wild-type receptor, have been found in a broad range of cancers, including carcinomas of the lung, breast, and colon. EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib have proven successful in the treatment of certain cancers, particularly non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs harboring activating mutations within the EGFR gene, but the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor regression remain unknown. Therefore, we wished to delineate these mechanisms.We performed biochemical and genetic studies to investigate the mechanisms by which inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, such as gefitinib, inhibit the growth of human NSCLCs. We found that gefitinib triggered intrinsic (also called "mitochondrial" apoptosis signaling, involving the activation of BAX and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, ultimately unleashing the caspase cascade. Gefitinib caused a rapid increase in the level of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM (also called BCL2-like 11 through both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that blockade of MEK-ERK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 signaling, but not blockade of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase 8, or AKT (protein kinase B, was critical for BIM activation. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated that BIM is essential for gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cells. Moreover, we found that gefitinib-induced apoptosis is enhanced by addition of the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.Inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase have proven useful in the therapy of certain cancers, in particular NSCLCs possessing

  20. Normal values of bone mineral density of the accessory carpus bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed using optical densitometry in radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, C.L.B. de; Vulcano, L.C.; Santos, F.A.M.; Soares, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic values of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the accessory carpal bone in Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) horse breed were determined by radiographic optic densitometry (ROD), expressed in milimiters of alumminun (mmAl). Lateromedial radiographs of the carpus were taken from 12 intact males and 12 females, from 20 and up to 30 months of age. No significant difference was found in the average mineral bone density of the accessory carpal bone between males (4.7 ± 0.1mmAl) and females (4.,6 ± 0,1mmAl) from 20 to 30 months of age [pt

  1. Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy Is Mediated through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Induction of BNIP3 and BNIP3L via Their BH3 Domains▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Bellot, Grégory; Garcia-Medina, Raquel; Gounon, Pierre; Chiche, Johanna; Roux, Danièle; Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M.

    2009-01-01

    While hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a major actor in the cell survival response to hypoxia, HIF also is associated with cell death. Several studies implicate the HIF-induced putative BH3-only proapoptotic genes bnip3 and bnip3l in hypoxia-mediated cell death. We, like others, do not support this assertion. Here, we clearly demonstrate that the hypoxic microenvironment contributes to survival rather than cell death by inducing autophagy. The ablation of Beclin1, a major actor of autophagy,...

  2. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH4)2(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH 4 ) 2 (py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, α-diketones and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent

  3. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba [Urima Univ., Urima (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, {alpha}-diketones and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent.

  4. 'The Devil has entered you': A qualitative study of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and the stigma and discrimination they experience from healthcare professionals and the general community in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Stojisavljevic

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are often exposed to unequal treatment in societies worldwide as well as to various forms of stigma and discrimination in healthcare services. Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H is a postconflict developing country located in Southeast Europe and the Western Balkans, where little is known about the experiences of MSM regarding their communities and interactions with healthcare services. The aim of this study was to explore the types of experiences MSM face and to assess the level of stigma and discrimination they are exposed to in this setting. We conducted twelve in-depth face-to-face interviews with MSM who were 16 to 45 years old and residing in B&H. The main findings indicated that they all experienced various levels of stigma, discrimination, prejudice and inequities in treatment and attitudes from different segments of society, including the health care sector, that prevented them from fully developing their human and health potential. Additionally, these experiences were adversely related to opportunities to receive good quality health care services due to the insufficiently educated and old-fashioned health professionals who sometimes believed in black magic practices. The findings present numerous opportunities for educational trainings and structural reform to create a society that provides and guarantees equal opportunities for all.

  5. 'The Devil has entered you': A qualitative study of Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and the stigma and discrimination they experience from healthcare professionals and the general community in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojisavljevic, Stela; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Matejic, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are often exposed to unequal treatment in societies worldwide as well as to various forms of stigma and discrimination in healthcare services. Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is a postconflict developing country located in Southeast Europe and the Western Balkans, where little is known about the experiences of MSM regarding their communities and interactions with healthcare services. The aim of this study was to explore the types of experiences MSM face and to assess the level of stigma and discrimination they are exposed to in this setting. We conducted twelve in-depth face-to-face interviews with MSM who were 16 to 45 years old and residing in B&H. The main findings indicated that they all experienced various levels of stigma, discrimination, prejudice and inequities in treatment and attitudes from different segments of society, including the health care sector, that prevented them from fully developing their human and health potential. Additionally, these experiences were adversely related to opportunities to receive good quality health care services due to the insufficiently educated and old-fashioned health professionals who sometimes believed in black magic practices. The findings present numerous opportunities for educational trainings and structural reform to create a society that provides and guarantees equal opportunities for all.

  6. B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetics demonstrate differential activities dependent upon the functional repertoire of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thibaud T; Elkholi, Rana; Bharti, Archana; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2014-09-19

    The B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family is the key mediator of cellular sensitivity to apoptosis during pharmacological interventions for numerous human pathologies, including cancer. There is tremendous interest to understand how the proapoptotic BCL-2 effector members (e.g. BCL-2-associated X protein, BAX) cooperate with the BCL-2 homology domain only (BH3-only) subclass (e.g. BCL-2 interacting mediator of death, BIM; BCL-2 interacting-domain death agonist, BID) to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and apoptosis and whether these mechanisms may be pharmacologically exploited to enhance the killing of cancer cells. Indeed, small molecule inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have been designed rationally. However, the success of these "BH3 mimetics" in the clinic has been limited, likely due to an incomplete understanding of how these drugs function in the presence of multiple BCL-2 family members. To increase our mechanistic understanding of how BH3 mimetics cooperate with multiple BCL-2 family members in vitro, we directly compared the activity of several BH3-mimetic compounds (i.e. ABT-263, ABT-737, GX15-070, HA14.1, TW-37) in biochemically defined large unilamellar vesicle model systems that faithfully recapitulate BAX-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Our investigations revealed that the presence of BAX, BID, and BIM differentially regulated the ability of BH3 mimetics to derepress proapoptotic molecules from anti-apoptotic proteins. Using mitochondria loaded with fluorescent BH3 peptides and cells treated with inducers of cell death, these differences were supported. Together, these data suggest that although the presence of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins primarily dictates cellular sensitivity to BH3 mimetics, additional specificity is conferred by proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. 'The Problem with Men': Working-class Men Making Sense of Men's Health on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2002-05-01

    Men have higher rates of premature death than women, and may arguably have higher rates of serious illness. One explanation often suggested to account for this is that men are considered to be stoical about illness and reluctant to seek help for it. This article explores the role of media representations in the construction of men's views about health. We investigate how a small group of lower socio-economic status men make sense of the reluctance to seek help notion through an analysis of texts from three sources: a television health documentary, individual interviews with the men and a focus group discussion in which the men discuss the documentary. The television documentary frames its presentation to promote early detection and help-seeking. We conclude that televised coverage of men's health is an important site of social discourse through which men's health is rendered meaningful. However, it is not accepted passively, but negotiated, resisted and interpreted into men's lives.

  8. Osteoporosis in men: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis and consequent fracture are not limited to postmenopausal women. There is increasing attention being paid to osteoporosis in older men. Men suffer osteoporotic fractures about 10 years later in life than women, but life expectancy is increasing faster in men than women. Thus, men are living long enough to fracture, and when they do the consequences are greater than in women, with men having about twice the 1-year fatality rate after hip fracture, compared to women. Men at high risk for fracture include those men who have already had a fragility fracture, men on oral glucocorticoids or those men being treated for prostate cancer with androgen deprivation therapy. Beyond these high risk men, there are many other risk factors and secondary causes of osteoporosis in men. Evaluation includes careful history and physical examination to reveal potential secondary causes, including many medications, a short list of laboratory tests, and bone mineral density testing by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of spine and hip. Recently, international organizations have advocated a single normative database for interpreting DXA testing in men and women. The consequences of this change need to be determined. There are several choices of therapy for osteoporosis in men, with most fracture reduction estimation based on studies in women.

  9. What Is Men's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...

  10. Engaging men in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcher, Greg

    2009-03-01

    Engaging men in health care involves a multifaceted approach that has as its main principle the recognition that men consume health care differently to women. This article identifies barriers to engaging men in health care and offers potential and existing solutions to overcome these barriers in a range of health care settings. The concept of multiple masculinities recognises that not all men can be engaged via a particular technique or strategy. The perception that men are disinterested in their health is challenged and a range of approaches discussed, both in the community and in health care facilities. In the general practice setting opportunities exist for the engagement of men at the reception desk and waiting room, as well as during the consultation. Use of the workplace in engaging men is discussed. Future activities to build the capacity of health care providers to better engage men are identified and the role of policy and program development is addressed.

  11. Transgender men and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J

    2016-03-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity.

  12. Dizziness in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L E

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the causes of dizziness in elderly men. A descriptive study involving the clinical and laboratory features of elderly men with dizziness. A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center. One hundred seventeen consecutive men more than 50 years of age attending a general neurology clinic with the chief complaint of dizziness. The median duration of dizziness at first office visit was 45 weeks. Forty-nine percent of patients had more than one diagnosis that contributed to their dizziness. Dysfunctions of the peripheral vestibular system were found in 71% and were the principal causes in 56%. Benign positional vertigo was present in 34%. Disorders of the visual system were found in 26% but were the major cause in only 1%. Diagnoses involving the proprioceptive system were present in 17% and were the principal cause in 7%. Structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum or metabolic disorders that affected normal brainstem function were identified in 59% and were the major diagnoses in 22%. A psychophysiologic diagnosis was made in 6% but was the major diagnosis in only 3%. At the 6-months follow-up, 55% of patients improved, 34% were unchanged, 4% worsened, and 7% were lost to follow-up. Contrary to reports in the literature, dizziness in the elderly is more persistent, has more causes, is less often due to a psychophysiologic cause, and seems to be more incapacitating than dizziness in younger patients.

  13. Hypoxic human cancer cells are sensitized to BH-3 mimetic–induced apoptosis via downregulation of the Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Luke R.E.; Micha, Dimitra; Brandenburg, Martin; Simpson, Kathryn L.; Morrow, Christopher J.; Denneny, Olive; Hodgkinson, Cassandra; Yunus, Zaira; Dempsey, Clare; Roberts, Darren; Blackhall, Fiona; Makin, Guy; Dive, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Solid tumors contain hypoxic regions in which cancer cells are often resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cell death. Therapeutic strategies that specifically target hypoxic cells and promote apoptosis are particularly appealing, as few normal tissues experience hypoxia. We have found that the compound ABT-737, a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH-3) mimetic, promotes apoptotic cell death in human colorectal carcinoma and small cell lung cancer cell lines exposed to hypoxia. This hypoxic induction of apoptosis was mediated through downregulation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl-2 family protein that serves as a biomarker for ABT-737 resistance. Downregulation of Mcl-1 in hypoxia was independent of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity and was consistent with decreased global protein translation. In addition, ABT-737 induced apoptosis deep within tumor spheroids, consistent with an optimal hypoxic oxygen tension being necessary to promote ABT-737–induced cell death. Tumor xenografts in ABT-737–treated mice also displayed significantly more apoptotic cells within hypoxic regions relative to normoxic regions. Synergies between ABT-737 and other cytotoxic drugs were maintained in hypoxia, suggesting that this drug may be useful in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Taken together, these findings suggest that Mcl-1–sparing BH-3 mimetics may induce apoptosis in hypoxic tumor cells that are resistant to other chemotherapeutic agents and may have a role in combinatorial chemotherapeutic regimens for treatment of solid tumors. PMID:21393866

  14. The electronic donation and frequency shifts on the YCCH⋯BH4- boron-bonded complexes (Y = H, CH3, CF3 and CCl3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pordeus, Renato Q.; Rego, Danilo G.; Oliveira, Boaz G.

    2015-06-01

    In this theoretical work, the tetrahydroborate ion (BH4-) was used as proton acceptor in the formation of the YCC-H⋯BH4- complexes (Y = H, CH3, CCl3 and CF3). Using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, the results of structure corroborate with the analyses of infrared spectra showing that the changes in the bond lengths are in good agreement with the frequency shifts of the HCC-H, H3CCC-H, Cl3CCC-H and F3CCC-H proton donors. Based on the calculations carried out by the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM), the reductions of electronic density corroborate with the red shifts in the frequencies of the C-H bonds. In addition to that, the C-H bonds are polarized because the contributions of s orbital diminish whereas of p increase. In line with this, the variations on the atomic radii computed via QTAIM calculations show that carbon outweigh hydrogen as follows (ΔrC > ΔrH). This scenario is indirectly supported by the Bent's rule of the chemical bonding. Although the interaction energies (corrected with BSSE and ZPE) vary between -19 and -67 kJ mol-1, these complexes interact without covalent character.

  15. The republic of Srpska and mechanism of coordination in the process of association of B&H to the European Union: Experiences and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2015 it would be reached a 20 years after the General Framework Agreement to the Peace in B&H, known as Dayton Peace Accord, was signed, by which the Republic of Srpska was internationally recognized. Taking these facts into consideration, the most important what Srpska has lost in that period is analysed firstly in this paper. After that, the central part of the paper is dedicated to the actual question of mechanism of coordination in the process of association of B&H to the European Union. In that part of the paper, after short comparative review of experience that some states with complex state structure has about that question, the mechanism of coordination is dealt with from the viewpoint of interests of the Republic of Srpska, and taking in mind the dangers of it for the Republic of Srpska. In final part of the paper the principles which should be observed by the Srpska in that process are exposed, in order to prevent that this mechanism of coordination do net serve as a new one instrument for constitutional desubstantialization of the Republic of Srpska.

  16. Hollow Mesoporous Silica Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: A Highly Active and Reusable Catalyst for H2 Generation from the Hydrolysis of NaBH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ru nanoparticles supported on hollow mesoporous silica (HMS, which are prepared via in situ wet chemical reduction, have been investigated as the highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for H2 generation from the hydrolysis of an alkaline NaBH4 solution. Many techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, are used to characterize the as-prepared nanocatalyst (Ru/HMS. Factors, such as Ru loadings in HMS, catalyst concentration, and solution temperature, on catalytic property and reutilization are investigated in this work. A rate of H2 generation as high as 18.6 L min−1 g−1 (Ru using 1 wt% NaBH4 solution containing 3 wt% NaOH and 40 mg of Ru/HMS catalyst can be reached at room temperature. The minimum apparent activation energy (Ea of H2 generation, obtained by fitting the curve of Ea values versus catalyst amount, is determined to be 46.7 ± 1 kJ/mol. The residual catalytic activity of the repeated Ru/HMS still remains 47.7% after 15 runs, which perhaps results from the incorporation of the residual by-product (NaBO2 in the pores of HMS based on the analysis of XPS.

  17. Men of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Galileo Galilei, His Life and His Works deals with Galileo Galilei's radical discoveries and trail during the Inquisition. The book describes the life of Galileo and his many interests in art and music, in addition to science. Galileo is born in Pisa in 1564, and at age 25, he is appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Pisa. He writes several papers, for example, mathematical continuum as contrasted with physical atomism, and investigates the behavior of magnetic poles. He believes in William Gilbert's experiment that the earth itself is a large magnet. He c

  18. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  19. Relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones, insulin, and glucose in middle-aged men: moderating influence of psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Ravaja, N; Räikkönen, K; Hautanen, A; Adlercreutz, H

    1998-12-01

    We examined whether the relationships between the pituitary-adrenal hormones (corticotropin [ACTH) and cortisol), insulin, and glucose differ as a function of psychosocial stress defined in terms of vital exhaustion (VE) and depressive behavior (DB). The participants were 69 normotensive and 21 unmedicated borderline hypertensive (BH) middle-aged men whose work is stressful. Hormonal and metabolic variables were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the cortisol response to dexamethasone (DXM) suppression and intravenous ACTH stimulation was also measured. We found that the basal ACTH level during the OGTT was positively associated with the cortisol response to ACTH at 60 minutes, the fasting insulin level, and the insulin to glucose ratio among exhausted and high DB men, while the reverse was true for nonexhausted and low DB men. Also, a high cortisol response to ACTH, a low cortisol level during the OGTT, and a high ratio of these cortisol determinations (cortisol ratio) were associated with high fasting insulin and glucose levels, the summed insulin values, and the insulin to glucose ratio only among nonexhausted and low DB men; among exhausted and high DB men, these associations were less pronounced, absent, or in the opposite direction. The findings suggest that VE and DB have a moderating influence on the relationships among the hormonal and metabolic parameters studied. Psychosocial stress may affect the pituitary-adrenocortical system in complex ways, contributing thereby to insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.

  20. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times......, respectively, compared to the conventional liquid-electrolyte battery. Through investigations of the conversion reactions of Mg2FeH6, formation of MgH2 as intermediate in the conversion to Mg is discovered the first time. In addition, the effect of mixing procedure for the electrode-electrolyte composite...... on the battery performance is discussed....

  1. Sociedade Civil e Governo na Gestão de Cidades: a incidência do Movimento Nossa BH nas políticas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Teodósio, Armindo dos Santos de Sousa; Cardoso do Nascimento, Daniele; Rocha Palmeira, Elis; Copolillo Ayres, Laise

    2016-01-01

    O artigo analisa a atuação do Movimento Nossa BH (MNBH) na construção de espaços participativos de discussão de políticas públicas na capital mineira, a partir das relações que se estabelecem entre organizações da sociedade civil (OSCs) e governo. Os principais constructos teóricos utilizados são o de participação popular e esfera pública, de modo a se problematizar as formas de participação da sociedade civil em políticas públicas e as dificuldades enfrentadas para que ela se fortaleça na tr...

  2. 125I-BH-8-MeO-N-PAT, a new ligand for studying 5-HT1A receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchant, M.; Beaucourt, J.P.; Vanhove, A.

    1988-01-01

    Specific radioactive ligands are needed for studying the pharmacological properties and the regional distribution of the different classes of 5-HT 1 receptors within the central nervous system. We describe here the synthesis and some characteristics of the first iodinated specific ligand of 5-HT 1A receptors. Like its parent compound, the agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin or 8-OH-DPAT, [ 125 I]-BH-8-MeO-N-PAT, exhibits a high affinity and excellent selectivity for 5-HT 1A sites. Its high specific radioactivity makes this ligand a useful tool for studying 5-HT 1A receptors in membranes and sections of the rat brain [fr

  3. Discovery and Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 with RXTE: RMS Spectrum Evolution, BH Mass and the Source Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhinikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/highsoft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hardto- soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.

  4. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC, which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4 as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S, are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC’s performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes’ evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  5. Clinical profiling of BCL-2 family members in the setting of BRAF inhibition offers a rationale for targeting de novo resistance using BH3 mimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennie T Frederick

    Full Text Available While response rates to BRAF inhibitiors (BRAFi are high, disease progression emerges quickly. One strategy to delay the onset of resistance is to target anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, known to be associated with a poor prognosis. We analyzed BCL-2 family member expression levels of 34 samples from 17 patients collected before and 10 to 14 days after treatment initiation with either vemurafenib or dabrafenib/trametinib combination. The observed changes in mRNA and protein levels with BRAFi treatment led us to hypothesize that combining BRAFi with a BCL-2 inhibitor (the BH3-mimetic navitoclax would improve outcome. We tested this hypothesis in cell lines and in mice. Pretreatment mRNA levels of BCL-2 negatively correlated with maximal tumor regression. Early increases in mRNA levels were seen in BIM, BCL-XL, BID and BCL2-W, as were decreases in MCL-1 and BCL2A. No significant changes were observed with BCL-2. Using reverse phase protein array (RPPA, significant increases in protein levels were found in BIM and BID. No changes in mRNA or protein correlated with response. Concurrent BRAF (PLX4720 and BCL2 (navitoclax inhibition synergistically reduced viability in BRAF mutant cell lines and correlated with down-modulation of MCL-1 and BIM induction after PLX4720 treatment. In xenograft models, navitoclax enhanced the efficacy of PLX4720. The combination of a selective BRAF inhibitor with a BH3-mimetic promises to be an important therapeutic strategy capable of enhancing the clinical efficacy of BRAF inhibition in many patients that might otherwise succumb quickly to de novo resistance. Trial registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01006980; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01107418; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264380; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248936; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00949702; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01072175.

  6. Sociedade Civil e Governo na Gestão de Cidades: a incidência do Movimento Nossa BH nas políticas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo dos Santos de Sousa Teodósio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a atuação do Movimento Nossa BH (MNBH na construção de espaços participativos de discussão de políticas públicas na capital mineira, a partir das relações que se estabelecem entre organizações da sociedade civil (OSCs e governo. Os principais constructos teóricos utilizados são o de participação popular e esfera pública, de modo a se problematizar as formas de participação da sociedade civil em políticas públicas e as dificuldades enfrentadas para que ela se fortaleça na trajetória da cidade de Belo Horizonte. Além disso, pretende-se compreender o contexto do surgimento e a atuação do Movimento Nossa BH, a fim torná-la uma cidade mais justa, democrática e sustentável. A pesquisa tem como fundamento metodológico o chamado Estudo de Caso Estendido, recorrendo a técnicas qualitativas de coleta de dados, tais como entrevistas semiestruturadas em profundidade e observação participante. Os principais resultados obtidos referem-se às tensões estabelecidas entre esses atores para o fortalecimento da democracia participativa e o controle social sobre a gestão pública, denotando um rico mosaico de possibilidades e contradições encontrados pelo MNBH para efetivar sua proposta de criar espaços de interlocução e controle democrático do desenho, implementação e avaliação de políticas públicas na cidade de Belo Horizonte.

  7. Health Inequities among Men who have Sex with Men

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Richard Wolitski, Deputy Director for Behavioral and Social Science in CDC's Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, discusses how the health of men who have sex with men may be influenced by prejudice and discrimination and impacted by policies, laws, and economic factors.

  8. Men behaving differently: South African men since 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Liz

    2005-05-01

    Liberal versions of sexuality, which mark South Africa's new democracy, have had a number of highly contradictory consequences for women and men, as old notions of masculinity and male privilege have been destabilized. The transition to democracy has precipitated a crisis of masculinity. Orthodox notions of masculinity are being challenged and new versions of masculinity are emerging in their place. Some men are seeking to be part of a new social order while others are defensively clinging to more familiar routines. Drawing on in-depth interviews with young African working class men, this paper explores new masculinities in contemporary South Africa. It examines how men negotiate their manhood in a period of social turbulence and transition. Masculinity, male sexuality, and the expectations which men have of themselves, each other and women are contested and in crisis.

  9. Men's re-placement: Social practices in a Men's Shed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstiss, David; Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2018-05-06

    Transitions into retirement can be difficult at the best of times. Many men find themselves having to reflect on who they are and what their lives are about. Their access to social supports and material resources are often disrupted. Men's Sheds offer a space where retired men can actively pursue wellbeing, and respond to disruption and loneliness through emplaced community practices. This paper draws on ethnographic research in a Men's Shed in Auckland, New Zealand in order to explore the social practices through which men create a shared space for themselves in which they can engage in meaningful relationships with each other. We document how participants work in concert to create a space in which they can be together through collective labour. Their emplacement in the shed affords opportunities for supported transitions into retirement and for engaging healthy lives beyond paid employment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of Nitroarenes into Aryl Amines and N-Aryl hydroxylamines via Activation of NaBH4 and Ammonia-Borane Complexes by Ag/TiO2 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Andreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the fabrication of mesoporous assemblies of silver and TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag/MTA and demonstrate their catalytic efficiency for the selective reduction of nitroarenes. The Ag/TiO2 assemblies, which show large surface areas (119–128 m2·g−1 and narrow-sized mesopores (ca. 7.1–7.4 nm, perform as highly active catalysts for the reduction of nitroarenes, giving the corresponding aryl amines and N-aryl hydroxylamines with NaBH4 and ammonia-borane (NH3BH3, respectively, in moderate to high yields, even in large scale reactions (up to 5 mmol. Kinetic studies indicate that nitroarenes substituted with electron-withdrawing groups reduced faster than those with electron-donating groups. The measured positive ρ values from the formal Hammett-type kinetic analysis of X-substituted nitroarenes are consistent with the proposed mechanism that include the formation of possible [Ag]-H hybrid species, which are responsible for the reduction process. Because of the high observed chemo selectivities and the clean reaction processes, the present catalytic systems, i.e., Ag/MTA-NaBH4 and Ag/MTA-NH3BH3, show promise for the efficient synthesis of aryl amines and N-aryl hydroxylamines at industrial levels.

  11. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 : Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, A.; Frankcombe, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski’s direct method. The

  12. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), other catecholamine-related enzymes, and their human genes in relation to the drug and gene therapies of Parkinson's disease (PD): historical overview and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu; Nagatsu, Ikuko

    2016-11-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which was discovered at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1964, is a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-requiring monooxygenase that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines (CAs), such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. Since deficiencies of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain stem, caused by neurodegeneration of dopamine and noradrenaline neurons, are mainly related to non-motor and motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), we have studied human CA-synthesizing enzymes [TH; BH4-related enzymes, especially GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1); aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC); dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH); and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT)] and their genes in relation to PD in postmortem brains from PD patients, patients with CA-related genetic diseases, mice with genetically engineered CA neurons, and animal models of PD. We purified all human CA-synthesizing enzymes, produced their antibodies for immunohistochemistry and immunoassay, and cloned all human genes, especially the human TH gene and the human gene for GCH1, which synthesizes BH4 as a cofactor of TH. This review discusses the historical overview of TH, BH4-, and other CA-related enzymes and their genes in relation to the pathophysiology of PD, the development of drugs, such as L-DOPA, and future prospects for drug and gene therapy for PD, especially the potential of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  13. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  14. Argumentative Men: Expectations of Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    Considers how argumentativeness is linked with several managerial qualities, such as group leadership, better decision-making, and enhanced credibility. Surveys nearly 300 full-time employed men. Shows that men at all levels exhibit the full range of argumentativeness. Finds the mean argumentativeness of supervisors at all levels is significantly…

  15. Men and Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Past studies suggested that sex ratio influences individuals’ economic behaviors; however, the underlying mechanism of this effect remains unclear. In the current work, we examined how sex ratio influenced women’s preference for relative gain over greater absolute gain in the context of games involving resource allocation between oneself and another woman; the role of intrasexual competition in this process was also explored. By experimentally manipulating women’s perceptions of local sex ratio, the present study found that women primed with a female-biased sex ratio (i.e., an excess of women showed higher levels of intrasexual competition. Exposure to the cue of a scarcity of men also led women to care more about their relative gain compared with absolute gain. The effect of sex ratio on shifts of women’s preference between relative gain and absolute gain was mediated by the strength of women’s competitive attitude toward same-sex others. These findings suggest that, by altering the intensity of female–female competition, sex ratio may have a pronounced effect on women’ economic-related decisions.

  16. Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: the Urban Men's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Thomas C; Paul, Jay; Stall, Ron; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Y Jason; Moskowitz, Judith T; Catania, Joseph A

    2004-02-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of depression and describes the correlates and independent associations of distress and depression among U.S. men who have sex with men. A household-based probability sample of men who have sex with men (N=2,881) was interviewed between 1996 and 1998 in four large American cities. With cutoff points of 15 and 22 for the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, individual correlates and predictors of distress and depression were examined, and multinomial logistic regression was performed. The 7-day prevalence of depression in men who have sex with men was 17.2%, higher than in adult U.S. men in general. Both distress and depression were associated with lack of a domestic partner; not identifying as gay, queer, or homosexual; experiencing multiple episodes of antigay violence in the previous 5 years; and very high levels of community alienation. Distress was also associated with being of other than Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity and experiencing early antigay harassment. Depression was also associated with histories of attempted suicide, child abuse, and recent sexual dysfunction. Being HIV positive was correlated with distress and depression but not significantly when demographic characteristics, developmental history, substance use, sexual behavior, and current social context were controlled by logistic regression. Rates of distress and depression are high in men who have sex with men. These high rates have important public health ramifications. The predictors of distress and depression suggest prevention efforts that might be effective when aimed at men who have sex with men.

  17. Men, masculine identities and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Alan; Coe, Christine

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, fathers' experiences during childbirth have attracted much research and policy interest. However, little of this work has been grounded in the first-hand accounts of men and there is a lack of theory-based research to help understand men's thoughts and practices around childbirth. This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken with first-time fathers and healthcare professionals. It draws on Connell's (1995) conceptualisation of hegemonic masculinity to explore how men construct masculine identities within the context of pregnancy and childbirth and also how healthcare professionals construct masculinity. The paper demonstrates the ways in which men can find themselves marginalised within the context of pregnancy and childbirth, but are still able to draw on identifiable markers of masculine practice which enable them to enact a masculine form congruent with dominant masculinity. It also illustrates how healthcare professionals' constructions of masculinity enable them to predict how men will behave and allow them to position men in ways that involve minimum disruption to their own practice. The paper also highlights how men's marginal status is embedded in the dynamics of the social structure, which produce and reproduce dominant masculine identities within the context of childbirth. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effect of chloride substitution on the order–disorder transition in NaBH{sub 4} and Na{sup 11}BD{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Jørn Eirik [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Karen, Pavel [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sørby, Magnus H. [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Hauback, Bjørn C., E-mail: bjorn.hauback@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Interactions that order the BD{sub 4}{sup -} tetrahedra below the order–disorder transition became increasingly frustrated by the solute in the Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} solid solutions, and the order disappears at x = 0.158. Highlights: • The order–disorder transition temperature for Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} and Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} is highly dependent on the Cl-content, x. • The transition is characterized by DSC for Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} for x = 0, 0.10 and 0.15. • No transition is observed for x ⩾ 0.20 on cooling to 8 K. • The crystal structures are reported for Na{sup 11}BD{sub 4} at room temperature and 8 K and Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) at 8 K from powder neutron diffraction. -- Abstract: Phase transition associated with anion disordering over two orientations in Na{sup 11}BD{sub 4} (NaBH{sub 4}) and its solid solutions with NaCl, Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x}, is investigated with powder diffraction (neutron and synchrotron radiation), differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. Upon heating, the transition temperature extrapolated to zero rate of heating is 192.2 K for Na{sup 11}BD{sub 4}, ΔS = 4.41 J/mol K, hysteresis 1.7 K and the volume increase 0.43%. Thermal parameters of the transition in Na({sup 11}BD{sub 4}){sub 1−x}Cl{sub x} follow a colligative-property model of an ideal solution, with x = 0.158(1) as the critical concentration at which the ordering interactions and the transition itself are eliminated. On approaching this limit, the tetragonal distortion of the ordered structure decreases somewhat towards the cubic average, and this is associated with a partial disorder of the tetrahedral anions seen by diffraction methods. In fact, a 3% disorder is already present in the pure solvent of the solid solution (Na{sup 11}BD{sub 4}) at 8 K.

  19. Health Inequities among Men who have Sex with Men

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-22

    Dr. Richard Wolitski, Deputy Director for Behavioral and Social Science in CDC's Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, discusses how the health of men who have sex with men may be influenced by prejudice and discrimination and impacted by policies, laws, and economic factors.  Created: 9/22/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/22/2010.

  20. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  1. Anaerobes in men with urethritis

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, E A; Taylor-Robinson, D; Hanna, N F; Coufalik, E D

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-four men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), seven with gonococcal urethritis (GU), and 30 who had no symptoms or signs of urethritis were studied. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from urethral specimens taken from 22% of the men with NGU, and 18% with GU, but not from those who did not have urethritis even though 20 (67%) of them had a history of NGU, GU, or both. The chlamydial isolation rate for men having NGU for the first time was 30%. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from ...

  2. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  3. Men: Eat Right, Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugars helps in overall weight management. Saturated fats. Strong scientific data shows that replacing saturated fats with ... means up to two drinks a day for men up to age 64 and one drink a ...

  4. Low Testosterone and Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  5. Epistatic mutations in PUMA BH3 drive an alternate binding mode to potently and selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic Bfl-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenson, Justin M.; Ryan, Jeremy A.; Grant, Robert A.; Letai, Anthony; Keating, Amy E. (DFCI); (MIT)

    2017-06-08

    Overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins contributes to cancer progression and confers resistance to chemotherapy. Small molecules that target Bcl-2 are used in the clinic to treat leukemia, but tight and selective inhibitors are not available for Bcl-2 paralog Bfl-1. Guided by computational analysis, we designed variants of the native BH3 motif PUMA that are > 150-fold selective for Bfl-1 binding. The designed peptides potently trigger disruption of the mitochondrial outer membrane in cells dependent on Bfl-1, but not in cells dependent on other anti-apoptotic homologs. High-resolution crystal structures show that designed peptide FS2 binds Bfl-1 in a shifted geometry, relative to PUMA and other binding partners, due to a set of epistatic mutations. FS2 modified with an electrophile reacts with a cysteine near the peptide-binding groove to augment specificity. Designed Bfl-1 binders provide reagents for cellular profiling and leads for developing enhanced and cell-permeable peptide or small-molecule inhibitors.

  6. Microbiological assay method for sulfate by means of cultivation of Escherichia coli B(H). II. Determination of sulfur contents in orange leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, H; Yamamoto, T; Iwamura, Y

    1975-01-01

    As one of the studies on the application of microbiological assay method for sulfate using E. coli B(H), determination of sulfur content in orange leaves was examined. Preparation of sample solution was as follows: dried orange leaves were subjected to combustion in the presence of Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ x 6H/sub 2/O as an oxidizing agent at 800/sup 0/ for 1 hr. The residue was dissolved in 3 n HCl, neutralized with 3 n KOH, and the solution was passed through a column of Amberlite IR-120 (H/sup +/ form). The effluent was used for the microbiological assay, and the results obtained were as follows: (1) it was possible to determine sulfur content in orange leaves by microbiological assay method using Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ x 6H/sub 2/O as an oxidizing agent; (2) this microbiological method gave small standard deviation (sigma = 3.8%) and accurate recovery (98.1-101.5%).; (3) this proposed microbiological method will make it possible to determine sulfur content in orange leaves with the amount of a sample less than that in the gravimetric method.

  7. Genealogical electronic coupling procedure incorporating the Hartree--Fock interacting space and suitable for degenerate point groups. Application to excited states of BH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swope, W.C.; Schaefer, H.F. III; Yarkony, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of Clebsch--Gordan-type coupling coefficients for finite point groups is applied to the problem of constructing symmetrized N-electron wave functions (configurations) for use by the Hartree--Fock SCF and CI methods of determining electronic wave functions for molecular systems. The configurations are eigenfunctions of electronic spin operators, and transform according to a particular irreducible representation of the relevant group of spatial operations which leave the Born--Oppenheimer Hamiltonian invariant. The method proposed for constructing the configurations involves a genealogical coupling procedure. It is particularly useful for studies of molecules which belong to a group which has multiply degenerate irreducible representations. The advantage of the method is that it results in configurations which are real linear combinations of determinants of real symmetry orbitals. This procedure for constructing configurations also allows for the identification of configurations which have no matrix element of the Hamiltonian with a reference configuration. It is therefore possible to construct a Hartree--Fock interacting space of configurations which can speed the convergence of a CI wave function. The coupling method is applied to a study of the ground and two excited electronic states of BH 3 in its D/sub 3h/ geometry. The theoretical approach involved Hartree--Fock SCF calculations followed by single and double substitution CI calculations, both of which employed double-zeta plus polarization quality basis sets

  8. Partial functional redundancy of MreB isoforms, MreB, Mbl and MreBH, in cell morphogenesis of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshikazu; Asai, Kei; Errington, Jeffery

    2009-08-01

    MreB proteins are bacterial actin homologues thought to have a role in cell shape determination by positioning the cell wall synthetic machinery. Many bacteria, particularly Gram-positives, have more than one MreB isoform. Bacillus subtilis has three, MreB, Mbl and MreBH, which colocalize in a single helical structure. We now show that the helical pattern of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cylindrical part of the rod-shaped cell is governed by the redundant action of the three MreB isoforms. Single mutants for any one of mreB isoforms can still incorporate PG in a helical pattern and generate a rod shape. However, after depletion of MreB in an mbl mutant (or depletion of all three isoforms) lateral wall PG synthesis was impaired and the cells became spherical and lytic. Overexpression of any one of the MreB isoforms overcame the lethality as well as the defects in lateral PG synthesis and cell shape. Furthermore, MreB and Mbl can associate with the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery independently. However, no single MreB isoform was able to support normal growth under various stress conditions, suggesting that the multiple isoforms are used to allow cells to maintain proper growth and morphogenesis under changing and sometimes adverse conditions.

  9. The effect of axial ion parameters on the properties of glow discharge polymer in T2B/H2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xing; He, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Jing-Lin; He, Zhi-Bing; Du, Kai; Chen, Guo

    2018-03-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) films were fabricated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The main purpose of this work was to explore the correlations of plasma parameters with the surface morphology and chemical structure of GDP films. The intensities of main positive ions and ion energy as functions of axial distances in T2B/H2 plasma were diagnosed using energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The surface morphology and chemical structure were characterized as functions of axial distances using a scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. As the axial distance increases, both the intensities of positive ions and high energy ions decreases, and dissociation weakens while polymerization enhances. This leads to the weakening of the cross-linking structure of GDP films and the formation of dome defects on films. Additionally, high energy ions could introduce a strong etching effect to form etching pits. Therefore, an axial distance of about 20 mm was found to be the optimal plasma parameter to prepare the defect-free GDP films. These results could help one to find the optimal plasma parameters for GDP film deposition.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and virulence of Escherichia coli O16:H5-ST131: comparison with H30 and H30-Rx subclones of O25b:H4-ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Alonso, María Pilar; Marzoa, Juan; Blanco, Miguel; Herrera, Alexandra; Viso, Susana; García-Garrote, Fernando; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Billig, Mariya; de la Cruz, Fernando; de Toro, María; González-López, Juan José; Prats, Guillermo; Chaves, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Denamur, Erick; Blanco, Jorge

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of the clonal subgroup O16:H5-ST131 and the H30 and H30-Rx subclones among E. coli isolates causing extraintestinal infections and to know their virulence potential. The ST131 clonal group accounted for 490 (16%) of the 2995 isolates obtained from clinical samples in five Spanish hospitals during the study period (2005-2012). Among those 490 ST131 isolates, 456 belonged to serotype O25b:H4, 27 to O16:H5 and seven were O-non-typeable:H4 (ONT:H4). All 27 O16:H5 isolates showed fimH41, whereas fimH30 and fimH22 alleles were the most frequently detected among O25b:H4 isolates. The majority (381/490; 78%) of ST131 isolates belonged to H30 subclone, and 302 of 381 (79%) H30 isolates belonged to the H30-Rx subclone. Of the 27 O16:H5 isolates, 48% produced CTX-M-14; however, none produced CTX-M-15. In contrast, 46% of O25b:H4 isolates produced CTX-M-15 while only 2% produced CTX-M-14. More than a half of the O16:H5 isolates (56%) showed the ExPEC status which was significantly more prevalent within O25b:H4 isolates (81%) (P<0.01), especially among H30-Rx (97%) isolates. In the present study, a modified virotype scheme was applied within which approximately half (52%) of the O16:H5 isolates showed the C1 specific virotype. Despite their low virulence-gene score (mean of virulence genes 6.4 versus 8.5 in O25b:H4 isolates), six out of the 10 O16:H5 isolates assayed showed high virulence in the mouse model of sepsis (killed 90-100% of mice challenged). Furthermore, four O16:H5 isolates of virotypes A and C1, carrying K2 variant of group II capsule, showed lethality at 24h. Thus, certain O16:H5 fimH41 isolates show a similar in vivo virulence to that reported with the highly virulent O25b:H4 H30-Rx isolates (Mora et al., PLOS ONE 2014, e87025), supporting their potential virulence for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Anogenital warts in Danish men who have sex with men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Stinna; Kofoed, K

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of anogenital warts (AGWs) and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM), and their knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV). Attitudes towards the HPV vaccine among MSM are explored. A web-based cross-sectional survey on AGWs......, sociodemographic factors and sexual behaviour conducted in August 2009 in Denmark. Overall 25.2% of the 1184 respondents reported a prior or current episode of AGWs. The prevalence of AGW was significantly higher in homosexuals compared with bisexuals, in men with high levels of education and in those with a high...... number of sexual partners within the last year. MSM with a history of another STI reported a significantly higher prevalence of warts. More than 70% did not know what causes AGWs. If a free HPV vaccine were to be offered, 94.4% would like to receive it. These data suggest a high prevalence of AGWs...

  12. Chemometric study of the effects of PtRu:BH4-molar ratio and solvent used in the preparation of PtRu/C electrocatalysts for for direct methanol fuel cell anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, N.S.O.; Neto, A.O.; Spinace, E.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tusi, M.M. [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santiago, RS (Brazil); Brandalise, M. [Instituto Federal Fluminense (IFF), Campos dos Goyracazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    PtRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by borohydride reduction method and a chemometric study was performed to evaluate the influence of the solvent (water and isopropyl alcohol) and amount of reducing agent (PtRu:BH4- molar ratios of 5 and 15) in maximum power density. In borohydride reduction method, a solution containing sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is added to a mixture containing water, isopropyl alcohol, metallic precursors and the carbon support Vulcan XC72. The obtained materials were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA's) were produced and tests in single direct methanol fuel cells were performed. The amount of sodium borohydride used in the reduction showed more influence on the maximum power density than the change of solvent of the reaction. (author)

  13. Orbital localization criterion as a complementary tool in the bonding analysis by means of electron localization function: study of the Si(n)(BH)(5-n)(2-) (n = 0-5) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña, Ofelia B; Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Torres-Vega, Juan J; Tiznado, William

    2013-12-05

    A recently proposed molecular orbital localization procedure, based on the electron localization function (ELF) technique, has been used to describe chemical bonding in the cluster series Sin(BH)(5-n)(2-) (n = 0-5). The method combines the chemically intuitive information obtained from the traditional ELF analysis with the flexibility and generality of canonical molecular orbital theory. This procedure attempts to localize the molecular orbitals in regions that have the highest probability for finding a pair of electrons, providing a chemical bonding description according to the classical Lewis theory. The results confirm that conservation of the structures upon isoelectronic replacement of a B-H group by a Si atom, allowing evolution from B5H5(2-) to Si5(2-), is in total agreement with the preservation of the chemical bonding pattern.

  14. Older men, work and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, G; Evandrou, M

    2010-05-01

    To consider the complex interrelationships between work and health among older men, drawing out the importance of considering gender difference in approaches to occupational medicine. The method used in the literature search was to review national and international research published in English since 1990 on the health and work of older men. Journal articles were the primary source. Databases used included Web of Science, CSA Illumina Social Sciences, CINAHL, Medline and ANGINFO. The review of the evidence was structured in terms of key themes emerging from the literature into which issues of gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic inequalities were cross cut. The current paper now focuses on two of those themes that have particular relevance to occupational medicine: work-caused and work-related ill-health, and secondly promoting workplace health. It begins by setting the scene with a profile of older men in the labour market. Two key themes emerge from the review, which are of particular significance. One is the central role that work plays in the lives and identity of men and therefore the impact this has on their health, both in and out of work. Secondly, the occupational histories of men expose them to work-related and work-caused ill-health, which has consequences for life expectancy and chronic disease in old age. These findings have implications for future research, policy formulation and implementation, and for public health practice.

  15. PHARMACOTHERAPY ALOPECIA ANDROGENETIC IN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riezky Januar Pramitha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is hair thinning due to the stimulation of hair follicles to androgens. Incidence in men is higher than in women, it is because men have a degree higher 5? reductase. This condition can cause both physical and psychological effects to the patient. Physical effects due to baldness cause hair loss as a function of protection against heat, cold and trauma. While psychologically can affect self-esteem and self-perception of the patient. Androgenetic alopecia in men influenced by the androgen dihydrotestosterone and genetic predisposition, although the physiology remains unclear. Modality in the management of androgenetic alopecia in males patients including pharmacotherapy, hair transplants and cosmetic approach. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are two main drugs are safe and effective in the long term given to men with androgenetic alopecia are minoxidil and finasteride. Although the mechanism of action and route of administration are different, but both drugs have similar effectiveness in stopping the progression of androgenetic alopecia in men.

  16. A Mild and Convenient Method for the Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with NaBH{sub 4} in the Presence of Catalytic Amounts of MoCl{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Yahyaei, Saiedeh [Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-11-15

    NaBH{sub 4} with catalytic amounts of MoCl{sub 5} can readily reduce a variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, α-diketones and conjugated enones to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed under aprotic condition in CH{sub 3}CN at room temperature or reflux. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing system.

  17. Men and Relationships in the '80's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canter, Mathilda B.

    As a result of an effective feminist movement and effective technological developments, men are faceing drastic and dramatic changes in their personal and work lives. Consequently, more men, and specifically more older men, are entering psychotherapy than ever before. Men in their 50's are facing problems associated with shifts away from…

  18. Suicide prevention for men - using the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Madsen, Bente Hjorth

      In most countries men have a higher suicide rate than women. In Denmark suicide among men is almost three times as frequent as among women. For this reason we wanted to ask the following question: Is there any way to facilitate mens' access to help, when they are in a crisis? Could men be better...

  19. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4: Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J

    2008-06-21

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized.

  20. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  1. The combination of BH3-mimetic ABT-737 with the alkylating agent temozolomide induces strong synergistic killing of melanoma cells independent of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Reuland

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and is refractory to most conventional chemotherapies. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ is commonly used in treating melanoma but has a disappointing response rate. Agents that can act cooperatively with TMZ and improve its efficacy are thus highly sought after. The BH3 mimetic ABT-737, which can induce apoptosis by targeting pro-survival Bcl-2 family members, has been found to enhance the efficacy of many conventional chemotherapeutic agents in multiple cancers. We found that combining TMZ and ABT-737 induced strong synergistic apoptosis in multiple human melanoma cell lines. When the drugs were used in combination in a mouse xenograft model, they drastically reduced tumor growth at concentrations where each individual drug had no significant effect. We found that TMZ treatment elevated p53 levels, and that the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa was elevated in TMZ/ABT-737 treated cells. Experiments with shRNA demonstrated that the synergistic effect of TMZ and ABT-737 was largely dependent on Noxa. Experiments with nutlin-3, a p53 inducer, demonstrated that p53 induction was sufficient for synergistic cell death with ABT-737 in a Noxa-dependent fashion. However, p53 was not necessary for TMZ/ABT-737 synergy as demonstrated by a p53-null line, indicating that TMZ and ABT-737 together induce Noxa in a p53-independent fashion. These results demonstrate that targeting anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members is a promising method for treating metastatic melanoma, and that clinical trials with TMZ and Bcl-2 inhibitors are warranted.

  2. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daniel O; Dengjel, Jörn; Wilfling, Florian; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Häcker, Georg; Weber, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM). In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20) by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  3. An endoglucanase is involved in infection of rice roots by the not-cellulose-metabolizing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Maes, Tamara; Gemmer, Sabrina; Van Montagu, Marc; Hurek, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    The nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 infects roots of Kallar grass and rice inter- and intra-cellularly and can spread systemically into shoots without causing symptoms of plant disease. Although cellulose or its breakdown products do not support growth, this strain expresses an endoglucanase, which might be involved in infection. Sequence analysis of eglA places the secreted 34-kDa protein into the glycosyl hydrolases family 5, with highest relatedness (40% identity) to endoglucanases of the phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris and Ralstonia solanacearum. Transcriptional regulation studied by eglA:: gusA fusion was not significantly affected by cellulose or its breakdown products or by microaerobiosis. Strongest induction (threefold) was obtained in bacteria grown in close vicinity to rice roots. Visible sites of expression were the emergence points of lateral roots and root tips, which are the primary regions of ingress into the root. To study the role in endophytic colonization, eglA was inactivated by transposon mutagenesis. Systemic spreading of the eglA mutant and of a pilAB mutant into the rice shoot could no longer be detected by polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic inspection of infection revealed that the intracellular colonization of root epidermis cells was significantly reduced in the eglA- mutant BHE6 compared with the wild type and partially restored in the complementation mutant BHRE2 expressing eglA. This provides evidence that Azoarcus sp. endoglucanase is an important determinant for successful endophytic colonization of rice roots, suggesting an active bacterial colonization process.

  4. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim interacts with components of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O Frank

    Full Text Available The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family protein Bim belongs to the BH3-only proteins known as initiators of apoptosis. Recent data show that Bim is constitutively inserted in the outer mitochondrial membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor from where it can activate the effector of cytochrome c-release, Bax. To identify regulators of Bim-activity, we conducted a search for proteins interacting with Bim at mitochondria. We found an interaction of Bim with Tom70, Tom20 and more weakly with Tom40, all components of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM. In vitro import assays performed on tryptically digested yeast mitochondria showed reduced Bim insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM indicating that protein receptors may be involved in the import process. However, RNAi against components of TOM (Tom40, Tom70, Tom22 or Tom20 by siRNA, individually or in combination, did not consistently change the amount of Bim on HeLa mitochondria, either at steady state or upon de novo-induction. In support of this, the individual or combined knock-downs of TOM receptors also failed to alter the susceptibility of HeLa cells to Bim-induced apoptosis. In isolated yeast mitochondria, lack of Tom70 or the TOM-components Tom20 or Tom22 alone did not affect the import of Bim into the outer mitochondrial membrane. In yeast, expression of Bim can sensitize the cells to Bax-dependent killing. This sensitization was unaffected by the absence of Tom70 or by an experimental reduction in Tom40. Although thus the physiological role of the Bim-TOM-interaction remains unclear, TOM complex components do not seem to be essential for Bim insertion into the OMM. Nevertheless, this association should be noted and considered when the regulation of Bim in other cells and situations is investigated.

  5. Behavior of solvent-exposed hydrophobic groove in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL protein: clues for its ability to bind diverse BH3 ligands from MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Lama

    Full Text Available Bcl-XL is a member of Bcl-2 family of proteins involved in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Its overexpression in many human cancers makes it an important target for anti-cancer drugs. Bcl-XL interacts with the BH3 domain of several pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 partners. This helical bundle protein has a pronounced hydrophobic groove which acts as a binding region for the BH3 domains. Eight independent molecular dynamics simulations of the apo/holo forms of Bcl-XL were carried out to investigate the behavior of solvent-exposed hydrophobic groove. The simulations used either a twin-range cut-off or particle mesh Ewald (PME scheme to treat long-range interactions. Destabilization of the BH3 domain-containing helix H2 was observed in all four twin-range cut-off simulations. Most of the other major helices remained stable. The unwinding of H2 can be related to the ability of Bcl-XL to bind diverse BH3 ligands. The loss of helical character can also be linked to the formation of homo- or hetero-dimers in Bcl-2 proteins. Several experimental studies have suggested that exposure of BH3 domain is a crucial event before they form dimers. Thus unwinding of H2 seems to be functionally very important. The four PME simulations, however, revealed a stable helix H2. It is possible that the H2 unfolding might occur in PME simulations at longer time scales. Hydrophobic residues in the hydrophobic groove are involved in stable interactions among themselves. The solvent accessible surface areas of bulky hydrophobic residues in the groove are significantly buried by the loop LB connecting the helix H2 and subsequent helix. These observations help to understand how the hydrophobic patch in Bcl-XL remains stable in the solvent-exposed state. We suggest that both the destabilization of helix H2 and the conformational heterogeneity of loop LB are important factors for binding of diverse ligands in the hydrophobic groove of Bcl-XL.

  6. Health screenings for men ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  7. Health screenings for men ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  8. Women, Men and the Doctorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.

    This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…

  9. Men, Women, and Life Annuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Francis P.

    1976-01-01

    A senior research officer of Teacher Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) discusses the issue of different life annuity benefits to men and women concluding that age and sex are two objective and statistically reliable factors used in determining life expectancy and thus the expected duration of…

  10. Australia's national men's health policy: masculinity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita

    2009-08-01

    The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.

  11. Semen parameters in polyzoospermic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sh. Khayat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyzoospermia is extremely high (above 250 mln/ml sperm concentration with normal volume of ejaculate. In the laboratory of genetic disorders of reproduction of Research Centre for Medical Genetics in 2007–2012 years we analyzed more than 14 000 semen samples from infertile men and men with reproductive disorders in order to study the distribution and characteristics of spermatogenesis in polyzoospermic men. Only polyzoospermic men semen analysis results were interpretered in present article. Polyzoospermia (sperm count over 250 mln/ml in volume over 1,5 ml was detected in 191 semen samples (1.3 %. At the same time 15 % of the samples with polyzoospermia were normozoospermic. Among 85 % of the sperm pathology samples asthenozoospermia occured most frequently (77 %, astenoteratozoospermia was detected in 8 % of cases with polyzoospermia. The average proportion of vitality was 90.09 ± 10.02 %, normal morphology – 14.93 ± 8.51 %, and progressive motility – 17.72 ± 11.81 %. The average concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate in the examined samples was 313.29 ± 64.78 mln/ml. More than half of the tested samples with polyzoospermia had a concentration 250–300 mln/ml. Concentration of 450 mln/ml and more detected in 3 % of samples. The maximum total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate in our study was more than 2 billion sperm cells and was observed in two polyzoospermic men. One of these patients had the maximum concentration (615 mln/ml also. We found a high correlation (r = 0.89; p < 0.01 between the volume of ejaculate and the total number of spermatozoa. Immature germ cells from ejaculate were estimated in 7 patients. There was a partial spermatogenesis arrest at meiosis I prophase in 5 out 7 of the examined semen samples. 

  12. [The importance of systematic examination of preschool children in new organization of primary health care in B&H and RS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajić, Dragan; Cirić, Dara; Cajić, Milijana; Sokolac, Dom zdravlja

    2007-01-01

    A systematic examination of 391 children at school age was performed, at age from 1st to 4th grade of grammar school, among which there was 183 boys and 208 girls. Examination was done by the responsible pediatric service of the Primary health care Center Sokolac with help of the humanitarian organization World Vision from Taiwan. The goal of the examination was to get an insight in the general health state of this population, including the risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), to suggest appropriate preventive measures, and determine further justification of these examinations within the new organization of health care in RS and B&H. Satisfactory hygiene status of these children, eradication of lousiness and scabies, high percentage of vaccinated children (95%) according to current national program, evaluation of most common congenital anomalies speaks in favor of adequate pediatric care at early age. Higher percent of weak vision (10.23%), "flat feet" (36.57%) and chronic tonsillitis (34.52%), as well as occasional cases of herniations, criptochrism, spine and thorax deformities, and one hearth anomaly indicates on insufficient systematic examination "within critical period" from 3 to 7 years of age. Most often pathological substrate during the examination was caries (69.30%) which indicated the poor prevention of this illness. Percentage of 10.74% obese children and 8.95% children with systolic blood pressure above 95 for this age justify the attitude of WHO on early prevention of CVD. The necessity of pediatric care is indicated at age up to 7 years and regular systematic examinations of the school children according to the program of Health Care Fund by the consultancy pediatric service, as well importance of cooperation with the teams of family medicine. Urgent prevention and treatment of caries is recommended at the referral health care centers and more strict control by the responsible Health Care Fund of RS for the signed contracts

  13. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Derived Neuroprogenitors Display Differential Degrees of Susceptibility to BH3 Mimetics ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Paola García

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are hypersensitive to genotoxic stress and display lower survival ability relative to their differentiated progeny. Herein, we attempted to investigate the source of this difference by comparing the DNA damage responses triggered by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, in hESCs, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and hESCs-derived neuroprogenitors (NP. We observed that upon camptothecin exposure pluripotent stem cells underwent apoptosis more swiftly and at a higher rate than differentiated cells. However, the cellular response encompassing ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase activation and p53 phosphorylation both on serine 15 as well as on serine 46 resulted very similar among the aforementioned cell types. Importantly, we observed that hESCs and hiPSCs express lower levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 than NP. To assess whether Bcl-2 abundance could account for this differential response we treated cells with ABT-263, WEHI-539 and ABT-199, small molecules that preferentially target the BH3-binding pocket of Bcl-xL and/or Bcl-2 and reduce their ability to sequester pro-apoptotic factors. We found that in the absence of stress stimuli, NP exhibited a higher sensitivity to ABT- 263 and WEHI-539 than hESCs and hiPSCs. Conversely, all tested cell types appeared to be highly resistant to the Bcl-2 specific inhibitor, ABT-199. However, in all cases we determined that ABT-263 or WEHI-539 treatment exacerbated camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Importantly, similar responses were observed after siRNA-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-xL or Bcl-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Bcl-xL contrary to Bcl-2 contributes to ensure cell survival and also functions as a primary suppressor of DNA double-strand brake induced apoptosis both in pluripotent and derived NP cells. The emerging knowledge of the relative dependence of pluripotent and progenitor cells on Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL activities may help

  14. Feminist gerontology and old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calasanti, Toni

    2004-11-01

    This article outlines feminist gerontology and shows how its focus on power relations lends insight into the lives of those people disadvantaged by them as well as the people privileged by social inequalities. To illustrate the latter, I discuss how feminist gerontology might examine old men, using the topic of health as an example. For instance, arrangements that maintain privilege in young adulthood and middle age can lead to poor health in old age. These practices of masculinity include physical risk in competition with other men, neglect of social networks and medical care, and avoidance of any self-report of emotional strain. However, with its focus on diversity, feminist gerontology also emphasizes that experiences of manhood, aging, and health vary by one's location in a network of inequalities.

  15. Men's sexual self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B L; Cyranowski, J M; Espindle, D

    1999-04-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test-retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part 2, the data suggest that men's sexual schema is derived from past sexual experience, is manifest in current sexual experience, and guides future sexual behavior. In Part 3, the data document the cognitive processing aspects of sexual schema. Consistent with the investigators' schema research with women, these data substantiate the importance of cognitive representations of sexuality.

  16. Mainstreaming women, equating men: Charting an inclusionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showcase African states as the epicentre of all that deny women their worth and dignity. ..... (a) engaging men as decision-makers and service providers; (b) integrating men into the .... equitably distributed in African traditional societies.

  17. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure, depression, sexual dysfunction, and diabetes. Historically, men have not been forthcoming about their health, particularly conditions like diabetes, depression, or sexual dysfunction. But today, many men are ...

  18. Gender inequality: Bad for men's health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... have attributed this risk to men's poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being ... Gender inequality: Bad for men's health ..... New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2005.

  19. Comportamiento de los cultivares de papaya Sunset, Sunrise y de los genotipos Baixinho de Santa Amalia y BH - 65 en la zona sur de la isla de Tenerife Behavior of papaya cultivars Sunset, Sunrise and genotypes of 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' and BH- 65 in the south of Tenerife island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodríguez Pastor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los antecedentes de la papaya (Carica papaya, L. en Canarias vienen a poner de manifiesto, la viabilidad de este cultivo en invernadero y la posibilidad de su mayor expansión a corto plazo, debido a la introducción a lo largo de los últimos años de cultivares comerciales y de gran calidad, procedentes de Hawaii ('Sunrise' y de Brasil 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' (BSA. En este trabajo se ha estudiado el crecimiento, desarrollo y productividad de los cultivares Sunset, Sunrise, y de los genotipos BH-65 y 'Baixinho de Santa Amalia' y las características morfológicas y organolépticas de sus frutos, con el fin de continuar con la selección de aquellos cultivares que mejor se adapten y cumplan con las exigencias mínimas de mercado, que mantengan una buena productividad en aquellas zonas marginales para la platanera y que sirvan de base para futuros programas de mejora. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que los mayores porcentajes de floración se obtienen en el mes de Mayo (6 meses después de la plantación en las plantas hermafroditas de todos los cultivares, correspondiendo los mayores porcentajes a 'Sunset' y 'Sunrise' (80 y 90,4%, respectivamente. El número de hojas emitidas mensualmente es semejante en todos los cultivares, entre 7,5 y 7,8. Las plantas femeninas de 'Sunrise' así como las hermafroditas de 'Sunset' tienen mayor diámetro, y además, este último cultivar es más precoz en florecer y sus frutos son de mayor peso y tamaño. Hay que destacar también que en el punto de consumo los frutos del cultivar Sunrise son los que poseen mayor contenido en sólidos solubles totales (10,33 ºBrix. Además, los frutos hermafroditas de 'Sunrise' son los primeros en ser recolectados (422 días desde la plantación. Finalmente, señalar que el cultivar Sunset destaca por ser el más productivo (59,5 kg/pl y por tener mayores rendimientos por hectárea (158,627 kg/ha. No obstante, los genotipos BH-65 y BSA poseen un comportamiento muy

  20. Precision Medicine and Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Douglas A; Katchi, Farhan M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-07-01

    Precision medicine can greatly benefit men's health by helping to prevent, diagnose, and treat prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, infertility, hypogonadism, and erectile dysfunction. For example, precision medicine can facilitate the selection of men at high risk for prostate cancer for targeted prostate-specific antigen screening and chemoprevention administration, as well as assist in identifying men who are resistant to medical therapy for prostatic hyperplasia, who may instead require surgery. Precision medicine-trained clinicians can also let couples know whether their specific cause of infertility should be bypassed by sperm extraction and in vitro fertilization to prevent abnormalities in their offspring. Though precision medicine's role in the management of hypogonadism has yet to be defined, it could be used to identify biomarkers associated with individual patients' responses to treatment so that appropriate therapy can be prescribed. Last, precision medicine can improve erectile dysfunction treatment by identifying genetic polymorphisms that regulate response to medical therapies and by aiding in the selection of patients for further cardiovascular disease screening.

  1. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI, obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America.

  2. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  3. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  4. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu

    2014-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH 4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH 4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH 4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  5. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  6. Fag Men: Mad Men, Homosexuality and Televisual Style

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Among the many retro-fittings achieved by Mad Men—Matthew Weinerʼs still unfurling television series set in the advertising world of the early 1960s—is the representation of the homosexual closet as a thing of the past. This essay approaches Mad Men’s account of the homophobic past in order to think about sexuality and televisual style. A landmark programme coterminous with American television transferring from analogue to digital signal, Mad Men allegorizes another moment in television histo...

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases in Lugo (Spain): dissemination of clone O25b:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Miguel; Alonso, Maria Pilar; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jesús E; López, Cecilia; Cortés, Pilar; Llagostera, Montserrat; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Puentes, Beatriz; Mamani, Rosalía; Herrera, Alexandra; Coira, María Amparo; García-Garrote, Fernando; Pita, Julia María; Blanco, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    Having shown that the Xeral-Calde Hospital in Lugo (Spain) has been concerned by Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 (Nicolas-Chanoine et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 61: 273-81), the present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of this clone among the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates and also to molecularly characterize the E. coli isolates producing ESBL other than CTX-M-15. In the first part of this study, 105 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates (February 2006 to March 2007) were characterized with regard to ESBL enzymes, serotypes, virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PFGE. In the second part of this study, 249 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates (April 2007 to May 2008) were investigated only for the detection of clone O25b:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 using a triplex PCR developed in this study and based on the detection of the new operon afa FM955459 and the targets rfbO25b and 3' end of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene. Of the 105 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 60 (57.1%) were positive for CTX-M-14, 23 (21.9%) for CTX-M-15, 10 (9.5%) for SHV-12 and 7 (6.7%) for CTX-M-32. Serotypes, virulence genes, phylogenetic groups and molecular typing by PFGE demonstrated high homogeneity within those producing CTX-M-15 and high diversity within E. coli producing CTX-M-14 and other ESBLs. By PFGE, CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates O25b:H4 belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 and MLST profile ST131 were grouped in the same cluster. The epidemic strain of clone O25b:H4-ST131 represented 23.1%, 22.5% and 20.0% of all ESBL-producing E. coli isolated in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. CTX-M-type ESBLs, primarily CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15, have emerged as the predominant types of ESBL produced by E. coli isolates in Lugo. In view of the reported findings, long-term care facilities for elderly people may represent a significant reservoir for E. coli clone O25b:H4-ST131 producing CTX

  8. Virulence patterns in a murine sepsis model of ST131 Escherichia coli clinical isolates belonging to serotypes O25b:H4 and O16:H5 are associated to specific virotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Mora

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli sequence type (ST131 is an emerging disseminated public health threat implicated in multidrug-resistant extraintestinal infections worldwide. Although the majority of ST131 isolates belong to O25b:H4 serotype, new variants with different serotypes, STs using the discriminative multilocus sequence typing scheme of Pasteur Institute, and virulence-gene profiles (virotypes have been reported with unknown implications on the pattern of spread, persistence and virulence. The aim of the present study was to compare virulence in a mouse subcutaneous sepsis model of representative ST131 clinical isolates belonging to 2 serotypes (O25b:H4, O16:H5 and nine virotypes and subtypes (A, B, C, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 and E. Fourteen out of the 23 ST131 isolates tested (61% killed 90 to 100% of mice challenged, and 18 of 23 (78% at least 50%. Interestingly, different virulence patterns in association with virotypes were observed, from highly rapid lethality (death in less than 24 h to low final lethality (death at 7 days but with presence of an acute inflammation. This is the first study to assess virulence of ST131 isolates belonging to serotype O16:H5, which exhibited virotype C. In spite of their low virulence-gene score, O16:H5 isolates did not show significant differences in final lethality compared with highly virulent O25b:H4 isolates of virotypes A, B and C, but killed mice less rapidly. Significant differences were found, however, between virotypes A, B, C (final lethality ≥80% of mice challenged and virotypes D, E. Particularly unexpected was the low lethality of the newly assigned virotype E taking into account that it exhibited high virulence-gene score, and the same clonotype H30 as highly virulent O25b:H4 isolates of virotypes A, B and C. In vivo virulence diversity reported in this study would reflect the genetic variability within ST131 clonal group evidenced by molecular typing.

  9. Study of NaBH4 reaction with RhCl3·4H2O and H2PtCl6·6H2O in dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khain, V.S.; Val'kova, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Data on study of NaBH 4 reactions with RhCl 3 x4H 2 O and H 2 PtCl 6 x6H 2 O in dimethylformamide, which is a good solvent of both complex hydride and compounds of platinum metals are presented. Rhodium (3) and platinum (4) reduction by sodium tetrahydridoborate in dimethylformamide proceeds quantitatively up to element state. Depositions of powder-like rhodium and platinum or their sols stable up to 8 months are formed depending on the ratio of concentrations of the reacting substances. Stoichiometry of redox-reactions is established based on spectrophotometric, gasovolumetric measurements,

  10. Wet SiO2 As a Suitable Media for Fast and Efficient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with NaBH3CN under Solvent-Free and Acid-Free Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhkan, Mehri; Zeynizadeh, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated enals and enones, α-diketones and acyloins was carried out readily with NaBH 3 CN in the presence of wet SiO 2 as a neutral media. The reactions were performed at solvent-free conditions in oil bath (70 - 80 .deg. C) or under microwave irradiation (240 W) to give the product alcohols in high to excellent yields. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of conjugated carbonyl compounds took place in a perfect selectivity without any side product formation

  11. Wet SiO{sub 2} As a Suitable Media for Fast and Efficient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with NaBH{sub 3}CN under Solvent-Free and Acid-Free Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhkan, Mehri; Zeynizadeh, Behzad [Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Reduction of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated enals and enones, α-diketones and acyloins was carried out readily with NaBH{sub 3}CN in the presence of wet SiO{sub 2} as a neutral media. The reactions were performed at solvent-free conditions in oil bath (70 - 80 .deg. C) or under microwave irradiation (240 W) to give the product alcohols in high to excellent yields. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of conjugated carbonyl compounds took place in a perfect selectivity without any side product formation.

  12. Uncommitted men match their risk taking to female preferences, while committed men do the opposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that men are more risk prone than women; single men take more risks than men involved in a romantic relationship; and men increase their level of risk taking in the presence of observers. We extend the existing literature with two studies. Our first study demonstrates that

  13. Men nurse image in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Nurten Kaya; Nuray Turan; Aylin Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study has been conducted to determine men nurse image of the society. Methods: The study that was conducted in cross-sectional design was realized on 1482 persons. Questionnaire that is prepared by researchers were filled by discussing with cases face-to-face. Average, percentage methods were used in evaluation of data.Results: Age year average of cases within the scope of the research is 31.74 (SD=10.37, Minimum=18, Maximum=65) type and 56% woman and 43.5% is graduated from high sc...

  14. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  15. Masculine men articulate less clearly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Puts, David A; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A

    2013-12-01

    In previous research, acoustic characteristics of the male voice have been shown to signal various aspects of mate quality and threat potential. But the human voice is also a medium of linguistic communication. The present study explores whether physical and vocal indicators of male mate quality and threat potential are linked to effective communicative behaviors such as vowel differentiation and use of more salient phonetic variants of consonants. We show that physical and vocal indicators of male threat potential, height and formant position, are negatively linked to vowel space size, and that height and levels of circulating testosterone are negatively linked to the use of the aspirated variant of the alveolar stop consonant /t/. Thus, taller, more masculine men display less clarity in their speech and prefer phonetic variants that may be associated with masculine attributes such as toughness. These findings suggest that vocal signals of men's mate quality and/or dominance are not confined to the realm of voice acoustics but extend to other aspects of communicative behavior, even if this means a trade-off with speech patterns that are considered communicatively advantageous, such as clarity and indexical cues to higher social class.

  16. Men as Allies Against Sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Cihangir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexism is often expressed in subtle and ambiguous ways, causing targets to doubt their own capabilities or to show stereotype-confirming behavior. This research examines whether the self-confidence and stereotype (dis-confirming behavior of targets of sexism can be bolstered when other male versus female sources suggest that sexism may have played a role. Both Study 1 (N = 78 and Study 2 (N = 90 show that a suggestion of sexism has more beneficial effects when it is made by male sources than when it is made by female sources. When males suggested that sexism had taken place, targets reported more self-confidence (less self-handicapping and higher personal performance state self-esteem and showed less stereotype confirmation (less self-stereotyping and better task performance than when sexism was suggested by a female source. Study 2 additionally revealed that targets are more likely to file a complaint when men suggest that sexism took place than when this same suggestion was made by women. These results indicate that men can constitute important allies against sexism if they speak out when sexist treatment takes place.

  17. Synthesis and characterizations of CoPt nanoparticles supported on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes with superior activity for NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Yanchun, E-mail: yanchunzhao@aliyun.com; Peng, Xinglan; Wang, Jing; Jing, Chen; Tian, Jianniao, E-mail: birdtjn@sina.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Simple strategy for the synthesis of CoPt-PEDOT:PSS/MWCNTs. • PEDOT:PSS as a modifier of MWCNTs can improve the particles dispersion. • Superior catalytic activities for the NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis reaction. - Abstract: We present here a facile strategy for synthesis of CoPt nanoparticles supported on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The as-prepared CoPt-PEDOT:PSS/MWCNT catalyst was characterized with UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron. The well-supported and low-Pt-content nanostructure catalyst exhibits superior catalytic activity for the NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis reaction with a 47.3 kJ mol{sup −1} of activation energy. The maximum hydrogen generation rate is 6900 mL min{sup −1} g{sup −1} at 298 K.

  18. Evaluación energética de los generadores de vapor F1-2 y BH-109 de una refinería Cubana de petróleo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anliet Valles Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La refinería cubana produce muchos productos para el mercado cubano como los combustibles, aceites, asfaltos y Jet-A1. Los sistemas auxiliares como vapor, aire comprimido y agua se utilizan para la obtención de los productos derivados del petróleo. La generación de vapor es uno de los sistemas auxiliares más importantes dentro de la refinería. La caldera de vapor garantiza que el vapor tenga las condiciones de operación de acuerdo con las normas internacionales. En este trabajo, se realizó la evaluación energética de F1-2 y BH-109 de calderas que utilizan los balances de energía y de masas convencionales. Se obtuvo una eficiencia energética de 61,89 y 77,31 por ciento para F1-2 y BH-109, respectivamente. Las principales pérdidas se debieron al calor sensible de los gases de combustión y a la combustión no química. Para reducir estas pérdidas, mejorar el rendimiento de la caldera y disminuir la temperatura de los gases de salida, se recomienda montar el sistema de control de exceso de aire y volver a examinar o cambiar el sistema de inyección de aire.

  19. Personality of Polish gay men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  20. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men compared to normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Li, Junfang; He, Hong; Huang, Na; Tang, Youchao; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    To compare the facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men with those of reference men. The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected in 40 healthy reference men and in 40 "attractive" men, soft tissue facial angles, distances, areas, and volumes were computed and compared using analysis of variance. When compared with reference men, attractive men shared several similar facial characteristics: relatively large forehead, reduced mandible, and rounded face. They had a more acute soft tissue profile, an increased upper facial width and middle facial depth, larger mouth, and more voluminous lips than reference men. Attractive men had several facial characteristics suggesting babyness. Nonetheless, each group of men was characterized by a different development of these features. Esthetic reference values can be a useful tool for clinicians, but should always consider the characteristics of individual faces.

  1. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  2. Chronic diseases in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, Kristian; Gudex, Claire

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: prevalence estimates for chronic diseases and associated risk factors are needed for priority setting and disease prevention strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the self-reported and clinical prevalence of common chronic disorders in elderly men. STUDY......-reported data on risk factors and disease prevalence were compared with data from hospital medical records. RESULTS: physical inactivity, smoking and excessive alcohol intake were reported by 27, 22 and 17% of the study population, respectively. Except for diabetes, all the chronic diseases investigated......, including hypertension, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases were underreported by study participants. Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism were substantially underreported in the study population even though these diseases were found to affect 48 and 21% of the participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS...

  3. Will the global HIV response fail gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori ) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale.

  4. South African Men Who Have Sex With Both Men and Women and How They Differ From Men Who Have Sex With Men Exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala-Alezones, Carolina; Sandfort, Theo G M; Serafino, Stephanie; Reddy, Vasu

    2018-03-05

    The label "men who have sex with men" (MSM) is used to categorize a diverse population exclusively on the basis of its sexual behavior. Understanding the diversity that this label comprises is critical for the development of health interventions that effectively reach the various populations subsumed under this label. In this cross-sectional study of South African MSM (N = 480) recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we explored differences between men who had sex with both men and women (MSMW) and men who had sex with men exclusively (MSME). We found significant differences between these two groups in terms of sexual attraction, sexual identity, sexual preferences, sexual histories, and current sexual practices. MSMW were more likely to be confused about their same-sex attraction, to experience internalized homophobia, and to have paid for sex in the previous year, while MSME were more gender nonconforming and more likely to have been forced to have sex in the previous year. These findings underscore that the MSM label comprises a diverse population and that exclusive sexual engagement with other men is a critical distinction to take into account in understanding this diversity and fully grasping the lived experiences of men who have sex with men.

  5. Characteristics of adenovirus urethritis among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men: a review of clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Geethani R; Garcia, Katherine; Druce, Julian; Williams, Henrietta; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K; Chow, Eric Pf; Denham, Ian M; Read, Timothy R H; Chen, Marcus Y

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men and to compare the frequency of these between heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). This was a review of the clinical and laboratory information from men diagnosed with PCR-confirmed adenovirus urethritis at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between January 2006 and April 2014. 102 adenovirus urethritis cases were reported, among which 61 were heterosexual men and 41 MSM. Eighty-nine per cent (n=91) had signs of meatitis or conjunctivitis: 51% had meatitis only; 32% meatitis together with conjunctivitis and 6% with conjunctivitis only. The distribution of symptoms and signs was similar among heterosexual men and MSM (p values >0.1). Adenovirus was the sole pathogen found in 93% of cases, excluding gonorrhoea, chlamydia, Mycoplasma genitalium and herpes simplex virus. Only 37% had ≥5 polymorphs per high-power field from a urethral smear. Where samples were still available for adenoviral sequencing (n=20), all were subgroup D. The clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men can be distinctive and aid diagnosis, distinguishing it from other treatable causes of male urethritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Distinct Neisseria gonorrhoeae Transmission Networks Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymans, Raymond; A Matser, Amy; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Heijman, Titia; Geskus, Ronald B.; Speksnijder, Adrianus G. C. L.; Davidovich, Udi; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Coutinho, Roel A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Molecular typing was used to elucidate Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission networks among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We determined whether clusters of patients infected with specific N. gonorrhoeae genotypes were related to various epidemiological

  7. Men with spinal cord injury have a smaller prostate than men without

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvarness, Helle; Jakobsen, Henrik; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2007-01-01

    To compare prostate volume and number of ejaculations in men with and without spinal cord injury (SCI).......To compare prostate volume and number of ejaculations in men with and without spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  8. Fag Men: Mad Men, Homosexuality and Televisual Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Wallace

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the many retro-fittings achieved by Mad Men—Matthew Weinerʼs still unfurling television series set in the advertising world of the early 1960s—is the representation of the homosexual closet as a thing of the past. This essay approaches Mad Men’s account of the homophobic past in order to think about sexuality and televisual style. A landmark programme coterminous with American television transferring from analogue to digital signal, Mad Men allegorizes another moment in television history when the medium was defined not by convergence and time-shifting but by liveness, scheduling flow, mass-market demographics and synchronous viewing. Though it confines its gay content to minor characters and narrative arcs that phase in and out in relation to open-ended long-form needs, the programme’s representation of homophobia as a thing of the past provides a useful lens on the complex temporal co-ordinates of contemporary television.

  9. Positive Portrayals of Feminist Men Increase Men's Solidarity with Feminists and Collective Action Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Shaun; Srinivasan, Ruhi; Finke, Elizabeth; Firnhaber, Joseph; Shilinsky, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive portrayals of feminist men could increase men's sense of solidarity with feminists and, through it, their intentions to engage in collective action in support of women. A sample of 102 mostly White men between the ages of 18 and 63 was recruited from Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace.…

  10. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  11. Sexuality and Health: A Study of Tanzanian Men\\'s Experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explore Tanzanian men\\'s experiences regarding their health and sex life after they had been diagnosed with HIV. In-depth interviews were performed with a purposive sample of ten men living in an urban area in Tanzania and who had been HIV positive for more than one year.

  12. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.

  13. The "Marital" Liaisons of Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)

  14. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated several aspects of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). This condition has gained clinical interest because of the impressive increase of the anal cancer incidence in HIV+ MSM since the introduction of combination antiretroviral

  15. Household and kin provisioning by Hadza men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W

    2013-09-01

    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.

  16. Men in Kindergartens: Work Culture and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børve, Hege Eggen

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the impact on work culture when men work in kindergartens. In Norway, as in other countries there has been a call for more male staff in kindergartens. Increasing the amount of men may imply that institutionalized norms and practice are put under pressure. By using a case study approach, the focus is on employees' experiences…

  17. Reducing Stress of Farm Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Norah C.

    1987-01-01

    Questioned 753 farm men and women to identify factors associated with stress in farm families. Results suggest that high mastery provides the best buffer against stress for both farm men and women. The task of family life educators is to help farm families augment their personal and social resources while managing high financial and work demands.…

  18. The invisible stereotypes of bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma

    2014-08-01

    Bisexual men have little public visibility, yet previous reports indicate that heterosexuals have specific prejudicial attitudes towards them. This article reports on two studies that examined the stereotypical beliefs of heterosexual men and women regarding bisexual men. In Study 1 (n = 88), we examined awareness of social stereotypes (stereotype knowledge). Most of the participants were unable to describe the various stereotypes of bisexual men. Contrary to previous studies, low-prejudiced participants had more stereotype knowledge than high-prejudiced participants. In Study 2 (n = 232), we examined prejudice in a contextual evaluation task that required no stereotype knowledge. Participants evaluated a single target character on a first date: a bisexual man dating a heterosexual woman, a bisexual man dating a gay man, a heterosexual man dating a heterosexual woman, or a gay man dating a gay man. The findings indicated that participants implemented stereotypical beliefs in their evaluation of bisexual men: compared to heterosexual and gay men, bisexual men were evaluated as more confused, untrustworthy, open to new experiences, as well as less inclined towards monogamous relationships and not as able to maintain a long-term relationship. Overall, the two studies suggest that the stereotypical beliefs regarding bisexual men are prevalent, but often not acknowledged as stereotypes. In addition, the implementation of stereotypes in the evaluations was shown to be dependent on the potential romantic partner of the target. Possible theoretical explanations and implications are discussed.

  19. Men's Knowledge and Spousal Communication about Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Men's Knowledge, Spousal Communication about Family Planning ... 1Department of Health Education and Promotion, Public Health Faculty, Jimma ... male involvement in reproductive health services 1. The ... are likely to be more effective for women when men are ..... more equitable gender roles; discussion between.

  20. Erectile dysfunction among men attending surgical outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is becoming a public health issue with high incidences reported in community studies. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of treatment in men with erectile dysfunction in a tertiary center in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Data of men with erectile dysfunction was ...

  1. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...

  2. Workplace Etiquette for Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baridon, Andrea P.; Eyler, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that sexual harassment would be less of a problem if men and women paid more attention to commonplace rules of workplace etiquette. Offers examples of etiquette rules that suggest how to behave reasonably while respecting the rights of both men and women. (Author/JOW)

  3. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  4. Semen quality of fertile Japanese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwamoto, Teruaki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki

    2013-01-01

    To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population.......To establish a base line for future studies on temporal trends, to describe potential geographical differences in semen quality and reference values for studies of men from the general population....

  5. How do men's magazines talk about penises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Craig; Campbell, Christine

    2018-02-01

    Constructions of masculinity have shifted and changed but the central role of the penis has remained firm. Yet, despite the implications for sexual health, there has been very little research on discourses around penises. The messages men receive about their manhood is apparent in articles in men's magazines. We conducted a discursive analysis of the ways in which penises were discussed in four market leading UK titles: Loaded, Men's Health, GQ and Attitude. Two broad discourses were identified, termed Laddish and Medicalised, both of which create fear-ridden spaces where men are bombarded with unachievable masculine ideals and traumatic examples of mutilated members. We discuss how health psychologists could use the findings to communicate with men about their sexual health needs using this channel.

  6. Thorium in occupationally exposed men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehney, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    Higher than environmental levels of 232 Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a thorium refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Examination of the distribution of thorium among the organs revealed poor agreement with the distribution calculated from the dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radioprotection (ICRP). Concentrations in the lungs relative to pulmonary lymph nodes, bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y thorium and the exposure histories of the workers. Much better agreement was found with more recently proposed models in Publications 68 and 69 of the ICRP. Radiation doses estimated from the amounts of thorium in the autopsy samples were compatible with health studies that found no significant difference in mortality from that of the general population of men in the US

  7. Comparison of high temperature, high frequency core loss and dynamic B-H loops of two 50 Ni-Fe crystalline alloys and an iron-based amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieserman, W.R.; Schwarze, G.E.; Niedra, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The availability of experimental data that characterizes the performance of soft magnetic materials for the combined conditions of high temperature and high frequency is almost non-existent. An experimental investigation was conducted over the temperature range of 23 to 300 C and frequency range of 1 to 50 kHz to determine the effects of temperature and frequency on the core loss and dynamic B-H loops of three different soft magnetic materials; an oriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, a nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy, and an iron-based amorphous material (Metglas 2605SC). A comparison of these materials show that the nonoriented-grain 50Ni-50Fe alloy tends to have either the lowest or next lowest core loss for all temperatures and frequencies investigated

  8. Improving solid-state hydriding and dehydriding properties of the LiBH{sub 4} plus MgH{sub 2} system with the addition of Mn and V dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Kyle; Wan, Xuefei; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, U-3136, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The hydriding process of the 2LiH + MgB{sub 2} mixture is controlled by outward diffusion of Mg and inward diffusion of Li and H within MgB{sub 2} crystals to form LiBH{sub 4}. This study explores the feasibility of using transition metal dopants, such as Mn and V, to enhance the diffusion rate and thus the hydriding kinetics. It is found that Mn can indeed enhance the hydriding kinetics of the 2LiH + MgB{sub 2} mixture, while V does not. The major factor in enhancing the diffusion rate and thus the hydriding kinetics is related to the dopant's ability to induce the lattice distortion of MgB{sub 2} crystals. This study demonstrates that the kinetics of the diffusion controlled solid-state hydriding process can be improved by doping if the dopant is properly selected. (author)

  9. Bovine exome sequence analysis and targeted SNP genotyping of recessive fertility defects BH1, HH2, and HH3 reveal a putative causative mutation in SMC2 for HH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Matthew C; Bickhart, Derek; Null, Dan; Vanraden, Paul; Xu, Lingyang; Wiggans, George; Liu, George; Schroeder, Steve; Glasscock, Jarret; Armstrong, Jon; Cole, John B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the causative mutations underlying defective bovine embryo development contained within three of these haplotypes (Brown Swiss haplotype 1 and Holstein haplotypes 2 and 3) by combining exome capture with next generation sequencing. Of the 68,476,640 sequence variations (SV) identified, only 1,311 genome-wide SNP were concordant with the haplotype status of 21 sequenced carriers. Validation genotyping of 36 candidate SNP identified only 1 variant that was concordant to Holstein haplotype 3 (HH3), while no variants located within the refined intervals for HH2 or BH1 were concordant. The variant strictly associated with HH3 is a non-synonymous SNP (T/C) within exon 24 of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 2 (SMC2) on Chromosome 8 at position 95,410,507 (UMD3.1). This polymorphism changes amino acid 1135 from phenylalanine to serine and causes a non-neutral, non-tolerated, and evolutionarily unlikely substitution within the NTPase domain of the encoded protein. Because only exome capture sequencing was used, we could not rule out the possibility that the true causative mutation for HH3 might lie in a non-exonic genomic location. Given the essential role of SMC2 in DNA repair, chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division, our findings strongly support the non-synonymous SNP (T/C) in SMC2 as the likely causative mutation. The absence of concordant variations for HH2 or BH1 suggests either the underlying causative mutations lie within a non-exomic region or in exome regions not covered by the capture array.

  10. Bovine exome sequence analysis and targeted SNP genotyping of recessive fertility defects BH1, HH2, and HH3 reveal a putative causative mutation in SMC2 for HH3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C McClure

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of bovine haplotypes with negative effects on fertility in the Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey breeds has allowed producers to identify carrier animals using commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays. This study was devised to identify the causative mutations underlying defective bovine embryo development contained within three of these haplotypes (Brown Swiss haplotype 1 and Holstein haplotypes 2 and 3 by combining exome capture with next generation sequencing. Of the 68,476,640 sequence variations (SV identified, only 1,311 genome-wide SNP were concordant with the haplotype status of 21 sequenced carriers. Validation genotyping of 36 candidate SNP identified only 1 variant that was concordant to Holstein haplotype 3 (HH3, while no variants located within the refined intervals for HH2 or BH1 were concordant. The variant strictly associated with HH3 is a non-synonymous SNP (T/C within exon 24 of the Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes 2 (SMC2 on Chromosome 8 at position 95,410,507 (UMD3.1. This polymorphism changes amino acid 1135 from phenylalanine to serine and causes a non-neutral, non-tolerated, and evolutionarily unlikely substitution within the NTPase domain of the encoded protein. Because only exome capture sequencing was used, we could not rule out the possibility that the true causative mutation for HH3 might lie in a non-exonic genomic location. Given the essential role of SMC2 in DNA repair, chromosome condensation and segregation during cell division, our findings strongly support the non-synonymous SNP (T/C in SMC2 as the likely causative mutation. The absence of concordant variations for HH2 or BH1 suggests either the underlying causative mutations lie within a non-exomic region or in exome regions not covered by the capture array.

  11. From diminished men to conditionally masculine: sexuality and Australian men and adolescent boys with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Parmenter, Trevor R; Stancliffe, Roger J; Shuttleworth, Russell P

    2013-01-01

    Men and boys with intellectual disability represent a unique group who have hitherto been overlooked by researchers and theorists exploring men and masculinities. Qualitative data from an Australian ethnographic study focused on the sexual health needs of men and adolescent boys with moderate to profound intellectual disability. Findings suggest that masculinity for this group of men is more a biopsychosocial phenomenon than a social construct organised around heteronormative ideals. The conditional masculinity of the men participating in the study was based instead on a number of intrinsic and external factors, which are described in detail.

  12. From men to the media and back again: help-seeking in popular men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstiss, David; Lyons, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Men's help-seeking behaviour for health issues is apparent in advice columns in men's magazines. This study discursively analysed men's help-seeking letters and expert replies within two international and popular men's magazines, Men's Health and For Him Magazine or FHM. Findings showed that the texts reinforced hegemonic ideals. Letters positioning men as self-reliant, independently knowledgeable, stoic and avoiding associations with femininity were positively reinforced in expert replies, while other types of positioning were responded to with condescension or ridicule. Results suggest the policing of boundaries by 'experts' around unacceptable/acceptable enactments of masculinity, which may have implications for if, how and when men seek help from experts. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Motivators and barriers for HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Kristina Ingemarsdotter; Berglund, Torsten; Bergström, Jakob; Eriksson, Lars E; Tikkanen, Ronny; Thorson, Anna; Forsberg, Birger C

    2016-12-01

    To explore motivators and barriers to HIV testing and to assess the factors associated with testing among men who have sex with men. Previous research has considered fear, worries and structural barriers as hindrances to HIV testing among men who have sex with men. However, few studies have included assessments of actual HIV testing when exploring barriers or motivators for such testing. The design of the study was a stratified cross-sectional online survey (n = 2373). Factor analysis was conducted to analyse the barriers and motivators for HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess predictors for HIV testing. Many men who have sex with men test for HIV regularly, and specific reasons for testing were having unprotected sex or starting/ending a relationship. A lack of awareness and a perception of being at low risk for exposure were common reasons for never being tested. Fear and anxiety as well as barriers related to the use of test services remain important hindrances for testing. Predictors associated with having been tested within the past 12 months were: younger age (15-25 years old compared with 47+); knowledge on where to take an HIV test on short notice as well as having talked with a counsellor, having received condoms for free, or having had unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners within the last 12 months. Easily accessible test services offering testing and counselling on short notice should be available for all men who have sex with men. Outreach activities, distribution of free condoms and testing at venues where men who have sex with men meet are important prevention add-ons that can contribute to increased awareness about HIV and testing. Test services must ensure confidentiality and health care professionals who meet men who have sex with men for testing need competency with regards to men who have sex with men sexual health needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A neuroendocrine predisposition for homosexuality in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörner, G; Rohde, W; Stahl, F; Krell, L; Masius, W G

    1975-01-01

    In male rats, androgen deficiency during a critical hypothalamic organizational period was shown to give rise to a predominantly female-differentiated brain, homosexual behavior, and demonstration of a positive estrogen feedback effect. A positive estrogen feedback effect was also induced in intact homosexual men in contrast to intact heterosexual and bisexual men. Thus in 21 homosexual men an intravenous injection of 20 mg Presomen (Premarin) produced a significant decrease of serum LH levels followed by an increase above initial LH values. In 20 heterosexual and in five bisexual men, by contrast, intravenous estrogen administration, while producing a significant decrease of the serum LH level, was not followed by an increase above the initial LH values. Using a radioimmunoassay, plasma testosterone levels and 24-hr urinary excretions of unconjugated testosterone of adult homosexual men were found to be in the normal range as observed in heterosexual men. This finding suggests that homosexual men possess a predominantly female-differentiated brain which may be activated to homosexual behavior by normal or approximately normal androgen levels in adulthood.

  15. Men's and women's reports of pretending orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenhard, Charlene L; Shippee, Sheena K

    2010-11-01

    Research shows that many women pretend or "fake" orgasm, but little is known about whether men pretend orgasm. The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) whether, how, and why men pretend orgasm and (b) what men's and women's reports of pretending orgasm reveal about their sexual scripts and the functions of orgasms within these scripts. Participants were 180 male and 101 female college students; 85% of the men and 68% of the women had experienced penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). Participants completed a qualitative questionnaire anonymously. Both men (25%) and women (50%) reported pretending orgasm (28% and 67%, respectively, for PVI-experienced participants). Most pretended during PVI, but some pretended during oral sex, manual stimulation, and phone sex. Frequently reported reasons were that orgasm was unlikely, they wanted sex to end, and they wanted to avoid negative consequences (e.g., hurting their partner's feelings) and to obtain positive consequences (e.g., pleasing their partner). Results suggest a sexual script in which women should orgasm before men, and men are responsible for women's orgasms.

  16. Men as partners: happenings around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A number of activities are underway in conjunction with AVSC's Men As Partners initiative to increase men's participation in reproductive health. On March 31 and April 1, 10 reproductive health experts from across the US met at AVSC's headquarters in New York to draft a reproductive health model for men. The first model of comprehensive clinical and psychosocial services for men's reproductive health care in the country emerged from the meeting. The model includes screening services; information, education, and counseling services; and clinical diagnosis and treatment. Next steps include developing a training curriculum based upon the model and working with service providers at pilot sites throughout the US to implement the model. Elsewhere, AVSC and the International Planned Parenthood Federation have formed a partnership to work on gender and male involvement activities in Latin America. The Nippon Foundation recently awarded AVSC a grant to work in Pakistan to create, implement, and deliver high-quality men's reproductive health services in 50-60 health centers. Furthermore, AVSC has produced a short video on why clients believe male involvement in reproductive health is important; AVSC is conducting research in three districts in Kenya to identify factors which change men's reproductive health attitudes and behaviors; and AVSC and the Futures Group International are working on a pilot project to market health services to Spanish-speaking men in El Paso, Texas and Juarez, Mexico.

  17. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin's life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childhood, contributed to men's depression above and beyond current (or proximal) stressors, such as substance abuse and health problems, and social resources. The sample consisted of 309 homeless men who had entered a federally funded emergency shelter. Using the Burns Depression Checklist, the authors found that one out of three men met the threshold for moderate to severe depression during the past week. The logistic regression showed that past exposure to parent problems was related to depression after accounting for current stressors and social resources (number of close adult relationships and whether their emotional support needs were met). Past victimization was not related to depression. To address men's depression, workers should concurrently provide services that meet men's basic needs (for example, housing) and address their relationship needs, including their need for emotional support.

  19. Haemophilus parainfluenzae urethritis among homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Meng-Shiuan; Wu, Mei-Yu; Lin, Tsui-Hsien; Liao, Chun-Hsing

    2015-08-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a common inhabitant of the human upper respiratory tract of the normal oral microflora. We report three men who had been having unprotected sex with men (MSM) and subsequently acquired H. parainfluenzae urethritis, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Two men were treated with ceftriaxone and doxycycline, and the third man was treated with clarithromycin. All three patients responded to treatment. This case series highlights the potential role of H. parainfluenzae as a sexually transmitted genitourinary pathogen. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Men learning to be primary school teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, Susan May

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Few men choose to become primary school teachers. Those who do move into a world often thought of as feminised and contend with a publiclyvoiced rhetoric which simultaneously idealises and demonises them. It has not been the norm for women to research men. I am setting out from a different place as a woman and former primary school teacher writing about men doing women's work in what can be seen as a man's world. The problem I am tackling is embedded in two questions. First, how do ...

  1. Osteoporosis in Men with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is more common in women than in men. The prevalence in men is not defined yet; however it is becoming much more recognized as its prevalence and impact have become explicable. It is estimated that around 1% of bone mineral density is lost in men every year. Studies show that secondary osteoporosis is the major cause thus, making it important to define the disorders associated with male osteoporosis. Diabetes is a risk factor for bone fractures. In male patients with diabetes measures should be undertaken such as encouraging exercise, assuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and treating diabetic complications.

  2. Utilization of dating apps by men who have sex with men for persuading other men toward substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Boonchutima S; Kongchan W

    2017-01-01

    Smith Boonchutima, Watsayut Kongchan Department of Public Relations, Faculty of Communication Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex. Besides finding a partner, these tools are also exploited for other activities such as encouraging people to get involved in the habit of illicit drug consumption (substance use). Methods: This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps a...

  3. Men's Sheds function and philosophy: towards a framework for future research and men's health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Doma, Kenji; Misan, Gary; Vaz, Sharmila

    2015-08-01

    The Men's Shed movement supports a range of men's health promotion initiatives. This paper examines whether a Men's Shed typology could inform future research and enable more efficient and targeted health promotion activities through Men's Sheds. The International Men's Shed Survey consisted of a cross-sectional exploration of sheds, their members, and health and social activities. Survey data about shed 'function' and 'philosophy' were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A framework of Men's Sheds based on function and philosophy demonstrated that most sheds serve a primary utility function, a secondary social function, but most importantly a primary social opportunity philosophy. Sheds with a primary health philosophy participated in fewer health promotion activities when compared with sheds without a primary health philosophy. In addition to the uniform health promotion resources distributed by the Men's Shed associations, specific health promotion activities, such as prostate education, are being initiated from an individual shed level. This framework can potentially be used to enable future research and health promotion activities to be more efficiently and effectively targeted. SO WHAT? Men experience poorer health and well being outcomes than women. This framework offers a novel approach to providing targeted health promotion activities to men in an environment where it is okay to talk about men's health.

  4. Sexual Stereotypes Ascribed to Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Intersectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kershaw, Trace S; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2018-01-01

    Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.

  5. Fracture risk and zoledronic acid therapy in men with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Steven; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Fractures in men are a major health issue, and data on the antifracture efficacy of therapies for osteoporosis in men are limited. We studied the effect of zoledronic acid on fracture risk among men with osteoporosis.......Fractures in men are a major health issue, and data on the antifracture efficacy of therapies for osteoporosis in men are limited. We studied the effect of zoledronic acid on fracture risk among men with osteoporosis....

  6. Black Men and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.

  7. Narratives of newly circumcised men in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    public space where female health providers can participate, even for men coming from ... United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended ..... keep male circumcision a secret or out of females' purview is beyond the ...

  8. Who will resettle single Syrian men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resettlement programmes for Syrian refugees severely restrict access to resettlement for single Syrian men, despite the conditions of vulnerability, insecurity and danger in which they live.

  9. Keeping Active and Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... training recreational swimming jogging fast-paced sports, like football Tips for Getting Fit Visit the "ChooseMyPlate" website ... men over age 40 and those with a history of coronary heart disease or diabetes, should speak ...

  10. Nastojashtshih hristjan nelzja prinudit / Aleksandr Men

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Men, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    Osa Aleksander Men'i poolt ettevalmistatud Piibli-teemalisest sõnastikust : m ja n täht : vabamüürlus ja Piibel, Dmitri Merezkovski, Methodios, mormoonide Piibli-tõlgendus, Nikolai Morozov, mittekristlikud tunnistused Kristusest

  11. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L

    2004-01-01

    , and calculated free T index (cFT) were compared between the two groups.A shift toward lower serum T levels, cFT, and T/LH ratio and higher serum LH, E(2), and E(2)/T levels was observed in the group of infertile men. On average, the infertile men had 18, 26, and 34% lower serum T, cFT, and T/LH levels...

  12. Masculinity and health in late life men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Frank, Blye

    2011-05-01

    Masculinity is a social construction that defines itself according to context. Older men constitute an unseen minority when it comes to their health, and thus the study of masculinity as it relates to health in older men requires deeper understanding. This article offers insights into how gender, health, and ageing interact for older men and explores how men negotiate the concept of masculinity in later life. The findings from two complementary studies are presented and discussed. The first study, a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions held with 48 community-dwelling older men, indicates that the desire to uphold hegemonic ideals of independence, self-reliance, and imperviousness to pain and illness are embedded in older men's health-related beliefs and behaviors. Ill health and help seeking are often perceived as a threat to the masculine identity, and taking action for health is considered only when health status jeopardizes independence. In the second study, more than 2,000 men aged 55 to 97 years responded to a postal survey on health behaviors and masculinity. Results of the survey indicated that age predicts health behaviors and health care seeking better than scores on a masculinity index, which tended to remain stable regardless of age. Both the qualitative and quantitative findings support the hypothesis that with age men will succeed in incorporating actions into their daily lives in a way that does not conflict with their perceived resilience to frailty and weakness, even if such actions involve seeking help for illness or adopting healthier lifestyle behaviors.

  13. Infectious Urethritis in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Edwin M.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and recurrent infectious urethritis in men and women is commonly seen by physicians. Since specific therapy varies widely with the type of urethritis present, the proper diagnosis must be clearly established if curative drug therapy is to be selected. It is valuable, therefore, to review the diagnosis and therapy of the various forms of infectious urethritis that are recognized today in both men and women. PMID:1199099

  14. Men with broken condoms: who and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, R A; Yarber, W L; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; McBride, K; Milhausen, R R; Arno, J N

    2007-02-01

    To identify (1) the prevalence of condom breakage, and demographic and sexuality-related differences among young men who have sex with women reporting and not reporting this event; (2) condom-specific behaviours associated with breakage. Young men (n = 278) attending a clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) responded to an anonymous questionnaire aided by a CD recording of the questions. The samples were screened to include only men who had used a condom during penile-vaginal sex at least three times in the past 3 months. Condom-specific behaviours (including breakage) were assessed using these last three acts of condom use as the recall period. Correlates achieving bivariate significance were subjected to multivariate analysis. Nearly one third (31.3%) of the men reported recent breakage. The breakage rate was 15%. Three correlates significantly distinguished between men who did and did not report breakage. Men who had past STIs were more likely to report breakage (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.08), as were men who also reported condom slippage (AOR 2.72). Less self-efficacy for correct condom use was also significantly associated with breakage (AOR 1.07). Further, three condom-specific behaviours were significantly associated with breakage: allowing condoms to contact sharp objects (AOR 2.6), experiencing problems with the "fit or feel" of condoms (AOR 2.3) and not squeezing air from the receptacle tip (AOR 2.0). Breakage may be common and may occur in a larger context of difficulties with condoms. STI clinics could potentially benefit some men by providing instructions on the correct use of condoms.

  15. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or w...

  16. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leutner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women. Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT. Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI.

  17. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  18. Distal Stressors and Depression among Homeless Men

    OpenAIRE

    Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common problem among homeless men that may interfere with functional tasks, such as securing stable housing, obtaining employment, and accessing health services. Previous research on depression among homeless men has largely focused on current psychosocial resources, substance abuse, and past victimization. Guided by Ensel and Lin’s life course stress process model, the authors examined whether distal stressors, including victimization and exposure to parent problems in childh...

  19. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The men who stare at science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    The men who stare at goats cannot kill goats just by thinking about it. History (the book and the movie) has taught us so. Ultimately, the finishing job has to be performed physically by people, preferably skilled in the act.......The men who stare at goats cannot kill goats just by thinking about it. History (the book and the movie) has taught us so. Ultimately, the finishing job has to be performed physically by people, preferably skilled in the act....

  1. Risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Meyerson, Beth; Aalsma, Matthew; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women have important implications for HIV and STI transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women across China. Methods Participants were recruited through three men who have sex with men-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Men who have sex with both men and women were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to men who have sex with men. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women were similar. Among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women. Conclusions Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours. PMID:26185041

  2. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  3. Working Men's Constructions of Visiting the Doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R; Backus Dagirmanjian, Faedra R

    2018-05-01

    To understand influences on medical help seeking in men from traditionally masculine occupations, semistructured interviews with 12 men employed in manual and industrial labor were conducted. The semistructured interview format explored participant men's understanding and experiences of annual exams and medical help seeking, their own and others' reactions to seeking medical help, and influences on their own care and understanding of what it means to seek medical care. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, five domains emerged: Social norms around medical care, managing threat, getting medical help is gendered, work-related influences, and pragmatic contributors to medical help seeking. Results extended the literature by situating men's understanding of physician visits within a gendered and social context, and highlighting the influence of work and coworkers, where messages are often contradictory and inconsistent about medical help seeking. Future research should examine additional contextual factors influencing men's attitudes toward seeking health care, including race, culture, and sexual orientation, as well as seek to develop and evaluate interventions that promote men's utilization of medical services.

  4. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  5. Osteoporosis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Greenspan, S.L.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Crowley, W.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the effect of testosterone deficiency on skeletal integrity in men, we determined bone density in 23 hypogonadal men with isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency and compared those values with ones from controls. Cortical bone density, as assessed by single-photon absorptiometry of the nondominant radius, ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 g/cm2 (mean +/- SE, 0.71 +/- 0.02) in patients with fused epiphyses and from 0.57 to 0.67 g/cm2 (mean, 0.61 +/- 0.01) in patients with open epiphyses, both of which were significantly (p less than 0.001) lower than normal. Spinal trabecular bone density, as assessed by computed tomography, was similarly decreased (p less than 0.0001) and ranged from 42 to 177 mg K2HPO4/cm3 (mean, 112 +/- 7). Cortical bone density was at least 2 SD below normal in 16 of 23 men, and 8 men had spinal bone densities below the fracture threshold of 80 to 100 mg K2HPO4/cm3. Osteopenia was equally severe in men with immature and mature bone ages, suggesting that abnormal bone development plays an important role in the osteopenia of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

  6. "Macho men" and preventive health care: implications for older men in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M

    2011-06-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.

  7. Physical activity and masculinity in rural men: a qualitative study of men recruited from churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Leslie R; Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M; Paulsey, Ellen; Molina, Yamile; Wilbur, JoEllen; Geller, Stacie E

    2018-04-01

    The majority of rural US men fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and are at risk for chronic diseases. This study sought to understand rural men's perceptions about PA and PA engagement and the influence of masculinity and social norms. From 2011 to 2014, 12 focus groups were conducted with men prior to a church-based health promotion intervention. Men were recruited from Illinois' rural, southernmost seven counties, where 40% of men report no exercise in the past 30 days. We used inductive content analysis methods to identify PA-related themes, and subsequently used elements of the Health, Illness, Men, and Masculinities framework as a lens to explore subthemes. We identified four themes: (i) knowledge of the positive impact of PA on health, (ii) perceptions of appropriate types of PA for men, (iii) the importance of purposeful PA and (iv) the desire to remain strong and active, particularly during aging. These findings can inform strategies for messaging and interventions to promote PA among rural men. Health promotion efforts should consider the intersections between rurality and masculinity as it relates to rural men's perceptions of PA, include information about purposeful PA and encourage them to engage in PA with a support person.

  8. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  9. Loss of Hip BMD in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ewing, Susan K.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men ≥65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression ...

  10. "You're in that realm of unpredictability": mateship, loyalty, and men challenging men who use domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Alison J; Terry, Gareth

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on discourse analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions held with 28 "ordinary" men about domestic violence. Two broad "mateship" themes emerged: (a) a strong "mateship" discourse that produced public/private boundaries around discussions about intimate heterosexual relationships. Policed by the threat of violence, these boundaries prevented some men from challenging men about their violence. (b) "Loyalty to mates" discourses constituted attention to men's violence against women as threatening the moral integrity of all men. Finally, some men positioned themselves against men's domestic violence, distinguishing their masculinity from men who abuse women. Implications for prevention campaigns are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Injury, Interiority, and Isolation in Men's Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Creighton, Genevieve; Robertson, Steve; Broom, Alex; Jenkins, Emily K; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Ferlatte, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Men's high suicide rates have been linked to individual risk factors including history of being abused as a child, single marital status, and financial difficulties. While it has also been suggested that the normative influences of hegemonic masculinities are implicated in men's suicide, the gendered experiences of male suicidality are poorly understood. In the current photovoice study, 20 men who previously had suicidal thoughts, plans, and/or attempts were interviewed as a means to better understanding the connections between masculinities and their experiences of suicidality. The study findings revealed injury, interiority, and isolation as interconnected themes characterizing men's suicidality. Injury comprised an array of childhood and/or cumulative traumas that fueled men's ruminating thoughts inhibiting recovery and limiting hopes for improved life quality. In attempting to blunt these traumas, many men described self-injuring through the overuse of alcohol and other drugs. The interiority theme revealed how suicidal thoughts can fuel hopelessness amid summonsing remedies from within. The challenges to self-manage, especially when experiencing muddled thinking and negative thought were evident, and led some participants to summons exterior resources to counter suicidality. Isolation included separateness from others, and was linked to abandonment issues and not having a job and/or partner. Self-isolating also featured as a protection strategy to avoid troubling others and/or reducing exposure to additional noxious stimuli. The study findings suggest multiple intervention points and strategies, the majority of which are premised on promoting men's social connectedness. The destigmatizing value of photovoice methods is also discussed.

  12. Men, Masculinities, and Murder-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E; Drummond, Murray; Sta Maria, Estephanie; Bottorff, Joan L; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-11-01

    Murder-suicide (M-S) is a complex phenomenon that can involve a multifaceted set of interrelated biological and social factors. M-S is also sexed and gendered in that the perpetrators are most often male and their underpinning motives and actions link to masculinities in an array of diverse ways. With the overarching goal to describe connections between men, masculinities, and M-S, 296 newspaper articles describing 45 North American M-S cases were analyzed. The inductively derived findings revealed three themes: (a) domestic desperation, (b) workplace justice, and (c) school retaliation. Cases in the domestic desperation theme were characterized by the murder of a family member(s) and were often underpinned by men's self-perceptions of failing to provide economic security. Workplace justice cases emerged from men's grievances around paid-work, job insecurity, and perceptions of being bullied and/or marginalized by coworkers or supervisors. The school retaliation cases were strongly linked to "pay back" against individuals and/or society for the hardships endured by M-S perpetrators. Prevailing across the three themes was men's loss of control in their lives, hopelessness, and marginalized masculine identities. Also evident were men's alignments to hegemonic masculinities in reasserting one's masculine self by protesting the perceived marginalization invoked on them. Overall, the findings give pause to consider the need for men-centered M-S prevention strategies to quell the catastrophic impacts of this long-standing but understudied men's health issue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. [Psychodynamic hypothesis about suicidality in elderly men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Reinhard

    2010-08-01

    Old men are overrepresented in the whole of all suicides. In contrast, only very few elderly men find their way to specialised treatment facilities. Elderly accept psychotherapy more rarely than younger persons. Therefore presentations on the psychodynamics of suicidality in old men are rare and mostly casuistical. By means of a stepwise reconstructable qualitative case comparison of five randomly chosen elderly suicidal men with ideal types of suicidal (younger) men concerning biography, suicidal symptoms and transference, psychodynamic hypothesis of suicidality in elderly men are developed. All patients came into psychotherapy in a specialised academic out-patient clinic for psychodynamic treatment of acute and chronic suicidality. The five elderly suicidal men predominantly were living in long-term, conflictuous sexual relationships and also had ambivalent relationships to their children. Suicidality in old age refers to lifelong existing intrapsychic conflicts, concerning (male) identity, self-esteem and a core conflict between fusion and separation wishes. The body gets a central role in suicidal experiences, being a defensive instance modified by age and/or physical illness, which brings up to consciousness aggressive and envious impulses, but also feelings of emptiness and insecurity, which have to be warded off again by projection into the body. In transference relationships there are on the one hand the regular transference, on the other hand an age specific turned around transference, with their counter transference reactions. The chosen methodological approach serves the systematic finding of hypotheses with a higher degree in evidence than hypotheses generated from single case studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

  14. Four main virotypes among extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing isolates of Escherichia coli O25b:H4-B2-ST131: bacterial, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jorge; Mora, Azucena; Mamani, Rosalia; López, Cecilia; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Herrera, Alexandra; Marzoa, Juan; Fernández, Val; de la Cruz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Alonso, María Pilar; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; López-Cerero, Lorena; Pascual, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2013-10-01

    A total of 1,021 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC) isolates obtained in 2006 during a Spanish national survey conducted in 44 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 (sequence type 131) clonal group. Overall, 195 (19%) O25b-ST131 isolates were detected, with prevalence rates ranging from 0% to 52% per hospital. Molecular characterization of 130 representative O25b-ST131 isolates showed that 96 (74%) were positive for CTX-M-15, 15 (12%) for CTX-M-14, 9 (7%) for SHV-12, 6 (5%) for CTX-M-9, 5 (4%) for CTX-M-32, and 1 (0.7%) each for CTX-M-3 and the new ESBL enzyme CTX-M-103. The 130 O25b-ST131 isolates exhibited relatively high virulence scores (mean, 14.4 virulence genes). Although the virulence profiles of the O25b-ST131 isolates were fairly homogeneous, they could be classified into four main virotypes based on the presence or absence of four distinctive virulence genes: virotypes A (22%) (afa FM955459 positive, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), B (31%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive, ibeA negative, sat positive or negative), C (32%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN negative, ibeA negative, sat positive), and D (13%) (afa FM955459 negative, iroN positive or negative, ibeA positive, sat positive or negative). The four virotypes were also identified in other countries, with virotype C being overrepresented internationally. Correspondingly, an analysis of XbaI macrorestriction profiles revealed four major clusters, which were largely virotype specific. Certain epidemiological and clinical features corresponded with the virotype. Statistically significant virotype-specific associations included, for virotype B, older age and a lower frequency of infection (versus colonization), for virotype C, a higher frequency of infection, and for virotype D, younger age and community-acquired infections. In isolates of the O25b:H4-B2-ST131 clonal group, these findings uniquely define four main

  15. Fertility assessment in thalassemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility in β-thalassemia patients is typically considered to be the consequence of iron deposition in the endocrine glands. Adult male patients with β-thalassemia, on regular blood transfusions, are prone to developing acquired hypogonadism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility indicators in male patients with β-thalassemia major and intermedia. In this study we evaluated testicular volume, semen parameters and serum FSH, LH, and Testosterone concentrations in 62 male patients in reproductive age, with major and intermedia thalassemia, at a tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. The range of serum ferritin level in our patients was from 182 to 11053 ng/mL (mean 2067 ng/mL. The mean concentration of sperm was 61.04 million per milliliter. The mean volume of right and left testes was 11.4 cc and 11.7 cc, respectively. Those patients who had lower testicular volumes significantly had lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.04. The frequency of hypogonadism was significantly higher in patients whose testicular volume was lower (P=0.02. Hypogonadism and hypothyroidism were seen in 22.6% and 17.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with hypogonadism had significantly lower ejaculate volume, lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and progressively motile sperms and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.001. This study suggests that in thalassemic men, concentrations of serum testosterone, LH, FSH has significant correlation with sperm parameters and testicular volume.   β地中海贫血患者中的男性不育症通常被认为是内分泌腺中铁沉积的结果。成年男性β地中海贫血患者在常规输血时易发生获得性性腺功能减退。本研究旨在评估男性重型和中间型β地中海贫血患者的生育指标。在本研究中,我们在伊朗德黑兰的一家三级保健医院对62名处于

  16. Thai men's health and sexual attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkanand, Apichat; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2011-07-01

    Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexual attitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexual attitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand.

  17. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  18. Reduced fertility among overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmén, Markku; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A; Blair, Aaron; Baird, Donna Day

    2006-09-01

    Overweight and obese men have been reported to have lower sperm counts and hormonal changes, but data are lacking regarding effects on couple fertility. We examined the relationship between male body mass index (BMI) and infertility in couples enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in the United States. The analysis sample was limited to couples (wife conceiving a pregnancy after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse regardless of whether or not a pregnancy ultimately occurred. Self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI (kg/m). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for infertility associated with increases in male BMI were calculated with logistic regression. Adjusting for potential confounders, a 3-unit increase in male BMI was associated with infertility (aOR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.25; n = 1329). There was a dose-response relationship, and the BMI effect was stronger when the data were limited to couples with the highest-quality infertility data. The association between BMI and infertility was similar for older and younger men, suggesting that erectile dysfunction in older men does not explain the association. This report of lower fertility in overweight and obese men needs replication. If the findings are robust, programs to prevent obesity may improve men's reproductive health and save medical costs for infertility treatment.

  19. Men student nurses: the nursing education experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadus, Robert J; Twomey, J Creina

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of being a male in a predominately female-concentrated undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program. Men remain a minority within the nursing profession. Nursing scholars have recommended that the profile of nursing needs to change to meet the diversity of the changing population, and the shortfall of the worldwide nursing shortage. However, efforts by nursing schools and other stakeholders have been conservative toward recruitment of men. Using Giorgi's method, 27 students from a collaborative nursing program took part in this qualitative, phenomenological study. Focus groups were undertaken to gather data and to develop descriptions of the experience. Five themes highlighted men students' experience of being in a university nursing program: choosing nursing, becoming a nurse, caring within the nursing role, gender-based stereotypes, and visible/invisible. The experiences of the students revealed issues related to gender bias in nursing education, practice areas, and societal perceptions that nursing is not a suitable career choice for men. Implications for nurse educators and strategies for the recruitment and retention of men nursing students are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Contraceptive awareness among men in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Padmadas, Sabu S; Smith, Peter W F

    2006-04-01

    A considerable gap exists between contraceptive awareness and use. Traditional approaches to measuring awareness are inadequate to properly understand the linkages between awareness and use. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of men's modern contraceptive awareness in Bangladesh and the associated determinants and further testing of a hypothesis that current contraceptive use confers a high degree of method awareness. This study used the couple data set from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (1999-2000). A two-level, multinomial logistic regression was used with the degree of contraceptive awareness as the dependent variable. The degree of awareness was measured by the reported number of modern contraceptive methods known among men aged 15-59 years. Men's responses on method awareness were classified according to those reported spontaneously and probed. Nearly 100% of the study participants reported having heard of at least one method and about half reported awareness of at least eight different methods of contraception. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that older and educated men were more likely to have reported a high degree of awareness. The findings confirmed our hypothesis that current contraceptive use is likely to confer a high degree of modern method awareness among men (pknowledge of contraceptive methods to improve the uptake of especially male-based modern methods.

  1. Depression, substance abuse and stigma among men who have sex with men in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secor, Andrew M.; Wahome, Elizabeth; Micheni, Murugi; Rao, Deepa; Simoni, Jane M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental health conditions can erode quality of life and interfere with health-related behaviours such as medication adherence. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression and other psychosocial factors among self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in coastal Kenya. A

  2. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  3. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  4. Methamphetamine Treatment Issues and Considerations among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but treatment has lagged for this group. The author reviews literature concerning use, individual effects of the drug, and treatment for MSM and discusses implications for counselor training, future practice, and research.

  5. "Bareback" pornography consumption and safe-sex intentions of men having sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, K.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Vastenburg, D.; de Groot, P.

    2014-01-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) commonly consume "bareback" pornography, which includes scenes of unprotected anal intercourse. Prior research on human imitative behavior suggests that these media might counteract efforts to promote safe-sex behaviors. To date, no studies have demonstrated a causal

  6. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  7. Correlates of unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrón-Limón Sergio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Mexico, data on current risk behaviors in this population are lacking. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI in a sample of 260 MSM in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In June 2010, men attending a gay pride celebration were invited to complete a sexual risk survey. Men who reported UAI with a male partner in the past year were compared with men who reported only protected anal sex during the same period. Results Mean age of participants was 29.7; 54% had a high school diploma or less; and 43% were unemployed. In the past year, 55% had been tested for HIV, 21% reported using illicit drugs before or during sex, and 94% had sex only with men. Overall, 50% reported having UAI with another male in the past year. Factors independently associated with UAI in the past year were unemployment (AOR = 1.87, attending adult movie theaters (AOR = 2.21, using illicit drugs before or during sex (AOR = 2.43, and not having a recent HIV test (AOR = 1.85. Conclusions Interventions to promote HIV testing and condom use among men who have sex with men may want to consider venue-specific approaches, as well as focus on drug-use issues in the context of unsafe sex.

  8. HIV prevention needs for men who have sex with men in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed ...

  9. HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Marrero-Guillamon, Isaac; Llewellyn, Alexis; Aggleton, Peter; Cooper, Chris; Lehmann, Angela; Lindsay, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence relating to the views and attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) concerning testing for HIV. Studies conducted in high-income countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members) since 1996 were included. Seventeen studies were identified, most of gay or bisexual…

  10. Strengthening HIV health care services for men who have sex with men in coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes work with Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) who are highly stigmatized and discriminated against in society, and have not been targeted in HIV prevention programming until recently. Initial work included a size estimation of MSM who sell sex in coastal Kenya in 2006, and a

  11. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  12. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  13. Men in the Mirror: The Role of Men's Body Shame in Sexual Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Kris; Rudman, Laurie A

    2014-08-01

    Because research on body shame has predominantly focused on women, the consequences of male body shame for gender relations have been under-investigated. Following up on preliminary findings suggesting that men high on body shame were hostile toward women, in two experiments, we uniquely observed that body shame predisposes men to sexual aggression when they react negatively to masculinity threats. In Experiment 1, men rejected by a female confederate for being unattractive showed rape proclivity to the extent they were high on both body shame and post-rejection negative affect. In Experiment 2, the same pattern emerged on the part of men rejected by a female (but not a male) confederate for ostensibly being gay. In concert, the findings suggest that men's body shame is an overlooked factor in sexual aggression, which has implications for extant rape theories and precarious manhood theory. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  15. Why do men choose to become pedagogues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results from a study on reasons for choosing social education for a profession when you are a man. The study concluded that multiple job opportunities and caring for others is a strong motive for men along with possible further studies. The study also disclosed that many...... is one thing, recruiting men to ECE work is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECE hold very strong gender-associated expectations....... men still encounter incomprehension when stating their choice of career. The study is actualised by five new projects supported by the Ministry of Children, Gender Equality, Integration and Social Affairs (MBLIS). These five projects are engaged to seek new ways within attraction and recruitment...

  16. Kinematics gait disorder in men with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose M; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the kinematics disorder of gait in men with fibromyalgia. We studied 12 male with fibromyalgia and 14 healthy men. Each participant of the study walked five trials along a 18.6-m walkway. Fibromyalgia patients completed a Spanish version of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Significant differences between fibromyalgia and control groups were found in velocity, stride length, and cadence. Gait parameters of men affected by fibromyalgia were impaired when compared to those of healthy group due to bradykinesia. According to previous studies to assess gait variables in female patients, the male with fibromyalgia also showed lower values of velocity, cadence, and stride length than healthy group but not reported significant differences in swing, stance, single, or double support phase.

  17. Breast Cancer in Men. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianarelys Villafuerte Delgado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in men is a rare and infrequent disease, which occurs in a very small proportion with respect to different types of cancers. Such entity is the 0.2 to 1.5 % of all malignant tumors in men. Imaging studies have a very precise diagnostic value in these entities. It is presented the case of a male patient with apparent healthy history who comes the consultation due to palpating a "ball" in the left breast, this patient went to the Imaging Department for conducting a mammography as well performing a study with oblique craniocaudal views and a middle lateral of both nipples. Breast ultrasonography showed a nodular, homogeneous image. It was made a referral to multidiscipline breast consultation with surgical possibilities for the tumor. Due to the infrequent appearance of this entity in men, it is decided to make this case report.

  18. 'To put men in a bottle'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of eroticism, kinship and gender in transactional sexual relationships between young women called curtidoras and older white men in Maputo. I draw on postcolonial feminism to argue that curtidoras’ erotic powers are a central part of sexual-economic exchanges with men...... and that senior female kin are deeply involved in processes of seduction and extraction of money. Relationships between curtidoras, female kin and male partners are conceptualized as “gendered triads of reciprocity" in order to unsettle Western stereotypes of female victims and patriarchal structures in Africa....... Transactional sex often makes the partners mutually dependent and emotionally vulnerable and although moralities of exchange collide, young women tend to redistribute accumulated money from men among female seniors and kin....

  19. Consequences of Fatherhood for Young Men's Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Taillade, Jaslean J; Hofferth, Sandra; Wight, Vanessa R

    2010-04-01

    This paper examined how the onset and timing of the transition to fatherhood affects the type and quality of young men's relationships with partners and parents. Data are drawn from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Survey and included young men (ages 18-31 years old in 2006) who varied on residential status with their children and timing of fatherhood (N = 1,931). Results indicated the effects of fatherhood varied across types of fathers, with residential fathers more likely to be in a committed but less satisfactory relationship regardless of timing of fatherhood. Nonresidential fathers were more likely to have close relationships with their mothers and fathers, but findings varied by timing of fatherhood and gender of parent. Implications of these findings are framed in terms of young men's developmental readiness for multiple demands of first-time fatherhood.

  20. BH3-only protein Bim is associated with the degree of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and is localized to the mitochondria of inflammatory cells in the gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yuko; Matsuda, Katsuya; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kido, Yoko; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Moss, Joel; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    BH3-only protein, Bim, is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates mitochondria-dependent cell death. However, the role of Bim in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the cellular localization of Bim and its possible role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. The study was conducted on biopsy specimens obtained from 80 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (H. pylori-negative: n=30, positive: n=50). Association between Bim mRNA expression and severity of gastritis was evaluated and the localization of Bim was examined by immunofluorescence. Bim mRNA expression was positively correlated with the degree of gastritis, as defined by the Sydney system. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased Bim expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa compared with uninfected mucosa in both humans and mice. Bim localized in myeloperoxidase- and CD138-positive cells of H. pylori-infected lamina propria and submucosa of the gastric tract, indicating that this protein is predominantly expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells. In contrast, Bim did not localize in CD20-, CD3-, or CD68-positive cells. Bim was expressed in the mitochondria, where it was partially co-localized with activated Bax and cleaved-PARP. In conclusion, Bim is expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it may participate in the termination of inflammatory response by causing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in specific leucocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  2. PAPILLOMA VIRAL INFECTION AMONG BOYS AND YOUNG MEN PRIMARY PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Galitskaya; M.I. Ivardava

    2009-01-01

    Young sexually active men may have anogenital HPV related infection, which can cause the genital penis verruca, penis cancer, perianal and anal cancer. Besides, men's HPV infection may cause an infection and subsequent diseases of cervix of the uterus and other organs among women. The available opportunity to inoculate boys and young men against HPV infection provides for 100% guaranteed protection from severe diseases not only for boys and young men but also for girls and women, who men may ...

  3. Are men well served by family planning programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of progra...

  4. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... of statistical sources on men's practices in the ten countries, are presented. This is the second of four articles reviewing critical studies on men in the ten countries through different methods and approaches....

  5. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  6. Utilization of dating apps by men who have sex with men for persuading other men toward substance use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kongchan, Watsayut

    2017-01-01

    Background Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex. Besides finding a partner, these tools are also exploited for other activities such as encouraging people to get involved in the habit of illicit drug consumption (substance use). Methods This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps among Thai men who have sex with men (MSMs), with an emphasis on abusing these apps to convey messages encouraging substance use. A well-structured Survey Monkey questionnaire posted on specialized websites and social sites used by MSMs was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using regression and correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between variables. Results A substantial proportion (73%) of the Thai MSM community is using dating apps to find their partners as well as for inviting others into illicit drug practice. Unfortunately, persuasion through dating significantly influenced people toward accepting a substance use invitation, with a 77% invitation success rate. Substance use was also linked with unprotected sex, potentially enhancing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Dating apps significantly increased motivational substance use through messaging from their counterparts. One of the major concerns revealed in this study is that Thai MSMs who reported being involved in substance use also reported avoiding use of condoms during intercourse. PMID:28138269

  7. Utilization of dating apps by men who have sex with men for persuading other men toward substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonchutima S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smith Boonchutima, Watsayut Kongchan Department of Public Relations, Faculty of Communication Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex. Besides finding a partner, these tools are also exploited for other activities such as encouraging people to get involved in the habit of illicit drug consumption (substance use. Methods: This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps among Thai men who have sex with men (MSMs, with an emphasis on abusing these apps to convey messages encouraging substance use. A well-structured Survey Monkey questionnaire posted on specialized websites and social sites used by MSMs was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using regression and correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between variables. Results: A substantial proportion (73% of the Thai MSM community is using dating apps to find their partners as well as for inviting others into illicit drug practice. Unfortunately, persuasion through dating significantly influenced people toward accepting a substance use invitation, with a 77% invitation success rate. Substance use was also linked with unprotected sex, potentially enhancing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion: Dating apps significantly increased motivational substance use through messaging from their counterparts. One of the major concerns revealed in this study is that Thai MSMs who reported being involved in substance use also reported avoiding use of condoms during intercourse. Keywords: homosexual, mobile apps, social media, substance, Thailand

  8. Engaging Men in Family Planning: Perspectives From Married Men in Lomé, Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Tekou B; Weidert, Karen; Ouro Bitasse, Erakalaza; Mensah, Marthe Adjoko E; Emina, Jacques; Mensah, Sheila; Bongiovanni, Annette; Prata, Ndola

    2018-05-09

    Family planning programs have made vast progress in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa in the last decade, but francophone West Africa is still lagging behind. More emphasis on male engagement might result in better outcomes, especially in countries with strong patriarchal societies. Few studies in francophone West Africa have examined attitudes of male involvement in family planning from the perspective of men themselves, yet this evidence is necessary for development of successful family planning projects that include men. This qualitative study, conducted in 2016, explored attitudes of 72 married men ages 18-54 through 6 focus groups in the capital of Togo, Lomé. Participants included professional workers as well as skilled and unskilled workers. Results indicate that men have specific views on family planning based on their knowledge and understanding of how and why women might use contraception. While some men did have reservations, both founded and not, there was an overwhelmingly positive response to discussing family planning and being engaged with related decisions and services. Four key findings from the analyses of focus group responses were: (1) socioeconomic motivations drive men's interest in family planning; (2) men strongly disapprove of unilateral decisions by women to use family planning; (3) misconceptions surrounding modern methods can hinder support for family planning; and (4) limited method choice for men, insufficient venues to receive services, and few messages that target men create barriers for male engagement in family planning. Future attempts to engage men in family planning programs should pay specific attention to men's concerns, misconceptions, and their roles in family decision making. Interventions should educate men on the socioeconomic and health benefits of family planning while explaining the possible side effects and dispelling myths. To help build trust and facilitate open communication, family planning programs that

  9. Are men well served by family planning programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Gay, Jill

    2017-01-23

    Although the range of contraceptives includes methods for men, namely condoms, vasectomy and withdrawal that men use directly, and the Standard Days Method (SDM) that requires their participation, family planning programming has primarily focused on women. What is known about reaching men as contraceptive users? This paper draws from a review of 47 interventions that reached men and proposes 10 key considerations for strengthening programming for men as contraceptive users. A review of programming shows that men and boys are not particularly well served by programs. Most programs operate from the perspective that women are contraceptive users and that men should support their partners, with insufficient attention to reaching men as contraceptive users in their own right. The notion that family planning is women's business only is outdated. There is sufficient evidence demonstrating men's desire for information and services, as well as men's positive response to existing programming to warrant further programming for men as FP users. The key considerations focus on getting information and services where men and boys need it; addressing gender norms that affect men's attitudes and use while respecting women's autonomy; reaching adolescent boys; including men as users in policies and guidelines; scaling up successful programming; filling gaps with implementation research and monitoring & evaluation; and creating more contraceptive options for men.

  10. Endurance- and Resistance-Trained Men Exhibit Lower Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Than Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Urner, Maren; Pruessner, Jens C; Quirin, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical exercise reduces physiological reactivity to psychosocial stress. However, previous research mainly focused on the effect of endurance exercise, with only a few studies looking at the effect of resistance exercise. The current study tested whether individuals who regularly participate in either endurance or resistance training differ from untrained individuals in adrenal and cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress. Twelve endurance-trained men, 10 resistance-trained men, and 12 healthy but untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Measurements of heart rate, free salivary cortisol levels, and mood were obtained throughout the test and compared among the three groups. Overall, both endurance- and resistance-trained men had lower heart rate levels than untrained men, indicating higher cardiac performance of the trained groups. Trained men also exhibited lower heart rate responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men. There were no significant group differences in either cortisol responses or mood responses to the stressor. The heart rate results are consistent with previous studies indicating reduced cardiovascular reactivity to psychosocial stress in trained individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance and resistance trainings may be related to the same cardiovascular benefits, without exhibiting strong effects on the cortisol reactivity to stress.

  11. Men Who Stop Caring: The Exit of Men from Caring Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenn Warming

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, initiatives have been taken to attract more men into caring occupations. However, there has been much less focus on retaining these new male workers. This article builds on qualitative interviews with 11 Danish men who after working in the caring sector decided to leave for other occupations. A factor often presented as influential for the men’s exit concerns the social working environment. In the interviews, the men discuss the pressure to assimilate to the existing and established female-dominated culture. They feel excluded and socially isolated. Several of them have been directly criticized or disqualified as not being “real” men by their female colleagues. As a result of a growing bureaucratic demand for control and registration of work procedures, several men feel that they do not have adequate resources and time to provide the level of care that is needed. They become disillusioned and frustrated and choose to seek employment elsewhere. Some men cannot come to terms with close physical contact and “smells,” for example, changing diapers on infants or bathing old people. They cannot handle the thought of having their intentions misinterpreted, for example, when playing and being physical with children, and being potentially seen as sexually abhorrent. Finally, some men never intended to remain permanently in caring occupations. Their exit is driven by an ambition to pursue a career in another field or at what they view as a more challenging career level.

  12. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  13. Der er fuld religionsfrihed i Danmark, men..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer en rapport, udgivet af FN's special rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief, Heiner Bielefeldt. Rapporten vedrører Danmark. Analysen tilslutter sig rapporten på de fleste punkter, men kritiserer begrebet 'blød diskrimination'; kritiserer at rapporten ikke er gået tættere på...

  14. Gender inequality: Bad for men's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morna Cornell

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men’s increased risk of death in ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is widely reported but poorly understood. Some studies have attributed this risk to men’s poorer health-seeking behaviour, which may prevent them from accessing ART, being adherent to treatment, or remaining in care. In a multicentre analysis of 46 201 adults starting ART in urban and rural settings in South Africa, these factors only partly explained men’s increased mortality while receiving ART. Importantly, the gender difference in mortality among patients receiving ART (31% higher for men than women was substantially smaller than that among HIV-negative South Africans, where men had twice the risk of death compared with women. Yet, this extreme gender inequality in mortality, both within and outside of ART programmes, has not given rise to widespread action. Here it is argued that, despite their dominance in society, men may be subject to a wide range of unfair discriminatory practices, which negatively affect their health outcomes. The health needs of men and boys require urgent attention. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:12-14. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.894

  15. Erectile Dysfunction Among Men Attending Surgical Outpatients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E‑mail: aotakure@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to ... African traditional herbal practitioner.[4]. ED is commonly seen among men with hypertension,[5] diabetic ... Seventy percent neither smoked cigarette nor drank alcohol, 21.3% drank alcohol and 9% took both alcohol.

  16. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  17. The Prevalence of Lisping in Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…

  18. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity patterns of elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, K H; Shephard, R J

    1977-01-01

    The activity patterns of elderly men and women (greater than 60 years) were examined by diaries, ECG taperecorders, and electro-chemical integrators. Although the subjects thought that they were active relative to others of their age, both activity measurements and initial assessments of fitness indicated an inactive life style. At different periods of the day, the heart rate averaged 70-90 beats per minute, and the physical training threshold was rarely approached. During the week, the women engaged in 90 min. more physical activity than the men. However, at the weekend the men added an average of 100 min. of physical activity, whereas the women carried out 30 min. less physical work. Introduction of a 1-hour physical activity class four times per week increased the average daily energy expenditure by 150-200 kCal, to 2500 kCal in the men and 2200 kCal in the women. The added activity was sufficient to augment aerobic power, to induce favorable changes in body composition and to initiate change in other areas of life style, including a diminished use of the car.

  20. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  2. Women and Men Facing Lexical Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cañete Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the gender variable has been investigated in terms of linguistic variation. A number of studies (mainly phonological in nature have been carried out which have generated preliminary conclusions such as women are more conservative and use more standard forms of language than men or that men are more innovative than women (Chambers, 2009; Labov, 1994. Generally, we are aware that new words are created every day which is indicative of the dynamism of languages and the changes taking place in a given society. The study of new lexical entities, called neologisms, allows us to understand how language speakers adapt to social changes. The two issues mentioned above are our main motivation to conduct this investigation which will be based on a linguistic approach with a focus on neology. Hence, this paper focuses on Spanish neological units produced by women and men as found in contemporary newspaper articles and blogs through a qualitative analysis of neologisms used by women and men as well as a qualitative analysis of the formation of these neologisms. Finally, we present a comparison between the results obtained in both types of text.

  3. Medical students' attitudes toward gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T

    2012-08-08

    Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.

  4. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

  5. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matharu Kabir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.

  6. Vaccins beschermen dier én mens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsman, V.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Het bedrijf MSD Animal Health werkt met onderzoekers van Wageningen UR, het RIVM en de Universiteit Utrecht aan een betere bestrijding van infectieziekten die van dier op mens kunnen overslaan. 'We kunnen nu enkele producten ontwikkelen die mogelijk nooit commercieel aantrekkelijk zullen zijn, maar

  7. Cultural Mediators Seduced by Mad Men:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; Hellman, Heikki; Riegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Based on theories about the role of cultural mediators in cultural production and using the TV series Mad Men as a case, this article investigates how cultural journalists in the Nordic countries have contributed to legitimizing “quality TV series” as a worthy field of aesthetic consumption. Key...

  8. The gendered nature of men's filial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori D; Martin-Matthews, Anne

    2003-11-01

    This paper investigates sociodemographic and family structure factors that predict men's involvement (n = 773) in different gendered dimensions of filial caregiving: traditionally male, gender neutral, and traditionally female care. The concepts that guide this research relate to family obligations or motivations to provide care, specifically, commitment to care, legitimate excuses, and caring by default. Data for this research come from the Work and Family Survey (1991-1993) conducted by the Work and Eldercare Research Group of CARNET: The Canadian Aging Research Network. Although such factors as geographic proximity and sibling network composition predict men's involvement independent of the type of task, the gendered nature of the task is important in how other factors, such as filial obligation, parental status, education, and income influence involvement in care. The findings suggest that, for traditionally male tasks, legitimate excuses or a commitment to care may play a more minor role in influencing men's involvement than is true for traditionally female tasks. Overall, this research demonstrates the importance of examining the gendered nature of the care tasks and highlights the value of the conceptual framework for explaining variations in men's filial care.

  9. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Men in Midwifery: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Adriane Ellis, Simon; McFarlane, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Midwifery in the United States suffers from a lack of diversity. More than 91% of midwives are white, and more than 98% are women. Little research has explored the experiences of midwives who are men or transgender. Invitation to an Internet survey was sent to the membership of the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Thirty-one participants who identified as men or transgender completed the survey, which included quantitative and open-ended questions about the impact of gender on education and practice. Data analysis of qualitative responses used qualitative description methodology to identify common themes. Four themes described participating men's experiences of education and practice of midwifery. Challenges included feeling singled out as different and being excluded. Supportive factors came from the social support of family, friends, colleagues, and patients, as well as from taking pride in one's work as a midwife. Midwives who identify as transgender described the challenges of others' confusion about their gender, having to hide their true gender identity, and struggling with the resulting loneliness. This survey highlights the challenges faced by midwives who are men or transgender in education and practice. Midwifery values of respect and acceptance for all women and families need to be applied internally to all members of the profession. This will support increased diversity and openness in midwifery. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  11. Extragenital Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Missed Treatment Opportunities for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Leandro; Crosby, Richard A; Chamberlain, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    This study of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extragenital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from 2 sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), nucleic acid amplification testing was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV. Seventy-three percent of all chlamydia infections and 77% of gonorrhea infections were found from anal and oral swabs in the absence of urethral positivity. Compared with HIV-uninfected men, HIV-infected men were significantly more likely to have pharyngeal chlamydia (P = 0.03), multiple CT infections (P = 0.02), rectal NG (P < 0.001), multiple NG infections (P = 0.04), both CT/NG rectal infections (P = 0.001). As much as three quarters of all chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may be missed when only urine-based nucleic acid amplification testing is used to screen YBMSM for bacterial sexually transmitted infections. These missed opportunities for diagnosis may be particularly likely among HIV-infected YBMSM.

  12. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  13. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Sarbit, Gayl; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Currie, Leanne M; Schmid, Jonathan; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-04-20

    Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men's use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men's health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend QuitNow Men to others who wanted to quit (46

  14. Attitudes of Heterosexual Men and Women Toward HIV Negative and Positive Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  15. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  16. Sex tourism among Chinese men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional observational study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, J; Tang, W; Liu, C; Wong, NS; Tang, S; Wei, C; Tucker, JD

    2018-01-01

    Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic charac...

  17. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia.

  18. Correlates of Forced Sex Among Populations of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Mock, Philip A.; Tappero, Jordan W.; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Ph...

  19. Acceptability of Sexually Explicit Images in HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Iantaffi, Alex; Wilkerson, J. Michael; Grey, Jeremy A.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media (SEM) have been used in HIV-prevention advertisements to engage men who have sex with men (MSM), and to communicate content. These advertisements exist within larger discourses, including a dominant heternormative culture, and a growing homonormative culture. Cognizant of these hegemonic cultures, this analysis examined the acceptable level of sexual explicitness in prevention advertisements. 79 MSM participated in 13 online focus groups, which were part of a larger st...

  20. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: evidence of local transmission in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Indira; Bromhead, Collette; Balm, Michelle; Upton, Arlo; Reid, Murray; Franklin, Rick; Morgan, Jane; Bower, James; Henderson, Gillian; Roberts, Sally A

    2015-03-13

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Five laboratory confirmed cases of LGV were detected in MSM (men who have sex with men) in the upper North Island; four in Auckland between September and December 2013 and a fifth case was detected in Waikato in June 2014. The absence of a recent travel history for four cases supports the likelihood of local transmission of this uncommon infection.

  1. Men in the Picture: Representations of Men and Masculinities in Egyptian Cinema since 1952.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eynde, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Research of men and masculinities in the Middle East and North Africa remains scarce, to say the least. Only occasionally and irregularly researchers pay attention to the topic, while gender studies in the region continues to focus on women. Nevertheless, the term gender incorporates more than just women. In practice, however, we find little information on Egyptian and Arab men and masculinities.This lack is partly explained by the interests of gender studies in this specific geographic regio...

  2. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A.; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications (“apps”) are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants complete...

  3. Perfil bioquímico de algumas enzimas no plasma sangüíneo de potras da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH criadas em Colina, Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Benesi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de avaliar o perfil bioquímico de algumas enzimas, em potras sadias da raça BH (Brasileiro de Hipismo, utilizaram-se 380 amostras de plasma sangüíneo colhidas de 19 animais desde o nascimento até 24 meses de vida. Na análise dos resultados evidenciou-se que os valores médios das enzimas FA (fosfatase alcalina e CK (creatina quinase foram máximos entre o nascimento e 24 horas de vida (FA-1995.50 UI/ ; CK-189.13UI/L, enquanto que para a LD (lactato desidrogenase e GGT (gama glutamiltransferase as maiores magnitudes ocorreram, respectivamente, entre 3 e 4 dias (LD-479.11UI/L e aos 10 dias de idade (GGT-18.70UI/L. As FA, CK, LD e GGT, mostraram diminuições dos valores médios, respectivamente, até 6 meses (FA-323.50UI/L, 20 dias (CK-51UI/ L, 19 meses (LD-214.00UI/L e 4 meses (GGT-11.40UI/L estabilizando-se a seguir, com pequenas variações. A atividade da AST (aspartato aminotransferase que foi mínima logo após o nascimento (AST- 43.38UI/L, aumentou até os sete dias de vida (AST-110.89UI/L, e a seguir diminuiu progressivamente, com pequenas oscilações, até o final do estudo. Todas as enzimas avaliadas sofreram variações influenciadas pelo fator etário, particularmente no período inicial de vida dos animais estudados.

  4. HIV knowledge and risks among Vietnamese men who have sex with men travelling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Hoang Quan; Colby, Donn Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Rapid economic and social development in Vietnam has resulted in increased opportunities for travel and new potential routes of HIV transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining demographics, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviour amongst 100 Vietnamese men who have sex with men who traveled abroad in the previous 12 months. Men who have sex with men surveyed were mostly university-educated, single, and under 30. Most travel (73%) was within Southeast Asia and was undertaken for tourism (51%) or for work (29%). Casual sex with a foreign partner occurred on 39% of trips. Only four were reported to have involved in unsafe sex with a casual partner. Four reported illicit drug use. Alcohol was widely consumed. Multivariate analysis showed that two variables, travelling alone (OR = 5.26,p sex abroad. More HIV prevention education on the risks of sex while travelling abroad is needed for men who have sex with men in Vietnam. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. [Explanation of risky sexual behaviors in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques Aviñó, Constanza; García de Olalla, Patricia; Díez, Elia; Martín, Silvia; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    To explore views about risky sexual behaviors and perceptions of HIV, and to propose interventions for preventing HIV infections in a group of men who have sex with men. We performed a qualitative study in a sample of 13 men who have sex with men, who were participating in an HIV-seronegative cohort, and who we contacted via saunas for the gay community in Barcelona (Spain). We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews, followed by content analysis. Risky sexual behaviors were associated with masculinity related to strong sexual needs, certain sexual exchange venues (such as saunas, private parties and clubs), drug use, and a desire to experiment with risk and one's own sexuality. HIV infection was perceived as a normalized disease, although becoming infected was still associated with shame and guilt. Proposed interventions included raising awareness of what it is like to live with HIV, generating greater social alarm, incorporating new technologies in prevention, and intensifying activity at gay venues. The concept of masculinity plays a fundamental role in sexual practices among men who have sex with men. We suggest renewed innovation in preventive programs and incorporating the perception of risk and HIV infection from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Experiences of condom fit and feel among African-American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fisher, Christopher; Alexander, Andreia; Satinsky, Sonya

    2007-10-01

    To offer an empirical understanding of characteristics associated with the fit and feel of condoms among African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), a particularly high-risk group for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States. Survey data were collected from 178 adult African-American MSM attending a community event in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the majority of participants reported that condoms generally fit properly and felt comfortable, a substantial number of men reported a variety of problems with the fit and feel of condoms. Specifically, 21% reported that condoms felt too tight, 18% reported that condoms felt too short, 10% reported that condoms felt too loose, and 7% reported that condoms felt too long. There were significant associations between men's reports of condom breakage and slippage, and their perceptions of condom fit and feel. Perceptions of condom fit and feel were also related to men's reports of seeking condoms for their size-specific properties. The fit and feel issues that men in this sample identified may be among those that contribute to their likelihood of using, or not using, condoms consistently and correctly. A better understanding of these factors will be beneficial to both condom manufacturers and sexual health professionals who share a common goal of increasing consistent and correct condom use and reducing the incidence of HIV and other STI among this and other communities.

  7. Sources of HIV infection among men having sex with men and implications for prevention ✻

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.

    2016-01-01

    New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795

  8. Where are all the men? The marginalization of men in social scientific research on infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Lohan, Maria

    2013-09-01

    There is a wealth of research exploring the psychological consequences of infertility and assisted reproduction technology, a substantial body of sociological and anthropological work on 'reproductive disruptions' of many kinds and a small but growing literature on patient perspectives of the quality of care in assisted reproduction. In all these fields, research studies are far more likely to be focused on the understandings and experiences of women than those of men. This paper discusses reasons for the relative exclusion of men in what has been called the 'psycho-social' literature on infertility, comments on research on men from psychological and social perspectives and recent work on the quality of patient care, and makes suggestions for a reframing of the research agenda on men and assisted reproduction. Further research is needed in all areas, including: perceptions of infertility and infertility treatment seeking; experiences of treatment; information and support needs; decisions to end treatment; fatherhood post assisted conception; and the motivation and experiences of sperm donors and men who seek fatherhood through surrogacy or co-parenting. This paper argues for multimethod, interdisciplinary research that includes broader populations of men which can contribute to improved clinical practice and support for users of assisted reproduction treatment. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lateralization for Processing Facial Emotions in Gay Men, Heterosexual Men, and Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat

    2015-07-01

    This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets.

  10. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  11. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  12. Power increases infidelity among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Jordan, Jennifer; Pollmann, Monique; Stapel, Diederik A

    2011-09-01

    Data from a large survey of 1,561 professionals were used to examine the relationship between power and infidelity and the process underlying this relationship. Results showed that elevated power is positively associated with infidelity because power increases confidence in the ability to attract partners. This association was found for both actual infidelity and intentions to engage in infidelity in the future. Gender did not moderate these results: The relationship between power and infidelity was the same for women as for men, and for the same reason. These findings suggest that the common assumption (and often-found effect) that women are less likely than men to engage in infidelity is, at least partially, a reflection of traditional gender-based differences in power that exist in society.

  13. Food vending among men in Kumasi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkuor, John Boulard; Akuoko, Kofi Osei; Yeboah, Erik Henry

    2016-01-01

    that are similar to those documented in literature. This research focuses on men in an informal and female-dominated occupation in Ghana. Using semi-structured interviews, this research explores the advantages men enjoy as traditional food vendors, their constraints, and the coping strategies they adopt....... This research found that while male traditional food vendors face some social ridicule, they nonetheless enjoy certain gendered advantages at the expense of other female food vendors. This research contributes to a further understanding of the effects of gendered perceptions on the wellbeing of both male...... and female vendors, and thereby provides stakeholder organisations with knowledge needed to improve the well-being of street food vendors....

  14. Fuzzy spaces topology change and BH thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C A S; Landim, R R

    2014-01-01

    What is the ultimate fate of something that falls into a black hole? From this question arises one of the most intricate problems of modern theoretical physics: the black hole information loss paradox. Bekenstein and Hawking have been shown that the entropy in a black hole is proportional to the surface area of its event horizon, which should be quantized in a multiple of the Planck area. This led G.'t Hooft and L. Susskind to propose the holographic principle which states that all the information inside the black hole can be stored on its event horizon. From this results, one may think if the solution to the information paradox could lies in the quantum properties of the black hole horizon. One way to quantize the event horizon is to see it as a fuzzy sphere, which posses a closed relation with Hopf algebras. This relation makes possible a topology change process where a fuzzy sphere splits in two others. In this work it will be shown that, if one quantize the black hole event horizon as a fuzzy sphere taking into account its quantum symmetry properties, a topology change process to black holes can be defined without break unitarity or locality, and we can obtain a possible solution to the information paradox. Moreover, we show that this model can explain the origin of the black hole entropy, and why black holes obey a generalized second law of thermodynamics

  15. Srpska in BH and out of it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kecmanović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the attitude of the RS political elite towards the resolution of the so-called Bosnian crisis, noting several coexisting approaches. National independence and secession, unification with the motherland, a confederate status, return of abducted jurisdictions, defence of the Dayton status quo and so on - these are just some of the possible options. The author exposes their political implications in a comparative manner, discussing their advantages and disadvantages. In the conclusion he suggests that some of these are primarily tactical, while some are strategic, and that the practical and political discourse should not be confused with the theoretic and political one. As an example of the latter, which does not have to take into account the political correctness and international opportunism, he mentions the attitude of the RS towards its historical founders and their public cover-up.

  16. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, ...

  17. Hamlet and Japanese Men of Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawachi Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare has exerted a powerful influence on Japanese literature since he was accepted in the second half of the nineteenth century. Particularly Hamlet has had a strong impact on Japanese men of letters and provided them with the impetus to revive the play in contemporary literature. In this paper I discuss how they have utilized Hamlet for their creative activity and enriched Japanese literature.

  18. Stop Harassment!: men's reactions to victims' confrontation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...

  19. Understanding tobacco use among Filipino American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Garcia, Gabriel M; Berman, Barbara A

    2007-07-01

    Although lung cancer is the top cancer killer among Filipino American men, data on tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation efforts, and preferences for smoking cessation programs among this population are lacking. We interviewed a community sample of 318 Filipino American men (110 current, 108 former, and 100 never-smokers, all immigrants) aged 40-75 years in Los Angeles County in English and Tagalog, to gain a better understanding of their tobacco use as a first step toward developing a culturally tailored smoking cessation program. In our sample, smokers had lower levels of education and income compared with nonsmokers and were less acculturated based on language use and English fluency. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to agree that smoking can alleviate stress, depression, and boredom, and that it is part of social interactions, growing up, being a man, and looking mature. These beliefs were summarized in a Smoking Beliefs Scale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), which predicted current smoking in a multivariate analysis, together with perceived risk of getting smoking-related diseases and peer norms. The most preferred smoking cessation intervention formats were educational small group sessions with other Filipino men (32%), followed by one-on-one consultations by a health professional (26%), video (20%), pamphlet (17%), and toll-free telephone number (6%). More than half of the current smokers requested these smoking cessation activities in Tagalog (34%) or a combination of Tagalog and English (24%). Based on these findings, we make specific recommendations for a smoking cessation program for Filipino men.

  20. California and Irony in Mad Men

    OpenAIRE

    Taveira, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The combination of melodramatic and art cinematic techniques and influences in AMC’s television series Mad Men (2007¬–) reveals how a melodramatic televisuality can image novel modes of social and intimate relations and an alternative to the archetypal American narrative of the self-made man. Set in 1960s’ America, the series uses a contemporaneous and cosmopolitan California to triangulate the formal and narrative insistence of the past on the present. This triangulation is played out by Don...