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Sample records for non-vascular smooth muscles

  1. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induces vascular relaxation and inhibits non-vascular smooth muscle activity in the rabbit female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Ottesen, B; Jørgensen, M

    1994-01-01

    In vitro effects of two bioactive forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were studied on rabbit vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Segments of the ovarian artery and muscle strips from the fallopian tube were used. Two series of experiment...

  3. Effect of gamma rays on electrically evoked contractions of non-vascular smooth muscles (rat vas deferens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azroony, R.; Ksies, F.; Alya, G.

    2002-10-01

    We have tried, in this experiment, to study the modifications of non-vascular smooth muscles contraction induced via gamma rays. Smooth muscular fibers were isolated from the vas deferens of an adult rat and contractions were electrically evoked. Our results show that irradiation activates the VOC (Voltage Operated Channel) type of ionic channels which causes an increasing in the inward flux of Ca 2+ and then causes an increasing in the inner calcium concentration [Ca 2] i, the matter which means an increasing in the force of muscular contraction. Concerning to the response of vas deferens smooth muscles to the activation of membrane receptors, we have tried to study the effects of gamma rays on activating adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, also, we have tried to show the effects of different doses of gamma rays (1, 3, 5, 7 Gy) on regulating the contractile response of this type of smooth muscles. And results show that: - Irradiation increases contraction force, mediated by adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, in a dose dependent manner, with E m ax 1 Gy m axc 3 Gy m ax 5 Gy m ax 7 Gy. There is an important shift on irradiated rats (3, 5, 7 Gy) where the maximum effect of Acetylcholine (E m ax) can be obtained in lower concentrations of Acetylcholine. These results mean that irradiation activates the inward flux of Ca 2+ through the ROC (Receptors Operated Channels) type of ionic channels, which rely, in their activation, on activating the membrane receptors. By comparing these results with the effects of gamma rays on activating vascular adrenergic and cholinergic receptors, we concluded that: Non-vascular smooth muscles (vas deferens) are less sensitive to irradiation in comparing with vascular smooth muscles (venae portal hepatica), and irradiation increases the sensitivity of cholinergic receptors to acetylcholine in the smooth muscular fibers of vas deferens while; if decreases this sensitivity in the smooth muscular fibers of venae portal hepatica

  4. Vinpocetine Attenuates the Osteoblastic Differentiation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

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    Yun-Yun Ma

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is an active process of osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, its definite mechanism remains unknown. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been demonstrated to inhibit the high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, it remains unknown whether vinpocetine can affect the osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. We hereby investigated the effect of vinpocetine on vascular calcification using a beta-glycerophosphate-induced cell model. Our results showed that vinpocetine significantly reduced the osteoblast-like phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells including ALP activity, osteocalcin, collagen type I, Runx2 and BMP-2 expression as well as the formation of mineralized nodule. Vinpocetine, binding to translocation protein, induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and Akt and thus inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B into the nucleus. Silencing of translocator protein significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of vinpocetine on osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Taken together, vinpocetine may be a promising candidate for the clinical therapy of vascular calcification.

  5. Expression of smooth muscle and non-muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovner, A.S.; Murphy, R.A.; Owens, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    Immunocytochemical studies of cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have disagreed on the nature of myosin expression. This investigation was undertaken to test for the presence of heterogeneous myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in cell culture as a possible explanation for these results. Previously, Rovner et al. detected two MHCs in intact smooth muscles which differed in molecular weight by ca. 4000 daltons (SM1 and SM2) using a 3-4% acrylamide gradient SDS gel system. When sub-confluent primary cultures of rat aorta SMCs were assayed by this system, SM1 and SM2 were seen, along with large amounts of a third, unique MHC, NM, which closely resembled the MHC from human platelet in size and antigenicity. Data from 35 S-methionine autoradiograms showed that the log growth phase SMC cultures were producing almost exclusively NM, but the growth arrest, post-confluent cultures synthesized increased relative amounts of the SM MHC forms and contained comparable amounts of SM1, SM2, and NM. The same patterns of MHC synthesis were seen in sub-passaged SMCs. The expression of the SM-specific forms of myosin in quiescent, post-confluent cultures parallels that of smooth muscle actin suggesting that density induced growth arrest promotes cytodifferentiation in cultured vascular SMCs

  6. Electron histochemical and autoradiographic studies of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Kohji; Aida, Takeo; Asano, Goro

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the vascular smooth muscle cell in the aorta and the arteries of brain, heart in autopsied cases, cholesterol fed rabbits and canine through electron histochemical and autoradiographic methods, using 3 H-proline and 3 H-thymidine. The vascular changes are variable presumably due to the functional and morphological difference of vessels. Aging, pathological condition and physiological requirement induce the disturbances of vascular functions as contractility. According to various pathological conditions, the smooth muscle cell altered their shape, surface properties and arrangement of subcellular organelles including changes in number. The morphological features of arteries during aging is characterized by the thickening of endothelium and media. Decreasing cellularity and increasing collagen contents in media. The autoradiographic and histochemical observations using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and ruthenium red stains demonstrated that the smooth muscle cell is a connective tissue synthetic cell. The PAM impregnation have proved that the small bundle of microfilaments become associated with small conglomerate of collagen and elastic fibers. Cytochemical examination will provide sufficient evidence to establish the contribution of subcellular structure. The acid phosphatase play an important role in vascular disease and they are directly involved in cellular lipid metabolism in cholesterol fed animals, and the activity of Na-K ATPase on the plasma membrane may contribute to the regulation of vascular blood flow and vasospasms. Direct injury and subsequent abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cell may initiate increased permeability of plasma protein and lipid in the media layer and eventually may developed and enhance arteriosclerosis. (author)

  7. Identification and characterization of novel smoothelin isoforms in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J; Quensel, C; Meding, J; Cardoso, M C; Leonhardt, H

    2001-01-01

    Smoothelin is a cytoskeletal protein specifically expressed in differentiated smooth muscle cells and has been shown to colocalize with smooth muscle alpha actin. In addition to the small smoothelin isoform of 59 kD, we recently identified a large smoothelin isoform of 117 kD. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize novel smoothelin isoforms. The genomic structure and sequence of the smoothelin gene were determined by genomic PCR, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Comparison of the cDNA and genomic sequences shows that the small smoothelin isoform is generated by transcription initiation 10 kb downstream of the start site of the large isoform. In addition to the known smoothelin cDNA (c1 isoform) we identified two novel cDNA variants (c2 and c3 isoform) that are generated by alternative splicing within a region, which shows similarity to the spectrin family of F-actin cross-linking proteins. Visceral organs express the c1 form, while the c2 form prevails in well-vascularized tissue as analyzed by RT-PCR. We then generated specific antibodies against the major smoothelin isoforms and could show by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry that the large isoform is specifically expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, while the small isoform is abundant in visceral smooth muscle. These results strongly suggest that the smoothelin gene contains a vascular and a visceral smooth muscle promoter. The cell-type-specific expression of smoothelin isoforms that are associated with actin filaments may play a role in the modulation of the contractile properties of different smooth muscle cell types. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. An α-smooth muscle actin (acta2/αsma zebrafish transgenic line marking vascular mural cells and visceral smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Whitesell

    Full Text Available Mural cells of the vascular system include vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and pericytes whose role is to stabilize and/or provide contractility to blood vessels. One of the earliest markers of mural cell development in vertebrates is α smooth muscle actin (acta2; αsma, which is expressed by pericytes and SMCs. In vivo models of vascular mural cell development in zebrafish are currently lacking, therefore we developed two transgenic zebrafish lines driving expression of GFP or mCherry in acta2-expressing cells. These transgenic fish were used to trace the live development of mural cells in embryonic and larval transgenic zebrafish. acta2:EGFP transgenic animals show expression that largely mirrors native acta2 expression, with early pan-muscle expression starting at 24 hpf in the heart muscle, followed by skeletal and visceral muscle. At 3.5 dpf, expression in the bulbus arteriosus and ventral aorta marks the first expression in vascular smooth muscle. Over the next 10 days of development, the number of acta2:EGFP positive cells and the number of types of blood vessels associated with mural cells increases. Interestingly, the mural cells are not motile and remain in the same position once they express the acta2:EGFP transgene. Taken together, our data suggests that zebrafish mural cells develop relatively late, and have little mobility once they associate with vessels.

  9. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  10. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Suppression of vascular smooth muscle cells' proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the effects of valsartan on the proliferation and migration of isolated rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the expression of phospho-p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) promoted by angiotensin II (Ang II). VSMCs from the rat thoracic aorta were cultured by ...

  12. Cholesterol is necessary both for the toxic effect of Abeta peptides on vascular smooth muscle cells and for Abeta binding to vascular smooth muscle cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Supundi; Unabia, Sharon; Barrow, Colin J; Mok, Su San; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Small, David H

    2003-02-01

    Accumulation of beta amyloid (Abeta) in the brain is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Abeta can bind to membrane lipids and this binding may have detrimental effects on cell function. In this study, surface plasmon resonance technology was used to study Abeta binding to membranes. Abeta peptides bound to synthetic lipid mixtures and to an intact plasma membrane preparation isolated from vascular smooth muscle cells. Abeta peptides were also toxic to vascular smooth muscle cells. There was a good correlation between the toxic effect of Abeta peptides and their membrane binding. 'Ageing' the Abeta peptides by incubation for 5 days increased the proportion of oligomeric species, and also increased toxicity and the amount of binding to lipids. The toxicities of various Abeta analogs correlated with their lipid binding. Significantly, binding was influenced by the concentration of cholesterol in the lipid mixture. Reduction of cholesterol in vascular smooth muscle cells not only reduced the binding of Abeta to purified plasma membrane preparations but also reduced Abeta toxicity. The results support the view that Abeta toxicity is a direct consequence of binding to lipids in the membrane. Reduction of membrane cholesterol using cholesterol-lowering drugs may be of therapeutic benefit because it reduces Abeta-membrane binding.

  13. Effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on heart and vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrath, H.; Raschack, M.

    1987-01-01

    (-)-Desmethoxyverapamil [also known as (-)-devapamil or (-)-D888] has been developed as a verapamil type radioligand for the study of calcium channels. In the present investigation, the effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on action potential (AP) and force of contraction in heart muscle preparations and on tension and 45 Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle are described. In part, the effects were compared with the (+)-isomer of desmethoxyverapamil and the isomers of both verapamil and methoxyverapamil. In atrial and/or ventricular heart muscle preparations from guinea pigs, cats and man, (-)-desmethoxyverapamil decreased the force of contraction and shortened the AP duration. Slow response APs were depressed, whereas dV/dtmax of phase 0 of the AP remained unchanged. The rank order of potency of the (-)-isomers was as follows: desmethoxyverapamil greater than methoxyverapamil greater than verapamil. Potassium-induced contractures and 45 Ca influx were depressed by the (-)-isomers of desmethoxyverapamil, methoxyverapamil and verapamil in the same potency rank order as observed in heart muscle. The (+)-isomers exerted qualitatively similar effects at about 10 to 200 times higher concentrations. Correspondingly, the increase in potency of the racemic mixtures of the drugs was accompanied by increases in stereoselectivity. It is concluded that (-)-desmethoxyverapamil is the most potent stereoselective calcium antagonist of the verapamil type with respect to its effects on heart and vascular smooth muscle

  14. Effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on heart and vascular smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrath, H.; Raschack, M.

    1987-09-01

    (-)-Desmethoxyverapamil (also known as (-)-devapamil or (-)-D888) has been developed as a verapamil type radioligand for the study of calcium channels. In the present investigation, the effects of (-)-desmethoxyverapamil on action potential (AP) and force of contraction in heart muscle preparations and on tension and /sup 45/Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle are described. In part, the effects were compared with the (+)-isomer of desmethoxyverapamil and the isomers of both verapamil and methoxyverapamil. In atrial and/or ventricular heart muscle preparations from guinea pigs, cats and man, (-)-desmethoxyverapamil decreased the force of contraction and shortened the AP duration. Slow response APs were depressed, whereas dV/dtmax of phase 0 of the AP remained unchanged. The rank order of potency of the (-)-isomers was as follows: desmethoxyverapamil greater than methoxyverapamil greater than verapamil. Potassium-induced contractures and /sup 45/Ca influx were depressed by the (-)-isomers of desmethoxyverapamil, methoxyverapamil and verapamil in the same potency rank order as observed in heart muscle. The (+)-isomers exerted qualitatively similar effects at about 10 to 200 times higher concentrations. Correspondingly, the increase in potency of the racemic mixtures of the drugs was accompanied by increases in stereoselectivity. It is concluded that (-)-desmethoxyverapamil is the most potent stereoselective calcium antagonist of the verapamil type with respect to its effects on heart and vascular smooth muscle.

  15. Biophysical induction of vascular smooth muscle cell podosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration and matrix degradation occurs with intimal hyperplasia associated with atherosclerosis, vascular injury, and restenosis. One proposed mechanism by which VSMCs degrade matrix is through the use of podosomes, transient actin-based structures that are thought to play a role in extracellular matrix degradation by creating localized sites of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. To date, podosomes in VSMCs have largely been studied by stimulating cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, however little is known about the physiological cues that drive podosome formation. We present the first evidence that physiological, physical stimuli mimicking cues present within the microenvironment of diseased arteries can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. Both microtopographical cues and imposed pressure mimicking stage II hypertension induce podosome formation in A7R5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Moreover, wounding using a scratch assay induces podosomes at the leading edge of VSMCs. Notably the effect of each of these biophysical stimuli on podosome stimulation can be inhibited using a Src inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that physical cues can induce podosome formation in VSMCs.

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor gemigliptin protects against vascular calcification in an experimental chronic kidney disease and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Youn Choi

    Full Text Available Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have various pleiotropic effects, it remains undetermined whether gemigliptin has a beneficial effect on vascular calcification. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of gemigliptin on vascular calcification in a rat model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease and in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Gemigliptin attenuated calcification of abdominal aorta and expression of RUNX2 in adenine-induced chronic kidney disease rats. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, phosphate-induced increase in calcium content was reduced by gemigliptin. Gemigliptin reduced phosphate-induced PiT-1 mRNA expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and NADPH oxidase mRNA expression (p22phox and NOX4. The reduction of oxidative stress by gemigliptin was associated with the downregulation of phospho-PI3K/AKT expression. High phosphate increased the expression of frizzled-3 (FDZ3 and decreased the expression of dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK-1 in the Wnt pathway. These changes were attenuated by gemigliptin treatment. Gemigliptin restored the decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle cells markers (α-SMA and SM22α and increased expression of osteogenic makers (CBFA1, OSX, E11, and SOST induced by phosphate. In conclusion, gemigliptin attenuated vascular calcification and osteogenic trans-differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells via multiple steps including downregulation of PiT-1 expression and suppression of reactive oxygen species generation, phospho-PI3K/AKT, and the Wnt signaling pathway.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell function in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Kahles, Florian K; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    Epigenetics involve heritable and acquired changes in gene transcription that occur independently of the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a hierarchic upper-level of transcriptional control through complex modifications of chromosomal components and nuclear structures. These modifications include, for example, DNA methylation or post-translational modifications of core histones; they are mediated by various chromatin-modifying enzymes; and ultimately they define the accessibility of a transcriptional complex to its target DNA. Integrating epigenetic mechanisms into the pathophysiologic concept of complex and multifactorial diseases such as atherosclerosis may significantly enhance our understanding of related mechanisms and provide promising therapeutic approaches. Although still in its infancy, intriguing scientific progress has begun to elucidate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in vascular biology, particularly in the control of smooth muscle cell phenotypes. In this review, we will summarize epigenetic pathways in smooth muscle cells, focusing on mechanisms involved in the regulation of vascular remodeling.

  18. Enhanced elastin synthesis and maturation in human vascular smooth muscle tissue derived from induced-pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoh, Joon H; Shen, Nian; Burke, Jacqueline A; Hinderer, Svenja; Xia, Zhiyong; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Gerecht, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining vascular smooth muscle tissue with mature, functional elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Poor elastin secretion and organization leads to a loss of specialization in contractile smooth muscle cells, resulting in over proliferation and graft failure. In this study, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into early smooth muscle cells, seeded onto a hybrid poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate/poly (l-lactide) (PEGdma-PLA) scaffold and cultured in a bioreactor while exposed to pulsatile flow, towards maturation into contractile smooth muscle tissue. We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow on cellular organization as well as elastin expression and assembly in the engineered tissue compared to a static control through immunohistochemistry, gene expression and functionality assays. We show that culturing under pulsatile flow resulted in organized and functional hiPSC derived smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue with robust, well-organized cells and elastic fibers and the supporting microfibril proteins necessary for elastic fiber assembly. Through qRT-PCR analysis, we found significantly increased expression of elastin, fibronectin, and collagen I, indicating the synthesis of necessary extracellular matrix components. Functionality assays revealed that hiPSC-smooth muscle tissue cultured in the bioreactor had an increased calcium signaling and contraction in response to a cholinergic agonist, significantly higher mature elastin content and improved mechanical properties in comparison to the static control. The findings presented here detail an effective approach to engineering elastic human vascular smooth muscle tissue with the functionality necessary for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Obtaining robust, mature elastic fibers is a key obstacle in tissue-engineered blood vessels. Human induced-pluripotent stem cells have

  19. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelin B (ET B ) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ET B receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ET B receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ET B mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ET B deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ET B was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ET B -mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ET B -mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ET B knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ET B blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ET B -mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ET B knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ET B receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ET B -dependent regulation of BP. These ET B receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms

  1. LRP1 in brain vascular smooth muscle cells mediates local clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Liu, Chia-Chen; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Li, Jie; Bu, Guojun

    2012-11-14

    Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or degraded by cerebrovascular cells along the interstitial fluid drainage pathway. An Aβ clearance receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), is abundantly expressed in cerebrovasculature, in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells. Previous studies have indicated a role of LRP1 in endothelial cells in transcytosing Aβ out of the brain across the BBB; however, whether this represents a significant pathway for brain Aβ clearance remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that Aβ can be cleared locally in the cerebrovasculature by an LRP1-dependent endocytic pathway in smooth muscle cells. The uptake and degradation of both endogenous and exogenous Aβ were significantly reduced in LRP1-suppressed human brain vascular smooth muscle cells. Conditional deletion of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle cell in amyloid model APP/PS1 mice accelerated brain Aβ accumulation and exacerbated Aβ deposition as amyloid plaques and CAA without affecting Aβ production. Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is a major Aβ clearance receptor in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell and a disturbance of this pathway contributes to Aβ accumulation. These studies establish critical functions of the cerebrovasculature system in Aβ metabolism and identify a new pathway involved in the pathogenesis of both AD and CAA.

  2. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidization and hypertrophy. Furthermore, the hypertrophic agent angiotensin II induced VSMC polyploidization in an Akt1-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that Akt1 regulates ploidy levels in VSMCs and contributes to vascular smooth muscle polyploidization and hypertrophy during hypertension. PMID:11032861

  3. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of extracts of vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron, J.T.; Messer, J.V.; Glonek, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess phosphate metabolites in perchloric acid extracts of rabbit aorta. In addition to the high energy phosphates, several other phosphorus compounds were detected and quantified. Most notable was the presence of a prominent phosphomonoester compound appearing at a chemical shift of 3.86 delta. This compound constituted 26% of the total extractable tissue phosphorus and is tentatively identified as ribose-5-phosphate, a pentose phosphate pathway intermediate. While ATP and phosphocreatine did not change during glucose and oxygen deprivation or during prolonged muscle contraction, the 3.86delta phosphate decreased significantly. Furthermore, theophylline, an agent that increases intracellular cAMP, also decreased the level of the 3.86 delta phosphate. These results are consistent with the concept that intermediate metabolism sustains high energy phosphate pools in vascular smooth muscle in the steady state under various conditions. The pentose phosphate pathway may play an important role in vascular smooth muscle metabolism. (author)

  4. Fibroblast growth factor regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1994-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells, and its effects are regulated by several binding proteins. Western ligand blotting of conditioned medium from rat aortic smooth muscle cells detected a 24 kDa binding protein and a 28 kDa glycosylated variant of this protein, consistent with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 by size. Low amounts of a glycosylated 38 to 42 kDa doublet (consistent with binding protein-3) and a 31 kDa non-glycosylated protein also were present. Basic fibroblast growth factor markedly increased secretion of the 24 kDa binding protein and its 28 kDa glycosylated variant. This effect was dose- and time-dependent and was inhibited by co-incubation with cycloheximide. Crosslinking of [125I]-insulin-like growth factor I to cell monolayers revealed no surface-associated binding proteins, either basally or after agonist treatment. Induction of binding protein production by fibroblast growth factor at sites of vascular injury may be important in vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  5. KCl cotransport regulation and protein kinase G in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, N C; Zhang, J; Di Fulvio, M; Lincoln, T M; Lauf, P K

    2002-05-15

    K-Cl cotransport is activated by vasodilators in erythrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells and its regulation involves putative kinase/phosphatase cascades. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) activates the system presumably by inhibiting a protein kinase. Nitrovasodilators relax smooth muscle via cGMP-dependent activation of protein kinase G (PKG), a regulator of membrane channels and transporters. We investigated whether PKG regulates K-Cl cotransport activity or mRNA expression in normal, PKG-deficient-vector-only-transfected (PKG-) and PKG-catalytic-domain-transfected (PKG+) rat aortic smooth muscle cells. K-Cl cotransport was calculated as the Cl-dependent Rb influx, and mRNA was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Baseline K-Cl cotransport was higher in PKG+ than in PKG- cells (p <0.01). At 0.5 mM, NEM stimulated K-Cl cotransport by 5-fold in PKG- but not in PKG+ cells. However, NEM was more potent although less effective to activate K-Cl cotransport in normal (passage 1-3) and PKG+ than in PKG- cells. In PKG- cells, [(dihydroindenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid (300 mM) but not furosemide (1 mM) inhibited K-Cl cotransport. Furthermore, no difference in K-Cl cotransport mRNA expression was observed between these cells. In conclusion, this study shows that manipulation of PKG expression in vascular smooth muscle cells affects K-Cl cotransport activity and its activation by NEM.

  6. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N G -nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats

  7. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  8. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C, hypertensive (H, and exercised hypertensive (EH. Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN, potassium chloride (KCl and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001 the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01 smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion: One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  9. Hepatocyte growth factor triggers signaling cascades mediating vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, Taher E. I.; Derksen, Patrick W. B.; de Boer, Onno J.; Spaargaren, Marcel; Teeling, Peter; van der Wal, Allard C.; Pals, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    A key event in neointima formation and atherogenesis is the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima. This is controlled by cytokines and extracellular matix (ECM) components within the microenvironment of the diseased vessel wall. At present, these signals have only been

  10. Smooth muscle LDL receptor-related protein-1 deletion induces aortic insufficiency and promotes vascular cardiomyopathy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Basford

    Full Text Available Valvular disease is common in patients with Marfan syndrome and can lead to cardiomyopathy. However, some patients develop cardiomyopathy in the absence of hemodynamically significant valve dysfunction, suggesting alternative mechanisms of disease progression. Disruption of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (Lrp1 in smooth muscle cells has been shown to cause vascular pathologies similar to Marfan syndrome, with activation of smooth muscle cells, vascular dysfunction and aortic aneurysms. This study used echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring in mouse models to determine whether inactivation of Lrp1 in vascular smooth muscle leads to cardiomyopathy, and if so, whether the mechanism is a consequence of valvular disease. Hemodynamic changes during treatment with captopril were also assessed. Dilation of aortic roots was observed in young Lrp1-knockout mice and progressed as they aged, whereas no significant aortic dilation was detected in wild type littermates. Diastolic blood pressure was lower and pulse pressure higher in Lrp1-knockout mice, which was normalized by treatment with captopril. Aortic dilation was followed by development of aortic insufficiency and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy due to valvular disease. Thus, smooth muscle cell Lrp1 deficiency results in aortic dilation and insufficiency that causes secondary cardiomyopathy that can be improved by captopril. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms of cardiomyopathy associated with vascular activation and offer a new model of valvular cardiomyopathy.

  11. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timraz, Sara B.H., E-mail: sara.timraz@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Farhat, Ilyas A.H., E-mail: ilyas.farhat@outlook.com [Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Alhussein, Ghada, E-mail: ghada.alhussein@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Christoforou, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.christoforou@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Teo, Jeremy C.M., E-mail: jeremy.teo@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  12. In-depth evaluation of commercially available human vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype: Implications for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timraz, Sara B.H.; Farhat, Ilyas A.H.; Alhussein, Ghada; Christoforou, Nicolas; Teo, Jeremy C.M.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro research on vascular tissue engineering has extensively used isolated primary human or animal smooth muscle cells (SMC). Research programs that lack such facilities tend towards commercially available primary cells sources. Here, we aim to evaluate the capacity of commercially available human SMC to maintain their contractile phenotype, and determine if dedifferentiation towards the synthetic phenotype occurs in response to conventional cell culture and passaging without any external biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Lower passage SMC adopted a contractile phenotype marked by a relatively slower proliferation rate, higher expression of proteins of the contractile apparatus and smoothelin, elongated morphology, and reduced deposition of collagen types I and III. As the passage number increased, migratory capacity was enhanced, average cell speed, total distance and net distance travelled increased up to passage 8. Through the various assays, corroborative evidence pinpoints SMC at passage 7 as the transition point between the contractile and synthetic phenotypes, while passage 8 distinctly and consistently exhibited characteristics of synthetic phenotype. This knowledge is particularly useful in selecting SMC of appropriate passage number for the target vascular tissue engineering application, for example, a homeostatic vascular graft for blood vessel replacement versus recreating atherosclerotic blood vessel model in vitro. - Highlights: • Ability of human smooth muscle cells to alter phenotype in culture is evaluated. • Examined the effect of passaging human smooth muscle cells on phenotype. • Phenotype is assessed based on morphology, proliferation, markers, and migration. • Multi-resolution assessment methodology, single-cell and cell-population. • Lower and higher passages than P7 adopted a contractile and synthetic phenotype respectively.

  13. Notch signaling regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Hansson, E.M.; Tikka, S.; Lanner, F.; Sahlgren, C.; Farnebo, F.; Baumann, M.; Kalimo, H.; Lendahl, U.

    2008-01-01

    Notch signaling is critically important for proper architecture of the vascular system, and mutations in NOTCH3 are associated with CADASIL, a stroke and dementia syndrome with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction. In this report, we link Notch signaling to platelet-derived growth factor

  14. Anti-atherosclerotic plants which modulate the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Al-Shehabi, Tuqa; Iratni, Rabah; Eid, Ali H

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of global death, with atherosclerosis being a major contributor to this mortality. Several mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. A key element in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions is the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Under pathophysiologic conditions such as injury, these cells switch from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype that often possesses high proliferative and migratory capacities. Despite major advances made in the management and treatment of atherosclerosis, mortality associated with this disease remains high. This mandates that other approaches be sought. Herbal medicine, especially for the treatment of CVD, has been gaining more attention in recent years. This is in no small part due to the evidence-based values associated with the consumption of many plants as well as the relatively cheaper prices, easier access and conventional folk medicine "inherited" over generations. Sections: In this review, we provide a brief introduction about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis then we highlight the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in this disease, especially when a phenotypic switch of these cells arises. We then thoroughly discuss the various plants that show potentially beneficial effects as anti-atherosclerotic, with prime attention given to herbs and plants that inhibit the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells. Accumulating evidence provides the justification for the use of botanicals in the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis. However, further studies, especially clinical ones, are warranted to better define several pharmacological parameters of these herbs, such as toxicity, tolerability, and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study on effect of arsenic trioxide on vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qin; An Yanli; Niu Huanzhang; Teng Gaojun; Wang Zihao; Zhang Dongsheng; Fang Juanjuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles on rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro in comparison with normal form As 2 O 3 . Methods: The rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells were cultured in vitro. Nano and normal forms of As 2 O 3 with drug concentrations of 3 μmol/L were added into the cells. Cell proliferation curve was drawn according to the light absorption values of MTT test. Flow cytometry was applied to observe the apoptosis. DNA was extracted and underwent electrophoresis. Results: Cell proliferation treated with the 3 μmol/L concentration of As 2 O 3 was inhibited. Cell growth was inhibited markedly with increased treatment time, and the inhibition effect of nano drug form seemed stronger than that of normal form. MTT light absorption values of cells treated at 24, 48 and 72 h showed statistically significant difference (H=10.934, 15.039, 15.539, P 2 O 3 , normal drug form of As 2 O 3 and control group of cells without As 2 O 3 were 44.97%, 58.54%, 74.02% respectively. The early apoptosis rates were 16.89%, 11.27%, 11.20%, late apoptosis rates were 26.56%, 23.60%, 12.46%, and necrosis rates were 11.58%, 6.59%, 2.32% respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed 'ladder' strand of DNA, with more strands and obscurity for nano drug form treated cells. Conclusion: Arsenic trioxide may inhibit the growth of rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells. The nano drug form showed stronger inhibition effect than that of the normal drug form. (authors)

  16. Recipient origin of neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells in cardiac allografts with transplant arteriosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van den Hurk, BMH; Klatter, FA; Popa, ER; Nieuwenhuis, P; Rozing, J

    2000-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is today's most important post-heart transplantation problem after the first perioperative year. Histologically, coronary artery disease is characterized by transplant arteriosclerosis. The current view on this vasculopathy is that vascular smooth muscle (VSM)

  17. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayoubi, Sohrab; Sheikh, Søren P; Eskildsen, Tilde V

    2017-01-01

    . To this end, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have generated great enthusiasm, and have been a driving force for development of novel strategies in drug discovery and regenerative cell-therapy for the last decade. Hence, investigating the mechanisms underlying the differentiation of hi......PSCs into specialized cell types such as cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may lead to a better understanding of developmental cardiovascular processes and potentiate progress of safe autologous regenerative therapies in pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize...

  18. The neuropeptide catestatin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoxia [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhou, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyanzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Ningling, E-mail: nlsun@263.net [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Catestatin stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} Catestatin provokes sustained increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. {yields} Catestatin produces increased activation of calcineurin and promotes NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus. -- Abstract: The Chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide catestatin is an endogenous nicotinic cholinergic antagonist that acts as a pleiotropic hormone. Since catestatin shares several functions with other members derived from the chromogranin/secretogranin protein family and other neuropeptides which exert proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we therefore hypothesized that catestatin would regulate VSMC proliferation. The present study demonstrates that catestatin caused a dose-dependent induction of proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and furthermore evoked a sustained increase in intracellular calcium. This subsequently leaded to enhanced activation of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin and resulted in an activation of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), initiating transcription of proliferative genes. In addition, cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of calcineurin, abrogated catestatin-mediated effect on VSMCs, indicating that the calcineurin-NFAT signaling is strongly required for catestatin-induced growth of VSMCs. The present study establishes catestatin as a novel proliferative cytokine on vascular smooth muscle cells and this effect is mediated by the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway.

  19. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fu [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China); Chambon, Pierre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (CNRS UMR7104, INSERM U596, ULP, Collége de France) and Institut Clinique de la Souris, ILLKIRCH, Strasbourg (France); Tellides, George [Department of Surgery, Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Kong, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Basic Medical College of Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoming, E-mail: rmygxgwk@163.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Wei [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  20. Hypoxic contraction of cultured pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, T.R.; Chen, L.; Marshall, B.E.; Macarak, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The cellular events involved in generating the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction response are not clearly understood, in part because of the multitude of factors that alter pulmonary vascular tone. The goal of the present studies was to determine if a cell culture preparation containing vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells could be made to contract when exposed to a hypoxic atmosphere. Cultures containing only fetal bovine pulmonary artery VSM cells were assessed for contractile responses to hypoxic stimuli by two methods. In the first, tension forces generated by cells grown on a flexible growth surface (polymerized polydimethyl siloxane) were manifested as wrinkles and distortions of the surface under the cells. Wrinkling of the surface was noted to progressively increase with time as the culture medium bathing the cells was made hypoxic (PO2 approximately 25 mmHg). The changes were sometimes reversible upon return to normoxic conditions and appeared to be enhanced in cells already exhibiting evidence of some baseline tone. Repeated passage in culture did not diminish the hypoxic response. Evidence for contractile responses to hypoxia was also obtained from measurements of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Conversion of MLC to the phosphorylated species is an early step in the activation of smooth muscle contraction. Lowering the PO2 in the culture medium to 59 mmHg caused a 45% increase in the proportion of MLC in the phosphorylated form as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Similarly, cultures preincubated for 4 h with 32P and then exposed to normoxia or hypoxia for a 5-min experimental period showed more than twice as much of the label in MLCs of the hypoxic cells

  1. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyberg, J

    1998-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells build up the media of mammalian arteries and constitute one of the principal cell types in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. Accordingly, they show a high degree of plasticity and are able to shift from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a less differentiated, synthetic phenotype, and then back again. This modulation occurs as a response to vascular injury and includes a prominent structural reorganization with loss of myofilaments and formation of an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex. At the same time, the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and other gene products is altered. As a result, the cells lose their contractility and become able to migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and secrete extracellular matrix components, thereby contributing to the formation of intimal thickenings. The mechanisms behind this change in morphology and function of the smooth muscle cells are still incompletely understood. A crucial role has been ascribed to basement membrane proteins such as laminin and collagen type IV and adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. A significant role is also played by mitogenic proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). An improved knowledge of the regulation of smooth muscle differentiated properties represents an important part in the search for new methods of prevention and treatment of vascular disease.

  2. Upregulation of decorin by FXR in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Fengtian; Zhang Qiuhong; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Gao Xiang; Li Jiang; Li Yong; Gong Wei; Jiang, Yu; Xie Wen; Li Song

    2008-01-01

    Decorin is a member of the family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans that are present in blood vessels and synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Decorin plays complex roles in both normal vascular physiology and the pathogenesis of various types of vascular disorders. However, the mechanisms of regulation of decorin expression in vasculature are not clearly understood. Particularly little information is available about a role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of decorin expression. In the present study, we report that activation of vascular FXR by a specific ligand resulted in upregulation of decorin at the levels of both mRNA and protein. FXR appears to induce decorin expression at a transcriptional level because (1) upregulation of decorin mRNA expression was abolished by the treatment of a transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D; and (2) decorin promoter activity was significantly increased by activation of FXR. Functional analysis of human decorin promoter identified an imperfect inverted repeat DNA motif, IR8 (-2313TGGTCAtagtgtcaTGACCT-2294), as a likely FXR-responsive element that is involved in decorin regulation

  3. Dynamin-related protein inhibitor downregulates reactive oxygen species levels to indirectly suppress high glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitijiang, Alimujiang; Zhuang, Xinyu; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Yong, E-mail: 11211220031@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-03-18

    Hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is a pathogenic mechanism common in diabetic vascular complications and is a putatively important therapeutic target. This study investigated multiple levels of biology, including cellular and organellar changes, as well as perturbations in protein synthesis and morphology. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was utilized to assess the effect of mitochondrial dynamic changes and reactive oxygen species(ROS) levels on high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. The data demonstrated that the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and downregulation of ROS levels both effectively inhibited the high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Downregulation of ROS levels played a more direct role and ROS levels were also regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Increased ROS levels induced excessive mitochondrial fission through dynamin-related protein (Drp 1), while Mdivi-1 suppressed the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS levels, thus inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission under high-glucose conditions. This study is the first to propose that mitochondrial dynamic changes and ROS levels interact with each other and regulate high-glucose-induced hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding provides novel ideas in understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling and intervention. - Highlights: • Mdivi-1 inhibits VSMC proliferation by lowering ROS level in high-glucose condition. • ROS may be able to induce mitochondrial fission through Drp1 regulation. • Mdivi-1 can suppress the sensitivity of Drp1 to ROS.

  4. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  5. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Matti [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Geriatrics, Turku City Hospital and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Sundström, Erik [Division of Neurodegeneration, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Baumann, Marc [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Poyhonen, Minna [Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Hospital, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Tikka, Saara [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Behbahani, Homira, E-mail: homira.behbahani@ki.se [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  6. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  7. IGF-1 has plaque-stabilizing effects in atherosclerosis by altering vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic

  8. Influence of 103Pd radioactive stent on apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingmei; Wu Wei; Chen Xiaochao; Zhang Xuming; Wang Jingfeng; Wei Yulin; Yang Li

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of 103 Pd radioactive stent on apoptosis and its relative genes bcl-2 and bax in injured vascular media smooth muscle cells of rabbit abdominal arteries and to investigate the mechanism of 103 Pd radioactive stent for preventing restenosis after angioplasty. Methods: Fifty male New Zealand rabbits were randomized into stent group and 103 Pd stent group. Each group was subdivided into 5 sub-groups. Control group was set up. The study arteries were harvested at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 d after stenting and the pathomorphology, apoptosis analysis and in situ hybridization were performed to evaluate the expression of bcl-2 and bax mRNA. Results: The severity of the restenosis in 103 Pd stent group was less than that of stent group. It was most obvious at the 56th day (P 103 Pd stent group had much more apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells than stent group did and reached the peak at the 7th day, (14.72±0.53)% vs (12.42±1.13)% (P 103 Pd stent group was much lower than that of stent group at 3 to 28 d. The difference was most obvious at the 28th day after stenting, (18.43± 0.67)% vs (21.55±0.93)% (P 103 Pd stent group was higher than that of stent group, the peak was at the 7th day, (11.17±0.94)% vs (9.30±1.01)%. The ratio of bcl-2/bax in 103 Pd stent group was much lower than that of stent group at 3 to 28 d. Linear correlation analysis showed that there was significant negative correlation between bcl-2 mRNA and apoptosis. Between bax mRNA and apoptosis, the positive correlation was found (P 103 Pd radioactive stent induced more significant apoptosis in vascular media smooth muscle cells by promoting the expression of apoptosis related genes and relieved the expanding of restenosis

  9. Tetraspanin CD9 regulates cell contraction and actin arrangement via RhoA in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Herr

    Full Text Available The most prevalent cardiovascular diseases arise from alterations in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC morphology and function. Tetraspanin CD9 has been previously implicated in regulating vascular pathologies; however, insight into how CD9 may regulate adverse VSMC phenotypes has not been provided. We utilized a human model of aortic smooth muscle cells to understand the consequences of CD9 deficiency on VSMC phenotypes. Upon knocking down CD9, the cells developed an abnormally small and rounded morphology. We determined that this morphological change was due to a lack of typical parallel actin arrangement. We also found similar total RhoA but decreased GTP-bound (active RhoA levels in CD9 deficient cells. As a result, cells lacking a full complement of CD9 were less contractile than their control treated counterparts. Upon restoration of RhoA activity in the CD9 deficient cells, the phenotype was reversed and cell contraction was restored. Conversely, inhibition of RhoA activity in the control cells mimicked the CD9-deficient cell phenotype. Thus, alteration in CD9 expression was sufficient to profoundly disrupt cellular actin arrangement and endogenous cell contraction by interfering with RhoA signaling. This study provides insight into how CD9 may regulate previously described vascular smooth muscle cell pathophysiology.

  10. Functional vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells via mesenchymal stem cell intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Loh, Yuin-Han; Daley, George Q.; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an important role in vascular homeostasis and disease. Although adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as a source of contractile SMC, they suffer from limited proliferation potential and culture senescence, particularly when originating from older donors. By comparison, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) can provide an unlimited source of functional SMC for autologous cell-based therapies and for creating models of vascular disease. Our goal was to develop an efficient strategy to derive functional, contractile SMC from hiPSC. Methods and results We developed a robust, stage-wise, feeder-free strategy for hiPSC differentiation into functional SMC through an intermediate stage of multipotent MSC, which could be coaxed to differentiate into fat, bone, cartilage, and muscle. At this stage, the cells were highly proliferative and displayed higher clonogenic potential and reduced senescence when compared with parental hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, when exposed to differentiation medium, the myogenic proteins such as α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain were significantly upregulated and displayed robust fibrillar organization, suggesting the development of a contractile phenotype. Indeed, tissue constructs prepared from these cells exhibited high levels of contractility in response to receptor- and non-receptor-mediated agonists. Conclusion We developed an efficient stage-wise strategy that enabled hiPSC differentiation into contractile SMC through an intermediate population of clonogenic and multipotent MSC. The high yield of MSC and SMC derivation suggests that our strategy may facilitate an acquisition of the large numbers of cells required for regenerative medicine or for studying vascular disease pathophysiology. PMID:22941255

  11. Mitochondrial metabolism and the control of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eChiong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are essential processes of vascular development. VSMCs have biosynthetic, proliferative and contractile roles in the vessel wall. Alterations in the differentiated state of the VSMCs play a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension and vascular stenosis. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in the control of VSMC proliferation, with particular focus on mitochondrial metabolism. Mitochondrial activity can be controlled by regulating mitochondrial dynamics, i.e. mitochondrial fusion and fission, and by regulating mitochondrial calcium handling through the interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Alterations in both VSMC proliferation and mitochondrial function can be triggered by dysregulation of mitofusin-2, a small GTPase associated with mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrial-ER interaction. Several lines of evidence highlight the relevance of mitochondrial metabolism in the control of VSMC proliferation, indicating a new area to be explored in the treatment of vascular diseases.

  12. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) recepto...

  13. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Rings from Human iPSC-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraja C. Dash

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for an efficient approach to obtain a large-scale and renewable source of functional human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to establish robust, patient-specific tissue model systems for studying the pathogenesis of vascular disease, and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we have derived a large quantity of highly enriched functional VSMCs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-VSMCs. Furthermore, we have engineered 3D tissue rings from hiPSC-VSMCs using a facile one-step cellular self-assembly approach. The tissue rings are mechanically robust and can be used for vascular tissue engineering and disease modeling of supravalvular aortic stenosis syndrome. Our method may serve as a model system, extendable to study other vascular proliferative diseases for drug screening. Thus, this report describes an exciting platform technology with broad utility for manufacturing cell-based tissues and materials for various biomedical applications.

  14. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  15. Brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 suppresses smooth muscle differentiation and vascular development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Chun; Chuang, Ya-Hui; Shao, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Fu; Chen, Shi-You

    2018-04-13

    The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether long noncoding RNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, using the murine cell line C3H10T1/2, we found that brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BC1) is an important regulator of SMC differentiation. BC1 overexpression suppressed, whereas BC1 knockdown promoted, TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation, as indicated by altered cell morphology and expression of multiple SMC markers, including smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA), calponin, and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α). BC1 appeared to block SMAD3 activity and inhibit SMC marker gene transcription. Mechanistically, BC1 bound to SMAD3 via RNA SMAD-binding elements (rSBEs) and thus impeded TGF-β-induced SMAD3 translocation to the nucleus. This prevented SMAD3 from binding to SBEs in SMC marker gene promoters, an essential event in SMC marker transcription. In vivo , BC1 overexpression in mouse embryos impaired vascular SMC differentiation, leading to structural defects in the artery wall, such as random breaks in the elastic lamina, abnormal collagen deposition on SM fibers, and disorganized extracellular matrix proteins in the media of the neonatal aorta. Our results suggest that BC1 is a suppressor of SMC differentiation during vascular development. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Oxytocin receptors expressed and coupled to Ca2+ signalling in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, H; Hirasawa, A; Horie, K; Saita, Y; Iida, E; Honda, K; Tsujimoto, G

    1996-03-01

    1. In a human vascular smooth muscle cell line (HVSMC), binding experiments with [3H]-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) have shown the existence of a homogeneous population of binding sites with affinity (Kd value) of 0.65 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 122 fmol mg-1 protein. 2. Nonlabelled compounds compete for [3H]-AVP binding in the HVSMC membrane with an order of potency of oxytocin > lyspressin > or = AVP > Thr4, Gly7-oxytocin > (beta-mercapto-beta-beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionyl-O-Me Tyr2, Arg8) vasopressin > desmopressin > OPC21268 > OPC31260. This order was markedly different from that observed in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (A10), a well-established V1A receptor system. 3. In HVSMC both oxytocin and AVP increased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production and [Ca2+]i response, but the efficacy of the responses was greater for oxytocin than AVP. 4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay detected only oxytocin receptor but not V1A or V2 receptors in HVSMC, whereas only V1A receptors were found in A10 cells. 5. In conclusion, in HVSMC only oxytocin receptors are expressed among the vasopressin receptor family, and they coupled to phosphatidyl inositol (PI) turnover/Ca2+ signalling. This unexpected observation should provide new insight into the functional role of the oxytocin receptor in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

  17. Akt1/PKB upregulation leads to vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and polyploidization

    OpenAIRE

    Hixon, Mary L.; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Wagner, Mark W.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos; Millie, Elise; Fujio, Yasushi; Kureishi, Yasuko; Hassold, Terry; Walsh, Kenneth; Gualberto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) at capacitance arteries of hypertensive individuals and animals undergo marked age- and blood pressure–dependent polyploidization and hypertrophy. We show here that VSMCs at capacitance arteries of rat models of hypertension display high levels of Akt1/PKB protein and activity. Gene transfer of Akt1 to VSMCs isolated from a normotensive rat strain was sufficient to abrogate the activity of the mitotic spindle cell–cycle checkpoint, promoting polyploidizati...

  18. Calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells: associations with osteoprotegerin expression and acceleration by high-dose insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ping; Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Wogensen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    Arterial medial calcifications occur often in diabetic individuals as part of the diabetic macroangiopathy. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the presence of calcifications predicts risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of insulin on calcifying smooth muscle cells in vitro...... and measured the expression of the bone-related molecule osteoprotegerin (OPG). Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were grown from aorta from kidney donors. Induction of calcification was performed with beta-glycerophosphate. The influence of insulin (200 microU/ml or 1,000 microU/ml) on calcification...... calcification in human smooth muscle cells from a series of donors after variable time in culture. Decreased OPG amounts were observed from the cells during the accelerated calcification phase. High dose of insulin (1,000 microU/ml) accelerated the calcification, whereas lower concentrations (200 microU/ml) did...

  19. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine 125 I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 x 10 -11 M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease

  20. Peptides PHI and VIP: comparison between vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effect in rabbit uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardrum, B.; Ottesen, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and effects of the two neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the urogenital tract of nonpregnant rabbit female, were investigated. Immunoreactive VIP and PHI were present in all regions except the ovary with the highest concentration in the uterin cervix. By using in vitro tension recordings of myometrial specimens, it was demonstrated that both peptides displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of the mechanical activity. The dose-response curves of VIP and PHI were superimposable with and ID 50 of 3 x 10 -8 mol/l, and their combined effect was additive. In addition, the influence of the two peptides on myometrial blood flow (MBF) was investigated by the xenon-133 washout technique. Both peptides were found to increase MBF with the same potency and efficacy. Their combined effect was additive. In conclusion VIP and PHI are present in the rabbit urogenital tract, and the two peptides are equipotent inhibitors of mechanical nonvascular and vascular smooth muscle activity in the uterus

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Meirelles, Thayna; López-Luque, Judit; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Selva, Javier; Caja, Laia; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Uriarte, Juan José; Bertran, Esther; Mendizábal, Yolanda; Hernández, Vanessa; García-Calero, Carolina; Busnadiego, Oscar; Condom, Enric; Toral, David; Castellà, Manel; Forteza, Alberto; Navajas, Daniel; Sarri, Elisabet; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Dietz, Harry C; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Marfan's syndrome is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix microfibrils and chronic tissue growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. TGF-β is a potent regulator of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype. We hypothesized that as a result of the chronic TGF-β signaling, VSMC would alter their basal differentiation phenotype, which could facilitate the formation of aneurysms. This study explores whether Marfan's syndrome entails phenotypic alterations of VSMC and possible mechanisms at the subcellular level. Immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses of dilated aortas from Marfan patients showed overexpression of contractile protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin, smoothelin, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, and calponin-1) and collagen I in comparison with healthy aortas. VSMC explanted from Marfan aortic aneurysms showed increased in vitro expression of these phenotypic markers and also of myocardin, a transcription factor essential for VSMC-specific differentiation. These alterations were generally reduced after pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-β pathway. Marfan VSMC in culture showed more robust actin stress fibers and enhanced RhoA-GTP levels, which was accompanied by increased focal adhesion components and higher nuclear localization of myosin-related transcription factor A. Marfan VSMC and extracellular matrix measured by atomic force microscopy were both stiffer than their respective controls. In Marfan VSMC, both in tissue and in culture, there are variable TGF-β-dependent phenotypic changes affecting contractile proteins and collagen I, leading to greater cellular and extracellular matrix stiffness. Altogether, these alterations may contribute to the known aortic rigidity that precedes or accompanies Marfan's syndrome aneurysm formation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Adhesion, Growth, and Maturation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Low-Density Polyethylene Grafted with Bioactive Substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pařízek, Martin; Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Bačáková, Lucie; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Slepička, P.; Bačáková, Markéta; Lisá, Věra; Švorčík, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 2013 (2013), s. 371430 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biotechnology * tissue replacements * vascular smooth muscle cells * adhesion * modification Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  3. Vascular wall-resident CD44+ multipotent stem cells give rise to pericytes and smooth muscle cells and contribute to new vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Klein

    Full Text Available Here, we identify CD44(+CD90(+CD73(+CD34(-CD45(- cells within the adult human arterial adventitia with properties of multipotency which were named vascular wall-resident multipotent stem cells (VW-MPSCs. VW-MPSCs exhibit typical mesenchymal stem cell characteristics including cell surface markers in immunostaining and flow cytometric analyses, and differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes under culture conditions. Particularly, TGFß1 stimulation up-regulates smooth muscle cell markers in VW-MPSCs. Using fluorescent cell labelling and co-localisation studies we show that VW-MPSCs differentiate to pericytes/smooth muscle cells which cover the wall of newly formed endothelial capillary-like structures in vitro. Co-implantation of EGFP-labelled VW-MPSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells into SCID mice subcutaneously via Matrigel results in new vessels formation which were covered by pericyte- or smooth muscle-like cells generated from implanted VW-MPSCs. Our results suggest that VW-MPSCs are of relevance for vascular morphogenesis, repair and self-renewal of vascular wall cells and for local capacity of neovascularization in disease processes.

  4. Effects of gamma rays on rat vascular smooth muscle fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassan, A [Radio-Biology and Health Dept. Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    Modifications of the Vasomotoricity induced by gamma rays have been investigated. Vascular smooth muscle fibres (VSMF) of rat portal vein have been used in this study. Irradiation procedures using a {sup 60} Co source have been carried out as follows: - Whole body irradiation. - Irradiation of isolated portal vein and isolated VSMF. Our results show that : 1-irradiation reduces the functional competition between Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}, thus hyper magnetic Krebs solutions have a negligible effect on irradiated VSMF. 2- irradiation activates Ca{sup 2+} influx into the VSMF. Thus the effect of hypocalcemic solutions on irradiated VSMF is minor compared with control. 3- Hyperpotassic solutions provoke titanic contractions with high amplitude on the irradiated VSMF compared with control. 5 figs.

  5. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  6. Sphingosine-1-phosphate regulates RGS2 and RGS16 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; Hajji, Najat; van Loenen, Pieter B.; Michel, Martin C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2009-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) protein expression is altered under growth promoting conditions in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Since sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important growth stimulatory factor, we investigated whether stimulation of VSMCs with S1P results in alterations

  7. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A 2 is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy

  8. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  9. CCN5 modulates the antiproliferative effect of heparin and regulates cell motility in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellot John J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC hyperplasia plays an important role in both chronic and acute vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Considerable work has focused on the mechanisms regulating VSMC proliferation and motility. Earlier work in our lab revealed a novel growth arrest-specific (gas gene induced in VSMC exposed to the antiproliferative agent heparin. This gene is a member of the CCN family and has been given the name CCN5. The objective of the present study is to elucidate the function of CCN5 protein and to explore its mechanism of action in VSMC. Results Using RNA interference (RNAi, we first demonstrate that CCN5 is required for the antiproliferative effect of heparin in VSMC. We also use this gene knockdown approach to show that CCN5 is an important negative regulator of motility. To explore the mechanism of action of CCN5 on VSMC motility, we use RNAi to demonstrate that knock down of CCN5 up regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, an important stimulator of motility in VSMC. In addition, forced expression of CCN5 via adenovirus results in reduced MMP-2 activity, this also corroborates the gene knock down results. Finally, we show that loss of CCN5 expression in VSMC causes changes in VSMC morphology and cytoskeletal organization, including a reduction in the amount and macromolecular assembly of smooth muscle cell α-actin. Conclusions This work provides important new insights into the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation and motility by CCN5 and may aid the development of therapies for vascular diseases.

  10. Luteolin Ameliorates Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling through Inhibiting the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preliminary researches showed that luteolin was used to treat hypertension. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin has effect on the hypertensive complication such as vascular remodeling. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of luteolin on the hypertensive vascular remodeling and its molecular mechanism. Method and Results. We evaluated the effect of luteolin on aorta thickening of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs and found that luteolin could significantly decrease the blood pressure and media thickness of aorta in vivo. Luteolin could inhibit angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA staining result showed that luteolin reduced Ang II-stimulated ROS production in VSMCs. Furthermore, western blot and gelatin zymography results showed that luteolin treatment leaded to a decrease in ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, MMP2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA protein level. Conclusion. These data support that luteolin can ameliorate hypertensive vascular remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of Ang II-induced VSMCs. Its mechanism is mediated by the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and the production of ROS.

  11. Regulation of capacitative and non-capacitative Ca2+ entry in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells

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    COLIN W TAYLOR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE pathway, activated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, is thought to mediate much of the Ca2+ entry evoked by receptors that stimulate phospholipase C (PLC. However, in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells, vasopressin, which stimulates PLC, empties intracellular Ca2+ stores but simultaneously inhibits their ability to activate CCE. The diacylglycerol produced with the IP3 that empties the stores is metabolized to arachidonic and this leads to activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, production of NO and cyclic GMP, and consequent activation of protein kinase G. The latter inhibits CCE. In parallel, NO directly activates a non-capacitative Ca2+ entry (NCCE pathway, which is entirely responsible for the Ca2+ entry that occurs in the presence of vasopressin. This reciprocal regulation of two Ca2+ entry pathways ensures that there is sequential activation of first NCCE in the presence of vasopressin, and then a transient activation of CCE when vasopressin is removed. We suggest that the two routes for Ca2+ entry may selectively direct Ca2+ to processes that mediate activation and then recovery of the cell.

  12. Expression profile and protein translation of TMEM16A in murine smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Alison J; Forrest, Abigail S; Jepps, Thomas Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recently, overexpression of the genes TMEM16A and TMEM16B has been shown to produce currents qualitatively similar to native Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I(ClCa)) in vascular smooth muscle. However, there is no information about this new gene family in vascular smooth muscle, where Cl(-) chan...

  13. Effect of lovastatin on rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaoxia; Pei Zhuguo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lovastatin on binding activity of nuclear factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) to NF-κB and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: The oligonucleotide corresponding to the consensus NF-κB element or the consensus AP-1 element was labeled by [γ- 32 P]-ATP. AP-1 and NF-κB binding activity was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), expression of MMP-9 was detected by zymography. Results: Lovastatin inhibited the expression of MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner, this effect was reversed by mevalonate and GGPP but not by squalene; lovastatin significantly decreased AP-1 and NF-κB binding activity. Conclusion: Lovastatin decreased AP-1 and NF-κB binding activity and inhibited MMP-9 expression in rabbit VSMCs by the way of inhibiting prenylation of protein but not by cholestrol-lowering, and this might be the mechanism of its arteriosclerostic plaque stabilizing effects

  14. Intermediate filaments in smooth muscle from pregnant and non-pregnant human uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, P; Carli, F; Halliday, D

    1990-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle and smooth-muscle cells in culture were analysed using SDS/PAGE. The desmin content in uterine muscle increases dramatically during pregnancy, whereas vimentin remains unchanged or changes very little. When muscle cells are kept in culture, a considerable increase in vimentin content is observed as compared with vimentin in freshly isolated non-pregnant uterine tissue. Our results strengthen t...

  15. Tungstate-Targeting of BKαβ1 Channels Tunes ERK Phosphorylation and Cell Proliferation in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    López López, José Ramón; Fernández Mariño, Ana Isabel; Cidad, Pilar; Zafra, Delia; Nocito, Laura; Domínguez, Jorge; Oliván Viguera, Aida; Köhler, Ralf; Pérez García, María Teresa; Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Guinovart, Joan J.; Fernández Fernández, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Producción Científica Despite the substantial knowledge on the antidiabetic, antiobesity and antihypertensive actions of tungstate, information on its primary target/s is scarce. Tungstate activates both the ERK1/2 pathway and the vascular voltage- and Ca2+-dependent large-conductance BKαβ1 potassium channel, which modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and function, respectively. Here, we have assessed the possible involvement of BKαβ1 channels in the tungstate-induced...

  16. Patent ductus arteriosus in mice with smooth muscle-specific Jag1 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuesong; Krebs, Luke T.; Gridley, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Mice with smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of Jag1, which encodes a Notch ligand, die postnatally from patent ductus arteriosus. These mice exhibit defects in contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation in the vascular wall of the ductus arteriosus and adjacent descending aorta. These defects arise through an inability to propagate the JAG1-Notch signal via lateral induction throughout the width of the vascular wall. Both heterotypic endothelial smooth muscle cell interactions and homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for normal patterning and differentiation of the ductus arteriosus and adjacent descending aorta. This new model for a common congenital heart defect provides novel insights into the genetic programs that underlie ductus arteriosus development and closure. PMID:21068062

  17. Antibodies against AT1 receptors are associated with vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function impairment: protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jin

    Full Text Available Ample evidence has shown that autoantibodies against AT1 receptors (AT1-AA are closely associated with human cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying AT1-AA-induced vascular structural and functional impairments in the formation of hypertension, and explore ways for preventive treatment. We used synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of the AT1 receptor (165-191 to immunize rats and establish an active immunization model. Part of the model received preventive therapy by losartan (20 mg/kg/day and hyroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA (10 mg/kg/day. The result show that systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR of immunized rats was significantly higher, and closely correlated with the plasma AT1-Ab titer. The systolic response of thoracic aortic was increased, but diastolic effects were attenuated markedly. Histological observation showed that the thoracic aortic endothelium of the immunized rats became thinner or ruptured, inflammatory cell infiltration, medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, the vascular wall became thicker. There was no significant difference in serum antibody titer between losartan and HSYA groups and the immunized group. The vascular structure and function were reversed, and plasma biochemical parameters were also improved significantly in the two treatment groups. These results suggest that AT1-Ab could induce injury to vascular endothelial cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. These changes were involved in the formation of hypertension. Treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and anti oxidative therapy could block the pathogenic effect of AT1-Ab on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  18. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier; Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine; Morel, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca 2+ signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate

  19. Redundant control of migration and adhesion by ERM proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeyens, Nicolas; Latrache, Iman; Yerna, Xavier [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Noppe, Gauthier; Horman, Sandrine [Pôle de Recherche Cardiovasculaire, IREC, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium); Morel, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.morel@uclouvain.be [Laboratory of Cell Physiology, IoNS, Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •The three ERM proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cell. •ERM depletion inhibited PDGF-evoked migration redundantly. •ERM depletion increased cell adhesion redundantly. •ERM depletion did not affect PDGF-evoked Ca signal, Rac1 activation, proliferation. •ERM proteins control PDGF-induced migration by regulating adhesion. -- Abstract: Ezrin, radixin, and moesin possess a very similar structure with a C-terminal actin-binding domain and a N-terminal FERM interacting domain. They are known to be involved in cytoskeleton organization in several cell types but their function in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ERM proteins in cell migration induced by PDGF, a growth factor involved in pathophysiological processes like angiogenesis or atherosclerosis. We used primary cultured VSMC obtained from rat aorta, which express the three ERM proteins. Simultaneous depletion of the three ERM proteins with specific siRNAs abolished the effects of PDGF on cell architecture and migration and markedly increased cell adhesion and focal adhesion size, while these parameters were only slightly affected by depletion of ezrin, radixin or moesin alone. Rac1 activation, cell proliferation, and Ca{sup 2+} signal in response to PDGF were unaffected by ERM depletion. These results indicate that ERM proteins exert a redundant control on PDGF-induced VSMC migration by regulating focal adhesion turn-over and cell adhesion to substrate.

  20. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; Pmuscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  1. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit a progressive loss of rigidity with serial culture passaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Venturini, Gabriela; Omae, Samantha Vieira; Zhou, Enhua H; da Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Dariolli, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.

  2. Gene expression profiling of resting and activated vascular smooth muscle cells by serial analysis of gene expression and clustering analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beauchamp, Nicholas J.; van Achterberg, Tanja A. E.; Engelse, Marten A.; Pannekoek, Hans; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key events in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about alterations in gene expression upon transition of the quiescent, contractile SMC to the proliferative SMC. We performed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of

  3. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Demetra D.; Pierce, Gary L.; Walker, Ashley E.; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18–79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4–42.2 kg/m2], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI...

  4. Redox signaling in cardiovascular pathophysiology: A focus on hydrogen peroxide and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Byon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress represents excessive intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Besides having a critical impact on the development and progression of vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and diabetic vasculopathy, oxidative stress also regulates physiological signaling processes. As a cell permeable ROS generated by cellular metabolism involved in intracellular signaling, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exerts tremendous impact on cardiovascular pathophysiology. Under pathological conditions, increased oxidase activities and/or impaired antioxidant systems results in uncontrolled production of ROS. In a pro-oxidant environment, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC undergo phenotypic changes which can lead to the development of vascular dysfunction such as vascular inflammation and calcification. Investigations are ongoing to elucidate the mechanisms for cardiovascular disorders induced by oxidative stress. This review mainly focuses on the role of H2O2 in regulating physiological and pathological signals in VSMC.

  5. Novel Mechanism of Plasma Prekallikrein (PK) Activation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Evidence of the presence of PK Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Keum, Joo-Seob; Jaffa, Miran A; Luttrell, Louis M; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of plasma prekallikrein (PK) to vascular remodeling is becoming increasingly recognized. Plasma PK is activated when the zymogen PK is digested to an active enzyme by activated factor XII (FXII). Here, we present our findings that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) activate plasma PK in the absence of FXII. Extracted plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions of VSMCs activate PK, but the rate of PK activation was greater by the membrane fraction. FXII neutralizing antibody did...

  6. S1P receptor signalling and RGS proteins; expression and function in vascular smooth muscle cells and transfected CHO cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; van Loenen, Pieter B.; Hajji, Najat; Michel, Martin C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling via G protein-coupled receptors is important for the regulation of cell function and differentiation. Specific Regulators of G protein Signalling (RGS) proteins modulate the function of these receptors in many cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells

  7. IGF-1 Has Plaque-Stabilizing Effects in Atherosclerosis by Altering Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Borensztajn, Keren S.; Moimas, Silvia; van Heiningen, Sandra; Teeling, Peter; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is important for the maintenance of plaque stability in atherosclerosis due to its effects on vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the highly inflammatory milieu of the atherosclerotic plaque on IGF-1 signaling and stability-related phenotypic parameters of murine vSMCs in vitro, and the effects of IGF-1 supplementation on plaque phenotype in an atherosclerotic mouse model. M1-polarized, macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited IGF-1 signaling by ablating IGF-1 and increasing IGF-binding protein 3, increased vSMC apoptosis, and decreased proliferation. Expression of α-actin and col3a1 genes was strongly attenuated by macrophage-conditioned medium, whereas expression of matrix-degrading enzymes was increased. Importantly, all of these effects could be corrected by supplementation with IGF-1. In vivo, treatment with the stable IGF-1 analog Long R3 IGF-1 in apolipoprotein E knockout mice reduced stenosis and core size, and doubled cap/core ratio in early atherosclerosis. In advanced plaques, Long R3 IGF-1 increased the vSMC content of the plaque by more than twofold and significantly reduced the rate of intraplaque hemorrhage. We believe that IGF-1 in atherosclerotic plaques may have a role in preventing plaque instability, not only by modulating smooth muscle cell turnover, but also by altering smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID:21281823

  8. Long Non-Coding RNA MEG3 Downregulation Triggers Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration via the p53 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengxian Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasing evidence has demonstrated a significant role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in diverse biological processes, and many of which are likely to have functional roles in vascular remodeling. However, their functions in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH remain largely unknown. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of PAH, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs dysfunction is involved in vascular remodeling. Long noncoding RNAs are potential regulators of PASMCs function. Herein, we determined whether long noncoding RNA–maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3 was involved in PAH-related vascular remodeling. Methods: The arterial wall thickness was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining in distal pulmonary arteries (PAs isolated from lungs of healthy volunteers and PAH patients. The expression level of MEG3 was analyzed by qPCR. The effects of MEG3 on human PASMCs were assessed by cell counting Kit-8 assay, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry, scratch-wound assay, immunofluorescence, and western blotting in human PASMCs. Results: We revealed that the expression of MEG3 was significantly downregulated in lung and PAs of patients with PAH. MEG3 knockdown affected PASMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. Moreover, inhibition of MEG3 regulated the cell cycle progression and made more smooth muscle cells from the G0/G1 phase to the G2/M+S phase and the process could stimulate the expression of PCNA, Cyclin A and Cyclin E. In addition, we found that the p53 pathway was involved in MEG3–induced smooth muscle cell proliferation. Conclusions: This study identified MEG3 as a critical regulator in PAH and demonstrated the potential of gene therapy and drug development for treating PAH.

  9. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki; Kume, Noriaki; Minami, Manabu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Orihara, Koji; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Biro, Sadatoshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Tei, Chuwa

    2006-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 μg/mL) stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury

  10. A role for mitochondrial oxidants in stress-induced premature senescence of human vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Mistry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are a major source of cellular oxidants and have been implicated in aging and associated pathologies, notably cardiovascular diseases. Vascular cell senescence is observed in experimental and human cardiovascular pathologies. Our previous data highlighted a role for angiotensin II in the induction of telomere-dependent and -independent premature senescence of human vascular smooth muscle cells and suggested this was due to production of superoxide by NADPH oxidase. However, since a role for mitochondrial oxidants was not ruled out we hypothesise that angiotensin II mediates senescence by mitochondrial superoxide generation and suggest that inhibition of superoxide may prevent vascular smooth muscle cell aging in vitro. Cellular senescence was induced using a stress-induced premature senescence protocol consisting of three successive once-daily exposure of cells to 1×10−8 mol/L angiotensin II and was dependent upon the type-1 angiotensin II receptor. Angiotensin stimulated NADPH-dependent superoxide production as estimated using lucigenin chemiluminescence in cell lysates and this was attenuated by the mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor, rotenone. Angiotensin also resulted in an increase in mitoSOX fluorescence indicating stimulation of mitochondrial superoxide. Significantly, the induction of senescence by angiotensin II was abrogated by rotenone and by the mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic, mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that mitochondrial superoxide is necessary for the induction of stress-induced premature senescence by angiotensin II and taken together with other data suggest that mitochondrial cross-talk with NADPH oxidases, via as yet unidentified signalling pathways, is likely to play a key role.

  11. Synthetic smooth muscle in the outer blood plexus of the rhinarium skin of Lemur catta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Rolf; Kröger, Ronald H H

    2017-01-01

    The skin of the lemur nose tip (rhinarium) has arterioles in the outer vascular plexus that are endowed with an unusual coat of smooth muscle cells. Comparison with the arterioles of the same area in a number of unrelated mammalians shows that the lemur pattern is unique. The vascular smooth muscle cells belong to the synthetic type. The function of synthetic smooth muscles around the terminal vessels in the lemur rhinarium is unclear but may have additional functions beyond regulation of vessel diameter.

  12. Regulation of GPCR-mediated smooth muscle contraction : implications for asthma and pulmonary hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D B; Tripathi, S; Sikarwar, A; Santosh, K T; Perez-Zoghbi, J; Ojo, O O; Irechukwu, N; Ward, J P T; Schaafsma, D

    Contractile G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as key regulators of smooth muscle contraction, both under healthy and diseased conditions. This brief review will discuss some key topics and novel insights regarding GPCR-mediated airway and vascular smooth muscle contraction as

  13. RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling via the JNK pathway and vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Chao; Wang, Yuqin; Yao, Wenjuan

    2018-05-20

    The RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway regulates cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of RhoA/ROCK signaling on PDGF-BB-mediated smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling and clarified the molecular mechanisms behind these effects. PDGF-BB treatment induced the activation of RhoA, ROCK, PDGF-Rβ, and the expression of PDGF-Rβ in HA-VSMCs (human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells). PDGF-Rβ inhibition and RhoA suppression blocked PDGF-BB-induced RhoA activation and ROCK induction. In addition, PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration were suppressed by PDGF-Rβ inhibition, RhoA suppression, and ROCK inhibition, suggesting that PDGF-BB promotes phenotypic modulation of HA-VSMCs by activating the RhoA/ROCK pathway via the PDGF receptor. Moreover, suppressing both ROCK1 and ROCK2 blocked cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase by decreasing the transcription and protein expression of cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4 via JNK/c-Jun pathway, thus reducing cell proliferation in PDGF-BB-treated HA-VSMCs. ROCK1 deletion, rather than ROCK2 suppression, significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced migration by reducing the expression of vimentin and preventing the remodeling of vimentin and phospho-vimentin. Furthermore, ROCK1 deletion suppressed vimentin by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the nuclear translocation of Smad4. These findings suggested that ROCK1 and ROCK2 might play different roles in PDGF-BB-mediated cell proliferation and migration in HA-VSMCs. In addition, PDGF-BB and its receptor participated in neointima formation and vascular remodeling by promoting cell cycle protein expression via the JNK pathway and enhancing vimentin expression in a rat balloon injury model; effects that were inhibited by treatment with fasudil. Together, the results of this study reveal a novel mechanism through which RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and

  14. Thrombospondin-1, -2 and -5 have differential effects on vascular smooth muscle cell physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helkin, Alex; Maier, Kristopher G. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States); Gahtan, Vivian, E-mail: gahtanv@upstate.edu [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Services, Syracuse, NY (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York at Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Introduction: The thrombospondins (TSPs) are matricellular proteins that exert multifunctional effects by binding cytokines, cell-surface receptors and other proteins. TSPs play important roles in vascular pathobiology and are all expressed in arterial lesions. The differential effects of TSP-1, -2, and -5 represent a gap in knowledge in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) physiology. Our objective is to determine if structural differences of the TSPs imparted different effects on VSMC functions critical to the formation of neointimal hyperplasia. We hypothesize that TSP-1 and -2 induce similar patterns of migration, proliferation and gene expression, while the effects of TSP-5 are different. Methods: Human aortic VSMC chemotaxis was tested for TSP-2 and TSP-5 (1–40 μg/mL), and compared to TSP-1 and serum-free media (SFM) using a modified Boyden chamber. Next, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2 or TSP-5 (0.2–40 μg/mL). Proliferation was assessed by MTS assay. Finally, VSMCs were exposed to TSP-1, TSP-2, TSP-5 or SFM for 3, 6 or 24 h. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed on 96 genes using a microfluidic card. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or t-test, with p < 0.05 being significant. Results: TSP-1, TSP-2 and TSP-5 at 20 μg/mL all induce chemotaxis 3.1 fold compared to serum-free media. TSP-1 and TSP-2 induced proliferation 53% and 54% respectively, whereas TSP-5 did not. In the gene analysis, overall, cardiovascular system development and function is the canonical pathway most influenced by TSP treatment, and includes multiple growth factors, cytokines and proteases implicated in cellular migration, proliferation, vasculogenesis, apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Conclusions and relevance: The results of this study indicate TSP-1, -2, and -5 play active roles in VSMC physiology and gene expression. Similarly to TSP-1, VSMC chemotaxis to TSP-2 and -5 is dose-dependent. TSP-1 and -2 induces VSMC proliferation, but TSP-5 does not, likely

  15. Nuclear import mechanism for myocardin family members and their correlation with vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seiji; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Sobue, Kenji

    2010-11-26

    Myocardin (Mycd), which is essential for the differentiation of the smooth muscle cell lineage, is constitutively located in the nucleus, although its family members, myocardin-related transcription factors A and B (MRTF-A/B), mostly reside in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus in response to Rho signaling. The mechanism for their nuclear import is unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism for the nuclear import of Mycd family members and demonstrated any correlation between such mechanism and the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, the knockdown of importin β1 inhibited the nuclear import of Mycd and MRTF-A/B. Their NH(2)-terminal basic domain was identified as a binding site for importin α/β1 by in vitro analyses. However, Mycd had a higher affinity for importin α/β1 than did MRTF-A/B, even in the absence of G-actin, and Mycd affinity for importin α1/β1 was stronger than for any other importin α/β1 heterodimers. The binding of Mycd to importin α/β1 was insensitive to G-actin, whereas that of MRTF-A/B was differently inhibited by G-actin. In dedifferentiated VSMCs, the levels of importins α1 and β1 were reduced concomitant with down-regulation of Mycd, serum response factor, and smooth muscle cell markers. By contrast, in differentiated VSMCs, their expressions were up-regulated. Thus, the nuclear import of Mycd family members in VSMCs depends on importin α/β1, and their relative affinities for importin α/β1 heterodimers determine Mycd nuclear import. The expression of Mycd nuclear import machineries is related to the expression levels of VSMC phenotype-dependent smooth muscle cell markers.

  16. Verapamil stereoisomers induce antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells via autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabei, Joshua K. [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Balakumaran, Arun [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Frey, Justin C. [Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Boor, Paul J. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Treinen-Moslen, Mary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0609 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States); Conklin, Daniel J., E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu [Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555‐0438 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are important in the management of hypertension and limit restenosis. Although CCB efficacy could derive from decreased blood pressure, other mechanisms independent of CCB activity also can contribute to antiproliferative action. To understand mechanisms of CCB-mediated antiproliferation, we studied two structurally dissimilar CCBs, diltiazem and verapamil, in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). To elucidate CCB-independent effects, pure stereoisomers of verapamil (R-verapamil, inactive VR; S-verapamil, active, VS) were used. The effects of CCB exposure on cell viability (MTT reduction), cell proliferation ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation), VSMC morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and autophagy (LC3I/II, ATG5) were measured. In general, verapamil, VR or VS treatment alone (80 μM) appreciably enhanced MTT absorbance although higher concentrations (VR or VS) slightly decreased MTT absorbance. Diltiazem (140 μM) markedly decreased MTT absorbance (40%) at 120 h. VR or VS treatment inhibited {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation (24 h) and induced cytological alterations (i.e., karyokinesis, enhanced perinuclear MTT deposition, accumulated perinuclear “vacuoles”). TEM revealed perinuclear “vacuoles” to be aggregates of highly laminated and electron-dense vesicles resembling autophagosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Increased autophagosome activity was confirmed by a concentration-dependent increase in LC3-II formation by Western blotting and by increased perinuclear LC3-GFP{sup +} puncta in verapamil-treated VSMC. Verapamil stereoisomers appeared to decrease perinuclear mitochondrial density. These observations indicate that antiproliferative effects of verapamil stereoisomers are produced by enhanced mitochondrial damage and upregulated autophagy in VSMC. These effects are independent of CCB activity indicating a distinct mechanism of action that could be targeted for more efficacious anti

  17. Vardenafil inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fei-Peng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Wang, Hsing-Won

    2018-07-01

    Levitra, a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is the trade name of vardenafil. Nowadays, it is applied to treatment of erectile dysfunction. PDE5 inhibitors are employed to induce dilatation of the vascular smooth muscle. The effect of Levitra on impotency is well known; however, its effect on the tracheal smooth muscle has rarely been explored. When administered for sexual symptoms via oral intake or inhalation, Levitra might affect the trachea. This study assessed the effects of Levitra on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle by examining its effect on resting tension of tracheal smooth muscle, contraction caused by 10 -6  M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic, and electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. The results showed that adding methacholine to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of Levitra at doses of 10 -5  M or above elicited a significant relaxation response to 10 -6  M methacholine-induced contraction. Levitra could inhibit electrical field stimulation-induced spike contraction. It alone had minimal effect on the basal tension of the trachea as the concentration increased. High concentrations of Levitra could inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. Levitra when administered via oral intake might reduce asthma attacks in impotent patients because it might inhibit parasympathetic function and reduce methacholine-induced contraction of the tracheal smooth muscle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  18. Effect of hypertensive rat plasma on ion transport of cultured vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magargal, W.W.; Overbeck, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    We layered fresh, unprocessed plasma from healthy rats with early (less than or equal to 7 days) or benign, chronic (greater than 3 wk) one-kidney, one-clip hypertension and from paired one-kidney normotensive control rats over confluent primary-cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Plasma from all rats increased cellular ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and sodium content and decreased ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb + uptake compared with uptakes and content in the presence of balanced salt solution (P less than 0.01). Cells incubated in the presence of plasma from rats with early (P less than 0.02) or chronic hypertension (P less than 0.01) had significantly reduced ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake when compared with cells incubated in normotensive plasma, but their intracellular Na+ contents were not lower. We no longer detected this uptake difference when chronic hypertensives drank 0.9% NaCl instead of water. Plasma from hypertensive rats also altered ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb + uptake by the cultured cells. These findings of this new, reproducible, and specific assay system support the hypothesis that plasma factors inhibit the membrane sodium-potassium pump in vascular smooth muscle cells in this form of hypertension. The abnormality occurs in both early and chronic stages, but may not be related to sodium intake. The data also provide evidence for plasma factors in hypertension altering membrane K+ permeability

  19. Effects of x-irradiation on growth of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzoga, K.F.; Dimitrievich, G.S.; Sutton, H.G.; Griem, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of x-irradiation doses ranging from 0-2000 rads on vascular smooth muscle cells were measured. Explant cultures were from the medial layers of aortas from New Zealand rabbits. X-irradiation was delivered to narrow mediastinal port using a 250 kV Maxitron at a rate of 80 rads/min. and a S-C distance of 60 cm. Explantation was done either immediately following radiation or five days later. Two parameters were used to determine post-irradiation growth potential of these cells: number of outgrowing cells per seeded explant and size and number of cells/culture. Results were expressed as fraction of control. Irradiation immediately before explantation reduced number of cells/ explant 10% for 250 rads and over 50% for 500 rads. Doses of 1000 rads and over resulted in reductions of over 70% in number of growing explants and culture size. When five days were allowed to elapse between x-irradiation and explantation the same parameters were not significantly affected for doses of 500 rads or less. Doses of 1000 rads resulted in a reduction in number of cells of 40% and 2000 rads of over 80%. These results suggest the presence of a population of vascular repair cells five days following irradiation treatment. The nature of these cells is discussed

  20. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong; Tang Jian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE -/- mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury

  1. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hiromichi; Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh; Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide; Satoh, Noriko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kita, Toru; Shimatsu, Akira; Hasegawa, Koji

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 μM of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-α-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 μM), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs

  2. Statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Hiromichi [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Abe, Mitsuru; Ono, Koh [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Takaya, Tomohide [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Satoh, Noriko [Division of Metabolic Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto (Japan); Fujita, Masatoshi [Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kita, Toru [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shimatsu, Akira [Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, Koji [Division of Translational Research, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Mukaihata-cho, Fukakusa, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan)

    2008-10-03

    The beneficial effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) beyond cholesterol lowering involve their direct actions on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the effects of statins on phenotypic modulation of VSMCs are unknown. We herein show that simvastatin (Sm) and atorvastatin (At) inhibited DNA synthesis in human aortic VSMCs dose-dependently, while cell toxicity was not observed below the concentration of 1 {mu}M of Sm or 100 nM of At. Stimulating proliferative VSMCs with Sm or At induced the expression of SM-{alpha}-actin and SM-MHC, highly specific markers of differentiated phenotype. Sm up-regulated the binding activity of GATA-6 to SM-MHC GATA site and activated the transfected SM-MHC promoter in proliferative VSMCs, while mutating the GATA-6 binding site abolished this activation. Geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (10 {mu}M), an inhibitor of Rho family proteins, abolished the statin-mediated induction of the differentiated phenotype in VSMCs. These findings suggest that statins activate GATA-6 and induce differentiated VSMCs.

  3. Hydroxyapatite and Calcified Elastin Induce Osteoblast-like Differentiation in Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yang; Sinha, Aditi; Nosoudi, Nasim; Grover, Ankit; Vyavahare, Naren

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification can be categorized into two different types. Intimal calcification related to atherosclerosis and elastin-specific medial arterial calcification (MAC). Osteoblast-like differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been shown in both types; however, how this relates to initiation of vascular calcification is unclear. We hypothesize that the initial deposition of hydroxyapatite-like mineral in MAC occurs on degraded elastin first and that causes osteogenic transformation of VSMCs. To test this, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) were cultured on hydroxyapatite crystals and calcified aortic elastin. Using RT-PCR and specific protein assays, we demonstrate that RASMCs lose their smooth muscle lineage markers like alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA) and myosin heavy chain (MHC) and undergo chondrogenic/osteogenic transformation. This is indicated by an increase in the expression of typical chondrogenic proteins such as aggrecan, collagen type II alpha 1(Col2a1) and bone proteins such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, when calcified conditions are removed, cells return to their original phenotype. Our data supports the hypothesis that elastin degradation and calcification precedes VSMCs' osteoblast-like differentiation. PMID:24447384

  4. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  5. The Complex Role of Store Operated Calcium Entry Pathways and Related Proteins in the Function of Cardiac, Skeletal and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Avila-Medina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells shared the common feature of contraction in response to different stimuli. Agonist-induced muscle's contraction is triggered by a cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase due to a rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and a transmembrane Ca2+ influx, mainly through L-type Ca2+ channels. Compelling evidences have demonstrated that Ca2+ might also enter through other cationic channels such as Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels (SOCCs, involved in several physiological functions and pathological conditions. The opening of SOCCs is regulated by the filling state of the intracellular Ca2+ store, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which communicates to the plasma membrane channels through the Stromal Interaction Molecule 1/2 (STIM1/2 protein. In muscle cells, SOCCs can be mainly non-selective cation channels formed by Orai1 and other members of the Transient Receptor Potential-Canonical (TRPC channels family, as well as highly selective Ca2+ Release-Activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels, formed exclusively by subunits of Orai proteins likely organized in macromolecular complexes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the complex role of Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE pathways and related proteins in the function of cardiac, skeletal, and vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. Tyk2 mediates effects of urokinase on human vascular smooth muscle cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patecki, Margret; Schaewen, Markus von; Tkachuk, Sergey; Jerke, Uwe; Dietz, Rainer; Dumler, Inna; Kusch, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    The urokinase (uPA)/uPA receptor (uPAR) system plays a role in the response of the vessel wall to injury, presumably by modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functional behaviour. The Jak/Stat signaling pathway has been implicated to mediate the uPA/uPAR-directed cell migration and proliferation in VSMC. We have therefore investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, which remained not completely understood. In particular, we aimed at identification of the kinase involved in the signaling cascade leading to Stat1 phosphorylation by uPA and its impact on VSMC growth. We performed expression in VSMC of kinase-deficient mutant forms of the Janus kinases Jak1 and Tyk2 and used different cell culture models imitating the response to vascular injury. We provide evidence that Tyk2, but not Jak1, mediates uPA-induced Stat1 phosphorylation and VSMC growth inhibition and suggest a novel function for Tyk2 as an important modulator of the uPA-directed VSMC functional behaviour at the place of injury

  7. Contact-mediated and humoral communication between vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) co-exist in close apposition to each other in all blood vessels except capillaries. Investigations of the metabolic interactions that may occur between these cells are essential to an understanding of vascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The authors have developed two in vitro models of co-temporal vascular cell communication. The first facilitates reversible microcarrier-mediated gap junctional communication between EC and SMC monolayers. When either EC or SMC were prelabelled with 3 H-uridine, intracellular nucleotide rapidly transferred across the region of heterocellular attachment to the complementary cell population. Cytoplasmic continuity between EC and SMC allowed metabolic cooperation via ions and small molecules (<1.5 KD). Thus, vascular reactivity, particularly in the microcirculation where myoendothelial gap junctions have been observed, may involve cytoplasmic second messengers transported from EC to SMC. In the second model, humoral communication was established between separated cultures of EC and SMC which shared the same culture medium. Endothelial-specific stimulation of SMC growth and lipoprotein metabolism via soluble factors was demonstrated. Two mechanisms of stimulation of SMC lipoprotein metabolism were identified; one endothelial derived mitogen-dependent, the other mitogen-independent which was mediated via low molecular weight endothelial cell products

  8. Tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels tunes ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Fernández-Mariño

    Full Text Available Despite the substantial knowledge on the antidiabetic, antiobesity and antihypertensive actions of tungstate, information on its primary target/s is scarce. Tungstate activates both the ERK1/2 pathway and the vascular voltage- and Ca2+-dependent large-conductance BKαβ1 potassium channel, which modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and function, respectively. Here, we have assessed the possible involvement of BKαβ1 channels in the tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation and its relevance for VSMC proliferation. Western blot analysis in HEK cell lines showed that expression of vascular BKαβ1 channels potentiates the tungstate-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gi/o protein-dependent manner. Tungstate activated BKαβ1 channels upstream of G proteins as channel activation was not altered by the inhibition of G proteins with GDPβS or pertussis toxin. Moreover, analysis of Gi/o protein activation measuring the FRET among heterologously expressed Gi protein subunits suggested that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes G protein activation. Single channel recordings on VSMCs from wild-type and β1-knockout mice indicated that the presence of the regulatory β1 subunit was essential for the tungstate-mediated activation of BK channels in VSMCs. Moreover, the specific BK channel blocker iberiotoxin lowered tungstate-induced ERK phosphorylation by 55% and partially reverted (by 51% the tungstate-produced reduction of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-induced proliferation in human VSMCs. Our observations indicate that tungstate-targeting of BKαβ1 channels promotes activation of PTX-sensitive Gi proteins to enhance the tungstate-induced phosphorylation of ERK, and inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle.

  9. Establishment of artery smooth muscle cell proliferation model after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jie CHEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current paper aims to simulate the effects of hemolytic products on intracranial vascular smooth muscle cell after subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH,and probe into the molecular mechanism and strategy for the prevention and cure of vascular proliferation after SAH.Methods Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups,including sham-operated,24 h after SAH,and 72 h after SAH groups.The artificial hemorrhage model around the common carotid artery was established for the latter two groups.The animals were put to death after 24 h and 72 h to take the common carotid artery,and to measure the expression level of PCNA,SM-α-actin protein,and mRNA in the smooth muscle cell.Results The PCNA mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in the 24-h group(P < 0.01.The expression in the 72-h group was lower than that of the 24-h group(P < 0.01,whereas it was still remarkably higher than that of the sham group(P < 0.01.The SM-α-actin mRNA expression in the smooth muscle cell in the 24-h and 72-h groups decreased compared with that of the Sham group(P < 0.05,whereas the 72-h group was significantly lower than that of the 24-h group(P < 0.05.The protein expression of PCNA and SM-α-actin showed a similar trend.Conclusion The current experiment simulates better effects of the hemolytic products on vascular smooth muscle cell after SAH.It also shows that artificial hemorrhage around the common carotid artery could stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell to change from contractile phenotype into synthetic phenotype,and improve it to proliferate.

  10. UAP56 is an important mediator of Angiotensin II/platelet derived growth factor induced vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, Abha; Wang, Nadan; Alexis, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Angiotensin II/PDGF induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ► UAP56 is a positive regulator of E2F transcriptional activation. ► UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low flow carotid arteries. -- Abstract: Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reported that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease

  11. LPS, but not Angiotensin ll, lnduces Direct Pro-lnflammatory Effects in Cultured Mouse Arteries and Human Endothelial and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Emilie M; Zaki, Marina; Mehryar, Rahila

    2017-01-01

    resistance-sized arteries (MRA) supported by experiments in cultured human primary endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Results showed that 24-hr organ culture of mouse MRA with 10 nM Ang II had, unlike 100 ng/mL LPS, no effects on IL-6 or MCP-1 secretion, VCAM1 mRNA expression or endothelial......]-Ang II had no concentration- or time-dependent effects on IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). AGTR1 or AGTR2 mRNA expression were undetectable in HUVEC, whereas HASMC expressed only AGTR1 mRNA. In summary, contrary...... rights reserved....

  12. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryga, Anna K; Bennett, Martin R

    2016-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing in that its incidence and prevalence increase with age. However, atherosclerosis is also associated with biological ageing, manifest by a number of typical hallmarks of ageing in the atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, accelerated biological ageing may be superimposed on the effects of chronological ageing in atherosclerosis. Tissue ageing is seen in all cells that comprise the plaque, but particularly in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hallmarks of ageing include evidence of cell senescence, DNA damage (including telomere attrition), mitochondrial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, defects in proteostasis, epigenetic changes, deregulated nutrient sensing, and exhaustion of progenitor cells. In this model, initial damage to DNA (genomic, telomeric, mitochondrial and epigenetic changes) results in a number of cellular responses (cellular senescence, deregulated nutrient sensing and defects in proteostasis). Ultimately, ongoing damage and attempts at repair by continued proliferation overwhelm reparative capacity, causing loss of specialised cell functions, cell death and inflammation. This review summarises the evidence for accelerated biological ageing in atherosclerosis, the functional consequences of cell ageing on cells comprising the plaque, and the causal role that VSMC senescence plays in atherogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  13. Key role of microRNA-15a in the KLF4 suppressions of proliferation and angiogenesis in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xuemei; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Tengfei; Shen, Qiang; Cui, Qinghua; Qin, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •This is the first demonstration that miR-15a is a novel target gene of KLF4. •A novel finding that KLF4 increases the expression of miR-15a in ECs and VSMCs. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of ECs via miR-15a. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs via miR-15. •miR-15a mediates the anti-angiogenic activity of KLF4. -- Abstract: While recent insights indicate that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, its exact role in proliferation and angiogenesis and how it functions remain unresolved. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of KLF4 in the proliferations of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as the angiogenesis. The overexpression of KLF4 in endothelial cells significantly impaired tube formation. KLF4 inhibited the formation of a vascular network in implanted Matrigel plugs in nude mice. Importantly, we found that KLF4 significantly upregulated the miR-15a expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and conversely, KLF4 depletion reduced the amount of miR-15a. Furthermore, KLF4 blocked cell cycle progression and decreased cyclin D1 expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells through the induction of miR-15a. Intriguingly, the delivery of a miR-15a antagomir to nude mice resulted in marked attenuation of the anti-angiogenic effect of KLF4. Collectively, our present study provide the first evidence that miR-15a as a direct transcriptional target of KLF4 that mediates the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions of KLF4, which indicates that KLF4 upregulation of miR-15a may represent a therapeutic option to suppress proliferative vascular disorders

  14. Key role of microRNA-15a in the KLF4 suppressions of proliferation and angiogenesis in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xuemei; Li, Aiqin; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Tengfei; Shen, Qiang [Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Cui, Qinghua [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Qin, Xiaomei, E-mail: xmqin@bjmu.edu.cn [Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •This is the first demonstration that miR-15a is a novel target gene of KLF4. •A novel finding that KLF4 increases the expression of miR-15a in ECs and VSMCs. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of ECs via miR-15a. •The novel mechanism is that KLF4 inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs via miR-15. •miR-15a mediates the anti-angiogenic activity of KLF4. -- Abstract: While recent insights indicate that the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is indispensable for vascular homeostasis, its exact role in proliferation and angiogenesis and how it functions remain unresolved. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of KLF4 in the proliferations of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as the angiogenesis. The overexpression of KLF4 in endothelial cells significantly impaired tube formation. KLF4 inhibited the formation of a vascular network in implanted Matrigel plugs in nude mice. Importantly, we found that KLF4 significantly upregulated the miR-15a expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and conversely, KLF4 depletion reduced the amount of miR-15a. Furthermore, KLF4 blocked cell cycle progression and decreased cyclin D1 expression in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells through the induction of miR-15a. Intriguingly, the delivery of a miR-15a antagomir to nude mice resulted in marked attenuation of the anti-angiogenic effect of KLF4. Collectively, our present study provide the first evidence that miR-15a as a direct transcriptional target of KLF4 that mediates the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic actions of KLF4, which indicates that KLF4 upregulation of miR-15a may represent a therapeutic option to suppress proliferative vascular disorders.

  15. Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate osteoprotegerin and its ligands in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Olesen, Ping; Ledet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved in the transformat......The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved...... in the transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) to osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of BMP-2, BMP-7 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) on the secretion and mRNA expression of OPG and its ligands receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand (RANKL......) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HVSMC. All three growth factors decreased OPG protein production significantly; these results were paralleled by reduced OPG mRNA expression. TRAIL mRNA levels were also decreased. RANKL mRNA expression declined when treated with TGF-beta1 but were...

  16. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene ex...

  17. Myostatin, a profibrotic factor and the main inhibitor of striated muscle mass, is present in the penile and vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanecz, I; Masouminia, M; Gelfand, R; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Gonzalez-Cadavid, N F

    2017-09-01

    Myostatin is present in striated myofibers but, except for myometrial cells, has not been reported within smooth muscle cells (SMC). We investigated in the rat whether myostatin is present in SMC within the penis and the vascular wall and, if so, whether it is transcriptionally expressed and associated with the loss of corporal SMC occurring in certain forms of erectile dysfunction (ED). Myostatin protein was detected by immunohistochemistry/fluorescence and western blots in the perineal striated muscles, and also in the SMC of the penile corpora, arteries and veins, and aorta. Myostatin was found in corporal SMC cultures, and its transcriptional expression (and its receptor) was shown there by DNA microarrays. Myostatin protein was measured by western blots in the penile shaft of rats subjected to bilateral cavernosal nerve resection (BCNR), that were left untreated, or treated (45 days) with muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC), or concurrent daily low-dose sildenafil. Myostatin was not increased by BCNR (compared with sham operated animals), but over expressed after treatment with MDSC. This was reduced by concurrent sildenafil. The presence of myostatin in corporal and vascular SMC, and its overexpression in the corpora by MDSC therapy, may have relevance for the stem cell treatment of corporal fibrosis and ED.

  18. Triiodothyronine Potentiates Vasorelaxation via PKG/VASP Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular relaxation caused by Triiodothyronine (T3 involves direct activation of endothelial cells (EC and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. Activation of protein kinase G (PKG has risen as a novel contributor to the vasorelaxation mechanism triggered by numerous stimuli. We hypothesize that T3-induced vasorelaxation involves PKG/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP signaling pathway in VSMC. Methods: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and VSMC were treated with T3 for short (2 to 60 minutes and long term (24 hours. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured using DAF-FM. Expression of protein targets was determined using western blot. For functional studies, rat aortas were isolated and treated with T3 for 20 minutes and mounted in a wire myograph. Relaxation was measured by a concentration-dependent response to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Aortas stimulated with T3 exhibited augmented sensitivity to ACh and SNP-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses, respectively. T3 directly increased vasorelaxation, which was abolished in the presence of a PKG inhibitor. T3 markedly induced phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and consequently increased NO production in EC. Likewise, T3 induced phosphorylation of VASP at serine 239 via the PKG pathway in VSMC. Conclusion: Our findings have uncovered a PKG/VASP signaling pathway in VSMC as a key molecular mechanism underlying T3-induced vascular relaxation.

  19. Triiodothyronine Potentiates Vasorelaxation via PKG/VASP Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Sherin; Zhang, Kuo; Tang, Yi-Da; Gerdes, A Martin; Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Vascular relaxation caused by Triiodothyronine (T3) involves direct activation of endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Activation of protein kinase G (PKG) has risen as a novel contributor to the vasorelaxation mechanism triggered by numerous stimuli. We hypothesize that T3-induced vasorelaxation involves PKG/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) signaling pathway in VSMC. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and VSMC were treated with T3 for short (2 to 60 minutes) and long term (24 hours). Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using DAF-FM. Expression of protein targets was determined using western blot. For functional studies, rat aortas were isolated and treated with T3 for 20 minutes and mounted in a wire myograph. Relaxation was measured by a concentration-dependent response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Aortas stimulated with T3 exhibited augmented sensitivity to ACh and SNP-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses, respectively. T3 directly increased vasorelaxation, which was abolished in the presence of a PKG inhibitor. T3 markedly induced phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and consequently increased NO production in EC. Likewise, T3 induced phosphorylation of VASP at serine 239 via the PKG pathway in VSMC. Our findings have uncovered a PKG/VASP signaling pathway in VSMC as a key molecular mechanism underlying T3-induced vascular relaxation. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Constituents of Mediterranean Spices Counteracting Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation: Identification and Characterization of Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester as a Novel Inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, R.; Heiss, E.H.; Waltenberger, B.; Blažević, T.; Schachner, B.; Jiang, B.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Liu, W.; Schwaiger, S.; Peña-Rodríguez, L. M.; Breuss, J.; Stuppner, H.; Dirsch, V.M.; Atanasov, A. G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 7 (2018), č. článku 1700860. ISSN 1613-4125 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Mediterranean spices * neointima formation * rosmarinic acid * rosmarinic acid methyl ester * vascular smooth muscle cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 4.323, year: 2016

  1. Oxytocin receptors expressed and coupled to Ca2+ signalling in a human vascular smooth muscle cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, H.; Hirasawa, A.; Horie, K.; Saita, Y.; Iida, E.; Honda, K.; Tsujimoto, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. In a human vascular smooth muscle cell line (HVSMC), binding experiments with [3H]-arginine8-vasopressin (AVP) have shown the existence of a homogeneous population of binding sites with affinity (Kd value) of 0.65 nM and a maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) of 122 fmol mg-1 protein. 2. Nonlabelled compounds compete for [3H]-AVP binding in the HVSMC membrane with an order of potency of oxytocin > lyspressin > or = AVP > Thr4, Gly7-oxytocin > (beta-mercapto-beta-beta-cyclopentamethylenep...

  2. Polysaccharide from Fuzi protects against Ox-LDL-induced calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells by increasing autophagic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lizhen; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Li, Weidong; Su, Qibiao; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Polysaccharide from Fuzi (FPS) is a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi. It has been demonstrated to protect hepatocytes against ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidant effects, and to attenuate starvation-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells by increasing autophagic activity. In the present study, Alizarin Red S staining was used to detect mineral deposition and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the core binding factor α1 and smooth muscle 22α mRNA expression. To analyze autophagic activity, western blotting was used to detect microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 and nucleoporin P62 expression. In addition, green fluorescent protein-LC3 dots-per-cell was observed by fluorescence microscopy. It was demonstrated that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) could increase the calcification of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner, and that FPS treatment had a significant protective effect against Ox-LDL-induced calcification of human VSMCs. Furthermore, FPS treatment alleviated the Ox-LDL-induced downregulation of autophagic activity, and the protective effect of FPS on Ox-LDL-induced calcification was attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge that FPS can protect against Ox-LDL-induced vascular calcification in human VSMCs, and that this likely occurs via the activation of autophagy. This supports the hypothesis that autophagy may be an endogenous protective mechanism counteracting vascular calcification, and that FPS may be used as a potential therapeutic for vascular calcification. PMID:29393437

  3. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia occurs despite increased eNOS expression and preserved vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity to NO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekatherina Stoyanova

    Full Text Available The hereditary β-thalassemia major condition requires regular lifelong blood transfusions. Transfusion-related iron overloading has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, including cardiac dysfunction and vascular anomalies. By using an untransfused murine model of β-thalassemia major, we tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial dysfunction, alterations of arterial structure and of its mechanical properties would occur despite the absence of treatments.Vascular function and structure were evaluated ex vivo. Compared to the controls, endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine was blunted in mesenteric resistance arteries of β-thalassemic mice while the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside produced comparable vessel dilation, indicating endothelial cell impairment with preserved smooth muscle cell reactivity to nitric oxide (NO. While these findings suggest a decrease in NO bioavailability, Western blotting showed heightened expression of aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in β-thalassemia. Vascular remodeling of the common carotid arteries revealed increased medial elastin content. Under isobaric conditions, the carotid arteries of β-thalassemic mice exhibited decreased wall stress and softening due to structural changes of the vessel wall.A complex vasculopathy was identified in untransfused β-thalassemic mice characterized by altered carotid artery structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arterioles, likely attributable to reduced NO bioavailability despite enhanced vascular eNOS expression.

  4. Fibulin-2 is present in murine vascular lesions and is important for smooth muscle cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ström, A.; Olin, A. I.; Aspberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    /hyaluronan complexes, an ECM network that has been suggested to be important during tissue repair. In this study we have analysed the presence of fibulin-2 in two different models of murine vascular lesions. We have also examined how the fibulin-2/versican network influences SMC migration. Methods: Presence of fibulin......Objective: The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) can affect smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion, migration and proliferation-events that are important during the atherosclerotic process. Fibulin-2 is a member of the ECM protein family of fibulins and has been found to cross-link versican...... and is upregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation in cell culture. Moreover, treatments with peptides that block the interaction between versican and fibulin-2 inhibit SMC migration in vitro. Conclusions: Fibulin-2 can be produced by SMC as a response to injury and may participate in the ECM organisation...

  5. Preliminary investigations on the effects of a Strongylus vulgaris larval extract, mononuclear factors and platelet factors on equine smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Storts, R W; Stromberg, P C; Sowa, B A; Lay, J C

    1989-01-01

    Factors involved in the proliferation of equine vascular smooth muscle cells were studied in vitro. The most prominent proliferative responses in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells were induced by Strongylus vulgaris larval antigen extract (LAE) and platelet-derived factors. Less significant proliferative responses were obtained with conditioned media from S. vulgaris LAE stimulated and from unstimulated equine mononuclear leukocytes. Additionally, vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to S. vulgaris LAE developed numerous perinuclear vacuoles and were more spindle-shaped than control or smooth muscle cells exposed to other factors. Equine mononuclear leukocytes exposed to LAE developed prominent morphological changes, including enlargement, clumping and increased numbers of mitotic figures.

  6. Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lopes, Miguel; Montarras, Didier; Robert, Benoît

    2008-08-01

    Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels. The Msx2nlacZ allele is mainly expressed in a restricted population of mural cells in peripheral arteries and veins. Msx1nlacZ is expressed to a lesser extent by vascular smooth muscle cells of peripheral arteries, but is highly expressed in arterioles and capillaries, making Msx1 a novel marker for a subpopulation of pericytes. Expression is set up early in developing vessels and maintained throughout life. In addition, expression of both genes is observed in a few endothelial cells of the aorta at fetal stages, and only Msx2 continues to be expressed in this layer at the adult stage. These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Mechanism for Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayo Koike

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD. To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms. A rat VSMC line (A7r5 was cultured, and treated with glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE3-BSA. Apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. To quantify apoptosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for histone-complexed DNA fragments was employed. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels. Treatment of A7r5 cells with AGE3-BSA from 100 µg/mL concentration markedly increased apoptosis, which was suppressed by Nox inhibitors. AGE3-BSA significantly increased the mRNA expression of NAD(PH oxidase components including Nox4 and p22phox, and these findings were confirmed by protein levels using immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidisum assay showed that compared with cBSA, AGE3-BSA increased reactive oxygen species level in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AGE3-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 or p22phox. Double knockdown of Nox4 and p22phox showed a similar inhibitory effect on apoptosis as single gene silencing. Thus, our results demonstrated that NAD(PH oxidase-derived oxidative stress are involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. These findings might be important to understand the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes and CKD.

  8. The Smooth Muscle of the Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    of vascular smooth muscle are contrac- tion, thereby mediating vaso constriction, and the synthesis of the extracellular proteins and polysaccharides ...of the monosaccharides turned out to be different for instance from cornea to aorta (229, 283). In the conditions yed (4 hours incubation at 37 degrees... polysaccharides only. This glyco- protein is not very rich in sugar components (- 5Z) (228, 284), but is a very acidic protein (286). Fig.66 shows

  9. Down-regulation of endothelin binding sites in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubert, P.; Gillard, V.; Plas, P.; Chabrier, P.E.; Braquet, P.

    1990-01-01

    In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, [ 125 I]endothelin (ET-1) bound to an apparent single class of high affinity recognition sites with a dissociation constant of 1.84 +/- 0.29 nmol/L and a maximum binding of 62 +/- 10.5 fmol/10(6) cells. The binding was not affected by calcium antagonists or vasoactive substances, including angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic factor and bradykinin. Exposure of the cells to ET-1 (0.01 nmol/L to 10 nmol/L) resulted in an apparent dose-dependent reduction of the number of endothelin binding sites with no significant modification of its binding affinity. The time course of the down-regulation of ET-1 binding sites showed that this effect was present after 30 min incubation and persisted after 18 h. This indicates that down-regulation of ET-1 binding sites can modulate the activity of ET-1 and suggests a rapid internalization of ET-1 in vascular cells

  10. Selective Inhibitory Effect of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chul Park

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent restenosis after angioplasty or stenting, one of the most popular targets is suppression of the abnormal growth and excess migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs with drugs. However, the drugs also adversely affect vascular endothelial cells (VECs, leading to the induction of late thrombosis. We have investigated the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on the proliferation and migration of VECs and VSMCs. Both cells showed dose-dependent decrease of viability in response to EGCG while they have different IC50 values of EGCG (VECs, 150 mM and VSMCs, 1050 mM. Incubating both cells with EGCG resulted in significant reduction in cell proliferation irrespective of cell type. The proliferation of VECs were greater affected than that of VSMCs at the same concentrations of EGCG. EGCG exerted differential migration-inhibitory activity in VECs vs. VSMCs. The migration of VECs was not attenuated by 200 mM EGCG, but that of VSMCs was significantly inhibited at the same concentration of EGCG. It is suggested that that EGCG can be effectively used as an efficient drug for vascular diseases or stents due to its selective activity, completely suppressing the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but not adversely affecting VECs migration in blood vessels.

  11. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration: are all mitochondria created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Trinity, Joel D; Hyngstrom, John R; Garten, Ryan S; Diakos, Nikolaos A; Ives, Stephen J; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Drakos, Stavros; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-08-01

    Unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle, little is known about vascular smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration. Therefore, the present study examined mitochondrial respiratory rates in smooth muscle of healthy human feed arteries and compared with that of healthy cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles were harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53 ± 6 yr), and mitochondrial respiration was assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I + II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (54 ± 1, 39 ± 4, and 15 ± 1 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of nonphosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles, such that the respiratory control ratio, state 3/state 2 respiration, fell progressively from cardiac to skeletal to smooth muscles (5.3 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 1.6 ± 0.3 pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), P respiration highlight the existence of intrinsic functional differences between these muscle mitochondria. This likely influences the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and could potentially alter ROS production.

  12. Differentiation and Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eithne Margaret; Xiao, Qingzhong; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a role in the development of vascular disease, for example, neointimal formation, arterial aneurysm, and Marfan syndrome caused by genetic mutations in VSMCs, but little is known about the mechanisms of the disease process. Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell technology have now made it possible to derive VSMCs from several different somatic cells using a selection of protocols. As such, researchers have set out to delineate key signaling processes involved in triggering VSMC gene expression to grasp the extent of gene regulatory networks involved in phenotype commitment. This technology has also paved the way for investigations into diseases affecting VSMC behavior and function, which may be treatable once an identifiable culprit molecule or gene has been repaired. Moreover, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs are also being considered for their use in tissue-engineered blood vessels as they may prove more beneficial than using autologous vessels. Finally, while several issues remains to be clarified before induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs can become used in regenerative medicine, they do offer both clinicians and researchers hope for both treating and understanding vascular disease. In this review, we aim to update the recent progress on VSMC generation from stem cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms of VSMC differentiation. We will also explore how the use of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived VSMCs has changed the game for regenerative medicine by offering new therapeutic avenues to clinicians, as well as providing researchers with a new platform for modeling of vascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Major vault protein in cardiac and smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Nataliia V; Das, Dividutta; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    Major vault protein (MVP) is the major component of the vault particle whose functions are not well understood. One proposed function of the vault is to serve as a mechanism of drug transport, which confers drug resistance in cancer cells. We show that MVP can be found in cardiac and smooth muscle. In human airway smooth muscle cells, knocking down MVP was found to cause cell death, suggesting that MVP serves as a cell survival factor. Further, our laboratory found that MVP is S-glutathionylated in response to ligand/receptor-mediated cell signaling. The S-glutathionylation of MVP appears to regulate protein-protein interactions between MVP and a protein called myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9). Through MYH9 and Vsp34, MVP may form a complex with Beclin-1 that regulates autophagic cell death. In pulmonary vascular smooth muscle, proteasome inhibition promotes the ubiquitination of MVP, which may function as a mechanism of proteasome inhibition-mediated cell death. Investigating the functions and the regulatory mechanisms of MVP and vault particles is an exciting new area of research in cardiovascular/pulmonary pathophysiology.

  14. Kir2.1 regulates rat smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yong; Tang, Chengchun; Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dong; Yan, Gaoliang; Zhu, Boqian

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the contractile type to the synthetic type is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Inward rectifier K"+ channel 2.1 (Kir2.1) has been identified in VSMC. However, whether it plays a functional role in regulating cellular transformation remains obscure. In this study, we evaluated the role of Kir2.1 on VSMC proliferation, migration, phenotype switching, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation. Kir2.1 knockdown significantly suppressed platelet-derived growth factor BB-stimulated rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rat-VSMC) proliferation and migration. Deficiency in Kir2.1 contributed to the restoration of smooth muscle α-actin, smooth muscle 22α, and calponin and to a reduction in osteopontin expression in rat-VSMC. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that rat-VSMC switched to proliferative phenotypes and that knockdown of Kir2.1 significantly inhibited neointimal formation after rat carotid injury. Kir2.1 may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention.

  15. Kir2.1 regulates rat smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Yong; Tang, Chengchun, E-mail: tangchengchun@medmail.com.cn; Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dong; Yan, Gaoliang; Zhu, Boqian

    2016-09-02

    Phenotype switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the contractile type to the synthetic type is a hallmark of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Inward rectifier K{sup +} channel 2.1 (Kir2.1) has been identified in VSMC. However, whether it plays a functional role in regulating cellular transformation remains obscure. In this study, we evaluated the role of Kir2.1 on VSMC proliferation, migration, phenotype switching, and post-injury carotid neointimal formation. Kir2.1 knockdown significantly suppressed platelet-derived growth factor BB-stimulated rat vascular smooth muscle cells (rat-VSMC) proliferation and migration. Deficiency in Kir2.1 contributed to the restoration of smooth muscle α-actin, smooth muscle 22α, and calponin and to a reduction in osteopontin expression in rat-VSMC. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that rat-VSMC switched to proliferative phenotypes and that knockdown of Kir2.1 significantly inhibited neointimal formation after rat carotid injury. Kir2.1 may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention.

  16. A Robust Method to Generate Mechanically Anisotropic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Sheets for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Daniel E; LeSavage, Bauer L; Shah, Shivem B; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-01

    In arterial tissue engineering, mimicking native structure and mechanical properties is essential because compliance mismatch can lead to graft failure and further disease. With bottom-up tissue engineering approaches, designing tissue components with proper microscale mechanical properties is crucial to achieve the necessary macroscale properties in the final implant. This study develops a thermoresponsive cell culture platform for growing aligned vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) sheets by photografting N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) onto micropatterned poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS). The grafting process is experimentally and computationally optimized to produce PNIPAAm-PDMS substrates optimal for VSMC attachment. To allow long-term VSMC sheet culture and increase the rate of VSMC sheet formation, PNIPAAm-PDMS surfaces were further modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane yielding a robust, thermoresponsive cell culture platform for culturing VSMC sheets. VSMC cell sheets cultured on patterned thermoresponsive substrates exhibit cellular and collagen alignment in the direction of the micropattern. Mechanical characterization of patterned, single-layer VSMC sheets reveals increased stiffness in the aligned direction compared to the perpendicular direction whereas nonpatterned cell sheets exhibit no directional dependence. Structural and mechanical anisotropy of aligned, single-layer VSMC sheets makes this platform an attractive microstructural building block for engineering a vascular graft to match the in vivo mechanical properties of native arterial tissue. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ju [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Soo Yeon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seong Su [University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kim, Chan Woo [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Sandeep [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Byeoung Soo [Nanotoxtech Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Eun [Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hanjoong, E-mail: hjo@emory.edu [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hyun, E-mail: pyh012@sch.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  18. Functional role of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Munehisa, Yoshiko; Koyama, Takashi; Nobori, Kiyoshi; Iijima, Toshihiko; Ito, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the functional role of STIM1, a Ca 2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that regulates store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE), in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). STIM1 was mainly localized at the ER and plasma membrane. The knockdown of STIM1 expression by small interfering (si) RNA drastically decreased SOCE. In contrast, an EF-hand mutant of STIM1, STIM1 E87A , produced a marked increase in SOCE, which was abolished by co-transfection with siRNA to transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1). In addition, transfection with siRNA against STIM1 suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and cell growth. These results suggest that STIM1 is an essential component of SOCE and that it is involved in VSMC proliferation

  19. Oxygen mediates vascular smooth muscle relaxation in hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dada

    Full Text Available The activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC by nitric oxide (NO and other ligands has been extensively investigated for many years. In the present study we considered the effect of molecular oxygen (O2 on sGC both as a direct ligand and its affect on other ligands by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP production, as an index of activity, as well as investigating smooth muscle relaxation under hypoxic conditions. Our isolated enzyme studies confirm the function of sGC is impaired under hypoxic conditions and produces cGMP in the presence of O2, importantly in the absence of NO. We also show that while O2 could partially affect the magnitude of sGC stimulation by NO when the latter was present in excess, activation by the NO independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl-1-benzylindazole (YC-1 was unaffected. Our in vitro investigation of smooth muscle relaxation confirmed that O2 alone in the form of a buffer bolus (equilibrated at 95% O2/5% CO2 had the ability to dilate vessels under hypoxic conditions and that this was dependent upon sGC and independent of eNOS. Our studies confirm that O2 can be a direct and important mediator of vasodilation through an increase in cGMP production. In the wider context, these observations are key to understanding the relative roles of O2 versus NO-induced sGC activation.

  20. Inhibition of Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Cucurbitanes from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Quoc; Lee, Do-Hyung; Oh, Joonseok; Kim, Chung Sub; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Myung, Chang-Seon; Na, MinKyun

    2017-07-28

    The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M.  charantia, utilizing diverse chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the 2D structure of 1 was confirmed utilizing the long-range HSQMBC NMR pulse, capable of measuring heteronuclear long-range correlations ( 4-6 J CH ). The cucurbitanes were also assessed for their inhibitory activity against PDGF-induced VSMC proliferation. This current study may constitute a basis for developing those chemotypes into sensible pharmacophores alleviating cardiovascular disorders.

  1. Neuroblast survival depends on mature vascular network formation after mouse stroke: role of endothelial and smooth muscle progenitor cell co-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nih, Lina R; Deroide, Nicolas; Leré-Déan, Carole; Lerouet, Dominique; Soustrat, Mathieu; Levy, Bernard I; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatiana; Pocard, Marc; Margaill, Isabelle; Kubis, Nathalie

    2012-04-01

    Pro-angiogenic cell-based therapies constitute an interesting and attractive approach to enhancing post-stroke neurogenesis and decreasing neurological deficit. However, most new stroke-induced neurons die during the first few weeks after ischemia, thus impairing total recovery. Although the neovascularization process involves different cell types and various growth factors, most cell therapy protocols are based on the biological effects of single-cell-type populations or on the administration of heterogeneous populations of progenitors, namely human cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells, with scarce vascular progenitor cells. Tight cooperation between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells/pericytes is critical for the development of functional neovessels. We hypothesized that neuroblast survival in stroke brain depends on mature vascular network formation. In this study, we injected a combination of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), isolated from human umbilical cord blood, into a murine model of permanent focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The co-administration of SMPCs and EPCs induced enhanced angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in the peri-infarct and infarct areas, where vessels exhibited a more mature phenotype. This activation of vessel growth resulted in the maintenance of neurogenesis and neuroblast migration to the peri-ischemic cortex. Our data suggest that a mature vascular network is essential for neuroblast survival after cerebral ischemia, and that co-administration of EPCs and SMPCs may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy for improving the treatment of stroke. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1β-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-κB crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shanqin; Zhi, Hui; Hou, Xiuyun; Jiang, Bingbing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-κB crosstalk and gene expression. → Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1β-induced prolonged ERK and NF-κB activation. → ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1β-induced prolonged NF-κB activation. → Angiotensin II modulates NF-κB responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-κB crosstalk. → ERK-NF-κB crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1β-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1β-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1β, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE -/- than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE -/- mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin II can differentially modulate inflammatory gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells

  3. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From Hypertensive Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Advance Hypertension Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Nikolett M; Santostefano, Katherine E; DiVita, Bayli B; El Rouby, Nihal; Carrasquilla, Santiago D; Simmons, Chelsey; Nakanishi, Mahito; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A; Terada, Naohiro

    2015-12-01

    Studies in hypertension (HTN) pharmacogenomics seek to identify genetic sources of variable antihypertensive drug response. Genetic association studies have detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that link to drug responses; however, to understand mechanisms underlying how genetic traits alter drug responses, a biological interface is needed. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a potential source for studying otherwise inaccessible tissues that may be important to antihypertensive drug response. The present study established multiple iPSC lines from an HTN pharmacogenomics cohort. We demonstrated that established HTN iPSCs can robustly and reproducibly differentiate into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a cell type most relevant to vasculature tone control. Moreover, a sensitive traction force microscopy assay demonstrated that iPSC-derived VSMCs show a quantitative contractile response on physiological stimulus of endothelin-1. Furthermore, the inflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor α induced a typical VSMC response in iPSC-derived VSMCs. These studies pave the way for a large research initiative to decode biological significance of identified SNPs in hypertension pharmacogenomics. Treatment of hypertension remains suboptimal, and a pharmacogenomics approach seeks to identify genetic biomarkers that could be used to guide treatment decisions; however, it is important to understand the biological underpinnings of genetic associations. Mouse models do not accurately recapitulate individual patient responses based on their genetics, and hypertension-relevant cells are difficult to obtain from patients. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provides a great interface to bring patient cells with their genomic data into the laboratory and to study hypertensive responses. As an initial step, the present study established an iPSC bank from patients with primary hypertension and demonstrated an effective

  5. Reversal of sodium pump inhibitor induced vascular smooth muscle contraction with digibind. Stoichiometry and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krep, H H; Graves, S W; Price, D A; Lazarus, M; Ensign, A; Soszynski, P A; Hollenberg, N K

    1996-01-01

    The possibility that a circulating sodium pump inhibitor contributes to the pathogenesis of volume-dependent hypertension via an action on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is supported by multiple lines of investigation, but remains controversial. We had two goals in this study. The first was to compare the pattern of contractile response of rabbit aorta induced by two candidates, ouabain and a labile sodium pump inhibitor that we have identified in the peritoneal dialysate of volume-expanded hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. Our second goal was to examine the ability of Digibind, a Fab fragment of antisera directed against digoxin, to reverse VSM contraction induced by both agents. Ouabain induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was delayed in onset, was gradual, and reached a stable plateau after many hours. The labile sodium pump inhibitor induced a qualitatively similar series of responses. Digibind rapidly reversed the contractile responses to both sodium pump inhibitors, with a rate of relaxation that matched that induced by physical removal of the pump inhibitor from the bath. For ouabain, the Digibind:ouabain stoichiometry was highly predictable. When Digibind was present in a molar concentration equivalent to that of ouabain, or less, it had no effect. When the Digibind concentration was twice that of ouabain, complete relaxation occurred. Although the concentration:VSM response relationship for ouabain was steep, the concentration:effect interaction with Digibind was even more steep. The molar concentration of Digibind required to reverse the effects of the labile endogenous inhibitor from peritoneal dialysate was consistently lower than that for ouabain, which is compatible with either greater potency of the labile factor in VSM or greater affinity for Digibind. These findings are compatible with a role for one or more endogenous sodium pump inhibitors as the determinant of vascular smooth muscle tone in the volume

  6. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  7. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  8. 3,3'Diindolylmethane suppresses vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and inhibits neointima formation after carotid injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Guan

    Full Text Available 3,3'Diindolylmethane (DIM, a natural phytochemical, has shown inhibitory effects on the growth and migration of a variety of cancer cells; however, whether DIM has similar effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of DIM on the proliferation and migration of cultured VSMCs and neointima formation in a carotid injury model, as well as the related cell signaling mechanisms.DIM dose-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs without cell cytotoxicity. This inhibition was caused by a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. We also showed that DIM-induced growth inhibition was associated with the inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK 4/6 as well as an increase in p27(Kip1 levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, DIM was also found to modulate migration of VSMCs and smooth muscle-specific contractile marker expression. Mechanistically, DIM negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-recptorβ (PDGF-Rβ and the activities of downstream signaling molecules including Akt/glycogen synthase kinase(GSK3β, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3. Our in vivo studies using a mouse carotid arterial injury model revealed that treatment with 150 mg/kg DIM resulted in significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA-positive cells, without affecting apoptosis of vascular cells and reendothelialization. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was also inhibited by DIM administration.These results demonstrate that DIM can suppress the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. These beneficial effects on VSMCs were at least partly mediated by the inhibition of PDGF-Rβ and the

  9. Increased rhythmicity in hypertensive arterial smooth muscle is linked to transient receptor potential canonical channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Shuangtao

    2010-01-01

    Vasomotion describes oscillations of arterial vascular tone due to synchronized changes of intracellular calcium concentrations. Since increased calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has been associated with variances of transient receptor pot...

  10. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 μm. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Inhibition of MAPK and PKC pathways by 60Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guanghong; Ma Yexin; Xiao Jianming

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the signal transduction pathways inhibited by 60 Co γ-radiation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods: The cultured VSMC were irradiated with 60 Co γ-radiation of 3.5, 7.0 and 14 Gy respectively. VSMC proliferation was measured by 3 H-TdR incorporation, while PKC, MAPK activities were determined by radioactivity assay. Results: Proliferation of VSMC was inhibited by 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation and the activities of PKC, MAPK were decreased significantly. Conclusion: Inhibitory effect of 7.0, 14 Gy 60 Co γ-irradiation on proliferation of VSMC might be resulted from decrease of the activity of PKC, MAPK

  12. Effect of 103Pd on proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Zhu Jun; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed at the effect of γ-emitting radionuclide 103 Pd on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular SMCs (smooth muscle cells) in vitro. The cavy aortic SMCs were cultured with culture medium M-199. The experiments were carried out in two groups, one for proliferation test and the other for apoptosis test. In each group, 103 Pd solutions with various radioactivities were respectively added to the culture solution to irradiate SMCs for 72 h, while non-radioactive palladium solution was added to the control. 3 H-thymidine incorporation test and liquid scintillator were used to detect the effect of 103 Pd on the proliferation of SMCs. Flow cytometer was used to detect the apoptotic SMCs. The inhibition rate of SMCs proliferation by 1.85 MBq 103 Pd solution was 2.3%, which was not significant, while the inhibition rate increased from 41.6% to 91.3% as the 103 Pd activity increased from 7.40 MBq to 37 MBq. The apoptosis rate of SMCs was extremely low (less than 4.0%) by 103 Pd with activity from 1.85 MBq to 37 MBq. The results suggest that the proliferation of SMCs can be repressed effectively in a dose-dependent fashion by 103 Pd in vitro. The mechanism of its inhibiting over neointima proliferation is likely to inhibit SMCs proliferation rather than to induce its apoptosis by 103 Pd. 103 Pd can be used as a γ-emitting intravascular brachytherapy radionuclide to inhibit SMCs proliferation

  13. Heterogeneity of smooth muscle cells in tunica media of aorta in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the tunica media of goat aorta are phenotypically heterogeneous and run in multiple directions. These characteristics probably confer mechanical strength and functional plasticity to the aortic wall. Designers of aortic substitutes should bear this in mind. Keywords: Vascular, Smooth Muscle Cells, Heterogeneity, Aorta ...

  14. Lipid Metabolism in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Infuenced by HCMV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfang Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to observe the infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, and the effect of viral infection on lipid metabolism in VSMCs. Methods: The cytopathic effects were observed by inverted microscopy and viral infection were examined by electron microscopy and RT-PCR. The lipid metabolism related gene profiling of VSMCs after HCMV infection was assayed by cDNA assay and the abnormal expression of genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The content of cholesterol in VSMCs after HCMV infection was assayed by cholesterol detection kit. Results: VSMCs showed obvious cytopathic effects after HCMV infection. Intact viral particles could be detected in VSMCs using electron microscope. By use of RT-PCR technology, IE gene of HCMV could be amplified from VSMCs. The expression of cell lipid metabolism related gene profiling showed obvious disorders. The expression levels of HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase after infection increased significantly. The cellular cholesterol content (µmol/106 cells was significantly higher than that of mock infected group at 72h post infection. Conclusion: HCMV can infect VSMCs and the infection can affect cellular lipid metabolism related gene expression, which get involved in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis (AS.

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus pubescens root on non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-selective inhibition of the agonists by the extract on non-vascular smooth muscle may in part be related to its non-specific mechanism of action. Keywords: Asparagus pubescens, non-vascular smooth muscle, methanolic extract, non-specific mechanism. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research ...

  16. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Di-xian; Xia, Cheng-lai; Li, Jun-mu; Xiong, Yan; Yuan, Hao-yu; TANG, Zhen-Wang; Zeng, Yixin; Liao, Duan-fang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. → Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. → Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. → Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. → Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different static pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 ± 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 ± 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 ± 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 ± 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 ± 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 ± 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels were upregulated. Conclusion: Static

  17. Static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation via SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Di-xian, E-mail: luodixian_2@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); First People' s Hospital of Chenzhou City, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan (China); Xia, Cheng-lai [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Department of Pharmacy, Third Affiliated Hospital Medical College of Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510150, Guangdong (China); Li, Jun-mu [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Xiong, Yan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Yuan, Hao-yu [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Lusong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhuzhou 412000, Hunan (China); TANG, Zhen-Wang; Zeng, Yixin [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Liao, Duan-fang, E-mail: dfliao66@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Department of Traditional Chinese Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 420108, Hunan (China)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Vertical static pressure accelerates ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. {yields} Static pressure induces SREBP-1 activation. {yields} Static pressure downregulates the expressions of caveolin-1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure also downregulates the transcription of ABCA1 by activating SREBP-1. {yields} Static pressure increases ox-LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation by SREBP-1-mediated caveolin-1 downregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in vitro. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of static pressure on cholesterol accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its mechanism. Methods: Rat-derived VSMC cell line A10 treated with 50 mg/L ox-LDL and different static pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 48 h. Intracellular lipid droplets and lipid levels were assayed by oil red O staining and HPLC; The mRNA levels of caveolin-1 and ABCA1, the protein levels of caveolin-1 SREBP-1 and mature SREBP-1 were respectively detected by RT-PCR or western blot. ALLN, an inhibitor of SREBP metabolism, was used to elevate SREBP-1 protein level in VSMCs treated with static pressure. Results: Static pressures significantly not only increase intracellular lipid droplets in VSMCs, but also elevate cellular lipid content in a pressure-dependent manner. Intracellular free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE), total cholesterol (TC) were respectively increased from 60.5 {+-} 2.8 mg/g, 31.8 {+-} 0.7 mg/g, 92.3 {+-} 2.1 mg/g at atmosphere pressure (ATM, 0 mm Hg) to 150.8 {+-} 9.4 mg/g, 235.9 {+-} 3.0 mg/g, 386.7 {+-} 6.4 mg/g at 180 mm Hg. At the same time, static pressures decrease the mRNA and protein levels of caveolin-1, and induce the activation and nuclear translocation of SREBP-1. ALLN increases the protein level of mature SREBP-1 and decreases caveolin-1 expression, so that cellular lipid levels were

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 plays a role in phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokas, Sophie; Larivière, Richard; Lamalice, Laurent; Gobeil, Stéphane; Cornfield, David N; Agharazii, Mohsen; Richard, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Medial vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although elevated inorganic phosphate stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) osteogenic transdifferentiation and calcification, the mechanisms involved in their calcification during CKD are not fully defined. Because hypoxic gene activation is linked to CKD and stimulates bone cell osteogenic differentiation, we used in vivo and in vitro rodent models to define the role of hypoxic signaling during elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Cell mineralization studies showed that elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly induced VSMC calcification. Hypoxia strongly enhanced elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification and osteogenic transdifferentiation, as seen by osteogenic marker expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key hypoxic transcription factor, was essential for enhanced VSMC calcification. Targeting HIF-1 expression in murine VSMC blocked calcification in hypoxia with elevated inorganic phosphate while HIF-1 activators, including clinically used FG-4592/Roxadustat, recreated a procalcifying environment. Elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly activated HIF-1, even in normal oxygenation; an effect mediated by HIF-1α subunit stabilization. Thus, hypoxia synergizes with elevated inorganic phosphate to enhance VSMC osteogenic transdifferentiation. Our work identifies HIF-1 as an early CKD-related pathological event, prospective marker, and potential target against vascular calcification in CKD-relevant conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion to collagen I modified by vasoactive agonists.

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    Zhongkui Hong

    Full Text Available In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM proteins play important roles in sustaining vascular tone and resistance. The main goal of this study was to determine whether VSMCs adhesion to type I collagen (COL-I was altered in parallel with the changes in the VSMCs contractile state induced by vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. VSMCs were isolated from rat cremaster skeletal muscle arterioles and maintained in primary culture without passage. Cell adhesion and cell E-modulus were assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM by repetitive nano-indentation of the AFM probe on the cell surface at 0.1 Hz sampling frequency and 3200 nm Z-piezo travelling distance (approach and retraction. AFM probes were tipped with a 5 μm diameter microbead functionalized with COL-I (1 mg\\ml. Results showed that the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG-II; 10-6 significantly increased (p<0.05 VSMC E-modulus and adhesion probability to COL-I by approximately 35% and 33%, respectively. In contrast, the vasodilator adenosine (ADO; 10-4 significantly decreased (p<0.05 VSMC E-modulus and adhesion probability by approximately -33% and -17%, respectively. Similarly, the NO donor (PANOate, 10-6 M, a potent vasodilator, also significantly decreased (p<0.05 the VSMC E-modulus and COL-I adhesion probability by -38% and -35%, respectively. These observations support the hypothesis that integrin-mediated VSMC adhesion to the ECM protein COL-I is dynamically regulated in parallel with VSMC contractile activation. These data suggest that the signal transduction pathways modulating VSMC contractile activation and relaxation, in addition to ECM adhesion, interact during regulation of contractile state.

  20. ASIC PROTEINS REGULATE SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Samira C.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, however the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence indi...

  1. Sodium pump activity and calcium relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltis, E.E.; Field, F.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Na + -K + pump activity was determined in femoral arterial smooth muscle from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats using potassium relaxation and ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake as indices. The membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium and its relation to Na + -K + pump activity also were examined. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats exhibited a greater relaxation in response to potassium addition after contraction with norepinephrine in a low potassium (0.6 mM) Krebs solution. The concentration of potassium required to produce a 50% relaxation was significantly less in DOCA-salt rats. Ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb uptake was significantly greater at 3, 10, and 20 minutes of 86 Rb incubation in femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the uptake of 86 Rb and time of incubation in both control and DOCA-salt rats. A significant difference in the slopes of the regression lines showed that the rate of uptake was greater in DOCA-salt rats. No difference was observed in ouabain-insensitive 86 Rb uptake. A dose-dependent relaxation in response to increasing concentrations of calcium following contraction to norepinephrine was observed in femoral arteries from control and DOCA-salt rats. The relaxation was directly dependent on the level of extracellular potassium and was blocked by ouabain. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats relaxed to a significantly greater extent in response to calcium at each level of potassium when compared with controls. These results provide further evidence for an increase in Na + -K + pump activity in vascular smooth muscle from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

  2. Potential role of insulin signaling on vascular smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation, and inflammation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, Eugenio; Xu, Xiaojing; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-02-15

    To investigate the role of insulin signaling pathways in migration, proliferation, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we examined the expression of active components of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI-3) kinase (p-Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p-Erk) in primary cultures of VSMCs from human coronary arteries. VSMCs were treated in a dose-response manner with insulin (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM) for 20 min, and Akt and Erk phosphorylation were measured by Western blot analysis. In separate experiments, we evaluated the effect of 200 μM palmitate, in the presence and absence of 8 μM pioglitazone, on insulin-stimulated (100 nM for 20 min) Akt and Erk phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in VSMCs exhibited a dose dependency with a three- to fourfold increase, respectively, at the highest dose (100 nM). In the presence of palmitate, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was completely abolished, and there was a threefold increase in p-Erk. With addition of pioglitazone, the phosphorylation of Akt by insulin remained unchanged, whereas insulin-stimulated Erk phosphorylation was reduced by pioglitazone. These data in VSMCs indicate that high palmitate decreases insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and stimulates MAPK, whereas preexposure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone preserves Akt phosphorylation and simultaneously attenuates MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that metabolic and mitogenic insulin signals have different sensitivity, are independently regulated, and may play a role in arterial smooth muscle cells migration, proliferation, and inflammation in conditions of acute hyperinsulinemia.

  3. Role of blood and vascular smooth muscle in the vasoactivity of nitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taiming; Schroeder, Hobe J.; Barcelo, Lisa; Bragg, Shannon L.; Terry, Michael H.; Wilson, Sean M.; Power, Gordon G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from humans and rats indicates that nitrite is a vasodilator under hypoxic conditions by reacting with metal-containing proteins to produce nitric oxide (NO). We tested the hypothesis that near-physiological concentrations of nitrite would produce vasodilation in a hypoxia- and concentration-dependent manner in the hind limb of sheep. Anesthetized sheep were instrumented to measure arterial blood pressure and femoral blood flows continuously in both hind limbs. Nitrite was infused into one femoral artery to raise the nitrite concentration in the femoral vein by 10 to 15-fold while the sheep breathed 50%, 14% or 12% oxygen in inspired air. In contrast to reports in humans and rats, the nitrite infusion had no measurable effect on mean femoral blood flows or vascular conductances, regardless of inspired O2 levels. In vitro experiments showed no significant difference in the release of NO from nitrite in sheep and human red blood cells. Further experiments demonstrated nitrite is converted to NO in rat artery homogenates faster than sheep arteries, and that this source of NO production is attenuated in the presence of a heme oxidizer. Finally, western blots indicate that concentrations of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin, but not myoglobin, are markedly lower in sheep arteries compared with rats. Overall, the results demonstrate that nitrite is not a physiological vasodilator in sheep. This is likely due to a lack of conversion of nitrite to NO within the vascular smooth muscle, perhaps due to deficient amounts of the heme-containing protein cytoglobin. PMID:25108012

  4. Oxygenation decreases elastin secretion from rat ductus arteriosus smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shoji; Minamisawa, Susumu

    2015-08-01

    The ductus arteriosus (DA), a fetal arterial connection between the main pulmonary artery and the descending aorta, normally closes immediately after birth. The oxygen concentration in the blood rises after birth, and in the DA this increase in oxygen concentration causes functional closure, which is induced by smooth muscle contraction. Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxia and/or oxygenation affect vascular remodeling of various vessels. Therefore, we hypothesized that the rise in oxygen concentration would affect the vascular structure of the DA due to production of proteins secreted from DA smooth muscle cells (SMC). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to comprehensively investigate the secreted proteins in the supernatant of rat DA SMC harvested under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) or under normoxic conditions (21% oxygen). We found that the rise in oxygen concentration reduced the secretion of elastin from DA SMC. On reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of elastin mRNA was not significantly changed in DA SMC from hypoxic to normoxic conditions. Given that elastin forms internal elastic lamina and elastic fibers in the vascular muscle layers, and that a rise in oxygen concentration reduced the secretion of elastin, this suggests that the rise in blood oxygen concentration after birth reduces the secretion of elastin, and therefore may play a role in DA structural remodeling after birth. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. 3D Reconstruction of Coronary Artery Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Luo

    Full Text Available The 3D geometry of individual vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, which are essential for understanding the mechanical function of blood vessels, are currently not available. This paper introduces a new 3D segmentation algorithm to determine VSMC morphology and orientation.A total of 112 VSMCs from six porcine coronary arteries were used in the analysis. A 3D semi-automatic segmentation method was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs from cell clumps as well as to extract the 3D geometry of VSMCs. A new edge blocking model was introduced to recognize cell boundary while an edge growing was developed for optimal interpolation and edge verification. The proposed methods were designed based on Region of Interest (ROI selected by user and interactive responses of limited key edges. Enhanced cell boundary features were used to construct the cell's initial boundary for further edge growing. A unified framework of morphological parameters (dimensions and orientations was proposed for the 3D volume data. Virtual phantom was designed to validate the tilt angle measurements, while other parameters extracted from 3D segmentations were compared with manual measurements to assess the accuracy of the algorithm. The length, width and thickness of VSMCs were 62.9±14.9 μm, 4.6±0.6 μm and 6.2±1.8 μm (mean±SD. In longitudinal-circumferential plane of blood vessel, VSMCs align off the circumferential direction with two mean angles of -19.4±9.3° and 10.9±4.7°, while an out-of-plane angle (i.e., radial tilt angle was found to be 8±7.6° with median as 5.7°.A 3D segmentation algorithm was developed to reconstruct individual VSMCs of blood vessel walls based on optical image stacks. The results were validated by a virtual phantom and manual measurement. The obtained 3D geometries can be utilized in mathematical models and leads a better understanding of vascular mechanical properties and function.

  6. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells by lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaoxia; Lan Xiaoli

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear factor NF-κB is believed to play an important role in regulating the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), which induce atherosclerosis, restenosis and plaque rupture. We incubated rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) with 5 μmol/L lovastatin in the presence of IL-1-α and PDGF BB (20 μg/L, respectively) to study whether lovastatin inhibited NF-κB binding activity induced by IL-1 and PDGF. The NF-κB activity was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA); MMP-1 and MMP-3 were measured by western blotting; and MMP-9 was detected by zymography. The result showed that lovastatin strongly reduced NF-κB activity upregulated by IL-1 combined with PDGF, and lovastatin also dose-dependently inhibited the expression of MMP-1, -3 and -9 induced by IL-1 and PDGF. It suggested that the beneficial effects of statins may extend to mechanisms beyond cholesterol reduction

  7. Mediators on human airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C; Johnson, P; Anticevich, S; Ammit, A; McKay, K; Hughes, M; Black, J

    1997-01-01

    1. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma may be due to several abnormalities, but must include alterations in the airway smooth muscle responsiveness and/or volume. 2. Increased responsiveness of airway smooth muscle in vitro can be induced by certain inflammatory cell products and by induction of sensitization (atopy). 3. Increased airway smooth muscle growth can also be induced by inflammatory cell products and atopic serum. 4. Mast cell numbers are increased in the airways of asthmatics and, in our studies, in airway smooth muscle that is sensitized and hyperresponsive. 5. We propose that there is a relationship between mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells which, once an allergic process has been initiated, results in the development of critical features in the lungs in asthma.

  8. A Dominant-Negative PPARγ Mutant Promotes Cell Cycle Progression and Cell Growth in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Z. Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PPARγ ligands have been shown to have antiproliferative effects on many cell types. We herein report that a synthetic dominant-negative (DN PPARγ mutant functions like a growth factor to promote cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs. In quiescent CASMCs, adenovirus-expressed DN-PPARγ promoted G1→S cell cycle progression, enhanced BrdU incorporation, and increased cell proliferation. DN-PPARγ expression also markedly enhanced positive regulators of the cell cycle, increasing Rb and CDC2 phosphorylation and the expression of cyclin A, B1, D1, and MCM7. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type (WT or constitutively-active (CA PPARγ inhibited cell cycle progression and the activity and expression of positive regulators of the cell cycle. DN-PPARγ expression, however, did not up-regulate positive cell cycle regulators in PPARγ-deficient cells, strongly suggesting that DN-PPARγ effects on cell cycle result from blocking the function of endogenous wild-type PPARγ. DN-PPARγ expression enhanced phosphorylation of ERK MAPKs. Furthermore, the ERK specific-inhibitor PD98059 blocked DN-PPARγ-induced phosphorylation of Rb and expression of cyclin A and MCM7. Our data thus suggest that DN-PPARγ promotes cell cycle progression and cell growth in CASMCs by modulating fundamental cell cycle regulatory proteins and MAPK mitogenic signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs.

  9. Selective Expression of an Endogenous Inhibitor of FAK Regulates Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joan M.; Mack, Christopher P.; Nolan, Kate; Regan, Christopher P.; Owens, Gary K.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix signaling via integrin receptors is important for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation during vasculogenesis and for phenotypic modulation of SMCs during atherosclerosis. We previously reported that the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal protein binding domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is expressed as a separate protein termed FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK) and that ectopic expression of FRNK can attenuate FAK activity and integrin-dependent signaling (A. Richardson and J. T. Parsons, Nature 380:538–540, 1996). Herein we report that in contrast to FAK, which is expressed ubiquitously, FRNK is expressed selectively in SMCs, with particularly high levels observed in conduit blood vessels. FRNK expression was low during embryonic development, was significantly upregulated in the postnatal period, and returned to low but detectable levels in adult tissues. FRNK expression was also dramatically upregulated following balloon-induced carotid artery injury. In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of FRNK attenuated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced migration and also dramatically inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation upon stimulation with PDGF-BB or 10% serum. These effects were concomitant with a reduction in SMC proliferation. Taken together, these data indicate that FRNK acts as an endogenous inhibitor of FAK signaling in SMCs. Furthermore, increased FRNK expression following vascular injury or during development may alter the SMC phenotype by negatively regulating proliferative and migratory signals. PMID:11238893

  10. Effect of Oxysterol-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Experimental Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Sonia; Alejandre, M. José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Torres, Carolina; Iglesias, Jose; Linares, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo changes related to proliferation and apoptosis in the physiological remodeling of vessels and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recent studies also have demonstrated the vascular cell proliferation and programmed cell death contribute to changes in vascular architecture in normal development and in disease. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, using an in vivo/in vitro cell model in which SMCs were isolated and culture from chicken exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (SMC-Ch) and/or an antiatherogenic fish oil-rich diet (SMC-Ch-FO). Cells were exposed in vitro to 25-hydroxycholesterol to study levels of apoptosis and apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax and the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL, genes. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the Immunoblotting western blot analysis showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol produces apoptosis in SMCs, mediated by a high increase in Bax protein and Bax gene expression. These changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-Ch-FO, indicating that dietary cholesterol produces changes in SMCs that make them more susceptible to 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that the replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of cholesterol-induced changes in the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, making SMCs more resistant to apoptosis. PMID:19727411

  11. Effect of Oxysterol-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Experimental Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs undergo changes related to proliferation and apoptosis in the physiological remodeling of vessels and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recent studies also have demonstrated the vascular cell proliferation and programmed cell death contribute to changes in vascular architecture in normal development and in disease. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, using an in vivo/in vitro cell model in which SMCs were isolated and culture from chicken exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (SMC-Ch and/or an antiatherogenic fish oil-rich diet (SMC-Ch-FO. Cells were exposed in vitro to 25-hydroxycholesterol to study levels of apoptosis and apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax and the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL, genes. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the Immunoblotting western blot analysis showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol produces apoptosis in SMCs, mediated by a high increase in Bax protein and Bax gene expression. These changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-Ch-FO, indicating that dietary cholesterol produces changes in SMCs that make them more susceptible to 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that the replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of cholesterol-induced changes in the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, making SMCs more resistant to apoptosis.

  12. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for vascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis. In the development of diabetic atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is recognized as a key event. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Buddleja officinalis (EBO) suppresses high glucose-induced proliferation in primary cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation revealed that incubation of HASMC with a high concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) increased cell proliferation. The expression levels of cell cycle protein were also increased by treatment with high glucose concentration. Pretreatment of HASMC with EBO significantly attenuated the increase of high glucose-induced cell proliferation as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK phosphorylation. EBO suppressed high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EBO suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity in high glucose conditions. Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC.

  13. Nuclear fusion-independent smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells induced by a smooth muscle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Jack, Gregory S; Rao, Nagesh; Zuk, Patricia; Ignarro, Louis J; Wu, Benjamin; Rodríguez, Larissa V

    2012-03-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells hASC have been isolated and were shown to have multilineage differentiation capacity. Although both plasticity and cell fusion have been suggested as mechanisms for cell differentiation in vivo, the effect of the local in vivo environment on the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells has not been evaluated. We previously reported the in vitro capacity of smooth muscle differentiation of these cells. In this study, we evaluate the effect of an in vivo smooth muscle environment in the differentiation of hASC. We studied this by two experimental designs: (a) in vivo evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation of hASC injected into a smooth muscle environment and (b) in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle differentiation capacity of hASC exposed to bladder smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate a time-dependent differentiation of hASC into mature smooth muscle cells when these cells are injected into the smooth musculature of the urinary bladder. Similar findings were seen when the cells were cocultured in vitro with primary bladder smooth muscle cells. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated that microenvironment cues rather than nuclear fusion are responsible for this differentiation. We conclude that cell plasticity is present in hASCs, and their differentiation is accomplished in the absence of nuclear fusion. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Qing, Hua; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Cohn, Dianne; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to vascular injury is central to neointimal vascular remodeling. There is accumulating evidence that histone acetylation constitutes a major epigenetic modification for the transcriptional control of proliferative gene expression; however, the physiological role of histone acetylation for proliferative vascular disease remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in SMC proliferation and neointimal remodeling. We demonstrate that mitogens induce transcription of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 in SMC. Short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either HDAC 1, 2, or 3 and pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevented mitogen-induced SMC proliferation. The mechanisms underlying this reduction of SMC proliferation by HDAC inhibition involve a growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle that is due to an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. HDAC inhibition resulted in a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip). Furthermore, HDAC inhibition repressed mitogen-induced cyclin D1 mRNA expression and cyclin D1 promoter activity. As a result of this differential cell cycle-regulatory gene expression by HDAC inhibition, the retinoblastoma protein retains a transcriptional repression of its downstream target genes required for S phase entry. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating that HDAC inhibition decreased neointima formation and expression of cyclin D1 in a murine model of vascular injury. These findings identify HDAC as a critical component of a transcriptional cascade regulating SMC proliferation and suggest that HDAC might play a pivotal role in the development of proliferative vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and in-stent restenosis.

  15. The angiotensin-(1-7/Mas axis counteracts angiotensin II-dependent and –independent pro-inflammatory signaling in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Villalobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Targeting inflammation is nowadays considered as a challenging pharmacological strategy to prevent or delay the development of vascular diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7 is a member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS that binds Mas receptors and has gained growing attention in the last years as a regulator of vascular homeostasis. Here, we explored the capacity of Ang-(1-7 to counteract human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC inflammation triggered by RAS-dependent and –independent stimuli, such as Ang II or interleukin (IL-1.Methods and Results: In cultured HASMC, the expression of iNOS and the release of nitric oxide were stimulated by both Ang II and IL-1, as determined by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence or the Griess method, respectively. iNOS induction was inhibited by Ang-(1-7 in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was equally blocked by two different Mas receptor antagonists, A779 and D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7, suggesting the participation of a unique Mas receptor subtype. Using pharmacological inhibitors, the induction of iNOS was proven to rely on the consecutive upstream activation of NADPH oxidase and NF-B. Indeed, Ang-(1-7 markedly inhibited the activation of the NADPH oxidase and subsequently of NF-B, as determined by lucigenin-derived chemiluminiscence and electromobility shift assay, respectively.Conclusion: Ang-(1-7 can act as a counter-regulator of the inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells triggered by Ang II, but also by other stimuli beyond the RAS. Activating or mimicking the Ang-(1-7/Mas axis may represent a pharmacological opportunity to attenuate the pro-inflammatory environment that promotes and sustains the development of vascular diseases.

  16. The mechanism of inhibitory effect of γ-ray irradiation on rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yongzhi; Wang Junjie; Zhang Zhanchun; Jia Tingzhen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of γ-ray irradiation on rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: Dose-survival curve of VSMCs was figured by colony formation. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on viability and proliferation of VSMCs was observed by 3 H incorporation. Flow cytometry and DNA Ladder were used to detect the apoptosis effect of γ-ray irradiation on VSMCs. Results: The values of D 0 , D q , D 37 and N for VSMCs were 1.95 Gy, 1.76 Gy, 3.71 Gy and 2.47, respectively. The inhibitory effect of γ-ray irradiation on VSMCs proliferation was dose-dependent, being stronger along with increase of dose. VSMCs did not undergo apoptosis within 48 hours after γ-ray irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation could inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs, the main mechanism of which is the killing effect and inhibition of mitosis of VSMCs

  17. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNFα-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D.; Tang, Dong-Qi; Li, Dong-Sheng; Cui, Taixing

    2010-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNFα-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNFα hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  18. Bone marrow stromal and vascular smooth muscle cells have chemosensory capacity via bitter taste receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available The ability of cells to detect changes in the microenvironment is important in cell signaling and responsiveness to environmental fluctuations. Our interest is in understanding how human bone marrow stromal-derived cells (MSC and their relatives, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC, interact with their environment through novel receptors. We found, through a proteomics screen, that MSC express the bitter taste receptor, TAS2R46, a protein more typically localized to the taste bud. Expression was also confirmed in VSMCs. A prototypical bitter compound that binds to the bitter taste receptor class, denatonium, increased intracellular calcium release and decreased cAMP levels as well as increased the extracellular release of ATP in human MSC. Denatonium also bound and activated rodent VSMC with a change in morphology upon compound exposure. Finally, rodents given denatonium in vivo had a significant drop in blood pressure indicating a vasodilator response. This is the first description of chemosensory detection by MSC and VSMCs via a taste receptor. These data open a new avenue of research into discovering novel compounds that operate through taste receptors expressed by cells in the marrow and vascular microenvironments.

  19. Nestin upregulation characterizes vascular remodeling secondary to hypertension in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Kim; Hertig, Vanessa; Duquette, Natacha; Villeneuve, Louis; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Tanguay, Jean-François; Calderone, Angelino

    2015-05-15

    Proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells represent hallmark features of vessel remodeling secondary to hypertension. The intermediate filament protein nestin was recently identified in vascular smooth muscle cells and in other cell types directly participated in proliferation. The present study tested the hypothesis that vessel remodeling secondary to hypertension was characterized by nestin upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Two weeks after suprarenal abdominal aorta constriction of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, elevated mean arterial pressure increased the media area and thickness of the carotid artery and aorta and concomitantly upregulated nestin protein levels. In the normal adult rat carotid artery, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in a subpopulation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the density significantly increased following suprarenal abdominal aorta constriction. Filamentous nestin was detected in cultured rat carotid artery- and aorta-derived vascular smooth muscle cells and an analogous paradigm observed in human aorta-derived vascular smooth muscle cells. ANG II and EGF treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells stimulated DNA and protein synthesis and increased nestin protein levels. Lentiviral short-hairpin RNA-mediated nestin depletion of carotid artery-derived vascular smooth muscle cells inhibited peptide growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis, whereas protein synthesis remained intact. These data have demonstrated that vessel remodeling secondary to hypertension was characterized in part by nestin upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells. The selective role of nestin in peptide growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis has revealed that the proliferative and hypertrophic responses of vascular smooth muscle cells were mediated by divergent signaling events. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Substance-specific importance of EGFR for vascular smooth muscle cells motility in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Barbara; Schwerdt, Gerald; Heise, Christian; Bethmann, Daniel; Rabe, Sindy; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Gekle, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Besides their importance for the vascular tone, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) also contribute to pathophysiological vessel alterations. Various G-protein coupled receptor ligands involved in vascular dysfunction and remodeling can transactivate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of VSMC, yet the importance of EGFR transactivation for the VSMC phenotype is incompletely understood. The aims of this study were (i) to characterize further the importance of the VSMC-EGFR for proliferation, migration and marker gene expression for inflammation, fibrosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and (ii) to test the hypothesis that vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, phenylephrine, thrombin, vasopressin and ATP) rely differentially on the EGFR with respect to the abovementioned phenotypic alterations. In primary, aortic VSMC from mice without conditional deletion of the EGFR, proliferation, migration, marker gene expression (inflammation, fibrosis and ROS homeostasis) and cell signaling (ERK 1/2, intracellular calcium) were analyzed. VSMC-EGFR loss reduced collective cell migration and single cell migration probability, while no difference between the genotypes in single cell velocity, chemotaxis or marker gene expression could be observed under control conditions. EGF promoted proliferation, collective cell migration, chemokinesis and chemotaxis and leads to a proinflammatory gene expression profile in wildtype but not in knockout VSMC. Comparing the impact of five vasoactive substances (all reported to transactivate EGFR and all leading to an EGFR dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation), we demonstrate that the importance of EGFR for their action is substance-dependent and most apparent for crowd migration but plays a minor role for gene expression regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunities to Target Specific Contractile Abnormalities with Smooth Muscle Protein Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret Ulke-Lemée

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle is a major component of most hollow organ systems (e.g., airways, vasculature, bladder and gut/gastrointestine; therefore, the coordinated regulation of contraction is a key property of smooth muscle. When smooth muscle functions normally, it contributes to general health and wellness, but its dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK is central to calcium-independent, actomyosin-mediated contractile force generation in the vasculature, thereby playing a role in smooth muscle contraction, cell motility and adhesion. Recent evidence supports an important role for ROCK in the increased vasoconstriction and remodeling observed in various models of hypertension. This review will provide a commentary on the development of specific ROCK inhibitors and their clinical application. Fasudil will be discussed as an example of bench-to-bedside development of a clinical therapeutic that is used to treat conditions of vascular hypercontractility. Due to the wide spectrum of biological processes regulated by ROCK, many additional clinical indications might also benefit from ROCK inhibition. Apart from the importance of ROCK in smooth muscle contraction, a variety of other protein kinases are known to play similar roles in regulating contractile force. The zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK and integrin-linked kinase (ILK are two well-described regulators of contraction. The relative contribution of each kinase to contraction depends on the muscle bed as well as hormonal and neuronal stimulation. Unfortunately, specific inhibitors for ZIPK and ILK are still in the development phase, but the success of fasudil suggests that inhibitors for these other kinases may also have valuable clinical applications. Notably, the directed inhibition of ZIPK with a pseudosubstrate molecule shows unexpected effects on the contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  2. Smitin, a novel smooth muscle titin-like protein, interacts with myosin filaments in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungtae; Keller, Thomas C S

    2002-01-07

    Smooth muscle cells use an actin-myosin II-based contractile apparatus to produce force for a variety of physiological functions, including blood pressure regulation and gut peristalsis. The organization of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus resembles that of striated skeletal and cardiac muscle, but remains much more poorly understood. We have found that avian vascular and visceral smooth muscles contain a novel, megadalton protein, smitin, that is similar to striated muscle titin in molecular morphology, localization in a contractile apparatus, and ability to interact with myosin filaments. Smitin, like titin, is a long fibrous molecule with a globular domain on one end. Specific reactivities of an anti-smitin polyclonal antibody and an anti-titin monoclonal antibody suggest that smitin and titin are distinct proteins rather than differentially spliced isoforms encoded by the same gene. Smitin immunofluorescently colocalizes with myosin in chicken gizzard smooth muscle, and interacts with two configurations of smooth muscle myosin filaments in vitro. In physiological ionic strength conditions, smitin and smooth muscle myosin coassemble into irregular aggregates containing large sidepolar myosin filaments. In low ionic strength conditions, smitin and smooth muscle myosin form highly ordered structures containing linear and polygonal end-to-end and side-by-side arrays of small bipolar myosin filaments. We have used immunogold localization and sucrose density gradient cosedimentation analyses to confirm association of smitin with both the sidepolar and bipolar smooth muscle myosin filaments. These findings suggest that the titin-like protein smitin may play a central role in organizing myosin filaments in the contractile apparatus and perhaps in other structures in smooth muscle cells.

  3. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui; Wen, Jin-kun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs

  4. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  5. From depolarization-dependent contractions in gastrointestinal smooth muscle to aortic pulse-synchronized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion SB

    2014-03-01

    contractions occur in the aortic wall in synchrony with the heartbeat and share a common pacemaker with the heart. We conclude that important observations in the vascular system became derivative from those in the gastrointestinal system. The challenging of scientific dogma potentially leads to the expansion of our fundamental knowledge base.Keywords: gastrointestinal smooth muscle, aortic smooth muscle, contractions, intracellular calcium pools, Windkessel hypothesis, pulse-synchronized contractions

  6. Cellular function and signaling pathways of vascular smooth muscle cells modulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Machida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P plays important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. S1P1 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P2 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, while S1P2 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P1 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. S1P has multiple actions, such as proliferation, inhibition or stimulation of migration, and vasoconstriction or release of vasoactive mediators. S1P induces an increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in many cell types, including VSMCs. Activation of S1P3 seems to play an important role in Ca2+ mobilization. S1P induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in VSMCs via both S1P2 and S1P3 receptors. S1P2 receptor activation in VSMCs inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. At the local site of vascular injury, vasoactive mediators such as prostaglandins and NO produced by VSMCs are considered primarily as a defensive and compensatory mechanism for the lack of endothelial function to prevent further pathology. Therefore, selective S1P2 receptor antagonists may have the potential to be therapeutic agents, in view of their antagonism of iNOS inhibition by S1P. Further progress in studies of the precise mechanisms of S1P may provide useful knowledge for the development of new S1P-related drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. LPS Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation Through the TLR4/Rac1/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianran Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a potent activator of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs proliferation, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we knocked down Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA in order to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Methods: VSMCs proliferation was monitored by 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine staining, and Rac1 activity was measured via Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. mRNAs encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, smooth muscle 22α (SM22α, myosin heavy chain (MYH and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of total Akt, p-Akt (308, p-Akt (473, SM22α, MYH and TRPC1 protein was analysed by Western blot. Results: Treatment with TLR4 siRNA (siTLR4 or Rac1 siRNA (siRac1 significantly decreased LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Moreover, LPS-induced activation of Rac1 through TLR4 was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that transfection with siTLR4 or siRac1 inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. We discovered that LPS stimulated VSMCs proliferation via phenotypic modulation and that this effect was partially inhibited by pre-treatment with siTLR4 or siRac1. Further, TLR4 and Rac1 are involved in LPS-induced activation of TRPC1. Conclusion: This study suggests that LPS exerts an effect on VSMCs proliferation and that the TLR4/Rac1/Akt signalling pathway mediates this effect.

  8. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Yoon [The Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, CT (United States); Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Cheol Ryong [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon Hee, E-mail: wooriminji@gmail.com [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jig, E-mail: ejlee423@yuhs.ac [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  9. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPARγ, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin

  10. Synthesis and Protective Effects of Kaempferol-3'-sulfonate on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced injury in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinbin; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunmei; Qin, Xiaolin; Huang, Yu; Zeng, Renquan

    2016-06-01

    A novel water-soluble sulfated derivative, kaempferol-3'-sulfonate acid sodium (KS) with the composition of [C15 H9 O9 SNa]·2.5H2 O, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, and HRMS. Its protective effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells injured by hydrogen peroxide were evaluated by CCK-8 method, flow cytometry, and Western blotting. The experimental results indicated that the KS can significantly increase cell viability and reduce apoptosis on H2 O2 -injured VSMCs, as well as reverse the effects of H2 O2 on Bcl-2, Bad, and caspase-3 expressions. In addition, LDH leakage, MDA levels, and SOD and GSH activities were also measured with spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the KS acted as antioxidant preventing LDH leakage and MDA production, while increasing intracellular SOD and GSH activities. These findings revealed that KS might potentially serve as an effective antioxidant agent for prevention and treatment of vascular disease caused by H2 O2 -injured VSMCs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. A new iridoid and effect on the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation of isolated compounds from Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kim, Yohan; Lee, Jung-Jin; Myung, Chang-Seon; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-06-01

    A new iridoid, named methylscutelloside (1) together with 19 known compounds belonging to the iridoids (2-4), monoterpenoids (5), flavonoids (6-8), triterpenoids (9-14), and phenylethanoids (15-20) were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties, and by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR, and MS. All isolated compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on the proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Among them, iridoids were the main active components and showed significant inhibitory effects on PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in rat aortic VSMCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Essential Roles of Raf/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ Influx in Growth Arrest of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Bilirubin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Erat, Anna; Fujikawa, Tatsuya; Hiromura, Makoto; Koulova, Anna; Otterbein, Leo; Bianchi, Cesario; Tobiasch, Edda; Dagon, Yossi; Sellke, Frank W.; Usheva, Anny

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway and the cellular Raf and cyclin D1 content that results in retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation on amino acids S608 and S780. These events impede the release of YY1 to the nuclei and its availability to regulate the expression of genes and to support cellular proliferation. Moreover, altered calcium influx and calpain II protease activation leads to proteolytical degradation of transcription factor YY1. We conclude that in the serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle primary cell cultures, bilirubin favors growth arrest, and we propose that this activity is regulated by its interaction with the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, effect on cyclin D1 and Raf content, altered retinoblastoma protein profile of hypophosphorylation, calcium influx, and YY1 proteolysis. We propose that these activities together culminate in diminished 5 S and 45 S ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth arrest. The observations provide important mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition of human vascular smooth muscle cells from proliferative to contractile phenotype and the role of bilirubin in this transition. PMID:22262839

  13. Microtubule Regulation of Kv7 Channels Orchestrates cAMP-Mediated Vasorelaxations in Rat Arterial Smooth Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindman, Johanna; Khammy, Makhala M; Lundegaard, Pia R

    2018-01-01

    Microtubules can regulate GPCR (G protein-coupled receptor) signaling in various cell types. In vascular smooth muscle, activation of the β-adrenoceptor leads to production of cAMP to mediate a vasorelaxation. Little is known about the role of microtubules in smooth muscle, and given the importance...... of renal and mesenteric arteries that the microtubule stabilizer, paclitaxel, prevented. Sharp microelectrode experiments showed that colchicine treatment caused increased hyperpolarization of mesenteric artery segments in response to isoprenaline. Application of the Kv7 channel blocker, XE991, attenuated...

  14. Ouabain binding to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, L.; Khalil, F.; Tamura, H.; Kino, M.; Searle, B.M.; Tokushige, A.; Aviv, A.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of ouabain and K + to the Na + pump were analyzed in serially passed cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) originating from spontaneously hypertensive (SH) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats. The techniques have utilized analyses of displacement of [ 3 H]ouabain by both unlabeled ouabain and K + from specific binding sites on the VSMCs. The authors have found that 1) each of the VSMC preparations from the three rat strains appeared to demonstrate one population of specific ouabain receptors (Na + pumps); 2) the number of Na + pump units of both the SH and WKY rats was significantly lower than the number of Na + pump units of W rat VSMCs; 3) the equilibrium dissociation constant values (μM) for ouabain in VSMCs of SH and WKY rats were similar but were significantly higher than that of VSMCs derived from W rats; and 4) among the VSMCs originating from the three rat strains, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant value for K + (mM) was the lowest in those of the SH rat compared with VSMCs of the WKY rat and W rat. Previous studies have demonstrated increased passive Na + and K + transport rate constants of SH rat VSMCs compared with either W or WKY rat cells. These findings suggest the possibility of higher permeabilities of the SH cells. They propose that the combined effect of a low number of Na + pump units with higher permeabilities to Na + and K + predisposes VSMCs of the SH rat to disturbances in their cellular ionic regulation. These genetic defects, if they occur in vivo, may lead to an increase in the vascular tone

  15. Guiding the orientation of smooth muscle cells on random and aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lin; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Qin, Xiaohong; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-09-01

    Fabricating scaffolds that can simulate the architecture and functionality of native extracellular matrix is a huge challenge in vascular tissue engineering. Various kinds of materials are engineered via nano-technological approaches to meet the current challenges in vascular tissue regeneration. During this study, nanofibers from pure polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane/collagen in two different morphologies (random and aligned) and in three different ratios of polyurethane:collagen (75:25; 50:50; 25:75) are fabricated by electrospinning. The fiber diameters of the nanofibrous scaffolds are in the range of 174-453 nm and 145-419 for random and aligned fibers, respectively, where they closely mimic the nanoscale dimensions of native extracellular matrix. The aligned polyurethane/collagen nanofibers expressed anisotropic wettability with mechanical properties which is suitable for regeneration of the artery. After 12 days of human aortic smooth muscle cells culture on different scaffolds, the proliferation of smooth muscle cells on hybrid polyurethane/collagen (3:1) nanofibers was 173% and 212% higher than on pure polyurethane scaffolds for random and aligned scaffolds, respectively. The results of cell morphology and protein staining showed that the aligned polyurethane/collagen (3:1) scaffold promote smooth muscle cells alignment through contact guidance, while the random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) also guided cell orientation most probably due to the inherent biochemical composition. Our studies demonstrate the potential of aligned and random polyurethane/collagen (3:1) as promising substrates for vascular tissue regeneration. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Isolation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keng Jin; Czech, Lyubov; Waypa, Gregory B; Farrow, Kathryn N

    2013-10-19

    Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al. that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.

  17. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. A...

  18. Cyclic GMP alters Ca exchange in vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliola, L.; Bailey, B.; Jones, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Contraction and 42 K efflux from vascular smooth muscle stimulated either by norepinephrine (NE) or by K-depolarization is dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca concentration. The purpose of this study was to determine if cyclic GMP (cGMP) inhibited these processes and if inhibition was secondary to the action of cGMP on Ca movements. Basal cGMP content of rat aorta was 1.2 fmol/mg wet wt. Sodium nitroprusside (NP) increased cGMP ∼2-fold at 1 nM and ∼750-fold at 1 μM with no effect on cAMP levels. A 5 min pretreatment with NP (1 μM) completely prevented tension development induced by 3 μM NE. The same concentration of NP also inhibited NE-stimulated 42 K and 45 Ca efflux > 90 and > 80%, respectively. Removal of NP in the continued presence of NE (3 μM) caused recovery of the 42 K efflux response to ∼75% of control with a half-time of ∼2.5 min. NP (1 μM) also caused a rapid relaxation of aorta contracted with 3 μM NE and a loss of the 42 K efflux response with half-times of 2-3 min. In contrast, 100 μM NP produced only a 50% inhibition of contraction induced by high K (55 mM). Also, NP (1 μM) inhibited K-stimulated 42 K efflux only ∼25%. These results demonstrate both a concentration- and a time-dependent relationship between increases in cGMP induced by NP and decreases in NE-stimulated contraction, 42 K and 45 Ca effluxes. They also indicate that the sensitivity of NE-induced contraction and 42 K efflux to NP is greater than that induced by high K. These studies suggest that cGMP modulates the control sites for Ca exchange in the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum

  19. Intracellular Na+ regulation of Na+ pump sites in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.C.; Navran, S.S.; Seidel, C.L.; Dennison, D.K.; Amann, J.M.; Jemelka, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Enzymatically dispersed cells from canine saphenous vein and femoral artery were grown in fetal calf serum and studied at day 0 (freshly dispersed) through confluence in primary culture. Intracellular Na levels (Nai), but not intracellular K (Ki), were increased after 24 h in culture and then decreased to a steady state by 4 days. Na+ pump site number [( 3 H] ouabain binding) increased through day 3 and remained elevated. Nai was still elevated at 2 days when the Na+ pump site number began to increase. Total pump turnover (maximum ouabain-inhibited 86 Rb uptake) reflected the increase in Na+ pump site number. These key events precede the observed increases in both protein production and cellular proliferation. If the same cells are maintained in defined medium, without fetal calf serum, Nai, Ki, and the number of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites do not change with time. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the initial mitogenic response of vascular smooth muscle cells to fetal calf serum involves an increased Na+ influx, and a Nai accumulation, caused by low Na+ pump density. The synthesis of new pump sites effects a decrease in the accumulated Nai, which may be related to cell proliferation

  20. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  1. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppresses oxidized low density lipoprotein induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the suppression of Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA on the oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phospholipase-1 (MAKP-1, VSMCs were treated with HSYA at 10 ?mol/L and/or ox-LDL at 35 mg/L for 48 h. MTT assay was done to measure cell survival rate, flow cytometry to detect cell cycle, reverse transcription PCR and Western blot to detect the expression of ERK1/2 and MAKP-1. When compared to cells treated with ox-LDL alone, the survival rate of cells treated with two reagents was reduced and the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase significantly increased, with increased MKP-1 expression. The study suggests HSYA can inhibit VSMC proliferation via increasing MKP-1 expression, reducing p-ERK1/2 activity and suppressing cell cycle.

  2. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingjiao; Lin, Jinghan; Ju, Ting; Chu, Lei; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Arterial calcification is common in vascular diseases and involves conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an osteoblast phenotype. Clinical studies suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be promoted by homocysteine (HCY), but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we determined whether increases in HCY levels lead to an increase in VSMC calcification and differentiation, and examined the role of an extracellular matrix remodeler, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Rat VSMCs were exposed to calcification medium in the absence or presence of HCY (10, 100 or 200 μmol/L) or an MMP-2 inhibitor (10(-6) or 10(-5) mol/L). MTT assays were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the MMP-2 inhibitor in calcification medium containing 200 μmol/L HCY. Calcification was assessed by measurements of calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as von Kossa staining. Expression of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and osteopontin, and MMP-2 was determined by immunoblotting. Calcification medium induced osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs. HCY promoted calcification, increased osteocalcin and BMP-2 expression, and decreased expression of osteopontin. MMP-2 expression was increased by HCY in a dose-dependent manner in VSMCs exposed to both control and calcification medium. The MMP-2 inhibitor decreased the calcium content and ALP activity, and attenuated the osteoblastic phenotype of VSMCs. Vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs were positively regulated by HCY through increased/restored MMP-2 expression, increased expression of calcification proteins, and decreased anti-calcification protein levels. In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification.

  3. PHYSICAL CONTACT BETWEEN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL AND SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS MODULATES CYTOSOLIC AND NUCLEAR CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghada S; Jacques, Danielle; D'Orleans-Juste, Pedro; Magder, Sheldon; Bkaily, Ghassan

    2018-05-14

    The interaction between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone. There is however no information on whether direct physical communication regulates the intracellular calcium levels of human VECs (hVECs) and/or hVSMCs . Thus, the objective of the study is to verify whether co-culture of hVECs and hVSMCs modulates cytosolic ([Ca2+]c) and nuclear calcium ([Ca2+]n) levels via physical contact and/or factors released by both cell types. Quantitative 3D confocal microscopy for [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]n measurement was performed in cultured hVECs or hVSMCs or in co-culture of hVECs-hVSMCs. Our results show that: 1) physical contact between hVECs-hVECs or hVSMCs-hVSMCs does not affect [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]n in these two cell types; 2) physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs induces a significant increase only of [Ca2+]n of hVECs without affecting the level of [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]n of hVSMCs; and 3) preconditioned culture medium of hVECs or hVSMCs does not affect [Ca2+]c and [Ca2+]n of both types of cells. We concluded that physical contact between hVECs and hVSMCs only modulates [Ca2+]n in hVECs. The increase of [Ca2+]n in hVECs may modulate nuclear functions that are calcium dependent.

  4. Vascular smooth muscle modulates endothelial control of vasoreactivity via reactive oxygen species production through myoendothelial communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Billaud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial control of vascular smooth muscle plays a major role in the resulting vasoreactivity implicated in physiological or pathological circulatory processes. However, a comprehensive understanding of endothelial (EC/smooth muscle cells (SMC crosstalk is far from complete. Here, we have examined the role of gap junctions and reactive oxygen species (ROS in this crosstalk and we demonstrate an active contribution of SMC to endothelial control of vasomotor tone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In small intrapulmonary arteries, quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot analyses and immunofluorescent labeling evidenced connexin (Cx 37, 40 and 43 in EC and/or SMC. Functional experiments showed that the Cx-mimetic peptide targeted against Cx 37 and Cx 43 ((37,43Gap27 (1 reduced contractile and calcium responses to serotonin (5-HT simultaneously recorded in pulmonary arteries and (2 abolished the diffusion in SMC of carboxyfluorescein-AM loaded in EC. Similarly, contractile and calcium responses to 5-HT were decreased by superoxide dismutase and catalase which, catabolise superoxide anion and H(2O(2, respectively. Both Cx- and ROS-mediated effects on the responses to 5-HT were reversed by L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor or endothelium removal. Electronic paramagnetic resonance directly demonstrated that 5-HT-induced superoxide anion production originated from the SMC. Finally, whereas 5-HT increased NO production, it also decreased cyclic GMP content in isolated intact arteries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that agonist-induced ROS production in SMC targeting EC via myoendothelial gap junctions reduces endothelial NO-dependent control of pulmonary vasoreactivity. Such SMC modulation of endothelial control may represent a signaling pathway controlling vasoreactivity under not only physiological but also pathological conditions that often implicate excessive ROS production.

  5. Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeadin, Melec G.; Butcher, Martin K.; Shaughnessy, Stephen G. [Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Werstuck, Geoff H., E-mail: Geoff.Werstuck@taari.ca [Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leptin regulates the expression of genes involved in osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutively active GSK-3{beta} attenuates leptin-induced osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This suggests that leptin signals through GSK-3{beta} to promote osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: In this study, we begin to investigate the underlying mechanism of leptin-induced vascular calcification. We found that treatment of cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) with leptin (0.5-4 {mu}g/ml) induced osteoblast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that leptin significantly increased the mRNA expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, while down-regulating matrix gla protein (MGP) expression in BASMCs. Key factors implicated in osteoblast differentiation, including members of the Wnt signaling pathway, were examined. Exposure to leptin enhanced phosphorylation of GSK-3{beta} on serine-9 thereby inhibiting activity and promoting the nuclear accumulation of {beta}-catenin. Transfection of BASMCs with an adenovirus that expressed constitutively active GSK-3{beta} (Ad-GSK-3{beta} S9A) resulted in a >2-fold increase in GSK-3{beta} activity and a significant decrease in leptin-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis showed that GSK-3{beta} activation resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein, but a marked increase in MGP mRNA expression. When taken together, our results suggest a mechanism by which leptin promotes osteoblast differentiation and vascular calcification in vivo.

  6. Experimental study of the effect of 103Pd on the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Zhu Jun; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of γ emitting radionuclide 103 Pd to inhibit the vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and to induce its apoptosis in vitro. Methods: 103 Pd solution was added to the culture medium to irradiate SMCs for 72 h and non-radioactive Pd solution was added as control. 3 H-TdR incorporation test was used to detect the effect of 103 Pd on the proliferation of SMCs. Flow cytometer was used to detect the apoptotic SMCs. Results: The results showed that inhibition of SMC proliferation was evident and the effects were dose-dependant. Inhibition rate of SMC proliferation by 1.85 MBq 103 Pd was 2.3% , which was not significant. The inhibition rate increased from 41.6% to 91.2% as the dose of 103 Pd increased from 7.4 to 37.0 MBq, and the proliferation of SMCs was repressed significantly then. The apoptosis rate was extremely low (less than 4.0% ) with the 103 pd dose escalating from 1.85 to 37.0 MBq. Conclusions: This study suggests that proliferation of SMCs can be repressed effectively in vitro by 103 pd. 103 Pd can be used to inhibit the neointimal proliferation. 103 Pd radioactive stent implantation can be employed as a possible novel means to prevent restenosis

  7. Molecular basis for interaction of Na+/K+-ATPase with other transporters in membrane microdomains of vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Matchkov, Vladimir; Bouzinova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. We have recently demonstrated a mechanism of this action of ouabain (1). We have showed that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through...... an interaction between the Na+/K+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. This regulation suggests a close association of the proteins in microdomains. We have also suggested that this Na...

  8. Attenuation of chondrogenic transformation in vascular smooth muscle by dietary quercetin in the MGP-deficient mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Beazley

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous metaplasia of vascular smooth muscle (VSM is characteristic for arterial calcification in diabetes and uremia and in the background of genetic alterations in matrix Gla protein (MGP. A better understanding of the molecular details of this process is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to VSM transformation and arterial calcification.This study aimed to identify the effects of bioflavonoid quercetin on chondrogenic transformation and calcification of VSM in the MGP-null mouse model and upon TGF-β3 stimulation in vitro, and to characterize the associated alterations in cell signaling.Molecular analysis revealed activation of β-catenin signaling in cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- aortae in vivo and during chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs in vitro. Quercetin intercepted chondrogenic transformation of VSM and blocked activation of β-catenin both in vivo and in vitro. Although dietary quercetin drastically attenuated calcifying cartilaginous metaplasia in Mgp-/- animals, approximately one-half of total vascular calcium mineral remained as depositions along elastic lamellae.Quercetin is potent in preventing VSM chondrogenic transformation caused by diverse stimuli. Combined with the demonstrated efficiency of dietary quercetin in preventing ectopic chondrogenesis in the MGP-null vasculature, these findings indicate a potentially broad therapeutic applicability of this safe for human consumption bioflavonoid in the therapy of cardiovascular conditions linked to cartilaginous metaplasia of VSM. Elastocalcinosis is a major component of MGP-null vascular disease and is controlled by a mechanism different from chondrogenic transformation of VSM and not sensitive to quercetin.

  9. p115 RhoGEF activates the Rac1 GTPase signaling cascade in MCP1 chemokine-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhlesh K; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2017-08-25

    Although the involvement of Rho proteins in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases is well studied, little is known about the role of their upstream regulators, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Here, we sought to identify the RhoGEFs involved in monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1)-induced vascular wall remodeling. We found that, among the RhoGEFs tested, MCP1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p115 RhoGEF but not of PDZ RhoGEF or leukemia-associated RhoGEF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Moreover, p115 RhoGEF inhibition suppressed MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation. Consistent with these observations, balloon injury (BI) induced p115 RhoGEF tyrosine phosphorylation in rat common carotid arteries, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of its levels substantially attenuated BI-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, resulting in reduced neointima formation. Furthermore, depletion of p115 RhoGEF levels also abrogated MCP1- or BI-induced Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling, which, as we reported previously, is involved in vascular wall remodeling. Our findings also show that protein kinase N1 (PKN1) downstream of Rac1-cyclin D1/CDK6 and upstream of CDK4-PAK1 in the p115 RhoGEF-Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling axis is involved in the modulation of vascular wall remodeling. Of note, we also observed that CCR2-G i/o -Fyn signaling mediates MCP1-induced p115 RhoGEF and Rac1 GTPase activation. These findings suggest that p115 RhoGEF is critical for MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation in vitro and for injury-induced neointima formation in vivo by modulating Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  11. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha; Wiggers, Giulia A.; Roque, Fernanda R. [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Redondo, Santiago [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Peçanha, Franck [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Martín, Angela [Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922, Alcorcón (Spain); Fortuño, Ana [Área de Ciencias Cardiovasculares, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31008, Pamplona (Spain); Cachofeiro, Victoria [Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Tejerina, Teresa [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number of SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces

  12. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Lv, Jiaju; Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying; Wang, Xing Li; Tang, Dongqi; Cui, Taixing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. ► Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. ► CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-κB activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-κB activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-κB transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNFα-induced NF-κB activity. Intriguingly, the TNFα-induced IκB phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of IκBα and IκBβ proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNFα-induced IκB protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-κB activity and TNFα-induced IκB kinase activation without affecting TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNFα-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-activated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in RASMCs. TNFα-induced RASMC migration and monocyte adhesion to

  13. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  14. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. MiR-29-mediated elastin down-regulation contributes to inorganic phosphorus-induced osteoblastic differentiation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Ryo; Sato, Fumiaki; Azechi, Takuya; Wachi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Vascular calcification increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. We previously reported that expression of elastin decreases with progression of inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. However, the regulatory mechanisms of elastin mRNA expression during vascular calcification remain unclear. MicroRNA-29 family members (miR-29a, b and c) are reported to mediate elastin mRNA expression. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of miR-29 on elastin expression and Pi-induced vascular calcification. Calcification of human VSMCs was induced by Pi and evaluated measuring calcium deposition. Pi stimulation promoted Ca deposition and suppressed elastin expression in VSMCs. Knockdown of elastin expression by shRNA also promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. Elastin pre-mRNA measurements indicated that Pi stimulation suppressed elastin expression without changing transcriptional activity. Conversely, Pi stimulation increased miR-29a and miR-29b expression. Inhibition of miR-29 recovered elastin expression and suppressed calcification in Pi-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of miR-29b promoted Pi-induced VSMC calcification. RT-qPCR analysis showed knockdown of elastin expression in VSMCs induced expression of osteoblast-related genes, similar to Pi stimulation, and recovery of elastin expression by miR-29 inhibition reduced their expression. Our study shows that miR-29-mediated suppression of elastin expression in VSMCs plays a pivotal role in osteoblastic differentiation leading to vascular calcification. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Resveratrol blocks interleukin-18-EMMPRIN cross-regulation and smooth muscle cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Valente, Anthony J.; Reddy, Venkatapuram Seenu; Siwik, Deborah A.; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2009-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration is an important mechanism in atherogenesis and postangioplasty arterial remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-18 is a potent inducer of SMC migration. Since extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates ECM degradation and facilitates cell migration, we investigated whether IL-18 and EMMPRIN regulate each other's expression, whether their cross talk induces SMC migration, and...

  17. Aerobic metabolism on muscle contraction in porcine gastric smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hidenori; Kaneda, Takeharu; Nagai, Yuta; Urakawa, Norimoto; Shimizu, Kazumasa

    2018-05-18

    Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K + - and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O 2 consumption. Aeration with N 2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K + - and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O 2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K + . Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O 2 consumption was greater than that of high K + . Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K + - and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O 2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K + -induced muscle contraction.

  18. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/HCO3 co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allele is associated with increased SLC4A7 expression level, NBCn1 availability and function as reflected in elevated...

  19. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  20. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li; You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou; Qu, Bao-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  1. A multiscale active structural model of the arterial wall accounting for smooth muscle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Edwards, David Hughes; Aggarwal, Ankush; Nithiarasu, Perumal; Parthimos, Dimitris

    2018-02-01

    Arterial wall dynamics arise from the synergy of passive mechano-elastic properties of the vascular tissue and the active contractile behaviour of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that form the media layer of vessels. We have developed a computational framework that incorporates both these components to account for vascular responses to mechanical and pharmacological stimuli. To validate the proposed framework and demonstrate its potential for testing hypotheses on the pathogenesis of vascular disease, we have employed a number of pharmacological probes that modulate the arterial wall contractile machinery by selectively inhibiting a range of intracellular signalling pathways. Experimental probes used on ring segments from the rabbit central ear artery are: phenylephrine, a selective α 1-adrenergic receptor agonist that induces vasoconstriction; cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a specific inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase; and ryanodine, a diterpenoid that modulates Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These interventions were able to delineate the role of membrane versus intracellular signalling, previously identified as main factors in smooth muscle contraction and the generation of vessel tone. Each SMC was modelled by a system of nonlinear differential equations that account for intracellular ionic signalling, and in particular Ca 2+ dynamics. Cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations formed the catalytic input to a cross-bridge kinetics model. Contractile output from these cellular components forms the input to the finite-element model of the arterial rings under isometric conditions that reproduces the experimental conditions. The model does not account for the role of the endothelium, as the nitric oxide production was suppressed by the action of L-NAME, and also due to the absence of shear stress on the arterial ring, as the experimental set-up did not involve flow. Simulations generated by the integrated model closely matched experimental

  2. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  3. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltenberger, Birgit; Liu, Rongxia; Atanasov, Atanas G; Schwaiger, Stefan; Heiss, Elke H; Dirsch, Verena M; Stuppner, Hermann

    2015-11-13

    Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1) from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4), swerchirin (6), and methylswertianin (7) showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation) in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium) revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  4. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  5. Role of integrin-linked kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells: Regulation by statins and angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Erik B.; Clever, Yvonne P.; Wassmann, Sven; Werner, Nikos; Boehm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which play a crucial role in atherogenesis. Transfection of VSMC with wild-type and dominant-negative ILK cDNA constructs revealed that ILK mediates migration and proliferation of VSMC but has no effect on VSMC survival. The pro-atherogenic mediator angiotensin II increases ILK protein expression and kinase activity while statin treatment down-regulates ILK in VSMC. Functionally, ILK is necessary for angiotensin II-mediated VSMC migration and proliferation. In VSMC transduced with dominant-negative ILK, statins mediate an additive inhibition of VSMC migration and proliferation, while transfection with wild-type ILK is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effects of statin treatment on VSMC migration and proliferation. In vivo, ILK is expressed in VSMC of aortic sections from wild-type mice where it is down-regulated following statin treatment and up-regulated following induction of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. These data identify ILK as a novel target in VSMC for anti-atherosclerotic therapy

  6. Mechanisms of mechanical strain memory in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Rim; Hai, Chi-Ming

    2005-10-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that mechanical deformation of airway smooth muscle induces structural remodeling of airway smooth muscle cells, thereby modulating mechanical performance in subsequent contractions. This hypothesis implied that past experience of mechanical deformation was retained (or "memorized") as structural changes in airway smooth muscle cells, which modulated the cell's subsequent contractile responses. We termed this phenomenon mechanical strain memory. Preshortening has been found to induce attenuation of both force and isotonic shortening velocity in cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle. Rapid stretching of cholinergic receptor-activated airway smooth muscle from an initial length to a final length resulted in post-stretch force and myosin light chain phosphorylation that correlated significantly with initial length. Thus post-stretch muscle strips appeared to retain memory of the initial length prior to rapid stretch (mechanical strain memory). Cytoskeletal recruitment of actin- and integrin-binding proteins and Erk 1/2 MAPK appeared to be important mechanisms of mechanical strain memory. Sinusoidal length oscillation led to force attenuation during oscillation and in subsequent contractions in intact airway smooth muscle, and p38 MAPK appeared to be an important mechanism. In contrast, application of local mechanical strain to cultured airway smooth muscle cells induced local actin polymerization and cytoskeletal stiffening. It is conceivable that deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection may be a manifestation of mechanical strain memory such that mechanical deformation from past breathing cycles modulated the mechanical performance of airway smooth muscle in subsequent cycles in a continuous and dynamic manner.

  7. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wiciński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF, a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE- induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n=17 pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o. or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18±0.12 ng/mL (treated and 1.17±0.13 ng/mL (control (p = ns. After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52±0.23 ng/mL and 1.24±0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p=0.02 Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64±0.31 ng/mL and 1.32±0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p=0.031. EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33±1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53±1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p<0.05. These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The reactivity of resistant

  8. Simultaneous Increases in Proliferation and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Accelerate Diabetic Mouse Venous Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuying; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Yuhuan; Liu, Kefeng; Huang, Jintao; Chen, Dadi; Wang, Junmei; Li, Chaohong

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study was designed to demonstrate simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) leading to accelerated vein graft remodeling and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods Vein grafts were performed in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. The cultured quiescent VSMCs were subjected to mechanical stretch stress (SS) and/or advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). Harvested vein grafts and treated VSMCs were used to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation and SM-α-actin expression. Results Significantly thicker vessel walls and greater increases in proliferation and apoptosis were observed in diabetic vein grafts than those in non-diabetic. Both SS and AGEs were found to induce different activation of three members of MAPKs and simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs, and combined treatment with both had a synergistic effect. VSMCs with strong SM-α-actin expression represented more activated JNKs or p38MAPK, and cell apoptosis, while the cells with weak SM-α-actin expression demonstrated preferential activation of ERKs and cell proliferation. In contrast, inhibition of MAPKs signals triggered significant decreases in VSMC proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment of the cells with RNA interference of receptor of AGEs (RAGE) also resulted in significant decreases in both proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusions Increased pressure-induced SS triggers simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs in the vein grafts leading to vein arterializations, which can be synergistically accelerated by high glucose-induced AGEs resulting in vein graft atherosclerosis. Either SS or AGEs and their combination induce simultaneous increases in proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs via different activation of three members of MAPKs resulting from different VSMC subtypes classified by SM-α-actin expression levels. PMID:26488175

  9. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Kate; Ren, Meixia; Zhang, Ruoxin; Tucker, Arthur; Aalkj?r, Christian; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pH i ). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allel...

  10. Actin isoform and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor gene expression in aortic and coronary smooth muscle is influenced by cyclical stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, M S; Sadhu, D N; Grumman, V E; Chilian, W M; Ramos, K S

    1995-09-01

    The occurrence of vascular domains with specific biological and pharmacological characteristics suggests that smooth muscle cells in different arteries may respond differentially to a wide range of environmental stimuli. To determine if some of these vessel-specific differences may be attributable to mechano-sensitive gene regulation, the influence of cyclical stretch on the expression of actin isoform and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor genes was examined in aortic and coronary smooth muscle cells. Cells were seeded on an elastin substrate and subjected to maximal stretching (24% elongation) and relaxation cycles at a frequency of 120 cycles/min in a Flexercell strain unit for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to radiolabeled cDNA probes to assess gene expression. Stretch caused a greater reduction of actin isoform mRNA levels in aortic smooth muscle cells as compared to cells from the coronary artery. Steady-state mRNA levels of alpha 1B-adrenoceptor were also decreased by cyclical stretch in both cell types but the magnitude of the response was greater in coronary smooth muscle cells. No changes in alpha 1B-adrenoceptor or beta/gamma-actin steady-state mRNA levels were observed in H4IIE cells, a nonvascular, immortalized cell line. The relative gene expression of heat shock protein 70 was not influenced by the cyclic stretch regimen in any of these cell types. These results suggest that stretch may participate in the regulation of gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and that this response exhibits some degree of cell-specificity.

  11. Epigallocatechin Gallate Attenuates Proliferation and Oxidative Stress in Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Interleukin-1β via Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Len Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs triggered by inflammatory stimuli and oxidative stress contributes importantly to atherogenesis. The association of green tea consumption with cardiovascular protection has been well documented in epidemiological observations, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of the most active green tea catechin derivative, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We found that pretreatment of EGCG dose- and time-dependently induced HO-1 protein levels in HASMCs. EGCG inhibited interleukin- (IL-1β-induced HASMC proliferation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer CoPPIX decreased IL-1β-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor ZnPPIX significantly reversed EGCG-caused growth inhibition in IL-1β-treated HASMCs. At the molecular level, EGCG treatment significantly activated nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2 transcription activities. These results suggest that EGCG might serve as a complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of these pathologies by inducing HO-1 expression and subsequently decreasing VSMC proliferation.

  12. The relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and airway smooth muscle structure and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, C L; Black, J L; Berend, N; Woolcock, A J

    1984-11-01

    The airway responsiveness of a group of 25 patients scheduled for lung resection was studied. 10 of 25 patients had a greater than or equal to 20% fall in FEV1 in response to inhaled methacholine (responders), with PD20 FEV1 values ranging from 0.6 to 7.3 mumol. Methacholine did not induce a 20% fall in FEV1 in 15 patients (non-responders). The sensitivity to carbachol and histamine of the bronchial smooth muscle resected from these patients was similar in tissue from responders and non-responders. There was no correlation between in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to carbachol or histamine. The volume of smooth muscle in some of these airway preparations was quantitated. There was a significant correlation between the maximum tension change in response to histamine and the volume of smooth muscle in each airway. There was no similar correlation for carbachol. The in vivo responsiveness to methacholine and in vitro sensitivity to histamine or carbachol was not related to the degree of inflammation in the airways studied. It is concluded that in vivo responsiveness cannot be explained in terms of smooth muscle sensitivity and that there may be differences between histamine and carbachol in the mechanism of contraction of airway smooth muscle.

  13. Proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis of smooth muscle cells cultured from human coronary atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. MacLeod (Donald); B.H. Strauss (Bradley); J. Escaned (Javier); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); R-J. van Suylen (Robert-Jan); A. Verkerk (Anton); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine the proliferative capacity and extracellular matrix synthesis of human coronary plaque cells in vitro. BACKGROUND. Common to both primary atherosclerosis and restenosis are vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and production of

  14. Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth by Connexin 43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintamani eJoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Connexin 43 (Cx43, the principal gap junction protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, regulates movement of ions and other signaling molecules through gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC and plays important roles in maintaining normal vessel function; however, many of the signaling mechanisms controlling Cx43 in VSMCs are not clearly described. The goal of this study was to investigate mechanisms of Cx43 regulation with respect to VSMC proliferation. Treatment of rat primary VSMCs with the cAMP analog 8Br-cAMP, the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272 (BAY, or the Cx inducer diallyl disulfide (DADS significantly reduced proliferation after 72 h compared to vehicle controls. Bromodeoxyuridine uptake revealed reduction (p<.001 in DNA synthesis after 6 h and flow cytometry showed reduced (40% S phase cell numbers after 16 h in DADS-treated cells compared to controls. Cx43 expression significantly increased after 270 min treatment with 8Br-cAMP, 8Br-cGMP, BAY or DADS. Inhibition of PKA, PKG or PKC reversed 8Br-cAMP-stimulated increases in Cx43 expression, whereas only PKG or PKC inhibition reversed 8Br-cGMP- and BAY-stimulated increases in total Cx43. Interestingly, stimulation of Cx43 expression by DADS was not dependent on PKA, PKG or PKC. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, only 8Br-cAMP or DADS increased GJIC with 8Br-cAMP mediated by PKC and DADS mediated by PKG. Further, DADS significantly increased phosphorylation at the MAPK-sensitive serine (Ser255 and Ser279, the cell cycle regulatory kinase-sensitive Ser262 and the PKC-sensitive Ser368 after 30 min while 8Br-cAMP significantly increased phosphorylation only at Ser279 compared to controls. This study demonstrates that 8Br-cAMP- and DADS-enhanced GJIC rather than Cx43 expression and/or phosphorylation plays an important role in regulation of VSMC proliferation and provides new insights into the growth-regulatory capacities of Cx43 in VSMCs.

  15. Transcriptional Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ: Therapeutic Implications for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Gizard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs is a critical process for the development of atherosclerosis and complications of procedures used to treat atherosclerotic diseases, including postangioplasty restenosis, vein graft failure, and transplant vasculopathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and the molecular target for the thiazolidinediones (TZD, used clinically to treat insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition to their efficacy to improve insulin sensitivity, TZD exert a broad spectrum of pleiotropic beneficial effects on vascular gene expression programs. In SMCs, PPARγ is prominently upregulated during neointima formation and suppresses the proliferative response to injury of the arterial wall. Among the molecular target genes regulated by PPARγ in SMCs are genes encoding proteins involved in the regulation of cell-cycle progression, cellular senescence, and apoptosis. This inhibition of SMC proliferation is likely to contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis observed in animal models and proof-of-concept clinical studies. This review will summarize the transcriptional target genes regulated by PPARγ in SMCs and outline the therapeutic implications of PPARγ activation for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications.

  16. Interleukin-6 downregulated vascular smooth muscle cell contractile proteins via ATG4B-mediated autophagy in thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhao; Qiao, Fan; Lu, Qijue; Ma, Ye; Liu, Yang; Lu, Fanglin; Xu, Zhiyun

    2017-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overexpression played an important role in the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Our previous study found enhanced autophagy accompanying with contractile proteins α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle 22α (SM22α) degradation in TAD aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Autophagy is an important way for intracellular proteins degradation, while IL-6 has been found as a contributing factor of autophagy in some cancers. These indicated IL-6 might contribute to the occurrence of TAD by promoting autophagy-induced contractile proteins degradation, which has not been investigated. The aim of the present study is to verify this hypothesis and investigate the mechanism of it. We collected 10 TAD and 10 control aortic specimens from patients underwent TAD surgical repair and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect mRNA expression. Protein expression level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta overexpression adenovirus with green and red fluorescent protein tags and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect autophagy level in VSMCs. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine were used to block autophagy in human VSMCs. Experiment results showed that the expression of IL-6 was significantly increased accompanying with up-regulated autophagy in TAD aortic wall compared with controls. In vitro results showed that IL-6 stimulation decreased the expression of VSMCs contractile proteins α-SMA and SM22α accompanying with up-regulated autophagy. Blocking autophagy with 3-MA or chloroquine inhibited IL-6 induced α-SMA and SM22α degradation. Further investigation showed that autophagy-related 4B cysteine peptidase (ATG4B) was significantly overexpressed in TAD aortic wall and played important role in IL-6 induced autophagy up

  17. 45Ca distribution and transport in saponin skinned vascular smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, M.A.; Diecke, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    45 Ca distribution and transport were studied in chemically skinned strips of caudal artery from Kyoto Wistar rats. Sarcolemmal membranes were made hyperpermeable by exposure for 60 min to solutions containing 0.1 mg/ml of saponin. Skinned helical strips responded with graded contractions to changes in ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid buffered free Ca solutions (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and were sensitive to the Mg-ATP concentration. Tissues loaded in the presence of 10(-7) M Ca contracted in response to 10 mM caffeine. These experiments indicate the strips are skinned and possess a functional regulatory and contractile system and an intact Ca sequestering system. 45 Ca distributes in three compartments in skinned caudal artery strips. The Ca contents of two components are linear functions of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration and desaturate at rapid rates. They correspond to the extracellular and cytoplasmic spaces. A significantly smaller component releases Ca at comparatively slower rates. 45 Ca uptake by the slow component consists of an ATP-dependent and an ATP-independent fraction. The 45 Ca content of the ATP-dependent fraction is a function of the free Ca concentration and is independent of the Ca-ethylene glycol bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid concentration. Its content was enhanced by oxalate and was abolished by Triton X-100 skinning solutions. The ATP-independent component was not affected by Triton X-100 skinning and may represent Ca binding to cytoplasmic molecules and structures. The sequestered Ca was released with caffeine or Ca but not by epinephrine. The observations indicate that the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of vascular smooth muscle strips skinned with saponin retain their functional integrity after saponin skinning

  18. Technetium-99m labeled antisense probes uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Qin, G.M.; An, R.; Cao, G.X.; Cao, W.; Gao, Z.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the arterial wall, smooth muscle cells (SMC) normally exist in a quiescent, differentiated state, representing the contractile phenotype. During the development of atherosclerosis SMC change towards the synthetic phenotype going along with proliferation, chemotactic response and increased monocyte binding. The Fas/Fas ligand/caspase death-signaling pathway, Bcl-2 protein family/mitochondria, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the proto-oncogene c-myc may be activated in atherosclerotic lesions, and mediates vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaques contained 3-4 fold more c-myc mRNA than those in the normal aortic arteries, while increased Bax and Bak coupled with lack/paucity of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are associated with SMC apoptosis in advanced lesions. Methods: 1 Oligonucleotide Conjugation: A solution of single stranded amine-derivatized DNA (100-1000μg) was prepared at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in 0.25M sodium bicarbonate, 1 M sodium chloride, 1mM EDTA, pH8.5. Cell uptake studies: 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA radioactivity incorporation into porcine coronary smooth muscle cells in the log and plateau phases, respectively, was determined after different times of incubation at 37. The influence of extracellular 99m Tc- MAG 3 -DNA concentration on SMC uptake was also analyzed. [Results] Essentially complete conjugation was achieved by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis. The MAG 3 -DNA was labeled with 99m Tc at room temperature and neutral pH, with a mean labeling efficiency of 80.11%(s.d=2.96%,n=4). The labeled antisense DNA still remained the ability to hybridize with its complementary DNA. After labeling, the stability of the DNA in saline or serum was retained as determined by reverse-phase Sep-Pak C18 chromatography analysis, except a shift at 30 min in serum incubation that suggesting a short time serum protein binding. 99m Tc-MAG 3 -c-myc uptake plateaued at 60 min and was directly proportional to the

  19. Electrospun silk fibroin/poly (L-lactide-ε-caplacton) graft with platelet-rich growth factor for inducing smooth muscle cell growth and infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Anlin; Bowlin, Gary L; Luo, Rifang; Zhang, Xingdong; Wang, Yunbing; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-12-01

    The construction of a smooth muscle layer for blood vessel through electrospinning method plays a key role in vascular tissue engineering. However, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) penetration into the electrospun graft to form a smooth muscle layer is limited due to the dense packing of fibers and lack of inducing factors. In this paper, silk fibroin/poly (L-lactide-ε-caplacton) (SF/PLLA-CL) vascular graft loaded with platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) was fabricated by electrospinning. The in vitro results showed that SMCs cultured in the graft grew fast, and the incorporation of PRGF could induce deeper SMCs infiltrating compared to the SF/PLLA-CL graft alone. Mechanical properties measurement showed that PRGF-incorporated graft had proper tensile stress, suture retention strength, burst pressure and compliance which could match the demand of native blood vessel. The success in the fabrication of PRGF-incorporated SF/PLLA-CL graft to induce fast SMCs growth and their strong penetration into graft has important application for tissue-engineered blood vessels.

  20. Retinoid-induced expression and activity of an immediate early tumor suppressor gene in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Streb

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are used clinically to treat a number of hyper-proliferative disorders and have been shown in experimental animals to attenuate vascular occlusive diseases, presumably through nuclear receptors bound to retinoic acid response elements (RARE located in target genes. Here, we show that natural or synthetic retinoids rapidly induce mRNA and protein expression of a specific isoform of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12 (AKAP12β in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC as well as the intact vessel wall. Expression kinetics and actinomycin D studies indicate Akap12β is a retinoid-induced, immediate-early gene. Akap12β promoter analyses reveal a conserved RARE mildly induced with atRA in a region that exhibits hyper-acetylation. Immunofluorescence microscopy and protein kinase A (PKA regulatory subunit overlay assays in SMC suggest a physical association between AKAP12β and PKA following retinoid treatment. Consistent with its designation as a tumor suppressor, inducible expression of AKAP12β attenuates SMC growth in vitro. Further, immunohistochemistry studies establish marked decreases in AKAP12 expression in experimentally-injured vessels of mice as well as atheromatous lesions in humans. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for retinoids in the induction of an AKAP tumor suppressor that blocks vascular SMC growth thus providing new molecular insight into how retiniods may exert their anti-proliferative effects in the injured vessel wall.

  1. Resveratrol prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells through the transactivation of growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed that augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (AngII) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate AngII-evoked VSMC hypertrophy; however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine whether RV could prevent AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways. AngII treatment of VSMC enhanced the protein synthesis that was attenuated towards control levels by RV pretreatment as well as by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, c-Src, and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, RV pretreatment also inhibited enhanced levels of superoxide anion, NADPH oxidase activity, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of c-Src, EGF-R, PDGE-R, ERK1/2, and AKT1/2. In conclusion, these results indicate that RV attenuates AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress and activation of c-Src, growth factor receptors, and MAPK/AKT signaling. We suggest that RV could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular complications associated with hypertension and hypertrophy.

  2. Dynamic and diverse changes in the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Kurt R; Frid, Maria G; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M

    2018-03-15

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the end result of interaction between pulmonary vascular tone and a complex series of cellular and molecular events termed 'vascular remodelling'. The remodelling process, which can involve the entirety of pulmonary arterial vasculature, almost universally involves medial thickening, driven by increased numbers and hypertrophy of its principal cellular constituent, smooth muscle cells (SMCs). It is noted, however that SMCs comprise heterogeneous populations of cells, which can exhibit markedly different proliferative, inflammatory, and extracellular matrix production changes during remodelling. We further consider that these functional changes in SMCs of different phenotype and their role in PH are dynamic and may undergo significant changes over time (which we will refer to as cellular plasticity); no single property can account for the complexity of the contribution of SMC to pulmonary vascular remodelling. Thus, the approaches used to pharmacologically manipulate PH by targeting the SMC phenotype(s) must take into account processes that underlie dominant phenotypes that drive the disease. We present evidence for time- and location-specific changes in SMC proliferation in various animal models of PH; we highlight the transient nature (rather than continuous) of SMC proliferation, emphasizing that the heterogenic SMC populations that reside in different locations along the pulmonary vascular tree exhibit distinct responses to the stresses associated with the development of PH. We also consider that cells that have often been termed 'SMCs' may arise from many origins, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and resident or circulating progenitors, and thus may contribute via distinct signalling pathways to the remodelling process. Ultimately, PH is characterized by long-lived, apoptosis-resistant SMC. In line with this key pathogenic characteristic, we address the acquisition of a pro-inflammatory phenotype by SMC that is essential

  3. Hsc70 regulates cell surface ASIC2 expression and vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; McKey, Susan E; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest members of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)/acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) protein family play an important role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. In a previous investigation, we found suppression of a certain DEG/ENaC/ASIC member, ASIC2, increased VSMC chemotactic migration, raising the possibility that ASIC2 may play an inhibitory role. Because ASIC2 protein was retained in the cytoplasm, we reasoned increasing surface expression of ASIC2 might unmask the inhibitory role of ASIC2 in VSMC migration so we could test the hypothesis that ASIC2 inhibits VSMC migration. Therefore, we used the chemical chaperone glycerol to enhance ASIC2 expression. Glycerol 1) increased cytoplasm ASIC2 expression, 2) permitted detection of ASIC2 at the cell surface, and 3) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-bb mediated VSMC migration. Furthermore, ASIC2 silencing completely abolished the inhibitory effect of glycerol on migration, suggesting upregulation of ASIC2 is responsible for glycerol-induced inhibition of VSMC migration. Because other investigators have shown that glycerol regulates ENaC/ASIC via interactions with a certain heat shock protein, heat shock protein 70 (Hsc70), we wanted to determine the importance of Hsc70 on ASIC2 expression in VSMCs. We found that Hsc70 silencing increases ASIC2 cell surface expression and inhibits VSMC migration, which is abolished by cosilencing ASIC2. These data demonstrate that Hsc70 inhibits ASIC2 expression, and, when the inhibitory effect of Hsc70 is removed, ASIC2 expression increases, resulting in reduced VSMC migration. Because VSMC migration contributes to vasculogenesis and remodeling following vascular injury, our findings raise the possibility that ASIC2-Hsc70 interactions may play a role in these processes.

  4. A pro-inflammatory role of deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuai [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Lv, Jiaju [Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Han, Liping; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Wang, Wenjuan; Li, Siying [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Shandong University Qilu Hospital Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@pathology.ufl.edu [Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0275 (United States); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: taixing.cui@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency suppresses pro-inflammatory phenotypic switch of VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyld deficiency inhibits MAPK rather than NF-kB activity in inflamed VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is up-regulated in the coronary artery with neointimal hyperplasia. -- Abstract: CYLD, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB), is a critical regulator of diverse cellular processes, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to inflammatory responses, via regulating multiple key signaling cascades such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. CYLD has been shown to inhibit vascular lesion formation presumably through suppressing NF-{kappa}B activity in vascular cells. However, herein we report a novel role of CYLD in mediating pro-inflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) via a mechanism independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Adenoviral knockdown of Cyld inhibited basal and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-induced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (Icam-1) and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in rat adult aortic SMCs (RASMCs). The CYLD deficiency led to increases in the basal NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity in RASMCs; however, did not affect the TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Intriguingly, the TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B phosphorylation was enhanced in the CYLD deficient RASMCs. While knocking down of Cyld decreased slightly the basal expression levels of I{kappa}B{alpha} and I{kappa}B{beta} proteins, it did not alter the kinetics of TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B protein degradation in RASMCs. These results indicate that CYLD suppresses the basal NF-{kappa}B activity and TNF{alpha}-induced I{kappa}B kinase activation without affecting TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity in VSMCs. In addition, knocking down of Cyld suppressed TNF{alpha}-induced activation of mitogen activated protein

  5. MicroRNA-125b Affects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Function by Targeting Serum Response Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Increasing evidence links microRNAs to the pathogenesis of peripheral vascular disease. We recently found microRNA-125b (miR-125b to be one of the most significantly down‑regulated microRNAs in human arteries with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO of the lower extremities. However, its function in the process of ASO remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of miR-125b in the process of ASO. Methods: Using the tissue explants adherent method, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs were prepared for this study. A rat carotid artery balloon injury model was constructed to simulate the development of vascular neointima, and a lentiviral transduction system was used to overexpress serum response factor (SRF or miR-125b. Quantitative real‑time PCR (qRT‑PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR‑125b and SRF mRNA. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression levels of SRF and Ki67. In situ hybridization analysis was used to analyze the location and expression levels of miR-125b. CCK-8 and EdU assays were used to assess cell proliferation, and transwell and wound closure assays were performed to measure cell migration. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis, and a dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effects of miR‑125b on SRF. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses were performed to analyze the location and expression levels of SRF and Ki67. Results: miR-125b expression was decreased in ASO arteries and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. miR-125b suppressed VSMC proliferation and migration but promoted VSMC apoptosis. SRF was determined to be a direct target of miR-125b. Exogenous miR-125b expression modulated SRF expression and inhibited vascular neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a specific role of the mi

  6. Cyclic strain-induced endothelial MMP-2: role in vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Nicholas von Offenberg; Cummins, Philip M.; Birney, Yvonne A.; Redmond, Eileen M.; Cahill, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a vital role in vasculature response to hemodynamic stimuli via the degradation of extracellular matrix substrates. In this study, we investigated the putative role of cyclic strain-induced endothelial MMP-2 (and MMP-9) expression and release in modulating bovine aortic smooth muscle cell (BASMC) migration in vitro. Equibiaxial cyclic strain of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) leads to elevation in cellular MMP-2 (and MMP-9) expression, activity, and secretion into conditioned media, events which were time- and force-dependent. Subsequent incubation of BASMCs with conditioned media from chronically strained BAECs (5%, 24 h) significantly reduces BASMC migration (38 ± 6%), an inhibitory effect which could be completely reversed by targeted siRNA 'knock-down' of MMP-2 (but not MMP-9) expression and activity in BAECs. Moreover, inhibition of strain-mediated MMP-2 expression in BAECs by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) blockade with genistein (50 μM) was also found to completely reverse this inhibitory effect on BASMC migration. Finally, direct supplementation of recombinant MMP-2 into the BASMC migration assay was found to have no significant effect on migration. However, the effect on BASMC migration of MMP-2 siRNA transfection in BAECs could be reversed by supplementation of recombinant MMP-2 into BAEC media prior to (and for the duration of) strain. These findings reveal a potentially novel role for strain-induced endothelial MMP-2 in regulating vascular SMC migration

  7. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates K-Cl cotransport in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent serum mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), plays an important role in membrane transport regulation and in atherosclerosis. K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT/KCC), the coupled-movement of K and Cl, is involved in ion homeostasis. VSMCs possess K-Cl COT activity and the KCC1 and KCC3 isoforms. Here, we report on the effect of PDGF on K-Cl COT activity and mRNA expression in primary cultures of rat VSMCs. K-Cl COT was determined as the Cl-dependent Rb influx and mRNA expression by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Twenty four-hour serum deprivation inhibited basal K-Cl COT activity. Addition of PDGF increased total protein content and K-Cl COT activity in a time-dependent manner. PDGF activated K-Cl COT in a dose-dependent manner, both acutely (10 min) and chronically (12 h). AG-1296, a selective inhibitor of the PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase, abolished these effects. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide had no effect on the acute PDGF activation of K-Cl COT, suggesting posttranslational regulation by the drug. Furthermore, PDGF increased KCC1 and decreased KCC3 mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. These results indicate that chronic activation of K-Cl COT activity by PDGF may involve regulation of the two KCC mRNA isoforms, with KCC1 playing a dominant role in the mechanism of PDGF-mediated activation.

  8. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Yoji; Ota, Hiroyo; Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo; Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu; Takasawa, Shin; Kimura, Hiroshi; Uno, Masayuki; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ●Epiregulin m

  9. Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Ota, Hiroyo [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Uno, Masayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masanori [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ●In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ●IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ●Epiregulin m

  10. Temperature and nucleotide dependence of calcium release by myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) rapidly increased 45 Ca 2+ efflux from a nonmitochondrial organelle in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that were permeabilized with saponin. A nucleotide, preferably ATP, was essential for IP3-evoked 45 Ca 2+ release. Two nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues satisfied the nucleotide requirement for IP3-evoked 45 Ca 2+ release. IP3 strongly stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux at low temperatures (1 to 15 degrees C). Decreasing the temperature from 37 to 4 degrees C inhibited the rate of IP3-stimulated efflux by only about 33%. The failure of such low temperatures to strongly inhibit IP3-induced 45 Ca 2+ efflux suggests that IP3 activated a Ca 2+ channel, rather than a carrier, by a ligand-binding, rather than a metabolic, reaction

  11. New aspects of vascular remodelling: the involvement of all vascular cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John C; Deighan, Clare; Briones, Ana M; Shafaroudi, Majid Malekzadeh; McBride, Melissa; Adler, Jeremy; Arribas, Silvia M; Vila, Elisabet; Daly, Craig J

    2005-07-01

    Conventionally, the architecture of arteries is based around the close-packed smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. However, the adventitia and endothelium are now viewed as key players in vascular growth and repair. A new dynamic picture has emerged of blood vessels in a constant state of self-maintenance. Recent work raises fundamental questions about the cellular heterogeneity of arteries and the time course and triggering of normal and pathological remodelling. A common denominator emerging in hypertensive remodelling is an early increase in adventitial cell density suggesting that adventitial cells drive remodelling and may initiate subsequent changes such as re-arrangement of smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix. The organization of vascular smooth muscle cells follows regular arrangements that can be modelled mathematically. In hypertension, new patterns can be quantified in these terms and give insights to how structure affects function. As with smooth muscle, little is known about the organization of the vascular endothelium, or its role in vascular remodelling. Current observations suggest that there may be a close relationship between the helical organization of smooth muscle cells and the underlying pattern of endothelial cells. The function of myoendothelial connections is a topic of great current interest and may relate to the structure of the internal elastic lamina through which the connections must pass. In hypertensive remodelling this must present an organizational challenge. The objective of this paper is to show how the functions of blood vessels depend on their architecture and a continuous interaction of different cell types and extracellular proteins.

  12. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Ma, Hong [Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Griendling, Kathy K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nishiyama, Akira [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  13. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  14. α-Iso-Cubebene Inhibits PDGF-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Suppressing Osteopontin Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min A.; Lee, Seung Jin; Baek, Seung Eun; Park, So Youn; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    α-Iso-cubebene (ICB) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignin contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC), a well-known medicinal herb that ameliorates cardiovascular symptoms. Thus, we examined the effect of ICB on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, a key feature of diverse vascular diseases. When VSMCs primary cultured from rat thoracic aorta were stimulated with PDGF (1–10 ng/ml), cell proliferation and osteopontin (OPN) expression were concomitantly up-regulated, but these effects were attenuated when cells were treated with MPIIIB10, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody for OPN. In aortic tissues exposed to PDGF, sprouting VSMC numbers increased, which was attenuated in tissues from OPN-deficient mice. Furthermore, VSMC proliferation and OPN expression induced by PDGF were attenuated dose-dependently by ICB (10 or 30 μg/ml). Reporter assays conducted using OPN promoter-luciferase constructs showed that the promoter region 538–234 bp of the transcription start site was responsible for transcriptional activity enhancement by PDGF, which was significantly inhibited by ICB. Putative binding sites for AP-1 and C/EBPβ in the indicated promoter region were suggested by TF Search, and increased binding of AP-1 and C/EBPβ in PDGF-treated VSMCs was demonstrated using a ChIP assay. The increased bindings of AP-1 and C/EBPβ into OPN promoter were attenuated by ICB. Moreover, the PDGF-induced expression of OPN was markedly attenuated in VSMCs transfected with siRNA for AP-1 and C/EBPβ. These results indicate that ICB inhibit VSMC proliferation by inhibiting the AP-1 and C/EBPβ signaling pathways and thus downregulating OPN expression. PMID:28114367

  15. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  16. Stimulation of aortic smooth muscle cell mitogenesis by serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, G.M.; Coughlin, S.R.; Handley, D.A.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro responded to 1 nM to 10 μM serotonin with increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA. The mitogenic effect of serotonin was half-maximal at 80 nM and maximal above 1 μM. At a concentration of 1 μM, serotonin stimulated smooth muscle cell mitogenesis to the same extent as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 12 ng/ml. Tryptamine was ≅ 1/10th as potent as serotonin as a mitogen for smooth muscle cells. Other indoles that are structurally related to serotonin (D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophol) and quipazine were inactive. The stimulatory effect of serotonin on smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis required prolonged (20-24 hr) exposure to the agonist and was attenuated in the presence of serotonin D receptor antagonists. When smooth muscle cells were incubated with submaximal concentrations of serotonin and PDGF, synergistic rather than additive mitogenic responses were observed. These data indicate that serotonin has a significant mitogenic effect on smooth muscle cells in vitro, which appears to be mediated by specific plasma membrane receptors

  17. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

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    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  18. Effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Nurgül; Kırça, Mustafa; Çetin, Arzu; Yeşilkaya, Akın

    2017-10-01

    Hyperuricemia is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including hypertension, coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. However, exactly how uric acid contributes to these pathologies is unknown. An underlying mechanism of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, includes enhanced production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide anion. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of uric acid on inflammatory COX-2 and superoxide anion production and to determine the role of losartan. Primarily cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were time and dose-dependently induced by uric acid and COX-2 and superoxide anion levels were measured. COX-2 levels were determined by ELISA, and superoxide anion was measured by the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c method. Uric acid elevated COX-2 levels in a time-dependent manner. Angiotensin-II receptor blocker, losartan, diminished uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation. Uric acid also increased superoxide anion level in VSMCs. Uric acid plays an important role in CVD pathogenesis by inducing inflammatory COX-2 and ROS pathways. This is the first study demonstrating losartan's ability to reduce uric-acid-induced COX-2 elevation.

  19. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-07-10

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), leading to p53 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p53 subsequently transactivated the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. Transfection with pp2a small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed andrographolide-induced p38MAPK activation, p53 phosphorylation, and caspase 3 activation. Andrographolide also activated the Src homology 1 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and induced PP2A dephosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by the SHP-1 inhibitor sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or shp-1 siRNA. SSG or shp-1 siRNA prevented andrographolide-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that andrographolide activates the PP2A-p38MAPK-p53-Bax cascade, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and VSMC death through an SHP-1-dependent mechanism.

  20. Bioenergetic profile of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effect of metabolic intervention.

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    Mingming Yang

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown. Thus, we profiled cellular bioenergetics of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effects of metabolic intervention. Mitochondria and glycolysis stress tests utilizing Seahorse technology revealed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation accounted for 54.5% of ATP production at rest with the remaining 45.5% due to glycolysis. Stress tests also showed that oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis can increase to a maximum of 3.5 fold and 1.25 fold, respectively, indicating that the former has a high reserve capacity. Analysis of bioenergetic profile indicated that aging cells have lower resting oxidative phosphorylation and reduced reserve capacity. Intracellular ATP level of a single cell was estimated to be over 1.1 mM. Application of metabolic modulators caused significant changes in mitochondria membrane potential, intracellular ATP level and ATP:ADP ratio. The detailed breakdown of cellular bioenergetics showed that proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells rely more or less equally on oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis at rest. These cells have high respiratory reserve capacity and low glycolysis reserve capacity. Metabolic intervention influences both intracellular ATP concentration and ATP:ADP ratio, where subtler changes may be detected by the latter.

  1. Specialized mouse embryonic stem cells for studying vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Drew E; Burns, Andrew B; Hatano, Rachel; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Fan, Yuhong; McCloskey, Kara E

    2014-01-01

    Vascular progenitor cells are desirable in a variety of therapeutic strategies; however, the lineage commitment of endothelial and smooth muscle cell from a common progenitor is not well-understood. Here, we report the generation of the first dual reporter mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines designed to facilitate the study of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle development in vitro. These mESC lines express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the endothelial promoter, Tie-2, and Discomsoma sp. red fluorescent protein (RFP) under the promoter for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The lines were then characterized for morphology, marker expression, and pluripotency. The mESC colonies were found to exhibit dome-shaped morphology, alkaline phosphotase activity, as well as expression of Oct 3/4 and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. The mESC colonies were also found to display normal karyotypes and are able to generate cells from all three germ layers, verifying pluripotency. Tissue staining confirmed the coexpression of VE (vascular endothelial)-cadherin with the Tie-2 GFP+ expression on endothelial structures and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain with the α-SMA RFP+ smooth muscle cells. Lastly, it was verified that the developing mESC do express Tie-2 GFP+ and α-SMA RFP+ cells during differentiation and that the GFP+ cells colocalize with the vascular-like structures surrounded by α-SMA-RFP cells. These dual reporter vascular-specific mESC permit visualization and cell tracking of individual endothelial and smooth muscle cells over time and in multiple dimensions, a powerful new tool for studying vascular development in real time.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor-2 induces osteogenic differentiation through a Runx2 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Sato, Hiroko; Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Matsui, Hiroki; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Sato, Mahito; Iso, Tatsuya; Arai, Masashi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kurabayashi, Masahiko, E-mail: mkuraba@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Expression of bone-associated proteins and osteoblastic transcription factor Runx2 in arterial cells has been implicated in the development of vascular calcification. However, the signaling upstream of the Runx2-mediated activation of osteoblastic program in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is poorly understood. We examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), an important regulator of bone formation, on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC. Stimulation of cultured rat aortic SMC (RASMC) with FGF-2 induced the expression of the osteoblastic markers osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. Luciferase assays showed that FGF-2 induced osteocyte-specific element (OSE)-dependent transcription. Downregulation of Runx2 by siRNA repressed the basal and FGF-2-stimulated expression of the OPN gene in RASMC. FGF-2 produced hydrogen peroxide in RASMC, as evaluated by fluorescent probe. Induction of OPN expression by FGF-2 was inhibited not only by PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src inhibitor), but also by an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Nuclear extracts from FGF-2-treated RASMC exhibited increased DNA-binding of Runx2 to its target sequence. Immunohistochemistry of human coronary atherectomy specimens and calcified aortic tissues showed that expression of FGF receptor-1 and Runx2 was colocalized. In conclusion, these results suggest that FGF-2 plays a role in inducing osteoblastic differentiation of VSMC by activating Runx2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent- and oxidative stress-sensitive-signaling pathways.

  3. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

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    Rushendhiran Kesavan

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs, PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml. The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  4. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by Gentiana lutea root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  5. Myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in tracheal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, J.T.; Hsu, L.C.; Tansey, M.G.; Kamm, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    Purified myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Because phosphorylation in a specific site (site A) by any one of these kinases desensitizes myosin light chain kinase to activation by Ca2+/calmodulin, kinase phosphorylation could play an important role in regulating smooth muscle contractility. This possibility was investigated in 32 P-labeled bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Treatment of tissues with carbachol, KCl, isoproterenol, or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased the extent of kinase phosphorylation. Six primary phosphopeptides (A-F) of myosin light chain kinase were identified. Site A was phosphorylated to an appreciable extent only with carbachol or KCl, agents which contract tracheal smooth muscle. The extent of site A phosphorylation correlated to increases in the concentration of Ca2+/calmodulin required for activation. These results show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C do not affect smooth muscle contractility by phosphorylating site A in myosin light chain kinase. It is proposed that phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase in site A in contracting tracheal smooth muscle may play a role in the reported desensitization of contractile elements to activation by Ca2+

  6. Emerging Role of Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor (AT2R)/Akt/NO Pathway in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell in the Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Sepúlveda, Maria Alícia; Ceravolo, Graziela S.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Monteiro, Priscilla de Souza; Bruno-Fortes, Zuleica; Carvalho, Maria Helena; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased vascular relaxation and decreased vascular contraction and is associated with augmented levels of triiodothyronine (T3) that contribute to the diminished systemic vascular resistance found in this condition. T3 leads to augmented NO production via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn causes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) relaxation; however, the underlying mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in vascular function and also mediates some of cardiovascular effects found during hyperthyroidism. Thus, in this study, we hypothesized that type 2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2R), a key component of RAS vasodilatory actions, mediates T3 induced-decreased vascular contraction. Marked induction of AT2R expression was observed in aortas from T3-induced hyperthyroid rats (Hyper). These vessels showed decreased protein levels of the contractile apparatus: α-actin, calponin and phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC). Vascular reactivity studies showed that denuded aortic rings from Hyper rats exhibited decreased maximal contractile response to angiotensin II (AngII), which was attenuated in aortic rings pre-incubated with an AT2R blocker. Further study showed that cultured VSMC stimulated with T3 (0.1 µmol/L) for 24 hours had increased AT2R gene and protein expression. Augmented NO levels and decreased p-MLC levels were found in VSMC stimulated with T3, both of which were reversed by a PI3K/Akt inhibitor and AT2R blocker. These findings indicate for the first time that the AT2R/Akt/NO pathway contributes to decreased contractile responses in rat aorta, promoted by T3, and this mechanism is independent from the endothelium. PMID:23637941

  7. Emerging role of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R/Akt/NO pathway in vascular smooth muscle cell in the hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alícia Carrillo-Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased vascular relaxation and decreased vascular contraction and is associated with augmented levels of triiodothyronine (T3 that contribute to the diminished systemic vascular resistance found in this condition. T3 leads to augmented NO production via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn causes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC relaxation; however, the underlying mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS plays a crucial role in vascular function and also mediates some of cardiovascular effects found during hyperthyroidism. Thus, in this study, we hypothesized that type 2 angiotensin II receptor (AT2R, a key component of RAS vasodilatory actions, mediates T3 induced-decreased vascular contraction. Marked induction of AT2R expression was observed in aortas from T3-induced hyperthyroid rats (Hyper. These vessels showed decreased protein levels of the contractile apparatus: α-actin, calponin and phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC. Vascular reactivity studies showed that denuded aortic rings from Hyper rats exhibited decreased maximal contractile response to angiotensin II (AngII, which was attenuated in aortic rings pre-incubated with an AT2R blocker. Further study showed that cultured VSMC stimulated with T3 (0.1 µmol/L for 24 hours had increased AT2R gene and protein expression. Augmented NO levels and decreased p-MLC levels were found in VSMC stimulated with T3, both of which were reversed by a PI3K/Akt inhibitor and AT2R blocker. These findings indicate for the first time that the AT2R/Akt/NO pathway contributes to decreased contractile responses in rat aorta, promoted by T3, and this mechanism is independent from the endothelium.

  8. Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kazuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko; Nakao, Saya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji; Kawada, Teruo; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Statins induce PPARγ activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statin-induced PPARγ activation is mediated by COX-2 expression. • Statins suppress cell migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statins inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by PPARγ activation. • Fluvastatin suppress the progression of atherosclerosis and induces PPARγ activation in the aorta of apoE-deficient mice. - Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe −/− mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe −/− mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPAR

  9. Importance of contraction history on muscle force of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Robin; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive dataset of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle properties. Particularly, the history dependence of force production, namely force depression (FD) following shortening and force enhancement (FE) following stretch, was analysed. During active micturition, the circumference of the urinary bladder changes enormously. Thus, FD might be an important phenomenon during smooth muscle contraction. Electrically stimulated, intact urinary bladder strips from pigs (n = 10) were suspended in an aerated-filled organ bath, and different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed to determine the force-length and the force-velocity relation. FD and FE were assessed in concentric and eccentric contractions with different ramp lengths and ramp velocities. Bladder smooth muscles exhibit considerable amounts of FD and FE. The amount of FD increased significantly with ramp length, while FE did not change. However, FE and FD were independent of ramp velocity. The results imply that smooth muscle bladder strips exhibit similar muscle properties and history-dependent behaviour compared to striated muscles. The provided dataset of muscle properties is important for bladder modelling as well as for the analyses and interpretation of dynamic bladder filling and voiding.

  10. Effects of gamma rays on non-vascular smooth muscles contractions (rat small intestine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azroony, R.; Ksies, F.; Alya, G.

    2003-03-01

    In this experiment, the contractile response evoked by activating the membranous cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscular fibres isolated from jejunum in rat small intestine is studied. Also the effect of gamma rays on regulating this contractile response after exposing the whole body of the animals to different doses of gamma rays (3, 5 and 7 Gy) emitted from 60 Co source is studied. Results show that irradiation lessens the sensitivity of muscarinic cholinergic receptors to their agonists in a dose dependent manner. And there is an important shift on irradiated rats where the maximum effect of acetylcholine (E max) can be obtained in higher concentrations of acetylcholine. Concerning the effects of gamma rays on adrenergic receptors, our results show that irradiation, also, decreases the sensitivity of α1 adrenergic receptors to their agonists, and this decrease is represented in a decrease of the irradiated muscular fibers response to the inhibitory effect of phenylephrine (more specific to α1 adrenergic receptors than α2 adrenergic receptors) in a dose dependent manner. While we have found that α2 adrenergic receptors have no important effect on regulating the contractile response of the smooth muscular fibers in the rat jejunum neither in smooth muscular fibers isolated from control animals nor in those fibers which where isolated from irradiated animals. (author)

  11. Loss of MURC/Cavin-4 induces JNK and MMP-9 activity enhancement in vascular smooth muscle cells and exacerbates abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Kotaro; Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi; Kasahara, Takeru; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Naito, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Nishi, Masahiro; Kimura, Taizo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Hiroki; Matoba, Satoaki

    2017-06-03

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is relatively common in elderly patients with atherosclerosis. MURC (muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein)/Cavin-4 modulating the caveolae function of muscle cells is expressed in cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle cells and smooth muscle cells. Here, we show a novel functional role of MURC/Cavin-4 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and AAA development. Both wild-type (WT) and MURC/Cavin-4 knockout (MURC -/- ) mice subjected to periaortic application of CaCl 2 developed AAAs. Six weeks after CaCl 2 treatment, internal and external aortic diameters were significantly increased in MURC -/- AAAs compared with WT AAAs, which were accompanied by advanced fibrosis in the tunica media of MURC -/- AAAs. The activity of JNK and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 were increased in MURC -/- AAAs compared with WT AAAs at 5 days after CaCl 2 treatment. At 6 weeks after CaCl 2 treatment, MURC -/- AAAs exhibited attenuated JNK activity compared with WT AAAs. There was no difference in the activity of MMP-2 or -9 between saline and CaCl 2 treatments. In MURC/Cavin-4-knockdown VSMCs, TNFα-induced activity of JNK and MMP-9 was enhanced compared with control VSMCs. Furthermore, WT, MURC -/- , apolipoprotein E -/- (ApoE -/- ), and MURC/Cavin-4 and ApoE double-knockout (MURC -/- ApoE -/- ) mice were subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. In both ApoE -/- and MURC -/- ApoE -/- mice infused for 4 weeks with Ang II, AAAs were promoted. The internal aortic diameter was significantly increased in Ang II-infused MURC -/- ApoE -/- mice compared with Ang II-infused ApoE -/- mice. In MURC/Cavin-4-knockdown VSMCs, Ang II-induced activity of JNK and MMP-9 was enhanced compared with control VSMCs. Our results suggest that MURC/Cavin-4 in VSMCs modulates AAA progression at the early stage via the activation of JNK and MMP-9. MURC/Cavin-4 is a potential therapeutic target against AAA progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SIRT1 deacetylates RFX5 and antagonizes repression of collagen type I (COL1A2) transcription in smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Jun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Chinese Traditional Medicine (China); Wu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yuyu; Zhao, Yuhao [Atherosclerosis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Fang, Mingming [Jiangsu Jiankang Vocational Institute (China); Xie, Weiping, E-mail: wpxienjmu@gmail.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwangnjmu@gmail.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (China); Xu, Yong [Atherosclerosis Research Center, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Pathophysiology, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates RFX5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation attenuates whereas SIRT1 inhibition enhances collagen repression by RFX5 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation of RFX5 and cripples promoter recruitment of RFX5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IFN-{gamma} represses SIRT1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 agonist alleviates collagen repression by IFN-{gamma} in vascular smooth muscle cells. -- Abstract: Decreased expression of collagen by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) within the atherosclerotic plaque contributes to the thinning of the fibrous cap and poses a great threat to plaque rupture. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying repressed collagen type I (COL1A2) gene would potentially provide novel solutions that can prevent rupture-induced complications. We have previously shown that regulatory factor for X-box (RFX5) binds to the COL1A2 transcription start site and represses its transcription. Here we report that SIRT1, an NAD-dependent, class III deacetylase, forms a complex with RFX5. Over-expression of SIRT1 or NAMPT, which synthesizes NAD+ to activate SIRT1, or treatment with the SIRT1 agonist resveratrol decreases RFX5 acetylation and disrupts repression of the COL1A2 promoter activity by RFX5. On the contrary, knockdown of SIRT1 or treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors induces RFX5 acetylation and enhances the repression of collagen transcription. SIRT1 antagonizes RFX5 activity by promoting its nuclear expulsion and proteasomal degradation hence dampening its binding to the COL1A2 promoter. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-{gamma} represses COL1A2 transcription by down-regulating SIRT1 expression in SMCs. Therefore, our data have identified as novel pathway whereby SIRT1 maintains collagen synthesis in SMCs by modulating RFX5 activity.

  13. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, Koka [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fukumoto, Shinya [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Koyama, Hidenori [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Emoto, Masanori [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Maemura, Koji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiki [Metabolism, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-03-31

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs.

  14. SREBP inhibits VEGF expression in human smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Koka; Fukumoto, Shinya; Koyama, Hidenori; Emoto, Masanori; Shimano, Hitoshi; Maemura, Koji; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2006-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that regulate expression of genes encoding enzymes for lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are activated by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins have been also reported to suppress vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we hypothesized that SREBPs are involved in statin-mediated regulation of VEGF production in VSMCs. SREBP1 was robustly expressed, and was activated by atorvastatin in VSMCs, as demonstrated by increased levels of the mature nuclear form of SREBP1, and increased promoter activities of a reporter containing sterol regulatory elements by atorvastatin. Moreover, overexpression of SREBP1a dose-dependently suppressed VEGF promoter activity. Site-specific mutation or deletion of the proximal Sp1 sites reduced the inhibitory effects of SREBP1a on VEGF promoter activity. These data demonstrated that SREBP1, activated by atorvastatin, suppressed VEGF expression through the indirect interaction with the proximal tandem Sp1 sites in VSMCs

  15. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Lan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Min; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an initial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a later step of atherosclerosis. Hypothyroidism accelerates atherosclerosis. However, the early events responsible for this pro-atherosclerotic effect are unclear. Rats were resistant to induction of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol diet alone, but became susceptible in hypothyroid state achieved by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 weeks. VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis were obvious within 1 week after PTU treatment, without signs of endothelial dysfunction. This early VSMC damage was caused by hypothyroidism but not the high cholesterol diet. In ApoE knockout mice, PTU-induced hypothyroidism triggered early VSMC apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and accelerated atherosclerosis development. Thyroid hormone supplementation (T4, 10, or 50 μg/kg) prevented atherogenic phenotypes in hypothyroid rats and mice. In rats, thyroidectomy caused severe hypothyroidism 5 days after operation, which also led to rapid VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis. In vitro studies did not show a direct toxic effect of PTU on VSMCs. In contrast, thyroid hormone (T3, 0.75 μg/L plus T4, 50 nmol/L) exerted a direct protection against VSMC apoptosis, which was reduced by knockdown of TRα1, rather than TRβ1 and TRβ2 receptors. TRα1-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling of JNKs and caspase-3 contributed to the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone. These findings provide an in vivo example for VSMC apoptosis as an early trigger of hypothyroidism-associated atherosclerosis, and reveal activation of TRα1 receptors to prevent VSMC apoptosis as a therapeutic strategy in this disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Spronck

    Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  17. Ureter smooth muscle cell orientation in rat is predominantly longitudinal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.

  18. Modeling the dispersion effects of contractile fibers in smooth muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtada, Sae-Il; Kroon, Martin; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2010-12-01

    Micro-structurally based models for smooth muscle contraction are crucial for a better understanding of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, incontinence and asthma. It is meaningful that models consider the underlying mechanical structure and the biochemical activation. Hence, a simple mechanochemical model is proposed that includes the dispersion of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments and that is capable to capture available experimental data on smooth muscle contraction. This allows a refined study of the effects of myofilament dispersion on the smooth muscle contraction. A classical biochemical model is used to describe the cross-bridge interactions with the thin filament in smooth muscles in which calcium-dependent myosin phosphorylation is the only regulatory mechanism. A novel mechanical model considers the dispersion of the contractile fiber orientations in smooth muscle cells by means of a strain-energy function in terms of one dispersion parameter. All model parameters have a biophysical meaning and may be estimated through comparisons with experimental data. The contraction of the middle layer of a carotid artery is studied numerically. Using a tube the relationships between the internal pressure and the stretches are investigated as functions of the dispersion parameter, which implies a strong influence of the orientation of smooth muscle myofilaments on the contraction response. It is straightforward to implement this model in a finite element code to better analyze more complex boundary-value problems.

  19. Modeling Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology in Amyloid-β Metabolism using Neural-Crest-Derived Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There is growing recognition of cerebrovascular contributions to neurodegenerative diseases. In the walls of cerebral arteries, amyloid-beta (Aβ accumulation is evident in a majority of aged people and patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Here, we leverage human pluripotent stem cells to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs from neural crest progenitors, recapitulating brain-vasculature-specific attributes of Aβ metabolism. We confirm that the lipoprotein receptor, LRP1, functions in our neural-crest-derived SMCs to mediate Aβ uptake and intracellular lysosomal degradation. Hypoxia significantly compromises the contribution of SMCs to Aβ clearance by suppressing LRP1 expression. This enabled us to develop an assay of Aβ uptake by using the neural crest-derived SMCs with hypoxia as a stress paradigm. We then tested several vascular protective compounds in a high-throughput format, demonstrating the value of stem-cell-based phenotypic screening for novel therapeutics and drug repurposing, aimed at alleviating amyloid burden. : The contribution of blood vessel pathologies to neurodegenerative disorders is relatively neglected, partly due to inadequate human tissues for research. By using human stem cells, Cheung et al. establish a method of generating vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs from neural crest progenitors, the primary precursors that give rise to brain blood vessels. These stem-cell-derived SMCs display defective amyloid processing under chronic hypoxia, a phenomenon well documented in the cerebral vasculatures of aged people and patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Inhaled tolafentrine reverses pulmonary vascular remodeling via inhibition of smooth muscle cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissmann Norbert

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the chronic effects of combined phosphodiesterase 3/4 inhibitor tolafentrine, administered by inhalation, during monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in rats. Methods CD rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline to induce PAH. Four weeks after, rats were subjected to inhalation of tolafentrine or sham nebulization in an unrestrained, whole body aerosol exposure system. In these animals (i the acute pulmonary vasodilatory efficacy of inhaled tolafentrine (ii the anti-remodeling effect of long-term inhalation of tolafentrine (iii the effects of tolafentrine on the expression profile of 96 genes encoding cell adhesion and extracellular matrix regulation were examined. In addition, the inhibitory effect of tolafentrine on ex vivo isolated pulmonary artery SMC cell migration was also investigated. Results Monocrotaline injection provoked severe PAH (right ventricular systolic pressure increased from 25.9 ± 4.0 to 68.9 ± 3.2 after 4 weeks and 74.9 ± 5.1 mmHg after 6 weeks, cardiac output depression and right heart hypertrophy. The media thickness of the pulmonary arteries and the proportion of muscularization of small precapillary resistance vessels increased dramatically, and the migratory response of ex-vivo isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC was increased. Micro-arrays and subsequent confirmation with real time PCR demonstrated upregulation of several extracellular matrix regulation and adhesion genes, such as matrixmetalloproteases (MMP 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 20, Icam, Itgax, Plat and serpinb2. When chronically nebulized from day 28 to 42 (12 daily aerosol maneuvers, after full establishment of severe pulmonary hypertension, tolafentrine reversed about 60% of all hemodynamic abnormalities, right heart hypertrophy and monocrotaline-induced structural lung vascular changes, including the proportion of pulmonary artery

  1. PDZK1 prevents neointima formation via suppression of breakpoint cluster region kinase in vascular smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ru Lee

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM. To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr, which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr.

  2. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J. K.; Ketheson, A.; Faiz, A.; Rempel, K. A. Limbert; Oliver, B. G.; Ward, J. P. T.; Halayko, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness

  3. MicroRNA expression profile and functional analysis reveal their roles in contact inhibition and its disruption switch of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye-Ying; Qin, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Yun-Hui; Wang, Chao-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Wendy; Zhan, Jia-Xin; Shao, Shuai; Bian, Wei-Hua; Luo, Bi-Hui; Lu, Dong-Feng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Chun-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Contact inhibition and its disruption of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are important cellular events in vascular diseases. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In this study we investigated the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs and the molecular mechanisms involved. Rat VSMCs were seeded at 30% or 90% confluence. MiRNA expression profiles in contact-inhibited confluent VSMCs (90% confluence) and non-contact-inhibited low-density VSMCs (30% confluence) were determined. We found that multiple miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. Among them, miR-145 was significantly increased in contact-inhibited VSMCs. Serum could disrupt the contact inhibition as shown by the elicited proliferation of confluent VSMCs. The contact inhibition disruption accompanied with a down-regulation of miR-145. Serum-induced contact inhibition disruption of VSMCs was blocked by overexpression of miR-145. Moreover, downregulation of miR-145 was sufficient to disrupt the contact inhibition of VSMCs. The downregulation of miR-145 in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption was related to the activation PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, which was blocked by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. KLF5, a target gene of miR-145, was identified to be involved in miR-145-mediated effect on VSMC contact inhibition disruption, as it could be inhibited by knockdown of KLF5. In summary, our results show that multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed in contact-inhibited VSMCs and in non-contact-inhibited VSMCs. Among them, miR-145 is a critical gene in contact inhibition and its disruption of VSMCs. PI3-kinase/Akt/miR-145/KLF5 is a critical signaling pathway in serum-induced contact inhibition disruption. Targeting of miRNAs related to the contact inhibition of VSMCs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for vascular diseases.

  4. NONOates regulate KCl cotransporter-1 and -3 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Lauf, Peter K; Shah, Shalin; Adragna, Norma C

    2003-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors regulate KCl cotransport (KCC) activity and cotransporter-1 and -3 (KCC1 and KCC3) mRNA expression in sheep erythrocytes and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), respectively. In this study, we used NONOates as rapid and slow NO releasers to provide direct evidence implicating NO as a regulator of KCC3 gene expression at the mRNA level. In addition, we used the expression of KCC3 mRNA to further investigate the mechanism of action of these NO donors at the cellular level. Treatment of VSMCs with rapid NO releasers, like NOC-5 and NOC-9, as well as with the direct NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulator YC-1, acutely increased KCC3 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The slow NO releaser NOC-18 had no effect on KCC3 gene expression. A specific NO scavenger completely prevented the NONOate-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. Inhibition of sGC with LY-83583 blocked the NONOate- and YC-1-induced KCC3 mRNA expression. This study shows that in primary cultures of rat VSMCs, the fast NO releasers NOC-9 and NOC-5, but not the slow NO releaser NOC-18, acutely upregulate KCC3 mRNA expression in a NO/sGC-dependent manner.

  5. Fetuin-A and albumin alter cytotoxic effects of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Dautova

    Full Text Available Calcification is a detrimental process in vascular ageing and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. In particular, small calcium phosphate (CaP crystal deposits are associated with inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque de-stabilisation. We previously reported that CaP particles caused human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC death and that serum reduced the toxic effects of the particles. Here, we found that the serum proteins fetuin-A and albumin (≥ 1 µM reduced intracellular Ca2+ elevations and cell death in VSMCs in response to CaP particles. In addition, CaP particles functionalised with fetuin-A, but not albumin, were less toxic than naked CaP particles. Electron microscopic studies revealed that CaP particles were internalised in different ways; via macropinocytosis, membrane invagination or plasma membrane damage, which occurred within 10 minutes of exposure to particles. However, cell death did not occur until approximately 30 minutes, suggesting that plasma membrane repair and survival mechanisms were activated. In the presence of fetuin-A, CaP particle-induced damage was inhibited and CaP/plasma membrane interactions and particle uptake were delayed. Fetuin-A also reduced dissolution of CaP particles under acidic conditions, which may contribute to its cytoprotective effects after CaP particle exposure to VSMCs. These studies are particularly relevant to the calcification observed in blood vessels in patients with kidney disease, where circulating levels of fetuin-A and albumin are low, and in pathological situations where CaP crystal formation outweighs calcification-inhibitory mechanisms.

  6. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the alpha(1A) subunit of a P-/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+)Channel, and It is functionally important in renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the alpha(1A) subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) (P-/Q-type), was present and functional in vascular smooth muscle and renal resistance vessels. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...... preglomerular resistance vessels and aorta, as well as mesangial cells, and that P-type VDCCs contribute to Ca(2+) influx in aortic and renal VSMCs and are involved in depolarization-mediated contraction in renal afferent arterioles....

  7. Structural properties of lipid reconstructs and lipid composition of normotensive and hypertensive rat vascular smooth muscle cell membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Oliveira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cell membrane alterations have been reported to be the cause of various forms of hypertension. The present study focuses on the lipid portion of the membranes, characterizing the microviscosity of membranes reconstituted with lipids extracted from the aorta and mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and normotensive control rat strains (WKY and NWR. Membrane-incorporated phospholipid spin labels were used to monitor the bilayer structure at different depths. The packing of lipids extracted from both aorta and mesenteric arteries of normotensive and hypertensive rats was similar. Lipid extract analysis showed similar phospholipid composition for all membranes. However, cholesterol content was lower in SHR arteries than in normotensive animal arteries. These findings contrast with the fact that the SHR aorta is hyporeactive while the SHR mesenteric artery is hyperreactive to vasopressor agents when compared to the vessels of normotensive animal strains. Hence, factors other than microviscosity of bulk lipids contribute to the vascular smooth muscle reactivity and hypertension of SHR. The excess cholesterol in the arteries of normotensive animal strains apparently is not dissolved in bulk lipids and is not directly related to vascular reactivity since it is present in both the aorta and mesenteric arteries. The lower cholesterol concentrations in SHR arteries may in fact result from metabolic differences due to the hypertensive state or to genes that co-segregate with those that determine hypertension during the process of strain selection.

  8. Effects of ouabain on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassallo D.V.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain is an endogenous substance occurring in the plasma in the nanomolar range, that has been proposed to increase vascular resistance and induce hypertension. This substance acts on the a-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase inhibiting the Na+-pump activity. In the vascular smooth muscle this effect leads to intracellular Na+ accumulation that reduces the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and to an increased vascular tone. It was also suggested that circulating ouabain, even in the nanomolar range, sensitizes the vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor substances. We tested the latter hypothesis by studying the effects of ouabain in the micromolar and nanomolar range on phenylephrine (PE-evoked pressor responses. The experiments were performed in normotensive and hypertensive rats in vivo, under anesthesia, and in perfused rat tail vascular beds. The results showed that ouabain pretreatment increased the vasopressor responses to PE in vitro and in vivo. This sensitization after ouabain treatment was also observed in hypertensive animals which presented an enhanced vasopressor response to PE in comparison to normotensive animals. It is suggested that ouabain at nanomolar concentrations can sensitize vascular smooth muscle to vasopressor stimuli possibly contributing to increased tone in hypertension

  9. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  10. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Harms, M. P.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) decreases in thyrotoxicosis and increases in hypothyroidism. Several mechanisms may be involved, including adaptation to changes in heat production and direct non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on vascular smooth muscle cells. The aim of this

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22alpha and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription.

  12. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22α and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription. PMID:17030628

  13. Rapid effects of phytoestrogens on human colonic smooth muscle are mediated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated consumption of dietary phytoestrogens with beneficial effects on colon, breast and prostate cancers. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms are responsible for anti-carcinogenic effects but, until now, the effect on human colon was assumed to be passive and remote. No direct effect on human colonic smooth muscle has previously been described. Institutional research board approval was granted. Histologically normal colon was obtained from the proximal resection margin of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended under 1g of tension in organ baths containing oxygenated Krebs solution at 37 degrees C. After an equilibration period, tissues were exposed to diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER beta agonist) and 1,3,5-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT) (ER alpha agonist) or to the synthetic phytoestrogen compounds genistein (n=8), daidzein (n=8), fisetin (n=8) and quercetin (n=8) in the presence or absence of fulvestrant (oestrogen receptor antagonist). Mechanism of action was investigated by inhibition of downstream pathways. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was used to induce contractile activity. Tension was recorded isometrically. Phytoestrogens inhibit carbachol-induced colonic contractility. In keeping with a non-genomic, rapid onset direct action, the effect was within minutes, reversible and similar to previously described actions of 17 beta oestradiol. No effect was seen in the presence of fulvestrant indicating receptor modulation. While the DPN exerted inhibitory effects, PPT did not. The effect appears to be reliant on a p38\\/mitogen activated protein kinase mediated induction of nitric oxide production in colonic smooth muscle. The present data set provides the first description of a direct effect of genistein, daidzein, fisetin and quercetin on human colonic smooth muscle. The presence of ER in colonic smooth muscle has been functionally proven and the beta

  14. Erythroxylum pungens elicits vasorelaxation by reducing intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurylene C. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects elicited by the ethanolic extract obtained from the roots of Erythroxylum pungens O.E. Schulz, Erythroxylaceae (EEEP and the vasorelaxant effect induced by its main tropane alkaloid (pungencine were investigated. In normotensive rats, administration of EEEP (1, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.v., randomly produced dose-dependent hypotension (-2±1, -7±0.5 -17.6±1, -24±1 Δ mmHg, n=5 followed by tachycardia (3±0.5, 7±2, 7.1±1, 10±5 Δ bpm, n=5. In intact phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µM-pre-contracted rings, EEEP (0.01-500 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (EC50 13.7±5.5 µg/mL, Maximal Response= 92±2.6%, and this effect was unchanged after the removal of the vascular endothelium (EC50 27.2±4.7 µg/ml, Maximal Response= 88.3±3.3 %. In KCl (80 mM-pre-contracted-endothelium-denuded rings, EEEP elicited concentration-dependent relaxation (EC50= 128.2±11.2 µg/mL, Maximal Response 76.8±3.4%. Vasorelaxation has also been achieved with tonic contractions evoked by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (EC50 80.2±9.1 µg/mL, Maximal Response 86.3±8.3%. In addition, in a depolarizing medium, EEEP inhibited CaCl2 (30-500 µg/mL induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the relaxation curves. Lastly, the tropane alkaloid pungencine caused vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries resembling to the EEEP responses. These results suggests that EEEP induces hypotension and vasorelaxation, at least in part, due to the reduction in [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  15. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Rajendra; Kim, Seong-Bin; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  16. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  17. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat, E-mail: elcinmurat@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells. - Highlights: • Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) were isolated, characterized and cultured. • Growth factor combinations were evaluated for their effectiveness in differentiation using IHC. • hASCs were differentiated into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using TGF-β1 and BMP4 combination. • Microarray analysis was performed for hASCs, SM-like cells and coronary artery-SMCs. • Microarray data was used to perform hierarchical clustering and interpretation

  18. Ayurvedic preparation of Zingiber officinale Roscoe: effects on cardiac and on smooth muscle parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Poli, Ferruccio; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Graziadio, Alessandra; Venturini, Alice; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Micucci, Matteo

    2017-08-28

    The rhizome of the Zingiber officinale Roscoe, a biennial herb growing in South Asia, is commonly known as ginger. Ginger is used in clinical disorders, such as constipation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and its use is also recommended by the traditional medicine for cardiopathy, high blood pressure, palpitations and as a vasodilator to improve the circulation. The decoction of ginger rhizome is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. In this papery by high-performance liquid chromatography, we have seen that its main phytomarkers were 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol and we report the effects of the decoction of ginger rhizome on cardiovascular parameters and on vascular and intestinal smooth muscle. In our experimental models, the decoction of ginger shows weak negative inotropic and chronotropic intrinsic activities but a significant intrinsic activity on smooth muscle with a potency on ileum is greater than on aorta: EC 50  = 0.66 mg/mL versus EC 50  = 1.45 mg/mL.

  19. Divergent effects of 17-β-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-α-induced neointima formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintasen, Rungrat; Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S.; Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa; Turner, Neil A.; Porter, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TNF-α augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. ► TNF-α induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. ► Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. ► The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). TNF-α can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-α on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-α (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-α, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-α increased SV–SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1–50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV–SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-α alone. SV–EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-α (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV–EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-α increased SV–SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-α potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV–EC and SV–SMC. However there was no modulation by E2 in either cell-type. In conclusion, TNF-α induced SV neointima formation, increased SMC proliferation and migration, impaired

  20. Rho Kinase (ROCK) collaborates with Pak to Regulate Actin Polymerization and Contraction in Airway Smooth Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwu; Bhetwal, Bhupal P; Gunst, Susan J

    2018-05-10

    The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation. We find that ROCK regulates airway smooth muscle contraction by activating the serine-threonine kinase Pak, which mediates the activation of Cdc42 and Neuronal-Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASp). N-WASP transmits signals from cdc42 to the Arp2/3 complex for the nucleation of actin filaments. These results demonstrate a novel molecular function for ROCK in the regulation of Pak and cdc42 activation that is critical for the processes of actin polymerization and contractility in airway smooth muscle. Rho kinase (ROCK), a RhoA GTPase effector, can regulate the contraction of airway and other smooth muscle tissues. In some tissues, ROCK can inhibit myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase, which increases the phosphorylation of myosin RLC and promotes smooth muscle contraction. ROCK can also regulate cell motility and migration by affecting F-actin dynamics. Actin polymerization is stimulated by contractile agonists in airway smooth muscle tissues and is required for contractile tension development in addition to myosin RLC phosphorylation. We investigated the mechanisms by which ROCK regulates the contractility of tracheal smooth muscle tissues by expressing a kinase inactive mutant of ROCK, ROCK-K121G, in the tissues or by treating them with the ROCK inhibitor, H-1152P. Our results show no role for ROCK in the regulation of non-muscle or smooth muscle myosin RLC phosphorylation during contractile stimulation in this tissue

  1. Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kazuki [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsumura, Takeshi, E-mail: takeshim@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakao, Saya [Department of Environmental & Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan); Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Statins induce PPARγ activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statin-induced PPARγ activation is mediated by COX-2 expression. • Statins suppress cell migration and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. • Statins inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by PPARγ activation. • Fluvastatin suppress the progression of atherosclerosis and induces PPARγ activation in the aorta of apoE-deficient mice. - Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPARγ in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPARγ in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPARγ in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPARγ in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPARγ activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPARγ-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPARγ and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects

  2. Initiation and Propagation of Vascular Calcification Is Regulated by a Concert of Platelet- and Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon J. Schurgers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ageing population continues to suffer from its primary killer, cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite recent advances in interventional medicinal and surgical therapies towards the end of the 20th century, the epidemic of cardiovascular disease has not been halted. Yet, rather than receding globally, the burden of CVD has risen to become a top cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most CVD arises from thrombotic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, the pathologic thickening of coronary and carotid artery segments and subsequent distal ischemia in heart or brain. In fact, one-fifth of deaths are directly attributable to thrombotic rupture of a vulnerable plaque. Atherosclerotic lesion formation is caused by a concert of interactions between circulating leukocytes and platelets, interacting with the endothelial barrier, signalling into the arterial wall by the release of cytokines and extracellular vesicles (EVs. Both platelet- and cell-derived EVs represent a novel mechanism of cellular communication, particularly by the transport and transfer of cargo and by reprogramming of the recipient cell. These interactions result in phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs causing migration and proliferation, and subsequent secretion of EVs. Loss of VSMCs attracts perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs from the adventitia, which are a source of VSMCs and contribute to repair after vascular injury. However, continuous stress stimuli eventually switch phenotype of cells into osteochondrogenic VSMCs facilitating vascular calcification. Although Virchow’s triad is over 100 years old, it is a reality that is accurate today. It can be briefly summarised as changes in the composition of blood (platelet EVs, alterations in the vessel wall (VSMC phenotypic switching, MSC infiltration and EV release and disruption of blood flow (atherothrombosis. In this paper, we review the latest relevant advances in the identification of

  3. HSP20 phosphorylation and airway smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Ba1, Cherie A Singer1, Manoj Tyagi2, Colleen Brophy3, Josh E Baker4, Christine Cremo4, Andrew Halayko5, William T Gerthoffer21Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA; 3Harrington Department of Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA; 5Departments of Physiology and Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaAbstract: HSP20 (HSPB6 is a small heat shock protein expressed in smooth muscles that is hypothesized to inhibit contraction when phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. To investigate this hypothesis in airway smooth muscle (ASM we showed that HSP20 was constitutively expressed as well as being inducible in cultured hASM cells by treatment with 1 µM isoproterenol or 10 µM salmeterol. In contrast, a mixture of proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ inhibited expression of HSP20 by about 50% in 48 hours. To determine whether phosphorylation of HSP20 is sufficient to induce relaxation, canine tracheal smooth muscle was treated with a cell permeant phosphopeptide that mimics the phosphorylation of HSP20. The HSP20 phosphopeptide antagonized carbacholinduced contraction by 60% with no change in myosin light chain phosphorylation. Recombinant full length HSP20 inhibited skeletal actin binding to smooth muscle myosin subfragment 1 (S1, and recombinant cell permeant TAT-HSP20 S16D mutant reduced F-actin filaments in cultured hASM cells. Carbachol stimulation of canine tracheal smooth muscle tissue caused redistribution of HSP20 from large macromolecular complexes (200–500 kDa to smaller complexes (<60 kDa. The results are consistent with HSP20 expression and macromolecular structure being dynamically regulated in airway

  4. Specification and Diversification of Pericytes and Smooth Muscle Cells from Mesenchymoangioblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the pathways that lead to vasculogenic cells, and being able to identify their progenitors and lineage-restricted cells, is critical to the establishment of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC models for vascular diseases and development of vascular therapies. Here, we find that mesoderm-derived pericytes (PCs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs originate from a clonal mesenchymal progenitor mesenchymoangioblast (MB. In clonogenic cultures, MBs differentiate into primitive PDGFRβ+CD271+CD73− mesenchymal progenitors, which give rise to proliferative PCs, SMCs, and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. MB-derived PCs can be further specified to CD274+ capillary and DLK1+ arteriolar PCs with a proinflammatory and contractile phenotype, respectively. SMC maturation was induced using a MEK inhibitor. Establishing the vasculogenic lineage tree, along with identification of stage- and lineage-specific markers, provides a platform for interrogating the molecular mechanisms that regulate vasculogenic cell specification and diversification and manufacturing well-defined mural cell populations for vascular engineering and cellular therapies from hPSCs.

  5. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Aorta Immunity and Protect against Atherosclerosis via Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lymphotoxin β Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Desheng; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Yin, Changjun; Peng, Li; Ma, Zhe; Srikakulapu, Prasad; Grassia, Gianluca; MacRitchie, Neil; Dever, Gary; Gordon, Peter; Burton, Francis L.; Ialenti, Armando; Sabir, Suleman R.; McInnes, Iain B.; Brewer, James M.; Garside, Paul; Weber, Christian; Lehmann, Thomas; Teupser, Daniel; Habenicht, Livia; Beer, Michael; Grabner, Rolf; Maffia, Pasquale; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge during nonresolving peripheral inflammation, but their impact on disease progression remains unknown. We have found in aged Apoe−/− mice that artery TLOs (ATLOs) controlled highly territorialized aorta T cell responses. ATLOs promoted T cell recruitment, primed CD4+ T cells, generated CD4+, CD8+, T regulatory (Treg) effector and central memory cells, converted naive CD4+ T cells into induced Treg cells, and presented antigen by an unusual set of dendritic cells and B cells. Meanwhile, vascular smooth muscle cell lymphotoxin β receptors (VSMC-LTβRs) protected against atherosclerosis by maintaining structure, cellularity, and size of ATLOs though VSMC-LTβRs did not affect secondary lymphoid organs: Atherosclerosis was markedly exacerbated in Apoe−/−Ltbr−/− and to a similar extent in aged Apoe−/−Ltbrfl/flTagln-cre mice. These data support the conclusion that the immune system employs ATLOs to organize aorta T cell homeostasis during aging and that VSMC-LTβRs participate in atherosclerosis protection via ATLOs. PMID:26084025

  6. Differential Cellular and Molecular Effects of Butyrate and Trichostatin A on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Ranganna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA, are epigenetic histone modifiers and proliferation inhibitors by downregulating cyclin D1, a positive cell cycle regulator, and upregulating p21Cip1 and INK family of proteins, negative cell cycle regulators. Our recent study indicated cyclin D1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC that are proliferation-arrested by butyrate. Here we investigate whether cyclin D1 upregulation is a unique response of VSMC to butyrate or a general response to HDAC inhibitors (HDACi by evaluating the effects of butyrate and TSA on VSMC. While butyrate and TSA inhibit VSMC proliferation via cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, respectively, they downregulate cdk4, cdk6, and cdk2, and upregulate cyclin D3, p21Cip1 and p15INK4B, and cause similar effects on key histone H3 posttranslational modifications. Conversely, cyclin D1 is upregulated by butyrate and inhibited by TSA. Assessment of glycogen synthase 3-dependent phosphorylation, subcellular localization and transcription of cyclin D1 indicates that differential effects of butyrate and TSA on cyclin D1 levels are linked to disparity in cyclin D1 gene expression. Disparity in butyrate- and TSA-induced cyclin D1 may influence transcriptional regulation of genes that are associated with changes in cellular morphology/cellular effects that these HDACi confer on VSMC, as a transcriptional modulator.

  7. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 is indispensable for transforming growth factor-β Induced Smad3 activation in vascular smooth muscle cell.

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    Dan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor type-β (TGF-β/Smad pathway plays an essential role in vascular fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation also mediates TGF-β signaling-induced vascular fibrosis, suggesting that some sort of interaction exists between Smad and redox pathways. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the influence of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1, a downstream effector of ROS, on TGF-β signaling transduction through Smad3 pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: TGF-β1 treatment promoted PARP1 activation through induction of ROS generation in rat VSMCs. TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad3 was prevented by treatment of cells with PARP inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB or N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl-2-(N,N-dimethylaminoacetami (PJ34, or PARP1 siRNA. TGF-β1 treatment promoted poly(ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 via activation of PARP1 in the nucleus. Poly(ADP-ribosylation enhanced Smad-Smad binding element (SBE complex formation in nuclear extracts and increased DNA binding activity of Smad3. Pretreatment with 3AB, PJ34, or PARP1 siRNA prevented TGF-β1-induced Smad3 transactivation and expression of Smad3 target genes, including collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, in rat VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: PARP1 is indispensable for TGF-β1 induced Smad3 activation in rat VSMCs. Targeting PARP1 may be a promising therapeutic approach against vascular diseases induced by dysregulation of TGF-β/Smad3 pathway.

  8. α-Trinositol inhibits FGF-stimulated growth of smooth muscle and breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siren, Matti J.; Vainiomaeki, Maija; Vaeaenaenen, Kalervo; Haerkoenen, Pirkko

    2004-01-01

    α-Trinositol (D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate), an isomer of the intracellular messenger IP 3 , has been studied for its anti-inflammatory and other effects in animal experiments and in human. The mechanisms of action remain unknown. Several human pathologies are associated with uncontrolled production of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). FGF-2 induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, which contributes to restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty. The expression of several FGFs is also increased in tumors. We studied the effects of the water- and lipid-soluble derivatives of α-trinositol on the FGF-2- and/or FGF-8-induced proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) and S115 mouse breast cancer cells. α-Trinositol decreased the FGF-mediated proliferation of HPASMC and S115 cells. Membrane permeability did not seem obligatory since the lipid-soluble form of α-trinositol was less effective than the water-soluble derivative. These results suggest a new biological function for certain phosphoinositides in the modulation of FGF-regulated processes

  9. IGF-I Stimulates Cooperative Interaction between the IGF-I Receptor and CSK Homologous Kinase that Regulates SHPS-1 Phosphorylation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Shen, Xinchun; Maile, Laura A.; Xi, Gang

    2011-01-01

    IGF-I plays an important role in smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. In vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in 25 mm glucose, IGF-I stimulated a significant increase in Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1) phosphorylation compared with 5 mm glucose and this increase was required for smooth muscle cell proliferation. A proteome-wide screen revealed that carboxyl-terminal SRC kinase homologous kinase (CTK) bound directly to phosphotyrosines in the SHPS-1 cytoplasmic domain. Because the kinase(s) that phosphorylates these tyrosines in response to IGF-I is unknown, we determined the roles of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and CTK in mediating SHPS-1 phosphorylation. After IGF-I stimulation, CTK was recruited to IGF-IR and subsequently to phospho-SHPS-1. Expression of an IGF-IR mutant that eliminated CTK binding reduced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, SHPS-1 phosphorylation, and cell proliferation. IGF-IR phosphorylated SHPS-1, which provided a binding site for CTK. CTK recruitment to SHPS-1 resulted in a further enhancement of SHPS-1 phosphorylation. CTK knockdown also impaired IGF-I-stimulated SHPS-1 phosphorylation and downstream signaling. Analysis of specific tyrosines showed that mutation of tyrosines 428/452 in SHPS-1 to phenylalanine reduced SHPS-1 phosphorylation but allowed CTK binding. In contrast, the mutation of tyrosines 469/495 inhibited IGF-IR-mediated the phosphorylation of SHPS-1 and CTK binding, suggesting that IGF-IR phosphorylated Y469/495, allowing CTK binding, and that CTK subsequently phosphorylated Y428/452. Based on the above findings, we conclude that after IGF-I stimulation, CTK is recruited to IGF-IR and its recruitment facilitates CTK's subsequent association with phospho-SHPS-1. This results in the enhanced CTK transfer to SHPS-1, and the two kinases then fully phosphorylate SHPS-1, which is necessary for IGF-I stimulated cellular proliferation. PMID:21799000

  10. Compressive elasticity of three-dimensional nanofiber matrix directs mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to vascular cells with endothelial or smooth muscle cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, K; Bonani, W; Tan, Y; Bryant, S J; Tan, W

    2012-04-01

    The importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in vascular regeneration is becoming increasingly recognized. However, few in vitro studies have been performed to identify the effects of environmental elasticity on the differentiation of MSC into vascular cell types. Electrospinning and photopolymerization techniques were used to fabricate a three-dimensional (3-D) polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate nanofiber hydrogel matrix with tunable elasticity for use as a cellular substrate. Compression testing demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the hydrated 3-D matrices ranged from 2 to 15 kPa, similar to the in vivo elasticity of the intima basement membrane and media layer. MSC seeded on rigid matrices (8-15 kPa) showed an increase in cell area compared with those seeded on soft matrices (2-5 kPa). Furthermore, the matrix elasticity guided the cells to express different vascular-specific phenotypes with high differentiation efficiency. Around 95% of MSC seeded on the 3-D matrices with an elasticity of 3 kPa showed Flk-1 endothelial markers within 24h, while only 20% of MSC seeded on the matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated Flk-1 marker. In contrast, ∼80% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity >8 kPa demonstrated smooth muscle α-actin marker within 24h, while fewer than 10% of MSC seeded on 3-D matrices with elasticity elasticity of the substrate could be a powerful tool for vascular tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

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    Mariella Trovati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC. We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR. In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting and secretion (western blotting and ELISA. We observed that: (i D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001; (ii all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001; (iii L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance.

  12. Generation and Characterization of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Lines Derived from a Patient with a Bicuspid Aortic Valve

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    Pamela Lazar-Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic dilation is the most common malformation of the proximal aorta and is responsible for 1%–2% of all deaths in industrialized countries. In approximately 50% of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV, dilation of any or all segments of the aorta occurs. BAV patients with aortic dilation show an increased incidence of cultured vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC loss. In this study, VSMC, isolated from the ascending aorta of BAV, was treated with Simian virus 40 to generate a BAV-originated VSMC cell line. To exclude any genomic DNA or cross-contamination, highly polymorphic short tandem repeats of the cells were profiled. The cells were then characterized using flow cytometry and karyotyping. The WG-59 cell line created is the first reported VSMC cell line isolated from a BAV patient. Using an RT2 Profiler PCR Array, genes within the TGFβ/BMP family that are dependent on losartan treatment were identified. Endoglin was found to be among the regulated genes and was downregulated in WG-59 cells following treatment with different losartan concentrations, when compared to untreated WG-59 cells.

  13. Adenovirus-assisted lipofection: efficient in vitro gene transfer of luciferase and cytosine deaminase to human smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, J; Denger, S; Reifers, F; Beisel, C; Haack, K; Gebert, J; Kübler, W

    1996-07-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are a central cell type involved in multiple processes of coronary artery diseases including restenosis and therefore are major target cells for different aspects of gene transfer. Previous attempts to transfect primary arterial cells using different techniques like liposomes, CaPO4 and electroporation resulted in only low transfection efficiency. The development of recombinant adenoviruses dramatically improved the delivery of foreign genes into different cell types including SMC. However, cloning and identification of recombinants remain difficult and time-consuming techniques. The present study demonstrates that a complex consisting of reporter plasmid encoding firefly luciferase (pLUC), polycationic liposomes and replication-deficient adenovirus was able to yield very high in vitro transfection of primary human smooth muscle cells under optimized conditions. The technique of adenovirus-assisted lipofection (AAL) increases transfer and expression of plasmid DNA in human smooth muscle cells in vitro up to 1000-fold compared to lipofection. To verify the applicability of AAL for gene transfer into human smooth muscle cells we studied a gene therapy approach to suppress proliferation of SMC in vitro, using the prokaryotic cytosine deaminase gene (CD) which enables transfected mammalian cells to deaminate 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the highly toxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of a transient CD expression on RNA synthesis was investigated by means of a cotransfection with a RSV-CD expression plasmid and the luciferase reporter plasmid. Western blot analysis demonstrated high expression of CD protein in transfected SMC. Cotransfected SMC demonstrated two-fold less luciferase activity in the presence of 5-FC (5 mmol/l) after 48 h compared to cells transfected with a non-CD coding plasmid. The data demonstrate that a transient expression of CD could be sufficient to reduce the capacity of protein synthesis in human SMC. This simple and

  14. Genipin inhibits TNF-α-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration via induction of HO-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrong Jiang

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration triggered by inflammatory stimuli contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. On the other hand, genipin, an aglycon of geniposide, exhibits diverse pharmacological functions such as antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. The protective effects of genipin on the cardiovascular system have also been reported. However, the molecular mechanism involved remains unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the precise function of genipin in VSMCs, focusing particularly on the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a potent anti-inflammatory enzyme. We found that pretreatment of genipin induced HO-1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as its activity in VSMCs. Genipin inhibited TNF-α-induced VSMC proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, genipin prevented ERK/MAPK and Akt phosphorylation while left p38 MAPK and JNK unchanged. Genipin also blocked the increase of ROS generation induced by TNF-α. More importantly, the specific HO-1 siRNA partially abolished the beneficial effects of genipin on VSMCs. These results suggest that genipin may serve as a novel drug in the treatment of these pathologies by inducing HO-1 expression/activity and subsequently decreasing VSMC proliferation and migration.

  15. The Hippo pathway mediates inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomomi E; Duggirala, Aparna; Smith, Madeleine C; White, Stephen; Sala-Newby, Graciela B; Newby, Andrew C; Bond, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation by intracellular cAMP prevents excessive neointima formation and hence angioplasty restenosis and vein-graft failure. These protective effects are mediated via actin-cytoskeleton remodelling and subsequent regulation of gene expression by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of components of the growth-regulatory Hippo pathway, specifically the transcription factor TEAD and its co-factors YAP and TAZ in VSMC. Elevation of cAMP using forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP or the physiological agonists, Cicaprost or adenosine, significantly increased phosphorylation and nuclear export YAP and TAZ and inhibited TEAD-luciferase report gene activity. Similar effects were obtained by inhibiting RhoA activity with C3-transferase, its downstream kinase, ROCK, with Y27632, or actin-polymerisation with Latrunculin-B. Conversely, expression of constitutively-active RhoA reversed the inhibitory effects of forskolin on TEAD-luciferase. Forskolin significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the pro-mitogenic genes, CCN1, CTGF, c-MYC and TGFB2 and this was reversed by expression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ phospho-mutants. Inhibition of YAP and TAZ function with RNAi or Verteporfin significantly reduced VSMC proliferation. Furthermore, the anti-mitogenic effects of forskolin were reversed by overexpression of constitutively-active YAP or TAZ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP-induced actin-cytoskeleton remodelling inhibits YAP/TAZ-TEAD dependent expression of pro-mitogenic genes in VSMC. This mechanism contributes novel insight into the anti-mitogenic effects of cAMP in VSMC and suggests a new target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The persistence of active smooth muscle in the female rat cervix through pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, David J; Darios, Emma S; Watts, Stephanie W

    2015-02-01

    A controversy exists as to whether functional smooth muscle exists in the cervix before and during pregnancy, potentially continuous with the uterus. We hypothesized that cervical smooth muscle persists through pregnancy and is functional. Uteri and cervices were taken from female virgin, 11 day, and 20 day (near labor) pregnant rats. All experiments used the uterus as a positive control. Three different smooth muscle proteins (smooth muscle α-actin, SM-22α, and calponin-1) allowed immunohistochemical detection of the continuous nature of the smooth muscle from the vagina, cervix, and uterus. Tissues were also hung in isolated tissue baths for the measurement of isometric smooth muscle contraction. Uterine and cervical homogenates were also used in Western analyses to measure protein expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed there to be smooth muscle as validated by an expression of all 3 markers in the cervix. This smooth muscle was continuous with that of the vagina and uterus. Smooth muscle α-actin was detected in virgin tissue (291.3 ± 32.2 arbitrary densitometry units/β-actin), day 11 (416.8 ± 19.5), and day 20 pregnant tissue (293.0 ± 34.4). The virgin, day 11, and day 20 cervices contracted 2.18 ± 0.24 g, 1.46 ± 0.08 g, and 3.88 ± 0.49 g (respectively) to depolarizing KCl. Cervices contracted at day 20 to the cholinergic muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine (maximum, 133% ± 18.2% KCl contraction, n = 4). These findings strongly support that smooth muscle is present in the cervix through pregnancy and continuous with the uterus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ring-opened cromakalim analogues with relaxant effects on vascular and respiratory smooth muscles and as stimulators of elastin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhedja, Mourad; Peres, Basile; Fhayli, Wassim; Ghandour, Zeinab; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Faury, Gilles; Khelili, Smail

    2018-01-20

    Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC 50  stronger relaxant effects on the trachea than the reference compound cromakalim (EC 50  = 124 μM), in particular compounds B4, B7 and B16 (EC 50   57 μM for all, and EC 50  > 200 μM for a majority of them), but some of them showed an interesting relaxing effect on trachea (i.e. A15 and A33, EC 50  = 30 μM). The most potent compounds of both series, i.e. A15, A33 and B16, tested on aortic rings in the presence of glibenclamide or 80 mM KCl, suggested that they acted as voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel blockers, like verapamil, instead of being ATP-potassium channel activators, as is cromakalim, the parent molecule. Further investigations on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells showed a strong stimulating effect on elastin synthesis, especially compound B16, which was more active at 20 μM than diazoxide, a reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator. Taken together, our results show that the N-methylation of the sulfonylurea moieties of ring-opened cromakalim analogues led to new compounds blocking calcium-gated channels, which had a major impact on the arterial and tracheal activities as well as selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The PPARα/p16INK4a Pathway inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by repressing Cell Cycle-dependent Telomerase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizard, Florence; Nomiyama, Takashi; Zhao, Yue; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Staels, Bart; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) α, the molecular target for fibrates used to treat dyslipidemia, exerts pleiotropic effects on vascular cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we have previously demonstrated that PPARα activation suppresses G1→S cell cycle progression by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16INK4a (p16). In the present study, we demonstrate that this inhibition of VSMC proliferation by PPARα is mediated through a p16-dependent suppression of telomerase activity, which has been implicated in key cellular functions including proliferation. PPARα activation inhibited mitogen-induced telomerase activity by repressing the catalytic subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) through negative cross-talk with an E2F-1-dependent trans-activation of the TERT promoter. This trans-repression involved the recruitment of the retinoblastoma (RB) family proteins p107 and p130 to the TERT promoter resulting in impaired E2F-1 binding, an effect which was dependent on p16. The inhibition of cell proliferation by PPARα activation was lost in VSMC following TERT overexpression or knock-down, pointing to a key role of telomerase as a target for the antiproliferative effects of PPARα. Finally, we demonstrate that PPARα agonists suppress telomerase activation during the proliferative response following vascular injury indicating that these findings are applicable in vivo. In concert, these results demonstrate that the anti-proliferative effects of PPARα in VSMCs depend on the suppression of telomerase activity by targeting the p16/RB/E2F transcriptional cascade. PMID:18818403

  19. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Karen M; Bell, Phillip G; Lodge, John K; Constantinou, Costas L; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Bass, Rosemary; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.

  20. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Interaction via FoxM1 Signaling Mediates Vascular Remodeling and Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Zhu, Maggie M; Peng, Yi; Jin, Hua; Machireddy, Narsa; Qian, Zhijian; Zhang, Xianming; Zhao, You-Yang

    2018-04-17

    Angioproliferative vasculopathy is a hallmark of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known how endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) crosstalk regulates the angioproliferative vascular remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of EC and SMC interaction and underlying signaling pathways in PH development. SMC-specific Foxm1 or Cxcr4 knockout mice, EC-specific Foxm1 or Egln1 knockout mice, as well as EC-specific Egln1/Cxcl12 double knockout mice were used to assess the role of FoxM1 on SMC proliferation and PH. Lung tissues and cells from PAH patients were employed to validate clinical relevance. FoxM1 inhibitor Thiostrepton was used in Sugen 5416/hypoxia- and monocrotaline-challenged rats. FoxM1 expression was markedly upregulated in lungs and pulmonary arterial SMCs of idiopathic PAH patients and 4 discrete PH rodent models. Mice with SMC- (but not EC-) specific deletion of Foxm1 were protected from hypoxia- or Sugen 5416/hypoxia-induced PH. The upregulation of FoxM1 in SMCs induced by multiple EC-derived factors (PDGF-B, CXCL12, ET-1 and MIF) mediated SMC proliferation. Genetic deletion of endothelial Cxcl12 in Egln1Tie2Cre mice or loss of its cognate receptor Cxcr4 in SMCs in hypoxia-treated mice inhibited FoxM1 expression, SMC proliferation and PH. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of FoxM1 inhibited severe PH in both Sugen 5416/hypoxia and monocrotaline-challenged rats. Multiple factors derived from dysfunctional ECs induced FoxM1 expression in SMCs and activated FoxM1-dependent SMC proliferation which contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH. Thus, targeting FoxM1 signaling represents a novel strategy for treatment of IPAH.

  1. Andrographolide inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation through JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  2. Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  3. Calcium signaling in smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Eubanks, David C; Werner, Matthias E; Heppner, Thomas J; Nelson, Mark T

    2011-09-01

    Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) are central to the function of smooth muscle, which lines the walls of all hollow organs. These changes take a variety of forms, from sustained, cell-wide increases to temporally varying, localized changes. The nature of the Ca(2+) signal is a reflection of the source of Ca(2+) (extracellular or intracellular) and the molecular entity responsible for generating it. Depending on the specific channel involved and the detection technology employed, extracellular Ca(2+) entry may be detected optically as graded elevations in intracellular Ca(2+), junctional Ca(2+) transients, Ca(2+) flashes, or Ca(2+) sparklets, whereas release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores may manifest as Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) puffs, or Ca(2+) waves. These diverse Ca(2+) signals collectively regulate a variety of functions. Some functions, such as contractility, are unique to smooth muscle; others are common to other excitable cells (e.g., modulation of membrane potential) and nonexcitable cells (e.g., regulation of gene expression).

  4. Lipid-soluble smoke particles upregulate vascular smooth muscle ETB receptors via activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.B.; Zheng, J.P.; Zhang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to cigarette smoke-associated cardiovascular disease remain elusive. With functional and molecular methods, we demonstrate for the first time that lipid-soluble cigarette smoke...... particles (dimethylsulfoxide-soluble cigarette smoke particles; DSP) increased the expression of endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells. The increased ET(B) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells was documented as enhanced contractility (sensitive myograph technique...

  5. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Gerontology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qichang [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Qin, Tao [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu, Sanguang, E-mail: sanguang1998@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); Song, Zifang, E-mail: zsong@hust.edu.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  6. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang; Qin, Tao; Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen; Liu, Sanguang; Song, Zifang

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation

  7. Angiotensin II upregulates the expression of placental growth factor in human vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yingqiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Angiotensin II (Ang II is a critical factor in inflammatory responses, which promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor (PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family cytokines and is associated with inflammatory progress of atherosclerosis. However, the potential link between PlGF and Ang II has not been investigated. In the current study, whether Ang II could regulate PlGF expression, and the effect of PlGF on cell proliferation, was investigated in human vascular endothelial cells (VECs and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Results In growth-arrested human VECs and VSMCs, Ang II induced PlGF mRNA expression after 4 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. 10-6 mol/L Ang II increased PlGF protein production after 8 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. Stimulation with Ang II also induced mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and -2(VEGFR-1 and -2 in these cells. The Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist blocked Ang II-induced PlGF gene expression and protein production. Several intracellular signals elicited by Ang II were involved in PlGF synthesis, including activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase. A neutralizing antibody against PlGF partially inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferation of VECs and VSMCs. However, this antibody showed little effect on the basal proliferation in these cells, whereas blocking antibody of VEGF could suppress both basal and Ang II-induced proliferation in VECs and VSMCs. Conclusion Our results showed for the first time that Ang II could induce the gene expression and protein production of PlGF in VECs and VSMCs, which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  8. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene; Elli, Francesca [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Borghi, Elisa [Dipartimento di Salute Pubblica, Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Brancaccio, Diego [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cozzolino, Mario, E-mail: mario.cozzolino@unimi.it [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, with a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.

  9. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  10. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina; Kuemmerle, John F

    2015-12-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Dense-body aggregates as plastic structures supporting tension in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Herrera, Ana M; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2010-11-01

    The wall of hollow organs of vertebrates is a unique structure able to generate active tension and maintain a nearly constant passive stiffness over a large volume range. These properties are predominantly attributable to the smooth muscle cells that line the organ wall. Although smooth muscle is known to possess plasticity (i.e., the ability to adapt to large changes in cell length through structural remodeling of contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton), the detailed structural basis for the plasticity is largely unknown. Dense bodies, one of the most prominent structures in smooth muscle cells, have been regarded as the anchoring sites for actin filaments, similar to the Z-disks in striated muscle. Here, we show that the dense bodies and intermediate filaments formed cable-like structures inside airway smooth muscle cells and were able to adjust the cable length according to cell length and tension. Stretching the muscle cell bundle in the relaxed state caused the cables to straighten, indicating that these intracellular structures were connected to the extracellular matrix and could support passive tension. These plastic structures may be responsible for the ability of smooth muscle to maintain a nearly constant tensile stiffness over a large length range. The finding suggests that the structural plasticity of hollow organs may originate from the dense-body cables within the smooth muscle cells.

  12. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nintasen, Rungrat [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa [Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Turner, Neil A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Porter, Karen E., E-mail: medkep@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there

  13. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.

  14. Effect of 125I seeds and 103Pd stents on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhu Ruisen

    2004-01-01

    To establish the theoretical and practical base for implementing radioactive stents aft PTCA in order to prevent restenosis, in vitro observation was taken over the effects of 12 '5I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In vitro VSMC model from guinea-pig aortic arteries was established using adherent cell culture methods. The effects of 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents on the VSMC proliferation, with or without fetal bovine serum (FCS), were investigated through cell counting methods and 3 H-TDR implementation tests. It was shown that (1) 10% FCS significantly promoted the DNA synthesis of VSMC (P 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents inhibited the VSMC DNA synthesis in dose-dependent manner, regardless of 10% FCS inducement. At lower radioactive doses, neither 125 I-seeds (18.5-74 kBq) nor 103 Pd-implanted stents (1.48-2.96 MBq) exhibited distinctive effects on the VSMC DNA synthesis (P>0.05); and (3) 48 hour exposure from 125 I-seeds at 128 kBq or 10 '3Pd-implanted stents at 7.4 MBq did not result in VSMC morphological alteration, but 125 I-seeds at 370 kBq caused cells' morphological changes. Therefore both 125 I-seeds and 103 Pd-implanted stents inhibit the in vitro VSMC DNA synthesis, and the inhibition effects are significantly related to their exposure duration and doses. (authors)

  15. Magnesium Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Activity and Reverses the Osteogenic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Madueño, Juan A.; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  16. Role of Cell-Cell bond for the viability and the function of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC viability and homeostasis is regulated by cell-matrix and cell-cell contact: disruption of these interactions are responsible of a switch from a mature to a high proliferative phenotype. VSMCs migration, rate of growth and apoptosis, and the extent of their extracellular matrix (ECM deposition can be also modulated by proatherogenic peptides. Among them, ATII induces the transactivation of IGF I R, which, together with the binding protein IGFBP3, represents a determinant of cell survival, growth and proliferation. Aim of our in vitro study was to verify the role of elective cell-cell bond in moulating the response to ATII. Thus, we evaluated viability, proliferation, IGFIR, IGFBP3 expression and the long term survival and production of ECM in a provisional tissue. A7r5 cell-line was used in adherent cultures or incubated in agarose-coated culture plates to inhibit cell-matrix interactions. Cells, treated or not with ATII 100 nM, were evaluated for apoptosis rate, cell cycle, IGFIR and IGFBP3 protei expression. Fibrin provisional tissue was developed polymerizing a fibrin solution. cantaining A7r5 cells with thrombin. Histological stainings for ECM components were performed on sections of prvisional tissue. An exclusive cell-cell contact resulted to monolayer cell cultures. ATII did not affect the cell survival in both culture conditions, but promoted a 10% decrease in "S" phase and an increases IGFIR expression only in adherent cells. while suspended cell aggregates were resistant to ATII administration; IGFBP3 was reduced both in ATII treated adherent cells and in floating clustered cells, irrespective of the treatmentn. VSMC conditioning in agarose-coated plates before seeding in fibrin provisional matrix reduced, but not abolished, the cell ability to colonize the clot and to produce ECM. This study demonstrates that the elective cell-cell contact induces a quiescent status in cells lacking of cell

  17. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kumar Vadivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8 μg/mL significantly (P<0.05. Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24 h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC.

  18. Smooth muscle adaptation after intestinal transection and resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J S; Quigley, E M; Adrian, T E

    1996-09-01

    Changes in motor function occur in the intestinal remnant after intestinal resection. Smooth muscle adaptation also occurs, particularly after extensive resection. The time course of these changes and their interrelationship are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate changes in canine smooth muscle structure and function during intestinal adaptation after transection and resection. Twenty-five dogs underwent either transection (N = 10), 50% distal resection (N = 10), or 50% proximal resection (N = 5). Thickness and length of the circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) muscle layers were measured four and 12 weeks after resection. In vitro length-tension properties and response to a cholinergic agonist were studied in mid-jejunum and mid-ileum. Transection alone caused increased CM length in the jejunum proximal to the transection but did not affect LM length or muscle thickness. A 50% resection resulted in increased length of CM throughout the intestine and thickening of CM and LM near the anastomosis. Active tension of jejunal CM increased transiently four weeks after resection. Active tension in jejunal LM was decreased 12 weeks after transection and resection. Sensitivity of CM to carbachol was similar after transection and resection. It is concluded that: (1) Structural adaptation of both circular and longitudinal muscle occurs after intestinal resection. (2) This process is influenced by the site of the intestinal remnant. (3) Only minor and transient changes occur in smooth muscle function after resection. (4) Factors other than muscle adaptation are likely involved in the changes in motor function seen following massive bowel resection.

  19. Comparative Statistical Mechanics of Muscle and Non-Muscle Contractile Systems: Stationary States of Near-Equilibrium Systems in A Linear Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lecarpentier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A. Huxley’s equations were used to determine the mechanical properties of muscle myosin II (MII at the molecular level, as well as the probability of the occurrence of the different stages in the actin–myosin cycle. It was then possible to use the formalism of statistical mechanics with the grand canonical ensemble to calculate numerous thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, internal energy, affinity, thermodynamic flow, thermodynamic force, and entropy production rate. This allows us to compare the thermodynamic parameters of a non-muscle contractile system, such as the normal human placenta, with those of different striated skeletal muscles (soleus and extensor digitalis longus as well as the heart muscle and smooth muscles (trachea and uterus in the rat. In the human placental tissues, it was observed that the kinetics of the actin–myosin crossbridges were considerably slow compared with those of smooth and striated muscular systems. The entropy production rate was also particularly low in the human placental tissues, as compared with that observed in smooth and striated muscular systems. This is partly due to the low thermodynamic flow found in the human placental tissues. However, the unitary force of non-muscle myosin (NMII generated by each crossbridge cycle in the myofibroblasts of the human placental tissues was similar in magnitude to that of MII in the myocytes of both smooth and striated muscle cells. Statistical mechanics represents a powerful tool for studying the thermodynamics of all contractile muscle and non-muscle systems.

  20. Adhesion, Growth, and Maturation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Low-Density Polyethylene Grafted with Bioactive Substances

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    Martin Parizek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The attractiveness of synthetic polymers for cell colonization can be affected by physical, chemical, and biological modification of the polymer surface. In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE was treated by an Ar+ plasma discharge and then grafted with biologically active substances, namely, glycine (Gly, polyethylene glycol (PEG, bovine serum albumin (BSA, colloidal carbon particles (C, or BSA+C. All modifications increased the oxygen content, the wettability, and the surface free energy of the materials compared to the pristine LDPE, but these changes were most pronounced in LDPE with Gly or PEG, where all the three values were higher than in the only plasma-treated samples. When seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, the Gly- or PEG-grafted samples increased mainly the spreading and concentration of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin in these cells. LDPE grafted with BSA or BSA+C showed a similar oxygen content and similar wettability, as the samples only treated with plasma, but the nano- and submicron-scale irregularities on their surface were more pronounced and of a different shape. These samples promoted predominantly the growth, the formation of a confluent layer, and phenotypic maturation of VSMC, demonstrated by higher concentrations of contractile proteins alpha-actin and SM1 and SM2 myosins. Thus, the behavior of VSMC on LDPE can be regulated by the type of bioactive substances that are grafted.

  1. Increased atrial natriuretic factor receptor density in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, F.; Fine, B.; Kuriyama, S.; Hatori, N.; Nakamura, A.; Nakamura, M.; Aviv, A.

    1987-01-01

    To explore the role of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) system in the pathophysiology of hypertension we examined the binding kinetics of synthetic ANF to cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and two normotensive controls-the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and American Wistar (W). The number of maximal binding sites (Bmax) per cell (mean +/- SEM; X10(3] were: SHR = 278.0 +/- 33.0, WKY = 28.3 +/- 7.1 and W = 26.6 +/- 4.2. The differences between the SHR and normotensive strains were significant at p less than 0.001. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd; X 10(-9)M) was higher in SHR VSMCs (0.94 +/- 0.14) than in WKY (0.22 +/- 0.09; p less than 0.01) and W (0.39 +/- 0.14; p less than 0.02) cells. The plasma levels of the immunoreactive ANF were higher in SHR than the normotensive controls. We suggest that the relatively greater ANF receptor density in cultured VSMCs of the SHR represents a response to the in vitro environment which is relatively more deficient in ANF for VSMCs of the SHR as compared with the normotensive rats. Thus, the capacity of the SHR VSMC to regulate ANF receptor density appears to be independent of the blood pressure level

  2. Nitric oxide signaling pathway regulates potassium chloride cotransporter-1 mRNA expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fulvio, M; Lauf, P K; Adragna, N C

    2001-11-30

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express at least two mRNAs for K-Cl cotransporters (KCC): KCC1 and KCC3. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I regulates KCC3 mRNA expression in these cells. Here, we show evidence implicating the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway in the expression of KCC1 mRNA, considered to be the major cell volume regulator. VSMCs, expressing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and PKG-I isoforms showed a time- and concentration-dependent increase in KCC1 mRNA levels after treatment with sodium nitroprusside as demonstrated by semiquantitative RT-PCR. sGC-dependent regulation of KCC1 mRNA expression was confirmed using YC-1, a NO-independent sGC stimulator. The sGC inhibitor LY83583 blocked the effects of sodium nitroprusside and YC-1. Moreover, 8-Br-cGMP increased KCC1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The 8-Br-cGMP effect was partially blocked by KT5823 but not by actinomycin D. However, actinomycin D and cycloheximide increased basal KCC1 mRNA in an additive manner, suggesting different mechanisms of action for both drugs. These findings suggest that in VSMCs, the NO/cGMP-signaling pathway participates in KCC1 mRNA regulation at the post-transcriptional level.

  3. Enhanced expressions of microvascular smooth muscle receptors after focal cerebral ischemia occur via the MAPK MEK/ERK pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvinsson Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEK1/2 is a serine/threonine protein that phosphorylates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2. Cerebral ischemia results in enhanced expression of cerebrovascular contractile receptors in the middle cerebral artery (MCA leading to the ischemic region. Here we explored the role of the MEK/ERK pathway in receptor expression following ischemic brain injury using the specific MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Methods and result Rats were subjected to a 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion for 48-h and the ischemic area was calculated. The expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Elk-1, and of endothelin ETA and ETB, angiotensin AT1, and 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT1B receptors were analyzed with immunohistochemistry using confocal microscopy in cerebral arteries, microvessels and in brain tissue. The expression of endothelin ETB receptor was analyzed by quantitative Western blot. We demonstrate that there is an increase in the number of contractile smooth muscle receptors in the MCA and in micro- vessels within the ischemic region. The enhanced expression occurs in the smooth muscle cells as verified by co-localization studies. This receptor upregulation is furthermore associated with enhanced expression of pERK1/2 and of transcription factor pElk-1 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Blockade of transcription with the MEK1 inhibitor U0126, given at the onset of reperfusion or as late as 6 hours after the insult, reduced transcription (pERK1/2 and pElk-1, the enhanced vascular receptor expression, and attenuated the cerebral infarct and improved neurology score. Conclusion Our results show that MCAO results in upregulation of cerebrovascular ETB, AT1 and 5-HT1B receptors. Blockade of this event with a MEK1 inhibitor as late as 6 h after the insult reduced the enhanced vascular receptor expression and the associated cerebral infarction.

  4. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the presence of a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent calcium-activated inward current in vascular smooth-muscle cells, and suggested this to be of importance in synchronizing smooth-muscle contraction. Here we demonstrate the characteristics of this current. Using......M) in the pipette solution. The current was found to be a calcium-activated chloride current with an absolute requirement for cyclic GMP (EC50 6.4 microM). The current could be activated by the constitutively active subunit of PKG. Current activation was blocked by the protein kinase G antagonist Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMP...... differed from those of the calcium-activated chloride current in pulmonary myocytes, which was cGMP-independent, exhibited a high sensitivity to inhibition by niflumic acid, was unaffected by zinc ions, and showed outward current rectification as has previously been reported for this current. Under...

  5. Estimation of airway smooth muscle stiffness changes due to length oscillation using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaily, Ahmed; Chen, Leizhi

    2012-10-07

    This paper presents a novel approach to estimate stiffness changes in airway smooth muscles due to external oscillation. Artificial neural networks are used to model the stiffness changes due to cyclic stretches of the smooth muscles. The nonlinear relationship between stiffness ratios and oscillation frequencies is modeled by a feed-forward neural network (FNN) model. The structure of the FNN is selected through the training and validation using literature data from 11 experiments with different muscle lengths, muscle masses, oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. Data pre-processing methods are used to improve the robustness of the neural network model to match the non-linearity. The validation results show that the FNN model can predict the stiffness ratio changes with a mean square error of 0.0042. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK–PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. ► Metformin suppressed TNF-α-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. ► Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. ► NF-κB activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. ► AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-α-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK–PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 μM) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-κB activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Inhibiting AMPK and PTEN restored ROS levels stimulated with TNF-α. Taken together, PTEN could be a possible downstream regulator of AMPK, and the

  7. Exploring the vascular smooth muscle receptor landscape in vivo: ultrasound Doppler versus near-infrared spectroscopy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Fadel, Paul J; Brothers, R Matthew; Sander, Mikael; Wray, D Walter

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are routinely used for noninvasive monitoring of peripheral hemodynamics in both clinical and experimental settings. However, the comparative ability of these methodologies to detect changes in microvascular and whole limb hemodynamics during pharmacological manipulation of vascular smooth muscle receptors located at varied locations within the arterial tree is unknown. Thus, in 10 healthy subjects (25 ± 2 yr), changes in resting leg blood flow (ultrasound Doppler; femoral artery) and muscle oxygenation (oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin; vastus lateralis) were simultaneously evaluated in response to intra-arterial infusions of phenylephrine (PE, 0.025-0.8 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), BHT-933 (2.5-40 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and angiotensin II (ANG II, 0.5-8 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1)). All drugs elicited significant dose-dependent reductions in leg blood flow and oxyhemoglobin + oxymyoglobin. Significant relationships were found between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS changes across doses of PE (r(2) = 0.37 ± 0.08), BHT-933 (r(2) = 0.74 ± 0.06), and ANG II (r(2) = 0.68 ± 0.13), with the strongest relationships evident with agonists for receptors located preferentially "downstream" in the leg microcirculation (BHT-933 and ANG II). Analyses of drug potency revealed similar EC50 between ultrasound Doppler and NIRS measurements for PE (0.06 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01), BHT-933 (5.0 ± 0.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.3), and ANG II (1.4 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3). These data provide evidence that both ultrasound Doppler and NIRS track pharmacologically induced changes in peripheral hemodynamics and are equally capable of determining drug potency. However, considerable disparity was observed between agonist infusions targeting different levels of the arterial tree, suggesting that receptor landscape is an important consideration for proper interpretation of hemodynamic monitoring with these methodologies.

  8. Progenitor cells in pulmonary vascular remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Michael E.; Frid, Maria G.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by cellular and structural changes in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Intimal thickening and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and fibroproliferative changes in the adventitia are commonly observed, as is the extension of smooth muscle into the previously non-muscularized vessels. A majority of these changes are associated with the enhanced presence of α-SM-actin+ cells and inflammatory cells. Atypical abundances of functionally distinct endothelial cells, particularly in the intima (plexiform lesions), and also in the perivascular regions, are also described. At present, neither the origin(s) of these cells nor the molecular mechanisms responsible for their accumulation, in any of the three compartments of the vessel wall, have been fully elucidated. The possibility that they arise from either resident vascular progenitors or bone marrow–derived progenitor cells is now well established. Resident vascular progenitor cells have been demonstrated to exist within the vessel wall, and in response to certain stimuli, to expand and express myofibroblastic, endothelial or even hematopoietic markers. Bone marrow–derived or circulating progenitor cells have also been shown to be recruited to sites of vascular injury and to assume both endothelial and SM-like phenotypes. Here, we review the data supporting the contributory role of vascular progenitors (including endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and fibrocytes) in vascular remodeling. A more complete understanding of the processes by which progenitor cells modulate pulmonary vascular remodeling will undoubtedly herald a renaissance of therapies extending beyond the control of vascular tonicity and reduction of pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:22034593

  9. Norepinephrine-induced alteration in the coupling of α1-adrenergic receptor occupancy to calcium efflux in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, W.S.; Alexander, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether α-adrenergic desensitization of vascular smooth muscle is due to an alteration in α 1 -adrenergic receptor coupling, the authors determined the relationship between receptor occupancy and maximal receptor-coupled Ca 2+ efflux in cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (i) under basal conditions as defined by receptor inactivation with phenoxybenzamine and (ii) after 48 hr of exposure to several concentrations of 1-norepinephrine (NE). Neither phenoxybenzamine nor NE exposure caused a change in binding affinity for [ 3 H]prazosin or NE. Maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux decreased progressively with exposure of incubated cells to increasing concentrations of phenoxybenzamine or NE. An approximately 80% decrease in maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity caused by either phenoxybenzamine or NE resulted in complete loss of NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux, indicating that under these conditions approximately 20% of α 1 -adrenergic receptors are not coupled to the Ca 2+ efflux. Under basal conditions, the relationship between maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux was markedly nonlinear, so that a near maximal response could be elicited by occupancy of only approximately 40% of the receptors. Thus, an alteration in occupancy-response coupling at a step proximal to Ca 2+ mobilization and/or influx, rather than a reduction in receptor number, is of primary importance in the process of agonist-induced α-adrenergic receptor desensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells

  10. A 310-bp minimal promoter mediates smooth muscle cell-specific expression of telokin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Bigsby, R M; Word, R A; Herring, B P

    1998-05-01

    A cell-specific promoter located in an intron of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase gene directs transcription of telokin exclusively in smooth muscle cells. Transgenic mice were generated in which a 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter fragment, extending from -163 to +147, was used to drive expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen. Smooth muscle-specific expression of the T-antigen transgene paralleled that of the endogenous telokin gene in all smooth muscle tissues except uterus. The 310-bp promoter fragment resulted in very low levels of transgene expression in uterus; in contrast, a transgene driven by a 2.4-kb fragment (-2250 to +147) resulted in high levels of transgene expression in uterine smooth muscle. Telokin expression levels correlate with the estrogen status of human myometrial tissues, suggesting that deletion of an estrogen response element (ERE) may account for the low levels of transgene expression driven by the 310-bp rabbit telokin promoter in uterine smooth muscle. Experiments in A10 smooth muscle cells directly showed that reporter gene expression driven by the 2.4-kb, but not 310-bp, promoter fragment could be stimulated two- to threefold by estrogen. This stimulation was mediated through an ERE located between -1447 and -1474. Addition of the ERE to the 310-bp fragment restored estrogen responsiveness in A10 cells. These data demonstrate that in addition to a minimal 310-bp proximal promoter at least one distal cis-acting regulatory element is required for telokin expression in uterine smooth muscle. The distal element may include an ERE between -1447 and -1474.

  11. Isolation and characterization of the inositol trisphosphate receptor from smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, C.C.; Saito, A.; Fleischer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The release of Ca 2+ from internal stores is requisite to muscle contraction. In skeletal muscle and heart, the Ca 2+ release channels (ryanodine receptor) of sarcoplasmic reticulum, involved in excitation-contraction coupling, have recently been isolated and characterized. In smooth muscle, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) is believed to mobilize Ca 2+ from internal stores and thereby modulate contraction. The authors describe the isolation of an IP 3 receptor from smooth muscle. Bovine aorta smooth muscle microsomes were solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, and the IP 3 receptor was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and column chromatography with heparin-agarose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. The receptor is an oligomer of a single polypeptide with a M r of 224,000 as determined by SDS/PAGE. Negative-staining electron microscopy reveals that the receptor is a large pinwheel-like structure having surface dimensions of ∼250 x 250 angstrom with fourfold symmetry. The IP 3 receptor from smooth muscle is similar to the ryanodine receptor with regard to its large size and fourfold symmetry, albeit distinct with regard to appearance, protomer size, and ligand binding

  12. Low density lipoprotein uptake by an endothelial-smooth muscle cell bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.J.; Miguel, R.; Graham, D.

    1991-01-01

    To study the interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the means by which such interaction may affect lipid permeability of the arterial wall, cell bilayers were established by use of a transwell culture system. After confluent growth of both cell types had been achieved, iodine 125 bound to low-density lipoprotein (10 ng protein/ml) was added to the media of the upper well. After a 3-hour incubation period, the iodine 125-bound low-density lipoprotein content of the upper and lower media demonstrated an impedance to lipoprotein movement across the endothelial cell monolayer as compared to the bare porous polycarbonate filter of the transwell (p less than 10(-6)). The presence of smooth muscle cells in the bottom well significantly enhanced the permeability of the endothelial cell layer (p less than 10(-60)). This effect remained unchanged over a 9-day time course. Membrane binding and cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein by endothelial cells was not altered by smooth muscle cells, indicating that this change in permeability could not be easily attributed to changes in receptor-mediated transport or transcytosis. Membrane binding (p less than 0.02) and cellular uptake (p less than 10(-6)) of low-density lipoprotein by smooth muscle cells in the bilayer, when adjusted for counts available in the smooth muscle cell media, were both reduced in the early incubation period as compared to isolated smooth muscle cells. The disproportionate reduction in uptake as compared to binding would suggest that this was not entirely a receptor-dependent process

  13. BeWo cells stimulate smooth muscle cell apoptosis and elastin breakdown in a model of spiral artery transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, L. K.; Keogh, R. J.; Wareing, M.; Baker, P. N.; Cartwright, J. E.; Whitley, G. S.; Aplin, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, extravillous trophoblast invades the uterine wall and enters the spiral arteries. Remodelling ensues, with loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to create high flow, low resistance vessels. Pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia are characterized by incomplete arterial remodelling. Endovascular trophoblast is not easily accessible for studies to establish the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, so we have developed a model appropriate to carry out mechanistic ...

  14. EMMPRIN (CD147) Expression in Smooth Muscle Tumors of the Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Gun, Seda; Ozen, Fatma Z; Karagoz, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gynecologic tract. The vast majority of these are benign leiomyomas that present no diagnostic difficulty. Because some benign smooth muscle tumors may degenerate and uncommon variants exist, the diagnosis can be challenging in some cases. The goal of this research was to investigate EMMPRIN expression in leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants, and leiomyosarcomas (LMS) to determine whether it has a potential role in differential diagnosis. EMMPRIN expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry in 103 uterine smooth muscle tumors, which included 19 usual leiomyomas, 52 leiomyoma variants, and 32 LMS. They were evaluated on the basis of staining extent, intensity, and also their combined score, and the groups were compared. EMMPRIN expression was present in 3 of 19 (15.7%) usual leiomyomas, 23 of 52 (44.3%) leiomyoma variants, and 28 of 32 (87.5%) LMS. There were statistically significant differences in staining extent and intensity, and also for their combined scores, between the LMS and benign groups. Although uterine smooth muscle tumors are usually diagnosed easily with conventional diagnostic criteria, the differentiation of LMS from some variants of leiomyoma can be challenging based soley on morphology. EMMPRIN may be a valuable immunohistochemical marker for differentiating LMS from benign smooth muscle tumors in problematic cases.

  15. Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells toward the Smooth Muscle Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle differentiated adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a valuable resource for regeneration of gastrointestinal tissues, such as the gut and sphincters. Hypoxia has been shown to promote adipose tissue-derived stem cells proliferation and maintenance of pluripotency, but the influence of hypoxia on their smooth myogenic differentiation remains unexplored. This study investigated the phenotype and contractility of adipose-derived stem cells differentiated toward the smooth myogenic lineage under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% were used during differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of smooth muscle cells-specific markers, including early marker smooth muscle alpha actin, middle markers calponin, caldesmon, and late marker smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The specific contractile properties of cells were verified with both a single cell contraction assay and a gel contraction assay. Five percent oxygen concentration significantly increased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and myosin heavy chain in adipose-derived stem cell cultures after 2 weeks of induction (p < 0.01. Cells differentiated in 5% oxygen conditions showed greater contraction effect (p < 0.01. Hypoxia influences differentiation of smooth muscle cells from adipose stem cells and 5% oxygen was the optimal condition to generate smooth muscle cells that contract from adipose stem cells.

  16. Micro- and nanostructured Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces for controlled vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Cenk, E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Division, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Doerrschuck, Eva; Schuh, Cathrin [Clinic of Paediatric Cardiology, Saarland University, Building 9, 66424 Homburg (Germany); Miro, Marina Martinez; Lee, Juseok [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Division, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Puetz, Norbert; Wennemuth, Gunther [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Saarland University, Building 61, 66424 Homburg (Germany); Metzger, Wolfgang; Oberringer, Martin [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, Saarland University, Building 57, 66424 Homburg (Germany); Veith, Michael [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, CVD/Biosurfaces Division, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Saarland, Building C 4 1, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim [Clinic of Paediatric Cardiology, Saarland University, Building 9, 66424 Homburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the micro- and nanotopography on vascular cell-surface interaction is investigated using nano- and microstructured Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as model substrate. Two different nanostructured Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces composed of low density (LD) and high density (HD) nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and commercially available microstructured Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plates were used for comparison. A clear diverging response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC) was observed on these nano- and microstructured surfaces. LD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs seem to enhance the proliferation of HUVECs selectively. This selective control of the cell-surface interaction by topography may represent a key issue for the future stent material design. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured alumina surfaces triggers selective adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalyst free synthesis of nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Topography induces selective cell response.

  17. PDGF activates K-Cl cotransport through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein phosphatase-1 in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2005-07-15

    K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT, KCC) is an electroneutrally coupled movement of K and Cl present in most cells. In this work, we studied the pathways of regulation of K-Cl COT by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Wortmannin and LY 294002 blocked the PDGF-induced K-Cl COT activation, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway is involved. However, PD 98059 had no effect on K-Cl COT activation by PDGF, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is not involved under the experimental conditions tested. Involvement of phosphatases was also examined. Sodium orthovanadate, cyclosporin A and okadaic acid had no effect on PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT. Calyculin A blocked the PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT by 60%, suggesting that protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is a mediator in the PDGF signaling pathway/s. In conclusion, our results indicate that the PDGF-mediated pathways of K-Cl COT regulation involve the signaling molecules PI 3-K and PP-1.

  18. miR-125b targets DNMT3b and mediates p53 DNA methylation involving in the vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by homocysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, ChengJian [Key Laboratory of Basic Research in Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Zhang, HuiPing [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Zhao, Li [Department of Medical Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Zhou, Longxia [Department of Basic Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Zhang, Minghao; Xu, Hua [Key Laboratory of Basic Research in Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Department of Basic Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Han, Xuebo [Department of Medical Laboratory, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Li, Guizhong; Yang, Xiaoling [Key Laboratory of Basic Research in Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Department of Basic Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Jiang, YiDeng, E-mail: jyjcyxy@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Basic Research in Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China); Department of Basic Medicine, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan (China)

    2016-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA and play crucial roles in a wide array of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our previous studies found that homocysteine(Hcy) can stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), however, the underlying mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Here, we found proliferation of VSMCs induced by Hcy was of correspondence to the miR-125b expression reduced both in vitro and in the ApoE knockout mice, the hypermethylation of p53, its decreased expression, and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) up-regulated. And, we found DNMT3b is a target of miR-125b, which was verified by the Dual-Luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. Besides, the siRNA interference for DNMT3b significantly decreased the methylation level of p53, which unveiled the causative role of DNMT3b in p53 hypermethylation. miR-125b transfection further confirmed its regulative roles on p53 gene methylation status and the VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggested that a miR-125b-DNMT3b-p53 signal pathway may exist in the VSMCs proliferation induced by Hcy.

  19. miR-125b targets DNMT3b and mediates p53 DNA methylation involving in the vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, ChengJian; Zhang, HuiPing; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Longxia; Zhang, Minghao; Xu, Hua; Han, Xuebo; Li, Guizhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Jiang, YiDeng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA and play crucial roles in a wide array of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Our previous studies found that homocysteine(Hcy) can stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), however, the underlying mechanisms were not fully elucidated. Here, we found proliferation of VSMCs induced by Hcy was of correspondence to the miR-125b expression reduced both in vitro and in the ApoE knockout mice, the hypermethylation of p53, its decreased expression, and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) up-regulated. And, we found DNMT3b is a target of miR-125b, which was verified by the Dual-Luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. Besides, the siRNA interference for DNMT3b significantly decreased the methylation level of p53, which unveiled the causative role of DNMT3b in p53 hypermethylation. miR-125b transfection further confirmed its regulative roles on p53 gene methylation status and the VSMCs proliferation. Our data suggested that a miR-125b-DNMT3b-p53 signal pathway may exist in the VSMCs proliferation induced by Hcy.

  20. Increased proinflammatory responses from asthmatic human airway smooth muscle cells in response to rhinovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Nicholas JC

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exacerbations of asthma are associated with viral respiratory tract infections, of which rhinoviruses (RV are the predominant virus type. Airway smooth muscle is important in asthma pathogenesis, however little is known about the potential interaction of RV and human airway smooth muscle cells (HASM. We hypothesised that rhinovirus induction of inflammatory cytokine release from airway smooth muscle is augmented and differentially regulated in asthmatic compared to normal HASM cells. Methods HASM cells, isolated from either asthmatic or non-asthmatic subjects, were infected with rhinovirus. Cytokine production was assayed by ELISA, ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by FACS, and the transcription regulation of IL-6 was measured by luciferase activity. Results RV-induced IL-6 release was significantly greater in HASM cells derived from asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects. This response was RV specific, as 5% serum- induced IL-6 release was not different in the two cell types. Whilst serum stimulated IL-8 production in cells from both subject groups, RV induced IL-8 production in only asthmatic derived HASM cells. The transcriptional induction of IL-6 was differentially regulated via C/EBP in the asthmatic and NF-κB + AP-1 in the non-asthmatic HASM cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates augmentation and differential transcriptional regulation of RV specific innate immune response in HASM cells derived from asthmatic and non-asthmatics, and may give valuable insight into the mechanisms of RV-induced asthma exacerbations.

  1. TRPV1 channels in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: implications for vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Park, Song Young; Kwon, Oh Sung; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-09-01

    vasorelaxation with ACh (control, 78 ± 8% vasorelaxation and capsaicin, 108 ± 13% vasorelaxation) and less clearly enhancing the sodium nitroprusside response. Denudation of the endothelium greatly attenuated the maximal ACh-induced vasorelaxation equally in the control and capsaicin conditions (∼17% vasorelaxation) and abolished the attenuating effect of capsaicin on the maximal phenylephrine response (denuded + capsaicin, 61 ± 20%LT max ). Immunohistochemistry identified a relatively high density of TRPV 1 channels in the endothelium compared with the smooth muscle of the SMFAs, but because of the far greater volume of smooth muscle, total TRPV 1 protein content was not significantly attenuated by denudation. Thus, SMFAs ubiquitously express functional TRPV 1 channels, which alter vascular function, in terms of α 1 -receptors, in a predominantly endothelium-dependent manner, conceivably contributing to the functional sympatholysis and unveiling a therapeutic target. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  2. Stimulatory interactions between human coronary smooth muscle cells and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Paccosi

    Full Text Available Despite inflammatory and immune mechanisms participating to atherogenesis and dendritic cells (DCs driving immune and non-immune tissue injury response, the interactions between DCs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs possibly relevant to vascular pathology including atherogenesis are still unclear. To address this issue, immature DCs (iDCs generated from CD14+ cells isolated from healthy donors were matured either with cytokines (mDCs, or co-cultured (ccDCs with human coronary artery VSMCs (CASMCs using transwell chambers. Co-culture induced DC immunophenotypical and functional maturation similar to cytokines, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction. In turn, factors from mDCs and ccDCs induced CASMC migration. MCP-1 and TNFα, secreted from DCs, and IL-6 and MCP-1, secreted from CASMCs, were primarily involved. mDCs adhesion to CASMCs was enhanced by CASMC pre-treatment with IFNγ and TNFα ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were involved, since the expression of specific mRNAs for these molecules increased and adhesion was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to the counter-receptors CD11c and CD18. Adhesion was also inhibited by CASMC pre-treatment with the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor atorvastatin and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, which suggests a further mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of these drugs. Adhesion of DCs to VSMCs was shown also in vivo in rat carotid 7 to 21 days after crush and incision injury. The findings indicate that DCs and VSMCs can interact with reciprocal stimulation, possibly leading to perpetuate inflammation and vascular wall remodelling, and that the interaction is enhanced by a cytokine-rich inflammatory environment and down-regulated by HMGCoA-reductase inhibitors and PPARγ agonists.

  3. Andrographolide, a Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Recent studies have indicated that andrographolide is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancer through the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the apoptosis-inducing activity and mechanisms in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs were characterized. Andrographolide significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, p53 activation, Bax, and active caspase-3 expression, and these phenomena were suppressed by pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, or diphenylene iodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (Nox inhibitor. Furthermore, p47phox, a Nox subunit protein, was phosphorylated in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs. However, pretreatment with 3-O-methyl-sphingomyelin, a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited andrographolide-induced p47phox phosphorylation as well as Bax and active caspase-3 expression. Our results collectively demonstrate that andrographolide-reduced cell viability can be attributed to apoptosis in VSMCs, and this apoptosis-inducing activity was associated with the ceramide-p47phox-ROS signaling cascade.

  4. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiromasa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nomiyama, Takashi, E-mail: tnomiyama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  5. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. → Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. → Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. → Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  6. Effects of cyclic stretch on proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their differentiation to smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazanfari, Samane; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated influence of cyclic stretch on proliferation of hMSCs for different loading conditions, alignment of actin filaments, and consequent differentiation to SMCs. Isolated cells from bone marrow were exposed to cyclic stretch utilizing a customized device. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay, alignment of actin fibers by a designed image processing code, and cell differentiation by fluorescence staining. Results indicated promoted proliferation of hMSCs by cyclic strain, enhanced by elevated strain amplitude and number of cycles. Such loading regulated smooth muscle α-actin, and reoriented actin fibers. Cyclic stretch led to differentiation of hMSCs to SMCs without addition of growth factor. It was concluded that applying appropriate loading treatment on hMSCs could enhance proliferation capability, and produce functional SMCs for engineered tissues.

  7. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The small GTPase Rac1 is required for smooth muscle contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Awahan; Davis, Benjamin; Lövdahl, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The role of the small GTP-binding protein Rac1 in smooth muscle contraction was examined using small molecule inhibitors (EHT1864, NSC23766) and a novel smooth muscle-specific, conditional, Rac1 knockout mouse strain. EHT1864, which affects nucleotide binding and inhibits Rac1 activity, concentra...

  9. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Sándor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin, and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on

  10. Evidence Supports Tradition: The in Vitro Effects of Roman Chamomile on Smooth Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Zsolt; Mottaghipisheh, Javad; Veres, Katalin; Hohmann, Judit; Bencsik, Tímea; Horváth, Attila; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Barthó, Loránd; Csupor, Dezső

    2018-01-01

    The dried flowers of Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. have been used in traditional medicine for different conditions related to the spasm of the gastrointestinal system. However, there have been no experimental studies to support the smooth muscle relaxant effect of this plant. The aim of our research was to assess the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of Roman chamomile, its fractions, four of its flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, and eupafolin), and its essential oil on smooth muscles. The phytochemical compositions of the extract and its fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD, the essential oil was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Neuronally mediated and smooth muscle effects were tested in isolated organ bath experiments on guinea pig, rat, and human smooth muscle preparations. The crude herbal extract induced an immediate, moderate, and transient contraction of guinea pig ileum via the activation of cholinergic neurons of the gut wall. Purinoceptor and serotonin receptor antagonists did not influence this effect. The more sustained relaxant effect of the extract, measured after pre-contraction of the preparations, was remarkable and was not affected by an adrenergic beta receptor antagonist. The smooth muscle-relaxant activity was found to be associated with the flavonoid content of the fractions. The essential oil showed only the relaxant effect, but no contracting activity. The smooth muscle-relaxant effect was also detected on rat gastrointestinal tissues, as well as on strip preparations of human small intestine. These results suggest that Roman chamomile extract has a direct and prolonged smooth muscle-relaxant effect on guinea pig ileum which is related to its flavonoid content. In some preparations, a transient stimulation of enteric cholinergic motoneurons was also detected. The essential oil also had a remarkable smooth muscle relaxant effect in this setting. Similar relaxant effects were also detected on other visceral

  11. Birth weight and characteristics of endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures from human umbilical cord vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurbe Empar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been related to an increased risk for developing high blood pressure in adult life. The molecular and cellular analysis of umbilical cord artery and vein may provide information about the early vascular characteristics of an individual. We have assessed several phenotype characteristics of the four vascular cell types derived from human umbilical cords of newborns with different birth weight. Further follow-up studies could show the association of those vascular properties with infancy and adulthood blood pressure. Methods Endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures were obtained from umbilical cords from two groups of newborns of birth weight less than 2.8 kg or higher than 3.5 kg. The expression of specific endothelial cell markers (von Willebrand factor, CD31, and the binding and internalization of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and the smooth muscle cell specific α-actin have been evaluated. Cell culture viability, proliferation kinetic, growth fraction (expression of Ki67 and percentage of senescent cells (detection of β-galactosidase activity at pH 6.0 have been determined. Endothelial cell projection area was determined by morphometric analysis of cell cultures after CD31 immunodetection. Results The highest variation was found in cell density at the confluence of endothelial cell cultures derived from umbilical cord arteries (66,789 ± 5,093 cells/cm2 vs. 45,630 ± 11,927 cells/cm2, p 2, p Conclusion The analysis of umbilical cord artery endothelial cells, which demonstrated differences in cell size related to birth weight, can provide hints about the cellular and molecular links between lower birth weight and increased adult high blood pressure risk.

  12. Eye features in three Danish patients with multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Hans Ulrik; Fledelius, Hans C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2012-01-01

    A de novo mutation of the ACTA2 gene encoding the smooth muscle cell α-actin has been established in patients with multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome associated with patent ductus arteriosus and mydriasis present at birth....

  13. Cytokine-induced differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells into functional smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeffrey J; Hong, Zhigang; Willenbring, Ben; Zeng, Lepeng; Isenberg, Brett; Lee, Eu Han; Reyes, Morayma; Keirstead, Susan A; Weir, E Kenneth; Tranquillo, Robert T; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2006-12-01

    Smooth muscle formation and function are critical in development and postnatal life. Hence, studies aimed at better understanding SMC differentiation are of great importance. Here, we report that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) isolated from rat, murine, porcine, and human bone marrow demonstrate the potential to differentiate into cells with an SMC-like phenotype and function. TGF-beta1 alone or combined with PDGF-BB in serum-free medium induces a temporally correct expression of transcripts and proteins consistent with smooth muscle development. Furthermore, SMCs derived from MAPCs (MAPC-SMCs) demonstrated functional L-type calcium channels. MAPC-SMCs entrapped in fibrin vascular molds became circumferentially aligned and generated force in response to KCl, the L-type channel opener FPL64176, or the SMC agonists 5-HT and ET-1, and exhibited complete relaxation in response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cyclic distention (5% circumferential strain) for 3 weeks increased responses by 2- to 3-fold, consistent with what occurred in neonatal SMCs. These results provide evidence that MAPC-SMCs are phenotypically and functionally similar to neonatal SMCs and that the in vitro MAPC-SMC differentiation system may be an ideal model for the study of SMC development. Moreover, MAPC-SMCs may lend themselves to tissue engineering applications.

  14. Suppressive activities and mechanisms of ugonin J on vascular smooth muscle cells and balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Li, Pei-Chuan; Chien, Yi-Chung; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia (or restenosis) is primarily attributed to excessive proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of ugonin J on VSMC proliferation and migration as well as neointimal formation. Cell viability and the cell-cycle distribution were, respectively, analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry. Cell migration was examined using a wound-healing analysis and a transwell assay. Protein expressions and gelatinase activities were, respectively, measured using Western blot and gelatin zymography. Balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal formation was induced in a rat carotid artery model and then examined using immunohistochemical staining. Ugonin J induced cell-cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase and apoptosis to inhibit VSMC growth. Ugonin J also exhibited marked suppressive activity on VSMC migration. Ugonin J significantly reduced activations of focal adhesion kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 proteins. Moreover, ugonin J obviously reduced expressions and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In vivo data indicated that ugonin J prevented balloon angioplasty-induced neointimal hyperplasia. Our study suggested that ugonin J has the potential for application in the prevention of balloon injury-induced neointimal formation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. DHEA attenuates PDGF-induced phenotypic proliferation of vascular smooth muscle A7r5 cells through redox regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kawakatsu, Miho [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yodoi, Junji [Department of Biological Responses, Institute for Viral Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 53 Shogain, Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8397 (Japan); Eto, Masato [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Akishita, Masahiro, E-mail: akishita-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Kondo, Takahito [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Disease, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2010-05-28

    It is known that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits a phenotypic switch in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. However, the mechanism behind the effect of DHEA on VSMC is not clear. Previously we reported that low molecular weight-protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) dephosphorylates PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-{beta} via a redox-dependent mechanism involving glutathione (GSH)/glutaredoxin (GRX)1. Here we demonstrate that the redox regulation of PDGFR-{beta} is involved in the effect of DHEA on VSMC. DHEA suppressed the PDGF-BB-dependent phosphorylation of PDGFR-{beta}. As expected, DHEA increased the levels of GSH and GRX1, and the GSH/GRX1 system maintained the redox state of LMW-PTP. Down-regulation of the expression of LMW-PTP using siRNA restored the suppression of PDGFR-{beta}-phosphorylation by DHEA. A promoter analysis of GRX1 and {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, showed that DHEA up-regulated the transcriptional activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element, suggesting PPAR{alpha} plays a role in the induction of GRX1 and {gamma}-GCS expression by DHEA. In conclusion, the redox regulation of PDGFR-{beta} is involved in the suppressive effect of DHEA on VSMC proliferation through the up-regulation of GSH/GRX system.

  16. Leptin Inhibits the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Angiotensin II through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to investigate whether leptin modifies angiotensin (Ang II-induced proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs from 10-week-old male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and the possible role of nitric oxide (NO. Methods. NO and NO synthase (NOS activity were assessed by the Griess and 3H-arginine/citrulline conversion assays, respectively. Inducible NOS (iNOS and NADPH oxidase subutnit Nox2 expression was determined by Western-blot. The proliferative responses to Ang II were evaluated through enzymatic methods. Results. Leptin inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferative response of VSMCs from control rats. This inhibitory effect of leptin was abolished by NOS inhibitor, NMMA, and iNOS selective inhibitor, L-NIL, and was not observed in leptin receptor-deficient fa/fa rats. SHR showed increased serum leptin concentrations and lipid peroxidation. Despite a similar leptin-induced iNOS up-regulation, VSMCs from SHR showed an impaired NOS activity and NO production induced by leptin, and an increased basal Nox2 expression. The inhibitory effect of leptin on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation was attenuated. Conclusion. Leptin blocks the proliferative response to Ang II through NO-dependent mechanisms. The attenuation of this inhibitory effect of leptin in spontaneous hypertension appears to be due to a reduced NO bioavailability in VSMCs.

  17. Intimal smooth muscle cells are a source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory CYP450 derived oxylipins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Scott [Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU (United Kingdom); Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred B. [Division of Intramural Research, NIEHS/NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Davies, Michael [Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU (United Kingdom); Yaqoob, Muhammad M. [Barts and the London, Queen Mary University, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ (United Kingdom); Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davies, CA 95616-8584 (United States); Gilroy, Derek [University College London, University Street, London (United Kingdom); Zeldin, Darryl C. [Division of Intramural Research, NIEHS/NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Bishop-Bailey, David, E-mail: dbishopbailey@rvc.ac.uk [Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-07

    Vascular pathologies are associated with changes in the presence and expression of morphologically distinct vascular smooth muscle cells. In particular, in complex human vascular lesions and models of disease in pigs and rodents, an intimal smooth muscle cell (iSMC) which exhibits a stable epithelioid or rhomboid phenotype in culture is often found to be present in high numbers, and may represent the reemergence of a distinct developmental vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype. The CYP450-oxylipin - soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway is currently of great interest in targeting for cardiovascular disease. sEH inhibitors limit the development of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation in animal models. We have investigated the expression of CYP450-oxylipin-sEH pathway enzymes and their metabolites in paired intimal (iSMC) and medial (mSMC) cells isolated from rat aorta. iSMC basally released significantly larger amounts of epoxy-oxylipin CYP450 products from eicosapentaenoic acid > docosahexaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > linoleic acid, and expressed higher levels of CYP2C12, CYP2B1, but not CYP2J mRNA compared to mSMC. When stimulated with the pro-inflammatory TLR4 ligand LPS, epoxy-oxylipin production did not change greatly in iSMC. In contrast, LPS induced epoxy-oxylipin products in mSMC and induced CYP2J4. iSMC and mSMC express sEH which metabolizes primary epoxy-oxylipins to their dihydroxy-counterparts. The sEH inhibitors TPPU or AUDA inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation and iNOS induction in mSMC, but had no effect on NFκB nuclear localization or inducible nitric oxide synthase in iSMC; effects which were recapitulated in part by addition of authentic epoxy-oxylipins. iSMCs are a rich source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory epoxy-oxylipins. Complex lesions that contain high levels of iSMCs may be more resistant to the protective effects of sEH inhibitors. - Highlights: • We examined oxylipin production in different

  18. Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and cyclin D1 does not affect proliferation of asthma- and non-asthma-derived airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, Justine Y; Oliver, Brian G; Moir, Lyn M; Black, Judith L; Burgess, Janette K

    UNLABELLED: PPARgamma levels in asthma- and non-asthma-derived airway smooth muscle cells and PPARgamma activation-induced cell proliferation were investigated. In the presence of FBS, PPARgamma levels were higher in subconfluent asthma-derived cells but lower in confluent cells compared with

  19. The chemokine and scavenger receptor CXCL16/SR-PSOX is expressed in human vascular smooth muscle cells and is induced by interferon γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagsaeter, Dick; Olofsson, Peder S.; Norgren, Lars; Stenberg, Bjoern; Sirsjoe, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that is characterised by the involvement of chemokines that are important for the recruitment of leukocytes and scavenger receptors that mediate foam cell formation. Several cytokines are involved in the regulation of chemokines and scavenger receptors in atherosclerosis. CXCL16 is a chemokine and scavenger receptor and found in macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions. Using double-labelled immunohistochemistry, we identified that smooth muscle cells in human lesions express CXCL16. We then analysed the effects of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, IL-18, and LPS on CXCL16 expression in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. IFN-γ was the most potent CXCL16 inducer and increased mRNA, soluble form, membrane form, and total cellular levels of CXCL16. The IFN-γ induction of CXCL16 was also associated with increased uptake of oxLDL into these cells. Taken together, smooth muscle cells express CXCL16 in atherosclerotic lesions, which may play a role in the attraction of T cells to atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the cellular internalisation of modified LDL

  20. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-α-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun; Sik Lee, Chang; Jeong Jang, Min; Kook Kim, Young; Sun Lee, Hyun; Hyun Choi, Yung; Yong Rhim, Byung; Kim, Koanhoi

    2007-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokine did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-κB subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-κB predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-α-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take part in deleterious vascular

  1. Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide is reduced in healthy adults with increased adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Demetra D; Pierce, Gary L; Walker, Ashley E; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Meade, Thomas H; English, Mark; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-09-15

    Vascular smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide, as assessed by nitroglycerin-induced dilation (NID), is impaired in clinical cardiovascular disease, but its relation to adiposity is unknown. We determined the relation of NID to total and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults varying widely in adiposity. In 224 men and women [age, 18-79 years; body mass index (BMI), 16.4-42.2 kg/m(2)], we measured NID (brachial artery dilation to 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin), total body adiposity [BMI and percent body fat (percent BF via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)], and indexes of abdominal adiposity [waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]. In a subgroup (n = 74), we also measured total abdominal fat (TAF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), and subcutaneous fat (ASF) using computed tomography. Based on multiple linear regression, NID was negatively related to BMI [part correlation coefficient (r(part)) = -0.19, P = 0.004] and abdominal adiposity (WC, r(part) = -0.22; WHR, r(part) = -0.19; TAF, r(part) = -0.36; AVF, r(part) = -0.36; and ASF, r(part) = -0.30; all P ≤ 0.009) independent of sex, but only tended to be related to total percent BF (r(part) = -0.12, P = 0.07). In a subgroup of subjects with the highest compared with the lowest amount of AVF, NID was 35% lower (P = 0.003). Accounting for systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and brachial artery diameter reduced or abolished some of the relations between NID and adiposity. In conclusion, NID is or tends to be negatively associated with measures of total adiposity (BMI and percent BF, respectively) but is consistently and more strongly negatively associated with abdominal adiposity. Adiposity may influence NID in part via other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  3. Myosin Va Plays a Role in Nitrergic Smooth Muscle Relaxation in Gastric Fundus and Corpora Cavernosa of Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Josephine A.; Goyal, Raj K.; Sullivan, Maryrose P.

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular motor protein myosin Va is involved in nitrergic neurotransmission possibly by trafficking of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) within the nerve terminals. In this study, we examined the role of myosin Va in the stomach and penis, proto-typical smooth muscle organs in which nitric oxide (NO) mediated relaxation is critical for function. We used confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation of tissue from the gastric fundus (GF) and penile corpus cavernosum (CCP) to localize myosin Va with nNOS and demonstrate their molecular interaction. We utilized in vitro mechanical studies to test whether smooth muscle relaxations during nitrergic neuromuscular neurotransmission is altered in DBA (dilute, brown, non-agouti) mice which lack functional myosin Va. Myosin Va was localized in nNOS-positive nerve terminals and was co-immunoprecipitated with nNOS in both GF and CCP. In comparison to C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice, electrical field stimulation (EFS) of precontracted smooth muscles of GF and CCP from DBA animals showed significant impairment of nitrergic relaxation. An NO donor, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caused comparable levels of relaxation in smooth muscles of WT and DBA mice. These normal postjunctional responses to SNP in DBA tissues suggest that impairment of smooth muscle relaxation resulted from inhibition of NO synthesis in prejunctional nerve terminals. Our results suggest that normal physiological processes of relaxation of gastric and cavernosal smooth muscles that facilitate food accommodation and penile erection, respectively, may be disrupted under conditions of myosin Va deficiency, resulting in complications like gastroparesis and erectile dysfunction. PMID:24516539

  4. Heparin modulates human intestinal smooth muscle (HISM) cell proliferation and matrix production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.; Perr, H.; Drucker, D.E.; Diegelmann, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    (HISM) cell proliferation and collagen production may play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal stricture in Crohn's disease. The present studies were performed to evaluate the effects of heparin, a known modulator of vascular smooth muscle cells, on HISM cell proliferation and collagen production. Heparin (100 μg/ml) was added daily to HISM cell cultures for cell proliferation studies and for 24 hours at various time points during culture for collagen synthesis studies. Collagen synthesis was determined by the uptake of 3 H proline into collagenase-sensitive protein. Heparin completely inhibited cell proliferation for 7 days, after which cell numbers increased but at a slower rate than controls. Cells released from heparin inhibition demonstrated catch-up growth to control levels. Collagen production was significantly inhibited by 24 hours exposure to heparin but only at those times during culture when collagen synthesis was maximal (8 to 12 days). Non-collagen protein synthesis was inhibited by heparin at all time points during culture. Heparin through its modulation of HISM cells may play an important role in the control of the extracellular matrix of the intestinal wall

  5. Relaxation of soman-induced contracture of airway smooth muscle in vitro. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbert, M.G.; Moore, D.H.; Adler, M.

    1992-12-31

    A possible role for beta-adrenergic agonists in the management of bronchoconstriction resulting from exposure to anticholinesterase compounds was investigated in vitro in canine tracheal smooth muscle. Norepinephrine, salbutamol and isoproterenol produced partial relaxation of soman-induced contractures. However, the relaxation induced was not sustained; muscle tensions returned to pretreatment levels within minutes despite the continued presence of beta-agonists. Increasing cAMP levels with the non beta-agonist bronchodilators such as thoophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or forskolin, a specific stimulator of adenylate cyclase, resulted in more complete and longer lasting relaxation, suggesting that beta-adrenoceptor desensitization may contribute to the failure by beta-agonists to produce sustained relaxation. Nerve agents, Soman, Toxicity, Airway smooth muscle, In vitro, Physiology, Effects.

  6. NADPH oxidase 1 deficiency alters caveolin phosphorylation and angiotensin II-receptor localization in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Olivier; Deffert, Christine; Foti, Michelangelo; Bedard, Karen; Jaquet, Vincent; Ogier-Denis, Eric; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase NOX1 is thought to be involved in signaling by the angiotensin II-receptor AT1R. However, underlying signaling steps are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of AngII on aortic smooth muscle from wild-type and NOX1-deficient mice. NOX1-deficient cells showed decreased basal ROS generation and did not produce ROS in response to AngII. Unexpectedly, AngII-dependent Ca(2+) signaling was markedly decreased in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunostaining demonstrated that AT1R was localized on the plasma membrane in wild-type, but intracellularly in NOX1-deficient cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting showed a decreased expression of AT1R in the aorta of NOX1-deficient mice. To investigate the basis of the abnormal AT1R targeting, we studied caveolin expression and phosphorylation. The amounts of total caveolin and of caveolae were not different in NOX1-deficient mice, but a marked decrease occurred in the phosphorylated form of caveolin. Exogenous H(2)O(2) or transfection of a NOX1 plasmid restored AngII responses in NOX1-deficient cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NOX1-derived reactive oxygen species regulate cell-surface expression of AT1R through mechanisms including caveolin phosphorylation. The lack cell-surface AT1R expression in smooth muscle could be involved in the decreased blood pressure in NOX1-deficient mice.

  7. Fragmented esophageal smooth muscle contraction segments on high resolution manometry: a marker of esophageal hypomotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R F; Kumar, N; Drapekin, J E; Gyawali, C P

    2012-08-01

    Esophageal peristalsis consists of a chain of contracting striated and smooth muscle segments on high resolution manometry (HRM). We compared smooth muscle contraction segments in symptomatic subjects with reflux disease to healthy controls. High resolution manometry Clouse plots were analyzed in 110 subjects with reflux disease (50 ± 1.4 years, 51.5% women) and 15 controls (27 ± 2.1 years, 60.0% women). Using the 30 mmHg isobaric contour tool, sequences were designated fragmented if either smooth muscle contraction segment was absent or if the two smooth muscle segments were separated by a pressure trough, and failed if both smooth muscle contraction segments were absent. The discriminative value of contraction segment analysis was assessed. A total of 1115 swallows were analyzed (reflux group: 965, controls: 150). Reflux subjects had lower peak and averaged contraction amplitudes compared with controls (P value to HRM analysis. Specifically, fragmented smooth muscle contraction segments may be a marker of esophageal hypomotility. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Ae [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyoung Chul, E-mail: hcchoi@med.yu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Aging-Associated Vascular Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  9. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A; Neumayer, Katharina M H; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Hart, Melanie L

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  10. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Brun

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2, transgelin (TAGLN, calponin (CNN1, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11 according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion

  11. The nanostructure of myoendothelial junctions contributes to signal rectification between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Micro-anatomical structures in tissues have potential physiological effects. In arteries and arterioles smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells are separated by the internal elastic lamina, but the two cell layers often make contact through micro protrusions called myoendothelial junctions. Cross...... types and the myoendothelial junction. The model is implemented as a 2D axi-symmetrical model and solved using the finite element method. We have simulated diffusion of Ca(2+) and IP(3) between the two cell types and we show that the micro-anatomical structure of the myoendothelial junction in itself...

  12. Vitamin K2 inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by restoring the Gas6/Axl/Akt anti-apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cuiting; Zheng, Haijun; Tao, Huiren; Yu, Wenjun; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Aiqin; Jin, Hui; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. Vitamin K2 (VK2) delays vascular calcification by an unclear mechanism. Moreover, apoptosis modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. This paper aimed to study VK2-modified VSMC calcification and survival cell signaling mediated by growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. Primary-cultured VSMCs were dose-dependently treated with VK2 in the presence of calcification medium for 8 days, or pre-treated for 1 h with/without the Axl inhibitor R428 (2 μmol/L) or the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk (20 μmol/L) followed by treatment with VK2 (10 μmol/L) or rmGas6 (200 nmol/L) in calcification medium for 8 days. Calcium deposition was determined by the o-cresolphthalein complexone assay and Alizarin Red S staining. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL and flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blotting detected the expressions of Axl, Gas6, p-Akt, Akt, and Bcl2. VK2 significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis, which was dependent on restored Gas6 expression and activated downstream signaling by Axl, p-Akt, and Bcl2. Z-VAD-fmk significantly inhibited CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Augmented recombinant mouse Gas6 protein (rmGas6) expression significantly reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis. Furthermore, the Gas6/Axl interaction was inhibited by R428, which abolished the preventive effect of VK2 on CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced apoptosis and calcification. These results suggest that Gas6 is critical in VK2-mediated functions that attenuate CaCl 2 - and β-GP-induced VSMC calcification by blocking apoptosis.

  13. Atorvastatin Protects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From TGF-β1-Stimulated Calcification by Inducing Autophagy via Suppression of the β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial calcification is a major event in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is reported that statins exhibit various protective effects against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC inflammation and proliferation in cardiovascular remodeling. Although statins counteract atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanisms of statins on the calcium release from VSMCs have not been clearly elucidated. Methods: Calcium content of VSMCs was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression of proteins involved in cellular transdifferentiation was analyzed by western blot. Cell autophagy was measured by fluorescence microscopic analysis for acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The autophagic inhibitors (3-MA, chloroquine, NH4Cl and bafilomycin A1 and β-catenin inhibitor JW74 were used to assess the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy and the involvement of β-catenin on cell calcification respectively. Furthermore, cell transfection was performed to overexpress β-catenin. Results: In VSMCs, atorvastatin significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-stimulated calcification, accompanied by the induction of autophagy. Downregulation of autophagy with autophagic inhibitors significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on cell calcification. Moreover, the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on calcification and autophagy was reversed by β-catenin overexpression. Conversely, JW74 supplement enhanced this effect. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that atorvastatin protect VSMC from TGF-β1-stimulated calcification by inducing autophagy through suppression of the β-catenin pathway, identifying autophagy induction might be a therapeutic strategy for use in vascular calcification.

  14. Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Moreno, Julio M; Herencia, Carmen; Montes de Oca, Addy; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodríguez-Ortiz, M Encarnación; Díaz-Tocados, Juan M; Peralbo-Santaella, Esther; Camargo, Antonio; Canalejo, Antonio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Velasco-Gimena, Francisco; Almaden, Yolanda

    2016-03-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies reveal an association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived tissue factor (TF) is suggested to be critical for arterial thrombosis, we investigated whether the vitamin D molecules calcitriol and paricalcitol could reduce the expression of TF induced by the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in human aortic VSMCs. We found that, compared with controls, incubation with TNF-α increased TF expression and procoagulant activity in a NF-κB-dependent manner, as deduced from the increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells protein 65 (p65-NF-κB) and direct interaction of NF-κB to the TF promoter. This was accompanied by the up-regulation of TF signaling mediator protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression and by the down-regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in a miR-346-dependent way. However, addition of calcitriol or paricalcitol blunted the TNF-α-induced TF expression and activity (2.01 ± 0.24 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs. 3.02 ± 0.39 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05), which was associated with down-regulation of NF-κB signaling and PAR-2 expression, as well as with restored levels of vitamin D receptor and enhanced expression of TF pathway inhibitor. Our data suggest that inflammation promotes a prothrombotic state through the up-regulation of TF function in VSMCs and that the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D may be partially due to decreases in TF expression and its activity in VSMCs. © FASEB.

  15. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Song, Sang Heon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Bae, Sun Sik

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates vascular smooth muscle phenotype via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Young Whan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun [Medical Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Heon [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa Kyoung [Department of Anatomy, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik, E-mail: sunsik@pusan.ac.kr [Medical Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) regulates various cellular processes including proliferation, growth, migration and differentiation. In this study, we showed that mTORC1 regulates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phenotypic conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Stimulation of contractile VSMCs with PDGF significantly reduced the expression of contractile marker proteins in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced contraction of VSMCs was completely blocked by the stimulation of VSMCs with PDGF. PDGF-dependent suppression of VSMC marker gene expression was significantly blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mTOR whereas inhibition of p38 MAPK had no effect. In particular, inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked the PDGF-dependent phenotypic change of VSMCs whereas silencing of Rictor had no effect. In addition, loss of AngII-dependent contraction by PDGF was significantly retained by silencing of Raptor. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin or by silencing of Raptor significantly blocked PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, we suggest that mTORC1 plays an essential role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic changes of VSMCs. - Graphical abstract: Regulation of VSMC phenotype by PDGF-dependent activation of mTORC1. - Highlights: • The expression of contractile marker proteins was reduced by PDGF stimulation. • PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. • PDGF-induced proliferation of VSMCs was attenuated by inhibition of mTORC1. • mTORC1 plays a critical role in PDGF-dependent phenotypic conversion of VSMCs.

  17. Alpha1a-Adrenoceptor Genetic Variant Triggers Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Hyperproliferation and Agonist Induced Hypertrophy via EGFR Transactivation Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gradinaru

    Full Text Available α1a Adrenergic receptors (α1aARs are the predominant AR subtype in human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs. α1aARs in resistance vessels are crucial in the control of blood pressure, yet the impact of naturally occurring human α1aAR genetic variants in cardiovascular disorders remains poorly understood. To this end, we present novel findings demonstrating that 3D cultures of vascular SMCs expressing human α1aAR-247R (247R genetic variant demonstrate significantly increased SMC contractility compared with cells expressing the α1aAR-WT (WT receptor. Stable expression of 247R genetic variant also triggers MMP/EGFR-transactivation dependent serum- and agonist-independent (constitutive hyperproliferation and agonist-dependent hypertrophy of SMCs. Agonist stimulation reduces contractility Using pathway-specific inhibitors we determined that the observed hyperproliferation of 247R-expressing cells is triggered via β-arrestin1/Src/MMP-2/EGFR/ERK-dependent mechanism. MMP-2-specific siRNA inhibited 247R-triggered hyperproliferation indicating MMP-2 involvement in 247R-triggered hyperproliferation in SMCs. β-arrestin1-specific shRNA also inhibited 247R-triggered hyperproliferation but did not affect hypertrophy in 247R-expressing SMCs, indicating that agonist-dependent hypertrophy is independent of β-arrestin1. Our data reveal that in different cardiovascular cells the same human receptor genetic variant can activate alternative modulators of the same signaling pathway. Thus, our findings in SMCs demonstrate that depending on the type of cells expressing the same receptor (or receptor variant, different target-specific inhibitors could be used to modulate aberrant hyperproliferative or hypertrophic pathways in order to restore normal phenotype.

  18. Expression pattern and function of tyrosine receptor kinase B isoforms in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Kosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine receptor kinaseB (TrkB) is a high affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). TrkB isoforms involve full length TrkB (TrkB FL) and truncated TrkB type1 (TrkB T1) and type 2 (TrkB T2) in rats. The aim of present study was to explore their expression pattern and function in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The expression of TrkB isoform protein and mRNA was examined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Cell proliferation was measured by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by a Boyden chamber assay. Cell morphology was observed with a phase-contrast microscope. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB isoforms was confirmed in MASMCs. Expression level of TrkB FL was less, while that of TrkB T1 was the highest in MASMCs. Although BDNF increased phosphorylation of ERK, it had no influence on migration and proliferation of MASMCs. TrkB T1 gene knockdown by a RNA interference induced morphological changes and reduced expression level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in MASMCs. Similar morphological changes and reduced α-SMA expression were induced in MASMCs by a Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrate that TrkB T1 expressed highly in MASMCs contributes to maintain normal cell morphology possibly via regulation of Rho activity. This study firstly defined expression level of TrkB isoforms and partly revealed their functions in peripheral vascular cells. - Highlights: • BDNF-TrkB axis mediates neurogenesis, growth, differentiation and survival. • Expression pattern and function of TrkB in vascular smooth muscle remain unclear. • Expression of TrkB FL is low, while that of TrkB T1 is the highest. • TrkB T1 contributes to maintain normal morphology possibly via activating Rho.

  19. Expression pattern and function of tyrosine receptor kinase B isoforms in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Kosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki, E-mail: yamawaki@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp

    2015-11-27

    Tyrosine receptor kinaseB (TrkB) is a high affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). TrkB isoforms involve full length TrkB (TrkB FL) and truncated TrkB type1 (TrkB T1) and type 2 (TrkB T2) in rats. The aim of present study was to explore their expression pattern and function in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The expression of TrkB isoform protein and mRNA was examined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Cell proliferation was measured by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by a Boyden chamber assay. Cell morphology was observed with a phase-contrast microscope. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB isoforms was confirmed in MASMCs. Expression level of TrkB FL was less, while that of TrkB T1 was the highest in MASMCs. Although BDNF increased phosphorylation of ERK, it had no influence on migration and proliferation of MASMCs. TrkB T1 gene knockdown by a RNA interference induced morphological changes and reduced expression level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in MASMCs. Similar morphological changes and reduced α-SMA expression were induced in MASMCs by a Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrate that TrkB T1 expressed highly in MASMCs contributes to maintain normal cell morphology possibly via regulation of Rho activity. This study firstly defined expression level of TrkB isoforms and partly revealed their functions in peripheral vascular cells. - Highlights: • BDNF-TrkB axis mediates neurogenesis, growth, differentiation and survival. • Expression pattern and function of TrkB in vascular smooth muscle remain unclear. • Expression of TrkB FL is low, while that of TrkB T1 is the highest. • TrkB T1 contributes to maintain normal morphology possibly via activating Rho.

  20. Inhibition of human arterial smooth muscle (HASM) cell proliferation and collagen synthesis by protamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drucker, D.E.; Graham, M.F.; Diegelmann, R.F.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques result from vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and collagen deposition. The authors have been studying factors which modulate HASM cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. HASM cells were isolated from the media of normal human thoracic and infrarenal aortas and grown in vitro. Cell numbers were determined by direct counting and collagen synthesis was measured by incorporation of 3 H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein. In this study, protamine (200 μg/ml) was tested and found to cause a 55% reduction of HASM cell proliferation which was reversible when the cells were returned to control medium or when heparin (100 μg/ml) was added with protamine. Protamine caused a constant 33% decrease in non-collagen protein (NCP) synthesis per cell. In contrast, collagen synthesis was inhibited in dose dependent fashion (88% reduction at 200 μg/ml). Protamine blocks HASM cell proliferation and specifically inhibits collagen production. The exact mechanism of this inhibition is unclear but may be related to a transcriptional event since protamine has a high affinity for DNA

  1. MicroRNA-31 controls phenotypic modulation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating its target gene cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Li, Yang; Xu, Kai; Tian, Xiao-Xiang; Peng, Cheng-Fei; Tao, Jie; Sun, Ming-Yu; Han, Ya-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of proliferative vascular diseases. The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been shown to play an important role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. However, the mechanism regulating CREG upstream signaling remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found to play a critical role in cell differentiation via target-gene regulation. This study aimed to identify a miRNA that binds directly to CREG, and may thus be involved in CREG-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation. Computational analysis indicated that miR-31 bound to the CREG mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR). miR-31 was upregulated in quiescent differentiated VSMCs and downregulated in proliferative cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and serum starvation, demonstrating a negative relationship with the VSMC differentiation marker genes, smooth muscle α-actin, calponin and CREG. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, CREG and VSMC differentiation marker gene expression levels were shown to be suppressed by a miR-31 mimic, but increased by a miR-31 inhibitor at both protein and mRNA levels. Notably, miR-31 overexpression or inhibition affected luciferase expression driven by the CREG 3′-UTR containing the miR-31 binding site. Furthermore, miR-31-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation was inhibited in CREG-knockdown human VSMCs. We also determined miR-31 levels in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with or without in stent restenosis and in healthy controls. miR-31 levels were higher in the serum of CAD patients with restenosis compared to CAD patients without restenosis and in healthy controls. In summary, these data demonstrate that miR-31 not only directly binds to its target gene CREG and modulates the VSMC phenotype through this interaction, but also can be an important biomarker in diseases involving VSMC

  2. Recovery of prostacyclin synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells following self-inactivation and requirement for growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.M.; Hla, T.T.; Pash, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The cyclooxygenase enzyme system is a prime example of a metabolic pathway that is regulated by self inactivation. This is believed to occur in part via the irreversible reaction of the endoperoxide intermediate species with the cyclooxygenase enzyme. This inactivation and recovery of activity is similar to the inactivation observed with aspirin which irreversibly acetylates the enzyme. Self inactivation was studied in cultured rat and bovine aorta smooth muscle cells. The production of the prostanoid PGI2 was demonstrated by incubation of a monolayer of cells with 12 μM C-14 labeled arachidonic acid. Products were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and identified by their comigration with authentic standards and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Preincubation of the cells for 10 minutes with arachidonic acid at concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL inactivated the cells to a second challenge with radiolabeled arachidonic acid. Recovery from self inactivation took place over a three hour time period and was similar to the recovery observed with aspirin pretreatment. Recovery was inhibited by addition of 10 μg/mL cycloheximide to the medium indicating that it involves synthesis of cyclooxygenase protein. Epidermal growth factor was identified as a serum factor responsible for the rapid recovery of cyclooxygenase activity in rat and bovine aorta smooth muscle cells

  3. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aortic smooth muscles cells have been implicated in the etiology of lesions which occur in atherosclerosis and hypertension. Both diseases involve proliferation of smooth muscle cells and accumulation of excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen type I and type III produced by the smooth muscle cells. To better understand the sites of regulation of collagen biosynthesis and to correlate these with the growth rate of the cells, cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells were studied as a function of the number of days (3 to 14) in second passage. Cells grew rapidly up to day 6 when confluence was reached. The total incorporation of [ 3 H]-proline into proteins was highest at day 3 and decreased to a constant level after the cultures reached confluence. In contrast, collagen protein production was lowest before confluence and continued to increase over the entire time course of the experiments. cDNA clones for the α1 and α2 chains of type I and the α1 chain of type III collagen were used to quantitate the steady state level of collagen mRNAs. RNA was tested in a cell-free translation system. Changes in the translational activity of collagen mRNAs parallelled the observed increases in collagen protein production. Thus, at later time points, collagen mRNAs are more active in directing synthesis of preprocollagens, even though less collagen mRNA is present. The conclusion is that the site of regulation of the expression of collagen genes is a function of the growth rate of cultured smooth muscle cells

  4. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  5. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  6. Impaired LRP6-TCF7L2 Activity Enhances Smooth Muscle Cell Plasticity and Causes Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Srivastava

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Wnt-signaling coreceptor LRP6 have been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that reduced LRP6 activity in LRP6R611C mice promotes loss of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC differentiation, leading to aortic medial hyperplasia. Carotid injury augmented these effects and led to partial to total vascular obstruction. LRP6R611C mice on high-fat diet displayed dramatic obstructive CAD and exhibited an accelerated atherosclerotic burden on LDLR knockout background. Mechanistically, impaired LRP6 activity leads to enhanced non-canonical Wnt signaling, culminating in diminished TCF7L2 and increased Sp1-dependent activation of PDGF signaling. Wnt3a administration to LRP6R611C mice improved LRP6 activity, led to TCF7L2-dependent VSMC differentiation, and rescued post-carotid-injury neointima formation. These findings demonstrate the critical role of intact Wnt signaling in the vessel wall, establish a causal link between impaired LRP6/TCF7L2 activities and arterial disease, and identify Wnt signaling as a therapeutic target against CAD.

  7. Hyperplasia of smooth muscle in mild to moderate asthma without changes in cell size or gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Prescott G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Ferrando, Ronald E; Donnelly, Samantha; Hays, Steven R; Solberg, Owen D; Carter, Roderick; Wong, Hofer H; Cadbury, Peggy S; Fahy, John V

    2004-05-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mild to moderate asthma may result from airway smooth muscle cell proliferation or acquisition of a hypercontractile phenotype. Because these cells have not been well characterized in mild to moderate asthma, we examined the morphometric and gene expression characteristics of smooth muscle cells in this subgroup of patients with asthma. Using bronchial biopsies from 14 subjects with mild to moderate asthma and 15 control subjects, we quantified smooth muscle cell morphology by stereology and the expression of a panel of genes related to a hypercontractile phenotype of airway smooth muscle, using laser microdissection and two-step real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that airway smooth muscle cell size was similar in both groups, but cell number was nearly twofold higher in subjects with asthma (p = 0.03), and the amount of smooth muscle in the submucosa was increased 50-83% (p 0.1). We conclude that airway smooth muscle proliferation is a pathologic characteristic of subjects with mild to moderate asthma. However, smooth muscle cells in mild to moderate asthma do not show hypertrophy or gene expression changes of a hypercontractile phenotype observed in vitro.

  8. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Liu

    Full Text Available Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  9. Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Growth via Signaling Crosstalk between AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Daniel Stone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal vascular smooth muscle (VSM growth is central in the pathophysiology of vascular disease yet fully effective therapies to curb this growth are lacking. Recent findings from our lab and others support growth control of VSM by adenosine monophosphate (AMP-based approaches including the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA. Molecular crosstalk between AMPK and PKA has been previously suggested, yet the extent to which this occurs and its biological significance in VSM remains unclear. Considering their common AMP backbone and similar signaling characteristics, we hypothesized that crosstalk exists between AMPK and PKA in the regulation of VSM growth. Using rat primary VSM cells, the AMPK agonist AICAR increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic Thr172 site on AMPK. Interestingly, AICAR also phosphorylated a suspected PKA-inhibitory Ser485 site on AMPK, and these cumulative events were reversed by the PKA inhibitor PKI suggesting possible PKA-mediated regulation of AMPK. AICAR also increased PKA activity in a reversible fashion. The cAMP stimulator forskolin increased PKA activity and completely ameliorated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2C activity, suggesting a potential mechanism of AMPK modulation by PKA since inhibition of PKA by PKI reduced AMPK activity. Functionally, AMPK inhibited serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation; however, PKA failed to do so. Moreover, AMPK and PKA reduced PDGF-β-stimulated VSM cell migration. Collectively, these results show that AMPK is capable of reducing VSM growth in both anti-proliferative and anti-migratory fashions. Furthermore, these data suggest that AMPK may be modulated by PKA and that positive feedback may exist between these two systems. These findings reveal a discrete nexus between AMPK and PKA in VSM and provide basis for metabolically-directed targets in reducing pathologic VSM growth.

  10. Natriuretic peptide receptor-C activation attenuates angiotensin II-induced enhanced oxidative stress and hyperproliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiraju, Padma; Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2018-02-07

    We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP 4-23 , attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC