WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-toxic non-hazardous product

  1. Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-07-26

    The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

  2. The production of hydrotalcite from magnesite ore as non-toxic heat stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Laan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years polyvinyl chloride (PVC processors had to submit to worldwide pressure to convert to environmentally friendly stabilisers such as hydrotalcite (HT, since most of the heat stabilisers currently in use contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium or barium – these being highly toxic. The presently used HT production process is, however, very expensive as it involves the recovering of magnesium from seawater magnesia. The purpose of this study was to prove that it is indeed possible to produce cost effective and non-toxic HT from an alternative source. During this study the costing and heat stabilising ability of the hydrotalcite produced from magnesite was compared to that of commercially available heat stabilisers. The effect of the pre-mixing process, as well as the influence of particle size distribution was also investigated. A cost comparative and stabilising efficiency study indicated the cost effectiveness of HT produced from magnesite ore, in comparison with other commercially available stabilisers. The use of HT as produced from magnesite ore would indeed assist in the worldwide changeover to environmentally friendly stabilisers.

  3. Studies of unavoidable heat production and valorisation in Ile-de-France from non-hazardous waste incineration units (UIDNDs), industries, data centres and waste waters. Local communities - External synthesis phase 1, September 2015 + Synthesis May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florette, Claire; Louillat, Stefan; Lopes, Marie; Jacquemin, L.A.

    2017-09-01

    After a presentation of the study and of its context (more particularly phase I of the study which addresses the identification and characterisation of existing operations and of maximum deposits of unavoidable heat), a first report presents characteristics of industrial non-avoidable heat: deposit description, data collection and deposit assessment methodology, synthesis and deposit map. In the same way, it addresses others deposits: non-hazardous waste incineration plants, data centres, and waste waters. The second report aims at defining a strategy for the recovery of unavoidable heat at a regional scale (Ile-de-France). It focuses on processes for which heat production is not the main purpose. For the same deposits as in the first report, the study aims at identifying and characterizing existing operations and maximum deposits of heat recovery at the regional scale, at assessing and characterizing potential recovery of non avoidable heat while taking technical, legal and economic obstacles into account, and then at defining areas for priority actions

  4. Non-toxic brominated perfluorocarbons radiopaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Non-toxic bromofluorocarbon radiopaque agents are disclosed. Certain monobrominated acyclic fluorocarbons, e.g., CF 3 (CF 2 ) 6 CF 2 Br, are improved non-toxic radiopaque agents useful in diagnostic roentgenology, for example in visualizing the gastrointestinal tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the alveolar spaces or parenchyma of the lung, the spleen, the urinary bladder and ureters, the common bile duct and its radicals, the pancreatic ducts, the blood vessels, etc. 13 claims, no drawings

  5. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms

  6. Effects of UV-B radiation on microcystin production of a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa and its competitiveness against a non-toxic strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen, E-mail: zhyang@niglas.ac.cn; Kong, Fanxiang, E-mail: fxkong@niglas.ac.cn; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation showed higher inhibition to non-toxin producing than toxin-producing strains on growth and photosynthetic activity. • Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly under UV-B radiation. • Higher resistance to UV-B radiation helped toxin-producing M. aeruginosa to predominate in the competition. - Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) produced by toxic cyanobacteria pose a health hazard to humans and animals. Some environmental factors can alter the MC concentrations by affecting the abundance of toxin-producing strains in a cyanobacteria population and/or their toxin production. In this study, we designed a monoculture and competition experiment to investigate the impacts of UV-B radiation on MC production and the competition between toxin and non-toxin producing strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. UV-B radiation resulted in higher inhibition of the growth and photosynthetic activity of the non-toxin producing strain relative to that observed for the toxin-producing strain. Both intracellular and extracellular MC contents decreased markedly when the toxin-producing strain was exposed to UV-B radiation. In addition, a quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the ratio of toxin-producing M. aeruginosa under UV-B exposure was higher than that under PAR alone at an early stage of the experiment. However, its abundance under UV-B exposure was lower compared with the PAR alone treatment after day 12. Our study demonstrated that UV-B radiation has a great impact on the abundance of the toxin-producing strain in the Microcystis population and their toxin production, which suggests that the fluctuation of UV-B radiation affects the MC level of cyanobacteria blooms.

  7. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  8. Cysteine as a non toxic corrosion inhibitor for copper alloys in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Mari; van Lanschot, Jettie

    2012-01-01

    studies of colour changes in the corrosion products. The results obtained in this article demonstrate that cysteine could be a non-toxic alternative to BTA. Cysteine performed as well as BTA on pre-corroded coupons with bronze disease in high humidity and showed acceptable results during testing...

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity between toxic and non toxic Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massimo

    Indian varieties and a non-toxic variety of Mexican origin by means of about 400 RAPD ... evaluate the level of polymorphism and the capacity to discriminate between the ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol.

  10. 100-lbf Non-Toxic Storable Liquid Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Road Maps for both Launch and In Space Propulsion call for the development of non-toxic, monopropellant reaction control systems to replace current...

  11. Development of Inexpensive, Efficient and Non-Toxic Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Anand Pratik

    In the wake of the impending climate change challenges, it is highly necessary to reevaluate our energy utilization technologies and ensure their efficient operation. Fossil fuel powered power-plants account for the majority of the energy production in the United States. With an average efficiency not exceeding 40%, these fossil fuel power plants dissipate exorbitant amounts of wasted heat. One of the ways of making such energy conversion processes more efficient is by incorporating technologies that can harvest this scavenge heat. One of the ways of achieving this is by the use of thermoelectric (TE) materials, which utilize the Seebeck effect to convert thermal gradient into potential difference. Therefore, our research project focusses on development of TE materials, which are inexpensive, efficient, and non-toxic. Fe0.50V0.25Al0.25 is a narrow band-gap semiconductor, ideal for TE applications. Unlike the current market leader Bi0.4Te0.6, Fe0.50V0.25 Al0.25 contains earth abundant and non-toxic constituents making it viable for commercial production. Nevertheless, the TE efficiency, ZT, of Fe0.50V0.25Al0.25 is limited by its high thermal conductivity. Therefore, the goal of the current research is two-fold. Firstly, to design and fabricate apparatus for performing TE characterization on bulk materials. For this purpose, two sets of apparatus were designed and fabricated for measuring high temperature Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity. Secondly, to study the influence of doping on TE properties of Fe0.50V0.25Al0.25 alloy. In order to achieve this, vanadium in Fe0.50V0.25Al0.25 was substituted with dopants like Ti, Cr, Zr, W, Nb, Ta. This led to a 20 times improvement in ZT, from the baseline Fe0.50V0.25Al0.25, by effectively reducing the thermal conductivity and increasing the Seebeck coefficient.

  12. A non-toxic fluorogenic dye for mitochondria labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Han, Myung Shin; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2013-11-01

    Mitochondria, powerhouses of cells, are responsible for many critical cellular functions, such as cell energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species production, and apoptosis regulation. Monitoring mitochondria morphology in live cells temporally and spatially could help with the understanding of the mechanisms of mitochondrial functional regulation and the pathogenesis of mitochondria-related diseases. A novel non-cytotoxic fluorogenic compound, AcQCy7, was developed as a mitochondria-specific dye. AcQCy7 emitted no fluorescent signal outside of cells, but it became fluorescent after intracellular hydrolysis of the acetyl group. The hydrolyzed fluorescent product was well retained in mitochondria, enabling long-lasting fluorescence imaging of mitochondria without cell washing. A 2-day culture study using AcQCy7 showed no sign of cytotoxicity, whereas a commonly used mitochondria-staining probe, Mitochondria Tracker Green, caused significant cell death even at a much lower concentration. Apoptosis-causing mitochondria fission was monitored clearly in real time by AcQCy7. A simple add-and-read mitochondria specific dye AcQCy7 has been validated in various cell models. Bright mitochondria specific fluorescent signal in treated cells lasted several days without noticeable toxicity. The probe AcQCy7 has been proofed to be a non-toxic agent for long-term mitochondria imaging. © 2013.

  13. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  14. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  15. {sup 131}I treatment of nodular non-toxic goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, B.; Faber, J.; Hegdeues, L.; Hansen, J.M. [Herlev Hospital (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The traditional treatment of a growing nodular non-toxic goitre has for many years been surgical resection or levothyroxine suppressive treatment. During recent years, several studies have reported promising results of {sup 131}I treatment in terms of thyroid size reduction. This review outlines the different treatment modalities on non-toxic nodular goitre with special emphasis on {sup 131}I treatment. By the term nodular goitre the authors include glands with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules with uptake on a scintiscan. At what point of the natural history of non-toxic multinodular goitre {sup 131}I therapy should be used is not clear. In principle, the best result is obtained in smaller goitres and it is possible that the best effect of {sup 131}I is seen if treatment is given to patients with diffuse goitre before these become nodular. However, then there is a potential risk to swing in the direction to where {sup 131}I is used in an indiscriminate way, since the prevalence of non-toxic multinodular goitre is much higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Although we have data on the long-term hazards of {sup 131}I treatment in hyperthyroidism in terms of risk of cancer, we have only follow-up periods of 5 to 10 years for non-toxic goitres in small groups of patients and no data regarding the long-term risk of high-dose {sup 131}I treatment (>600 MBq) for this condition. Ideally, long term randomized studies comparing the effect, side effect and cost-benefit of surgery as opposed to {sup 131}I treatment should be performed. Awaiting this, it is at present mandatory that each individual patient be given a choice of treatment after proper information. 44 refs.

  16. Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System Engine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Claflin, Scott; Maeding, Chris; Butas, John

    1999-01-01

    Recent results using the Aestus engine operated with LOx/ethanol propellant are presented. An experimental program at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power is underway to adapt this engine for the Boeing Reusable Space Systems Division non-toxic Orbital Maneuvering System/Reaction control System (OMS/RCS) system. Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace designed the Aestus as an nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) upper-stage engine for the Ariane 5. The non-toxic OMS/RCS system's preliminary design requires a LOx/ethanol (O2/C2H5OH) engine that operates with a mixture ratio of 1.8, a specific impulse of 323 seconds, and fits within the original OMS design envelope. This paper describes current efforts to meet these requirements including, investigating engine performance using LOx/ethanol, developing the en-ine system sizing package, and meeting the vehicle operation parameters. Data from hot-fire testing are also presented and discussed.

  17. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, S.R.; Rahman, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The effect of radioiodine in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the study was to see the effect of radioiodine on thyroid size and function in patients with non-toxic multinodular goitre. We prospectively studied 55 non-toxic multinodular goitre patients treated with radioiodine of which 15 were males and 40 were females with age ranged from 25 years to 60 years (mean ± SD 40.45 ± 10.70 years) for a minimum of 12 months. Patients who were selected were those with local compression symptoms or for cosmetic reasons and the treatment was chosen because of a high operative risk or refusal to be operated on. Thyroid volume and T3, T4, TSH of all patients were determined before treatment and 6 months interval after treatment. Radioiodine was given in the dose ranged from 333 MBq (9 mCi) to 555 MBq (15 mCi) (mean ± SD 11.45 ± 2.04 mCi). The mean thyroid volume was reduced from 44.75 ± 37.44 ml to 28.76 ± 27.25 ml at 12 months (p < 0.001) i.e., reduced by 35.73%. Thyroid volume reduction at 6 months was 21.07%. Hypothyroidism occurred in 9.1% of the patients at 12 months. Side effects were few. Three cases developed radiation thyroiditis and two cases developed hyperthyroidism that was managed conservatively. It has been concluded that radioiodine is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre and may be the treatment of choice in elderly patients, in patients in whom surgery is contraindicated and in patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery. (author)

  18. A Novel Non-Toxic Xylene Substitute (SBO) for Histology

    OpenAIRE

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2011-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the eff...

  19. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, M; Dragovic, S.; van Swelm, R; Herpers, B; van de Water, B.; Russel, RG; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Groothuis, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the wellknown hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  20. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Dragovic, Sanja; van Swelm, Rachel; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob; Russel, Frans G. M.; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  1. Demonstration of a Non-Toxic Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Turpin, Alicia A.; Veith, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    T:hree non-toxic demonstration reaction control engines (RCE) were successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The demonstration engine utilized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol as propellants to produce 870 lbf thrust. The Aerojet RCE's were successfully acceptance tested over a broad range of operating conditions. Steady state tests evaluated engine response to varying chamber pressures and mixture ratios. In addition to the steady state tests, a variety of pulsing tests were conducted over a wide range of electrical pulse widths (EPW). Each EPW condition was also tested over a range of percent duty cycles (DC), and bit impulse and pulsing specific impulse were determined for each of these conditions. Subsequent to acceptance testing at Aerojet, these three engines were delivered to the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in April 2005 for incorporation into a cryogenic Auxiliary Propulsion System Test Bed (APSTB). The APSTB is a test article that will be utilized in an altitude test cell to simulate anticipated mission applications. The objectives of this APSTB testing included evaluation of engine performance over an extended duty cycle map of propellant pressure and temperature, as well as engine and system performance at typical mission duty cycles over extended periods of time. This paper provides acceptance test results and a status of the engine performance as part of the system level testing.

  2. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from non-toxic Mexican Jatropha curcas L. shell methanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Domínguez, Xiomara Patricia; Espinosa-Alonso, Laura Gabriela; Hosseinian, Farah; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Medina-Godoy, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Jatropha curcas seed shells are the by-product obtained during oil extraction process. Recently, its chemical composition has gained attention since its potential applications. The aim of this study was to identify phenolic compounds profile from a non-toxic J. curcas shell from Mexico, besides, evaluate J. curcas shell methanolic extract (JcSME) antioxidant activity. Free, conjugate and bound phenolics were fractionated and quantified (606.7, 193.32 and 909.59 μg/g shell, respectively) and 13 individual phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC. The radical-scavenging activity of JcSME was similar to Trolox and ascorbic acid by DPPH assay while by ABTS assay it was similar to BHT. Effective antioxidant capacity by ORAC was found (426.44 ± 53.39 μmol Trolox equivalents/g shell). The Mexican non-toxic J. curcas shell is rich in phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity; hence, it could be considerate as a good source of natural antioxidants.

  3. Sustainable Materials Management: Non-Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the non-hazardous materials and waste management hierarchy in recognition that no single waste management approach is suitable for managing all materials and waste streams in all circumstances.

  4. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  5. A novel non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO) for histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2012-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the effectiveness of SBO and xylene in histology, a wide range of tissue samples from rats and human beings were processed in parallel in SBO and xylene, subjected to various staining procedures. Similar to the xylene-processed paraffin blocks, the SBO-processed counterparts were easy to section without any evidence of cell shrinkage. Assessment of the SBO-treated sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a good maintenance of cell morphology and structure, and a clear definition of the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, comparable good results were achieved between the SBO- and xylene-processed tissues in other histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings. Six-month clinical applications at one department of pathology supported the potentials of SBO as a xylene substitute. In conclusion, we suggest that SBO is a safe and efficient substitute of xylene and may probably replace xylene without losing valuable diagnostic information.

  6. Structural comparison of hazardous and non-hazardous coals based on gas sorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Toth, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Radnai-Gyoengyoes, Z. [Geopard Ltd., Pecs (Hungary); Bokanyi, L. [Miskolc Univ., Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Comparison of carbon-dioxide and propane sorption at ambient temperature was used for characterising the difference of the structure of hazardous and non hazardous coals. However, hazardous coals were found more microporous or contain more closed pores than non hazardous ones, this difference couldn`t have been enlarged and attributed to one petrographic component by producing the density fractions. Gas sorption isobars (nitrogen, methane, ethane) are proposed to make a distinction between fine pore structure of coals. (orig.)

  7. Enrichment of Cellulosic Waste Hemp (Cannabis sativa Hurd into Non-Toxic Microfibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinu E. Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a largely available lignocellulose feedstock hemp (Cannabis sativa, obtained as an industrial waste, was used for cellulose extraction. The extraction of cellulose microfibres from hemp biomass was conducted by alkaline treatment and an acidification process. The extracted cellulose microfibres were characterised using Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The viability of the study was determined by growing human fibroblasts on the preparation which resulted in being non-toxic; indicating its potential in preparing biological scaffolds. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose microfibre using cellulase from Trichoderma reesei, a maximum of 909 mg/g of reducing sugars were obtained, which endorses its suitability for biofuel production.

  8. Crystal structure of a catalytically active, non-toxic endopeptidase derivative of Clostridium botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; James, Peter L; Marks, Philip M H; Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2009-03-27

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) modulate cholinergic nerve terminals to result in neurotransmitter blockade. BoNTs consists of catalytic (LC), translocation (Hn) and cell-binding domains (Hc). The binding function of the Hc domain is essential for BoNTs to bind the neuronal cell membrane, therefore, removal of the Hc domain results in a product that retains the endopeptidase activity of the LC but is non-toxic. Thus, a molecule consisting of LC and Hn domains of BoNTs, termed LHn, is a suitable molecule for engineering novel therapeutics. The structure of LHA at 2.6 A reported here provides an understanding of the structural implications and challenges of engineering therapeutic molecules that combine functional properties of LHn of BoNTs with specific ligand partners to target different cell types.

  9. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from bitter gourd: Molecular basis of non-toxicity, conformational selection and glycan structure. MS accepted http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. THYAGESHWAR CHANDRAN, ALOK SHARMA and M VIJAYAN. J. Biosci. 40(5), October 2015, 929–941, © Indian Academy of ...

  10. Radioiodine therapy in non toxic multi nodular goitre, preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiti, A.; Travaini, L.L.; Tadayyon, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Fugazzola, L.; Beck-Peccoz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of 131 I therapy in patients (pts) affected by non toxic multinodular goitre (NTMG). NTMG is a thyroid disease with a high prevalence, especially in low-iodine intake regions. Treatment of NTMG often requires surgery. However, thyroidectomy may be risky in some patients and radioiodine therapy could be an alternative treatment to reduce thyroid volume. We also evaluated if lithium administration can improve the efficacy of radioiodine treatment in this pts. Material and Methods: We enrolled 39 pts (8 males, 31 females; mean age 59 y, range 40-79 y) affected by NTMG. Mean thyroid volume (TV) at ultrasound was of 46.8 ml (range 18.5-87.3). Pts were randomised in 2 groups. Group 1: iodine therapy + lithium therapy 900 mg/die for 6 days; Group 2: iodine therapy alone. We also define 3 clusters of pts by TV. A:15-30 ml; B:31-40 ml; C: > 40 ml. The 131 I activity (MBq) was calculated as follows: [4.44 (MBq) x 100/24 hours uptake (%)] x TV. All patients are evaluated for thyroid function and TV at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, since we postulate that major reduction in thyroid volume will occur 1 year after 131 I therapy. Results: Up to now 16 pts were treated with 131 I (mean activity: 512 MBq) and no side effects from 131 I and lithium therapy were reported. Four out of 5 pts evaluated at 3 months (2 of group 1 and 3 of group 2) had a reduction in TV (mean value: 8.8 ml). Five out of 10 pts had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism at 1 week, likely as a consequence of thyroid tissue destruction. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest the safety and effectiveness of 131 I treatment in NTMG. We expect to clarify the role of lithium administration in improving 131 I efficacy. This therapy could have a future role in patients with NTMG that can't be submitted to surgery

  11. Why are Functional Amyloids Non-Toxic in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Jackson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloids were first identified in association with amyloidoses, human diseases in which proteins and peptides misfold into amyloid fibrils. Subsequent studies have identified an array of functional amyloid fibrils that perform physiological roles in humans. Given the potential for the production of toxic species in amyloid assembly reactions, it is remarkable that cells can produce these functional amyloids without suffering any obvious ill effect. Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, there are a number of ways in which amyloid toxicity may be prevented. These include regulating the level of the amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, minimising the production of prefibrillar oligomers in amyloid assembly reactions, sequestrating amyloids within membrane bound organelles, controlling amyloid assembly by other molecules, and disassembling the fibrils under physiological conditions. Crucially, a better understanding of how toxicity is avoided in the production of functional amyloids may provide insights into the prevention of amyloid toxicity in amyloidoses.

  12. Comparative gene expression in toxic versus non-toxic strains of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner Gernot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum typically produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins, which are known only from cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. While a PSP toxin gene cluster has recently been characterized in cyanobacteria, the genetic background of PSP toxin production in dinoflagellates remains elusive. Results We constructed and analysed an expressed sequence tag (EST library of A. minutum, which contained 15,703 read sequences yielding a total of 4,320 unique expressed clusters. Of these clusters, 72% combined the forward-and reverse reads of at least one bacterial clone. This sequence resource was then used to construct an oligonucleotide microarray. We analysed the expression of all clusters in three different strains. While the cyanobacterial PSP toxin genes were not found among the A. minutum sequences, 192 genes were differentially expressed between toxic and non-toxic strains. Conclusions Based on this study and on the lack of identified PSP synthesis genes in the two existent Alexandrium tamarense EST libraries, we propose that the PSP toxin genes in dinoflagellates might be more different from their cyanobacterial counterparts than would be expected in the case of a recent gene transfer. As a starting point to identify possible PSP toxin-associated genes in dinoflagellates without relying on a priori sequence information, the sequences only present in mRNA pools of the toxic strain can be seen as putative candidates involved in toxin synthesis and regulation, or acclimation to intracellular PSP toxins.

  13. Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kury, J.W.; Simpson, R.L.; Hallowell, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program

  14. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but compar......Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  15. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  16. Economic benefits of the use of non-toxic mono-propellants for spacecraft applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bombelli, V.; Simon, D.; Marée, T.; Moerel, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The European Space Agency and other institutions have identified the use of non-toxic (or "green") propellants as a substantial cost saving opportunity in manufacturing and ground operating of spacecrafts. This paper attempts to identify and quantify this potential by replacing, in the near future,

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with toxic and non-toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with toxic and non-toxic strains of Alexandrium minutum. L Palacios, B Reguera, J Franco, I Marín. Abstract. Marine planktonic dinoflagellates are usually associated with bacteria, some of which seem to have a symbiotic relation with the dinoflagellate cells. The role of bacteria in ...

  18. Assessment of Cost Impacts of Using Non-Toxic Propulsion in Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, P. J.; Gies, O.; Stuhlberger, J.; Schmitz, H.-D.

    2002-01-01

    The growing costs of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues deeply influence propulsion system design and propellant selection criteria. A propellant's performance was defined in the past exclusively in terms of specific impulse and density, but now high-performance, non-toxic, non-sophisticated mono- propellant systems are key drivers, and are considered for development to replace the traditional hydrazine (N2H4) mono-propellant thrusters. The mono-propellants under consideration are propellant formulations, which should be environmentally friendly, should have a high density, equal or better performance and better thermal characteristics than hydrazine. These considerations raised interest specially in the candidates of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based propellants, Ammoniumdinitramide (ADN)-based propellants, Tri-ethanol (TEAN)-based propellants, Hydrazinium Nitroformate (HNF)-based propellants, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-based propellants. A near-term objective in consideration of satellite related process optimisation is to significantly reduce on-ground operations costs and at the same time improve mission performance. A far-term objective is to obtain a system presenting a very high performance, illustrated by a high specific impulse. Moving to a "non-toxic" propulsion system seems to be a solution to these two goals. The sought after benefits for non-toxic spacecraft mono-propellant propulsion are under investigation taking into account the four main parameters which are mandatory for customer satisfaction while meeting the price constraints: - Reliability, availability, maintainability and safety, - Manufacturing, assembly, integration and test, - Launch preparation and support, - Ground support equipment. These benefits of non-toxic mono-propellants can be proven by various examples, like an expected reduction of development costs due the non-toxicity of propellants which might allow

  19. Decision Support for Environmental Management of Industrial Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials: New Analytical Methods Combined with Simulation and Optimization Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requir...

  20. Do thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins cause non-toxic and toxic multinodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.S.; Jackson, I.M.D.; Pohl, S.L.; Reichlin, S.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of serum thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins, (T.S.I.) in a variety of thyroid diseases was determined in 96 patients and 35 normal controls. Significantly elevated levels of T.S.I. were found not only in patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis but also in those with non-toxic and multinodular goitre, whereas patients with a single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, with subacute thyroiditis, and with 'hyperthyroiditis' had levels which did not differ from those in the controls. it is postulated that non-toxic multinodular goitre, like Graves' disease, may result from increased circulating T.S.I. which in some cases may be present in sufficient concentration to cause thyrotoxicosis. (author)

  1. [Individualized clinical treatment from the prospective of hepatotoxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2017-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in clinical application, and been proved to be safe and effective. In recent years, the toxicity and side-effects caused by the western medicine have been attracted much attention. As a result, increasing people have shifted their attention to traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, due to the natural origin of traditional Chinese medicine and the lack of basic knowledge about them, many people mistakenly consider the absolute safety of traditional Chinese medicine, except for well-known toxic ones, such as arsenic. However, according to the clinical practices and recent studies, great importance shall be attached to the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine, in particular the hepatotoxicity. Relevant studies indicated that the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine is closely correlated with individual gene polymorphism and constitution. By discussing the causes and mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity induced by non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practices, we wrote this article with the aim to provide new ideas for individualized clinical therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and give guidance for rational and safe use of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Inger Lindebo; Lyon, Hans; Prentø, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds...... and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed...... the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal...

  3. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  4. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  5. Minimally Adhesive, Advanced Non-toxic Coatings of Dendrimeric Catalysts in Sol-Gel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Catalysts in Sol -Gel Matrices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-09-1-0217 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Detty, Michael R. 5d...Technical Report for ONR N00014-09-1-0217 Minimally Adhesive, Advanced Non-toxic Coatings of Dendrimeric Catalysts in Sol -Gel Matrices Michael R. Detty, PI...Environmentally benign sol -gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings. Ace. Chem. Res. 2014, 47, 678-687. 11) Alberto, E. E.; Müller, L. M

  6. Erbium Salts as Non-Toxic Catalysts Compatible with Alternative Reaction Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oliverio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green catalysts must be non-toxic, easy to manage, able to be recovered and reused, active under alternative reaction conditions and cheap. Erbium salts meet all the previously listed characteristics and today they are emerging as a valuable catalytic solution to a number of organic transformations needing a Lewis acid catalyst in wet conditions or under alternative heating sources. This review aims to summarize the application of erbium salts in green organic transformations, with particular emphasis on their versatility under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The erbium salts’ role in bifunctional catalysis is also presented.

  7. ISOLATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF A POSSIBLE Pythium aphanidermatum IN Jatropha Curcas L. NON TOXIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdes Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    A chromista, possible Pythium aphanidermatum, was isolated from severely damage seeds and seedlings recently started from Jatropha curcas L. non toxic seeds sown in the tropical area of Veracruz, Mexico. In order to study pathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum effects over pre-emergent and post-emergent stages, seeds and young seedlings were inoculated with the isolated pathogen, and the chromista showed possible pathogenic activity against pre-emergency and recently started post-emergency; however, statistically significant damaged was not found in older seedlings.   Â

  8. Non-Toxic Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) and Reaction Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is pursuing the technology and advanced development of a non-toxic (NT) orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS) for shuttle upgrades, RLV, and reusable first stages. The primary objectives of the shuttle upgrades program are improved safety, improved reliability, reduced operations time and cost, improved performance or capabilities, and commonality with future space exploration needs. Non-Toxic OMS/RCS offers advantages in each of these categories. A non-toxic OMS/RCS eliminates the ground hazards and the flight safety hazards of the toxic and corrosive propellants. The cost savings for ground operations are over $24M per year for 7 flights, and the savings increase with increasing flight rate up to $44M per year. The OMS/RCS serial processing time is reduced from 65 days to 13 days. The payload capability can be increased up to 5100 Ibms. The non-toxic OMS/RCS also provides improved space station reboost capability up to 20 nautical miles over the current toxic system of 14 nautical miles. A NT OMS/RCS represents a clear advancement in the SOA over MMH/NTO. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The simple and reliable pressure-fed design uses sub-cooled liquid oxygen at 250 to 350 psia, which allows a propellant to remain cryogenic for longer periods of time. The key technologies are thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are used to maintain the sub-cooling. Phase I successfully defined the system architecture, designed an integrated OMS/RCS propellant tank, analyzed the feed system, built and tested the 870 lbf RCS thrusters, and tested the 6000 lbf OMS engine. Phase 11 is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000

  9. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. Copyright © 2015 Logos Biosystems, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Hamdi K.; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  11. Non-Toxic Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine Development for On-Orbit APS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.

    2003-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust proof-of-concept demonstration engine was successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. The demonstration engine utilized the existing Kistler K-1 870 lbf LOX/Ethanol orbital maneuvering engine ( O m ) coupled with some special test equipment (STE) that enabled engine operation at 870 lbf in the primary mode and 25 lbf in the vernier mode. Ambient testing in primary mode varied mixture ratio (MR) from 1.28 to 1.71 and chamber pressure (P(c) from 110 to 181 psia, and evaluated electrical pulse widths (EPW) of 0.080, 0.100 and 0.250 seconds. Altitude testing in vernier mode explored igniter and thruster pulsing characteristics, long duration steady state operation (greater than 420 sec) and the impact of varying the percent fuel film cooling on vernier performance and chamber thermal response at low PC (4 psia). Data produced from the testing provided calibration of the performance and thermal models used in the design of the next version of the dual thrust Reaction Control Engine (RCE).

  12. SYNTHESIS, THERMAL STUDIES AND CONVERSION DEGREE OF DIMETHACRYLATE POLYMERS USING NEW NON-TOXIC COINITIATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Turra Alarcon

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to replace toxic coinitiators (tertiary amines by non-toxic compounds such as glycerol and inositol (polyalcohol in dimethacrylate resins. For this purpose, mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR was used to calculate the monomers' degree of conversion (%DC; as well as simultaneous Thermogravimetric Analysis – Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were conducted to evaluate thermal stability, degradation steps, and thermal events. The use of different initiator systems did not modify the thermal events or the thermal stability of each of the dimethacrylate resins. Results show a substitution of system 2 (toxicity by system 3 (low toxicity, which had a good conversion velocity and total conversion in some monomers, is plausible.

  13. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  14. Heterocyclic Schiff bases as non toxic antioxidants: Solvent effect, structure activity relationship and mechanism of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanty, Angamaly Antony; Mohanan, Puzhavoorparambil Velayudhan

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic heterocyclic imine based Schiff bases from Thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde were synthesized and characterized as novel antioxidants. The solvent effects of these Schiff bases were determined and compared with standard antioxidants, BHA employing DPPH assay and ABTS assay. Fixed reaction time and Steady state measurement were used for study. IC50 and EC50 were calculated. Structure-activity relationship revealed that the electron donating group in the phenolic ring increases the activity where as the electron withdrawing moiety decreases the activity. The Schiff base derivatives showed antioxidant property by two different pathways namely SPLET and HAT mechanisms in DPPH assay. While in ABTS method, the reaction between ABTS radical and Schiff bases involves electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET-PT) mechanism. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that all these compounds are non toxic in nature.

  15. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Maréchal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

  16. A high throughput live transparent animal bioassay to identify non-toxic small molecules or genes that regulate vertebrate fat metabolism for obesity drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woollett Laura A

    2008-08-01

    142 antagonists may be effective non-toxic anti-obesity therapeutics. Conclusion Owing to the apparently high level of evolutionary conservation of signal transduction pathways regulating lipid metabolism, the zebrafish can be useful for identifying non-toxic small molecules or pharmacological target gene products for developing molecular therapeutics for treating clinical obesity. Our results support the promising potential in applying NAD or resveratrol where the underlying target protein likely involves Sirtuin family member proteins. Furthermore data supports future studies focused on determining whether there is a high concentration window for resveratrol that is effective and non-toxic in high fat obesity murine models.

  17. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-01-01

    Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature...

  18. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Poff

    Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  19. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  20. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  1. Plasma deposition of cubic boron nitride films from non-toxic material at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M.Z.; Cameron, D.C.; Murphy, M.J.; Hashmi, M.S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Boron nitride has become the focus of a considerable amount of interest because of its properties which relate closely to those of carbon. In particular, the cubic nitride phase has extreme hardness and very high thermal conductivity similar to the properties of diamond. The conventional methods of synthesis use the highly toxic and inflammable gas diborane (B 2 H 6 ) as the reactant material. A study has been made of the deposition of thin films of boron nitride (BN) using non-toxic material by the plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The source material was borane-ammonia (BH 3 -NH 3 ) which is a crystalline solid at room temperature with a high vapour pressure. The BH 3 -NH 3 vapour was decomposed in a 13.56 MHz nitrogen plasma coupled either inductively or capacitively with the system. The composition of the films was assessed by measuring their IR absorption when deposited on silicon and KBr substrates. The hexagonal (graphitic) and cubic (diamond-like) allotropes can be distinguished by their characteristic absorption bands which occur at 1365 and 780 cm -1 (hexagonal) and 1070 cm -1 (cubic). We have deposited BN films consisting of a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phases; the relative content of the cubic phase was found to be directly dependent on r.f. power and substrate bias. (orig.)

  2. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-06-29

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  3. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B → X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  4. Remediation of lead-contaminated soil with non-toxic biodegradable natural ligands extracted from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Chulsung

    2012-01-01

    Bench-scale soil washing studies were performed to evaluate the potential application of non-toxic, biodegradable extracted soybean-complexing ligands for the remediation of lead-contaminated soils. Results showed that, with extracted soybean-complexing ligands, lead solubility extensively increased when pH of the solution was higher than 6, and approximately 10% (500 mg/kg) of lead was removed from a rifle range soil. Two potential primary factors controlling the effectiveness of lead extraction from lead-contaminated soils with natural ligands are adsorption of extracted aqueous lead ions onto the ground soybean and the pH of the extraction solution. More complexing ligands were extracted from the ground soybean as the reaction pH increased. As a result, significantly higher lead extraction efficiency was observed under basic environments. In addition, less adsorption onto soybean was observed when the pH of the solution was higher than 7. Among two available Lewis base functional groups in the extracted soybean-complexing ligands such as carboxylate and the alpha-amino functional groups, the non-protonated alpha-amino functional groups may play an important role for the dissolution of lead from lead-contaminated soil through the formation of soluble lead--ligand complexes.

  5. Machine learning can differentiate venom toxins from other proteins having non-toxic physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Gacesa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascribing function to sequence in the absence of biological data is an ongoing challenge in bioinformatics. Differentiating the toxins of venomous animals from homologues having other physiological functions is particularly problematic as there are no universally accepted methods by which to attribute toxin function using sequence data alone. Bioinformatics tools that do exist are difficult to implement for researchers with little bioinformatics training. Here we announce a machine learning tool called ‘ToxClassifier’ that enables simple and consistent discrimination of toxins from non-toxin sequences with >99% accuracy and compare it to commonly used toxin annotation methods. ‘ToxClassifer’ also reports the best-hit annotation allowing placement of a toxin into the most appropriate toxin protein family, or relates it to a non-toxic protein having the closest homology, giving enhanced curation of existing biological databases and new venomics projects. ‘ToxClassifier’ is available for free, either to download (https://github.com/rgacesa/ToxClassifier or to use on a web-based server (http://bioserv7.bioinfo.pbf.hr/ToxClassifier/.

  6. Comparison of starch and gelatin hydrogels for non-toxic supercapacitor electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railanmaa, Anna; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Lupo, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Starch and gelatin are two of the most abundantly available natural polymers. Their non-toxicity, low cost, and compatibility with aqueous solvents make them ideal for use in ubiquitous, environmentally friendly electronics systems. This work presents the results of conductivity measurements through impedance spectroscopy for gelatin- and starch-based aqueous gel electrolytes. The NaCl-based gels were physically cross-linked. The conductivity values were 84.6 mS/cm at 1.5 mol L-1 and 71.5 mS/cm at 2 mol L-1 for gelatin and starch, respectively. The mechanical properties of gelatin were found preferable to those of starch, although they deteriorated significantly when the salt concentration exceeded 2 mol L-1. The ability of the gels to successfully act as a supercapacitor electrolyte was demonstrated with printed electrodes on plastic substrate. The devices were characterized through cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results imply that these polymer gel electrolytes are very promising for replacing the traditional aqueous liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors in applications where, for example, user and environmental safety is essential.

  7. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-toxic silver iodide (AgI) quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosakhani, S. [Faculty of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Color and Polymer Research Center (CPRC), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabbagh Alvani, A.A., E-mail: sabbagh_alvani@aut.ac.ir [Color and Polymer Research Center (CPRC), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarabi, A.A. [Faculty of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sameie, H.; Salimi, R.; Kiani, S.; Ebrahimi, Y. [Faculty of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Color and Polymer Research Center (CPRC), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated AgI sensitized solar cell for the first time. • Obtained mesoporous titania powders possessed small crystallite size, high purity and surface area, and developed mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution. • Photovoltaic measurements revealed the electron injection from AgI to TiO{sub 2}. • The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% under one sun illumination. • AgI may be a suitable candidate material for use as a non-toxic sensitizer in QDSSC. - Abstract: The present study reports the performance of a new photosensitizer -AgI quantum dots (QDs)- and mesoporous titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals synthesized by sol–gel (SG) method for solar cells. Furthermore, the effects of n-heptane on the textural properties of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} powders exhibited an anatase-type mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 89.7 m{sup 2}/g. Afterwards, the QDs were grown on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} surface to fabricate a TiO{sub 2}/AgI electrode by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition route. Current–voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data demonstrated that the injection of photoexcited electrons from AgI QDs into the TiO{sub 2} matrix produces photocurrents. The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% and a short-circuit current of 2.13 mA/cm{sup 2} under one sun illumination.

  9. Non-toxic silver iodide (AgI) quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosakhani, S.; Sabbagh Alvani, A.A.; Sarabi, A.A.; Sameie, H.; Salimi, R.; Kiani, S.; Ebrahimi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have demonstrated AgI sensitized solar cell for the first time. • Obtained mesoporous titania powders possessed small crystallite size, high purity and surface area, and developed mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution. • Photovoltaic measurements revealed the electron injection from AgI to TiO 2 . • The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% under one sun illumination. • AgI may be a suitable candidate material for use as a non-toxic sensitizer in QDSSC. - Abstract: The present study reports the performance of a new photosensitizer -AgI quantum dots (QDs)- and mesoporous titania (TiO 2 ) nanocrystals synthesized by sol–gel (SG) method for solar cells. Furthermore, the effects of n-heptane on the textural properties of TiO 2 nanocrystals were comprehensively investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. TiO 2 powders exhibited an anatase-type mesoporous structure with a high surface area of 89.7 m 2 /g. Afterwards, the QDs were grown on mesoporous TiO 2 surface to fabricate a TiO 2 /AgI electrode by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition route. Current–voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data demonstrated that the injection of photoexcited electrons from AgI QDs into the TiO 2 matrix produces photocurrents. The assembled AgI-QD solar cells yielded a power conversion efficiency of 0.64% and a short-circuit current of 2.13 mA/cm 2 under one sun illumination

  10. 76 FR 15455 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...* Industrial Boilers: Crop Production 111 Food Manufacturing........ 311, 312, Cattle Ranching and Farming 1121 Pulp and Paper Mills...... 3221 Hog and Pig Farming 1122 Petroleum Refining........ 32411 Poultry and Egg Production 1123 Chemical Manufacturing.... 325 Sheep and Goat Farming 1124 Primary Metal 331...

  11. 75 FR 31843 - Identification of Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials That Are Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Cattle Ranching and Farming 1121 Warehouse 493 Hog and Pig Farming 1122 Retail 442-454 Poultry and Egg Production 1123 Education 611 Sheep and Goat Farming 1124 Social Assistance...... 624 Horses and Other Equine...

  12. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  13. A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. D.; Treharne, R. E.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium telluride, CdTe, is now firmly established as the basis for the market-leading thin-film solar-cell technology. With laboratory efficiencies approaching 20 per cent, the research and development targets for CdTe are to reduce the cost of power generation further to less than half a US dollar per watt (ref. 2) and to minimize the environmental impact. A central part of the manufacturing process involves doping the polycrystalline thin-film CdTe with CdCl2. This acts to form the photovoltaic junction at the CdTe/CdS interface and to passivate the grain boundaries, making it essential in achieving high device efficiencies. However, although such doping has been almost ubiquitous since the development of this processing route over 25 years ago, CdCl2 has two severe disadvantages; it is both expensive (about 30 cents per gram) and a water-soluble source of toxic cadmium ions, presenting a risk to both operators and the environment during manufacture. Here we demonstrate that solar cells prepared using MgCl2, which is non-toxic and costs less than a cent per gram, have efficiencies (around 13%) identical to those of a CdCl2-processed control group. They have similar hole densities in the active layer (9 × 1014 cm-3) and comparable impurity profiles for Cl and O, these elements being important p-type dopants for CdTe thin films. Contrary to expectation, CdCl2-processed and MgCl2-processed solar cells contain similar concentrations of Mg; this is because of Mg out-diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrates and is not disadvantageous to device performance. However, treatment with other low-cost chlorides such as NaCl, KCl and MnCl2 leads to the introduction of electrically active impurities that do compromise device performance. Our results demonstrate that CdCl2 may simply be replaced directly with MgCl2 in the existing fabrication process, thus both minimizing the environmental risk and reducing the cost of CdTe solar-cell production.

  14. Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.O.

    1995-05-01

    A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs

  15. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consumption of non-toxic cyanobacteria may be improved when complemented with other high quality prey. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which we fed the herbivorous freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis single non-toxic cyanobacterial and unialgal diets or a mixed diet to test if diet-mixing may enable these herbivores to control non-toxic cyanobacterial mass abundances. The treatments where L. stagnalis were fed non-toxic cyanobacteria and a mixed diet provided a significantly higher shell and soft-body growth rate than the average of all single algal, but not the non-toxic cyanobacterial diets. However, the increase in growth provided by the non-toxic cyanobacteria diets could not be related to typical determinants of dietary quality such as toxicity, nutrient stoichiometry or essential fatty acid content. These results strongly contradict previous research which describes non-toxic cyanobacteria as a low quality food resource for freshwater herbivores in general. Our findings thus have strong implications to gastropod-cyanobacteria relationships and suggest that freshwater gastropods may be able to control mass occurrences of benthic non-toxic cyanobacteria, frequently observed in eutrophied water bodies worldwide.

  16. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature discontinuation of waste receipt, closure, and rehabilitation. These processes result in many irregularities in land rehabilitation which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment. The article identifies the fundamental changes which can interrupt the landfill operation cycle, and discusses the threats to the process of rehabilitation, highlighting both administrative and technical problems discovered based on processes that have been already completed. The description has been drawn up based on the study of literature, analyses and the reports of public administration bodies as well as on own research into the number of landfills faced with this problem.

  17. 40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with §§ 257.7 through 257.30 prior to the receipt of CESQG hazardous waste. (b) Definitions.... Waste management unit boundary means a vertical surface located at the hydraulically downgradient limit.../operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that receive Conditionally Exempt Small...

  18. Polymer Solar Cells – Non Toxic Processing and Stable Polymer Photovoltaic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (~1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient...... and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding...... synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells...

  19. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benadda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate copolymers were prepared successfully and cleanly by a one step process via cationic copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP with methyl methacrylate (MMA, in heterogeneous phase using “Maghnite-H+” (Mag-H+ as catalyst in bulk, Maghnite is a montmorillonite sheet silicate clay exchanged with protons to produce Maghnite-H+. Temperature is varied between 20 and 80 °C. The effects of reaction temperature, amount of Mag-H+ on the yield and the intrinsic viscosity (η were investigated. A typical reaction product of poly (NVP-co- MMA was analyzed by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR and 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy as well as by viscosimetry. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th November 2013; Revised: 30th June 2014; Accepted: 8th July 2014How to Cite: Benadda, M., Ferrahi, M.I., Belbachir, M. (2014. Synthesis of Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate by Maghnite-H+ a Non-toxic Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 201-206. (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5743.201-206

  20. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S

    2008-01-01

    . In terms of carbon source, all species took up both CO2 and HCO3-. K-1/2 values for inorganic carbon uptake decreased with increasing pH in two species, while in N. navis-varingica apparent affinities did not change. While the contribution of HCO3- to net fixation was more than 85% in S. stellaris......The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo...... activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O-2 evolution and CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet MS in cells acclimated to low (7.9) and high pH (8.4 or 8.9). Species-specific differences in the mode of carbon acquisition were found. While extracellular carbonic anhydrase (e...

  1. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Using Non-Toxic Industry Compatible Solvent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Giacomo, F. Di; Brüls, J.; Gorter, H.; Katsouras, I.; Groen, P.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells attract a lot attention as alternative energy sources for the future energy market. With the remarkable lab-scale achievements, the investigations into a high-throughput large-scale production of perovskite devices are now on the agenda. The first step towards mass

  2. Highly efficient Perovskite solar cells using non-toxic industry compatible solvent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Di Giacomo, F.; Bruls, J.; Gorter, H.H.; Katsouras, I.; Groen, W.A.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells attract a lot attention as alternative energy sources for the future energy market. With the remarkable lab-scale achievements, the investigations into a high-throughput large-scale production of perovskite devices are now on the agenda. The first step towards mass

  3. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching with thiosulfates and organic salts of polythionic acids (organic base polythionates). The method of production of these polythionates based on the Smolyaninov reaction is described in stages and in details for the first time. Possible application of the polythionates application in the gold leaching is discussed and its advantages are compared with the gold leaching by cyanation.

  4. Gold leaching by organic base polythionates: new non-toxic and secure technology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninov, Vladislav; Shekhvatova, Galina; Vainshtein, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The article present a review on own experimental and some published data which are related with the gold leaching. It is well-known that the most common and usual process of the leaching with cyanide can be dangerous, needs a great water consumption, and additional costs for remediation of the poisoned and toxic sites. The experimental data described production of poythionates which are not toxic but perspective for the prosperous gold leaching. The paper dedicated to the safe gold leaching w...

  5. Chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed extract grafted onto cellulose fibers by a non-toxic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Diana; Gimeno, Miquel; Sepúlveda-Sánchez, José D; Shirai, Keiko

    2010-04-19

    A novel non-toxic procedure is described for the grafting of chitosan-based microcapsules containing grapefruit seed oil extract onto cellulose. The cellulose was previously UV-irradiated and then functionalized from an aqueous emulsion of the chitosan with the essential oil. The novel materials are readily attained with durable fragrance and enhanced antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of chitosan as determined from the elemental analyses data was 16.08+/-0.29 mg/g of sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) provided further evidence for the successful attachment of chitosan microcapsules containing the essential oil to the treated cellulose fibers. The materials thus produced displayed 100% inhibition of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis up to 48 h of incubation. Inhibition of bacteria by the essential oil was also evaluated at several concentrations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  7. The Effect of Digestive Capacity on the Intake Rate of Toxic and Non-Toxic Prey in an Ecological Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Oudman

    Full Text Available Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager's intake rate, a constraint that potentially cannot be alleviated by enlarging digestive capacity. Hence, physiological flexibility may have a differential effect on intake of different prey types, and consequently on dietary preferences. We tested this effect in red knots (Calidris canutus canutus, medium-sized migratory shorebirds that feed on hard-shelled, usually mollusc, prey. Because they ingest their prey whole and crush the shell in their gizzard, the intake rate of red knots is generally constrained by digestive capacity. However, one of their main prey, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis, imposes a toxin constraint due to its symbiosis with sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. We manipulated gizzard sizes of red knots through prolonged exposure to hard-shelled or soft foods. We then measured maximum intake rates of toxic Loripes versus a non-toxic bivalve, Dosinia isocardia. We found that intake of Dosinia exponentially increased with gizzard mass, confirming earlier results with non-toxic prey, whereas intake of Loripes was independent of gizzard mass. Using linear programming, we show that this leads to markedly different expected diet preferences in red knots that try to maximize energy intake rate with a small versus a large gizzard. Intra- and inter-individual variation in digestive capacity is found in many animal species. Hence, the here proposed functional link with individual differences in foraging decisions may be general. We emphasize the potential relevance of individual variation in physiology when studying trophic interactions.

  8. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K. G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  9. Non-toxic engineered carbon nanodiamond concentrations induce oxidative/nitrosative stress, imbalance of energy metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction in microglial and alveolar basal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresta, Claudia G; Chakraborty, Aishik; Wijesinghe, Manjula B; Amorini, Angela M; Lazzarino, Giacomo; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara; Lunte, Susan M; Caraci, Filippo; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Caruso, Giuseppe

    2018-02-14

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding a wide spectrum of biomedical applications, including drug delivery and capacity to trigger cytotoxic phenomena, potentially useful against tumor cells. The full understanding of their biosafety and interactions with cell processes is mandatory. Using microglial (BV-2) and alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells, in this study we determined the effects of engineered carbon nanodiamonds (ECNs) on cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as on energy metabolism. Particularly, we initially measured decrease in cell viability as a function of increasing ECNs doses, finding similar cytotoxic ECN effects in the two cell lines. Subsequently, using apparently non-cytotoxic ECN concentrations (2 µg/mL causing decrease in cell number < 5%) we determined NO and ROS production, and measured the concentrations of compounds related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial functions, oxido-reductive reactions, and antioxidant defences. We found that in both cell lines non-cytotoxic ECN concentrations increased NO and ROS production with sustained oxidative/nitrosative stress, and caused energy metabolism imbalance (decrease in high energy phosphates and nicotinic coenzymes) and mitochondrial malfunctioning (decrease in ATP/ADP ratio).These results underline the importance to deeply investigate the molecular and biochemical changes occurring upon the interaction of ECNs (and nanoparticles in general) with living cells, even at apparently non-toxic concentration. Since the use of ECNs in biomedical field is attracting increasing attention the complete evaluation of their biosafety, toxicity and/or possible side effects both in vitro and in vivo is mandatory before these highly promising tools might find the correct application.

  10. Polymer solar cells - Non toxic processing and stable polymer photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, R

    2012-07-01

    The field of polymer solar cell has experienced enormous progress in the previous years, with efficiencies of small scale devices (approx1 mm2) now exceeding 8%. However, if the polymer solar cell is to achieve success as a renewable energy resource, mass production of sufficiently stable and efficient cell must be achieved. For a continuous success it is therefore essential to transfer the accomplishments from the laboratory to large scale facilities for actual production. In order to do so, several issues have to be approached. Among these are more environmentally friendly processing and development of more stable materials. The field of polymer solar cells has evolved around the use of toxic and carcinogenic solvents like chloroform, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene and xylene. As large scale production of organic solar cells is envisaged to production volumes corresponding to several GW{sub peek}, this is not a suitable approach from neither a production nor environmental point of view. As a consequence new materials, which can be processed from more environmentally friendly solvents (preferably water), need to be developed. In this thesis, the issue has been approached through synthesis of polymers carrying water coordinating side chains which allow for processing from semi-aqueous solution. A series of different side chains were synthesized and incorporated into the final polymers as thermocleavable tertiary esters. Using a cleavable side chain induces stability to solar cells as it slows down diffusion though the active layer, but just as important it renders the layer insoluble. This allows for further processing, using the same solvent, without dissolving already processed layers, and resulted in the first ever reported solar cells where all layers are processed from aqueous or semi-aqueous solution. As previously mentioned many advantages can be achieved by use of thermocleavable materials. Unfortunately the cleavage temperatures are too

  11. Production of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fronds lignin-derived non-toxic aldehyde for eco-friendly wood adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwan Hussin, M; Samad, Noraini Abdul; Latif, Nur Hanis Abd; Rozuli, Nurul Adilla; Yusoff, Siti Baidurah; Gambier, François; Brosse, Nicolas

    2018-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of eco-friendly wood adhesives. In this work, glyoxal-phenolic resins for plywood were prepared using organosolv lignin, which was isolated from black liquor recovered from organosolv pulping of oil palm fronds (OPF) and considered to be an alternative to phenol. Glyoxal, which is a dialdehyde obtained from several natural resources, was used as substitute for formaldehyde. The structure of organosolv lignin and the resins were characterized by FTIR and NMR, and for thermal stability by TGA and DSC. The resins were further studied for their viscosity, pH, solids content and gel times. The resins performance as wood adhesive was further established from mechanical test in terms of tensile strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE) to obtain the optimum ratios of organosolv lignin, which replaces phenol in organosolv lignin phenol glyoxal (OLPG) resins. The adhesive composition having 50% (w/w) of phenol substituted by organosolv lignin, termed as 50% OLPG showed highest adhesive strength compared to phenol formaldehyde (PF) commercial adhesive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization and identification of markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas L. using RAPD, AFLP and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer Pamidimarri, D V N; Singh, Sweta; Mastan, Shaik G; Patel, Jalpa; Reddy, Muppala P

    2009-07-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, is emerging as an alternative to petro-diesel. The deoiled seed cake remains after oil extraction is toxic and cannot be used as a feed despite having best nutritional contents. No quantitative and qualitative differences were observed between toxic and non-toxic varieties of J. curcas except for phorbol esters content. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety in a mixed population and also help in improvement of the species through marker assisted breeding programs. The present investigation was undertaken to characterize the toxic and non-toxic varieties at molecular level and to develop PCR based molecular markers for distinguishing non-toxic from toxic or vice versa. The polymorphic markers were successfully identified specific to non-toxic and toxic variety using RAPD and AFLP techniques. Totally 371 RAPD, 1,442 AFLP markers were analyzed and 56 (15.09%) RAPD, 238 (16.49%) AFLP markers were found specific to either of the varieties. Genetic similarity between non-toxic and toxic verity was found to be 0.92 by RAPD and 0.90 by AFLP fingerprinting. In the present study out of 12 microsatellite markers analyzed, seven markers were found polymorphic. Among these seven, jcms21 showed homozygous allele in the toxic variety. The study demonstrated that both RAPD and AFLP techniques were equally competitive in identifying polymorphic markers and differentiating both the varieties of J. curcas. Polymorphism of SSR markers prevailed between the varieties of J. curcas. These RAPD and AFLP identified markers will help in selective cultivation of specific variety and along with SSRs these markers can be exploited for further improvement of the species through breeding and Marker Assisted Selection (MAS).

  13. Stimulation of wild-type, F508del- and G551D-CFTR chloride channels by non toxic modified pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc eDannhoffer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is a major inherited disorder involving abnormalities of fluid and electrolyte transport in a number of different organs due to abnormal function of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR protein. We recently identified a family of CFTR activators, which contains the hit: RP107 [7-n-butyl-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl[5H]-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyrazine]. Here, we further evaluated the effect of the chemical modifications of the RP107-OH radical on CFTR activation. The replacement of the OH radical by a fluorine atom at position 2 (RP193 or 4 (RP185 significantly decreased the toxicity of the compounds without altering the ability to activate CFTR, especially for RP193. The non-toxic compound RP193 has no effect on cAMP production but stimulates the channel activity of wild-type CFTR in stably transfected CHO cells, in human bronchial epithelial NuLi-1 cells and in primary culture of human bronchial epithelial cells. Whole cell and single patch clamp recordings showed that RP193 induced a linear, time and voltage-independent current, which was fully inhibited by two different and selective CFTR inhibitors (CFTRinh-172 and GPinh-5a. Moreover, RP193 stimulates CFTR in temperature-rescued CuFi-1 (F508del/F508del human bronchial epithelial cells and in CHO cells stably expressing G551D-CFTR. This study shows that it is feasible to reduce cytotoxicity of chemical compounds without affecting their potency to activate CFTR and to rescue the class 2 F508del-CFTR and class 3 G551D-CFTR CF mutant activities.

  14. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh-Luu; Shimizu, Kazuya; Dao, Thanh-Son; Hong-Do, Lan-Chi; Utsumi, Motoo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana . Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin)-LR eq  L -1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs) by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g -1 dry weight (DW) of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g -1 DW of covalently bound MC). Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO) provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg -1  day -1 ), suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  15. Microcystin uptake and biochemical responses in the freshwater clam Corbicula leana P. exposed to toxic and non-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa: Evidence of tolerance to cyanotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Luu Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the accumulation and adverse effects of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis in the edible clam Corbicula leana. Treated clams were exposed to toxic Microcystis at 100 μg of MC (microcystin-LReq L−1 for 10 days. The experimental organism was then placed in toxin-free water and fed on non-toxic Microcystis for the following 10 days for depuration. Filtering rates (FRs by C. leana of toxic and non-toxic Microcystis and of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as a control were estimated. Adverse effects were evaluated though the activity of catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 12.7 ± 2.5 μg g−1 dry weight (DW of free MC and 4.2 ± 0.6 μg g−1 DW of covalently bound MC. Our results suggest that although both toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria caused adverse effects by inducing the detoxification and antioxidant defense system, the clam was quite resistant to cyanotoxins. The estimated MC concentration in C. leana was far beyond the World Health Organization's (WHO provisional tolerable daily intake (0.04 μg kg−1 day−1, suggesting that consuming clams harvested during cyanobacterial blooms carries a high health risk.

  16. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae), which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) is the main cause of “sudden death” in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses ...

  17. Platinum nanoparticles: a non-toxic, effective and thermally stable alternative plasmonic material for cancer therapy and bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Akbar; Klingberg, Henrik; Jauffred, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas; Bendix, Poul Martin; Oddershede, Lene B

    2018-05-17

    Absorption of near infrared (NIR) light by metallic nanoparticles can cause extreme heating and is of interest for instance in cancer treatment since NIR light has a relatively large penetration depth into biological tissue. Here, we quantify the extraordinary thermoplasmonic properties of platinum nanoparticles and demonstrate their efficiency in photothermal cancer therapy. Although platinum nanoparticles are extensively used for catalysis, they are much overlooked in a biological context. Via direct measurements based on a biological matrix we show that individual irradiated platinum nanoparticles with diameters of 50-70 nm can easily reach surface temperatures up to 900 K. In contrast to gold nanoshells, which are often used for photothermal purposes, we demonstrate that the platinum particles remain stable at these extreme temperatures. The experiments are paralleled by finite element modeling confirming the experimental results and establishing a theoretical understanding of the particles' thermoplasmonic properties. At extreme temperatures it is likely that a vapor layer will form around the plasmonic particle, and we show this scenario to be consistent with direct measurements and simulations. Viability studies demonstrate that platinum nanoparticles themselves are non-toxic at therapeutically relevant concentrations, however, upon laser irradiation we show that they efficiently kill human cancer cells. Therefore, platinum nanoparticles are highly promising candidates for thermoplasmonic applications in the life sciences, in nano-medicine, and for bio-medical engineering.

  18. A self-adjustable four-point probing system using polymeric three dimensional coils and non-toxic liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyunbaatar, Nomin-Erdene; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This paper describes a self-adjustable four-point probe (S4PP) system with a square configuration. The S4PP system consists of 3D polymer coil springs for the independent operation of each tungsten (W) probe, microfluidic channels filled with a nontoxic liquid metal, and a LabView-based control system. The 3D coil springs made by PMMA are fabricated with a 3D printer and are positioned in a small container filled with the non-toxic liquid metal. This unique configuration allows independent self-adjustment of the probe heights for precise measurements of the electrical properties of both flexible and large-step-height microsamples. The feasibility of the fabricated S4PP system is evaluated by measuring the specific resistance of Cr and Au thin films deposited on silicon wafers. The system is then employed to evaluate the electrical properties of a Au thin film deposited onto a flexible and easily breakable silicon diaphragm (spring constant: ∼3.6 × 10{sup −5} N/m). The resistance of the Cr thin films (thickness: 450 nm) with step heights of 60 and 90 μm is also successfully characterized. These experimental results indicate that the proposed S4PP system can be applied to common metals and semiconductors as well as flexible and large-step-height samples.

  19. A self-adjustable four-point probing system using polymeric three dimensional coils and non-toxic liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyunbaatar, Nomin-Erdene; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a self-adjustable four-point probe (S4PP) system with a square configuration. The S4PP system consists of 3D polymer coil springs for the independent operation of each tungsten (W) probe, microfluidic channels filled with a nontoxic liquid metal, and a LabView-based control system. The 3D coil springs made by PMMA are fabricated with a 3D printer and are positioned in a small container filled with the non-toxic liquid metal. This unique configuration allows independent self-adjustment of the probe heights for precise measurements of the electrical properties of both flexible and large-step-height microsamples. The feasibility of the fabricated S4PP system is evaluated by measuring the specific resistance of Cr and Au thin films deposited on silicon wafers. The system is then employed to evaluate the electrical properties of a Au thin film deposited onto a flexible and easily breakable silicon diaphragm (spring constant: ∼3.6 × 10"−"5 N/m). The resistance of the Cr thin films (thickness: 450 nm) with step heights of 60 and 90 μm is also successfully characterized. These experimental results indicate that the proposed S4PP system can be applied to common metals and semiconductors as well as flexible and large-step-height samples.

  20. A novel non-toxic combined CTA1-DD and ISCOMS adjuvant vector for effective mucosal immunization against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Helgeby, Anja; Schön, Karin; Nygren, Caroline; El-Bakkouri, Karim; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier; Lövgren, Karin Bengtsson; Nyström, Ida; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-05-23

    Here we demonstrate that by using non-toxic fractions of saponin combined with CTA1-DD we can achieve a safe and above all highly efficacious mucosal adjuvant vector. We optimized the construction, tested the requirements for function and evaluated proof-of-concept in an influenza A virus challenge model. We demonstrated that the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS vector provided 100% protection against mortality and greatly reduced morbidity in the mouse model. The immunogenicity of the vector was superior to other vaccine formulations using the ISCOM or CTA1-DD adjuvants alone. The versatility of the vector was best exemplified by the many options to insert, incorporate or admix vaccine antigens with the vector. Furthermore, the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS could be kept 1 year at 4°C or as a freeze-dried powder without affecting immunogenicity or adjuvanticity of the vector. Strong serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses were elicited and CD4 T cell responses were greatly enhanced after intranasal administration of the combined vector. Together these findings hold promise for the combined vector as a mucosal vaccine against influenza virus infections including pandemic influenza. The CTA1-DD/ISCOMS technology represents a breakthrough in mucosal vaccine vector design which successfully combines immunomodulation and targeting in a safe and stable particulate formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research results from inquiries into the carcinogenic effects of surface active agents. On the non-hazardous nature of ABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shinichi

    1963-03-15

    Although the trial-production alkylbenzene used behaved atypically and so is presumed to contain complex carcinogenic hydrocarbon-like impurity by-products, commercially available alkylbenzenes generally did not possess carcinogenic properties. These substances used in alkylbenzene sulfonate production have very small promotive characteristics comparable to croton oil. However, alkylbenzene sulfonate demonstrated no cancer producing properties. (DT)

  2. Non-Toxic Buffer Layers in Flexible Cu(In,GaSe2 Photovoltaic Cell Applications with Optimized Absorber Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asaduzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorber layer thickness gradient in Cu(In1−xGaxSe2 (CIGS based solar cells and several substitutes for typical cadmium sulfide (CdS buffer layers, such as ZnS, ZnO, ZnS(O,OH, Zn1−xSnxOy (ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3, have been analyzed by a device emulation program and tool (ADEPT 2.1 to determine optimum efficiency. As a reference type, the CIGS cell with CdS buffer provides a theoretical efficiency of 23.23% when the optimum absorber layer thickness was determined as 1.6 μm. It is also observed that this highly efficient CIGS cell would have an absorber layer thickness between 1 μm and 2 μm whereas the optimum buffer layer thickness would be within the range of 0.04–0.06 μm. Among all the cells with various buffer layers, the best energy conversion efficiency of 24.62% has been achieved for the ZnO buffer layer based cell. The simulation results with ZnS and ZnO based buffer layer materials instead of using CdS indicate that the cell performance would be better than that of the CdS buffer layer based cell. Although the cells with ZnS(O,OH, ZTO, ZnSe, and In2S3 buffer layers provide slightly lower efficiencies than that of the CdS buffer based cell, the use of these materials would not be deleterious for the environment because of their non-carcinogenic and non-toxic nature.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of a Toxin-Producing Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and Its Non-Toxic Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria are two major kingdoms of life producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, a large group of neurotoxic alkaloids causing paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. In contrast to the well elucidated PST biosynthetic genes in cyanobacteria, little is known about the dinoflagellates. This study compared transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T, and its non-toxic mutant form (ACHK-NT using RNA-seq. All clean reads were assembled de novo into a total of 113,674 unigenes, and 66,812 unigenes were annotated in the known databases. Out of them, 35 genes were found to express differentially between the two strains. The up-regulated genes in ACHK-NT were involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation and amino acid metabolism processes, indicating that more carbon and energy were utilized for cell growth. Among the down-regulated genes, expression of a unigene assigned to the long isoform of sxtA, the initiator of toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, was significantly depressed, suggesting that this long transcript of sxtA might be directly involved in toxin biosynthesis and its depression resulted in the loss of the ability to synthesize PSTs in ACHK-NT. In addition, 101 putative homologs of 12 cyanobacterial sxt genes were identified, and the sxtO and sxtZ genes were identified in dinoflagellates for the first time. The findings of this study should shed light on the biosynthesis of PSTs in the dinoflagellates.

  4. Effects of diuretics on iodine uptake in non-toxic goitre: comparison with low-iodine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapucu, L.Ozlem; Azizoglu, Firat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goksun; Karakoc, Ayhan [Department of Endocrinology, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Low-iodine diet has been employed to achieve iodine depletion prior to radioiodine (RI) therapy. However, treatment with diuretics may be more effective than low-iodine diet in causing iodine depletion and subsequent increase in RI uptake by the thyroid. Fifty-five patients with non-toxic goitre were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. on the first day of the study and thyroid uptake was measured. In 15 patients, a low-iodine diet was started and continued for 14 days. The remaining 40 patients received furosemide 40 mg/day orally for 5 days with an unrestricted diet. On the 15th day of the study, all patients were given 0.20 MBq RI p.o. and thyroid RI uptake was measured again. Additionally, 24-h urinary iodine excretion and RI clearance were measured on the 1st and 6th days in 21 patients from the furosemide group and on the 1st and 15th days in eight patients from the diet group. Furosemide administration led to a 58.40% increase in iodine uptake over the baseline value, which was significantly higher than the increase caused by low-iodine diet (17.22%) (P<0.0001). Urinary excretion of RI decreased in both groups similarly (furosemide, 29.45%; low-iodine diet, 21.06%; P=0.33). Iodine clearance also decreased in each group similarly (10.61% vs 7.53%, P=0.53). Treatment with furosemide prior to administration of RI increases the uptake of RI by the thyroid more effectively than does low-iodine diet. (orig.)

  5. Numerical simulation of ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based non-toxic aerospace propellant decomposition and combustion in a monopropellant thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Guoxiu; Yu, Yusong; Sun, Zuoyu; Wang, Meng; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decomposition and combustion process of ADN-based thruster are studied. • Distribution of droplets is obtained during the process of spray hit on wire mesh. • Two temperature models are adopted to describe the heat transfer in porous media. • The influences brought by different mass flux and porosity are studied. - Abstract: Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) monopropellant is currently the most promising among all ‘green propellants’. In this paper, the decomposition and combustion process of liquid ADN-based ternary mixtures for propulsion are numerically studied. The R–R distribution model is used to study the initial boundary conditions of droplet distribution resulting from spray hit on a wire mesh based on PDA experiment. To simulate the heat-transfer characteristics between the gas–solid phases, a two-temperature porous medium model in a catalytic bed is used. An 11-species and 7-reactions chemistry model is used to study the catalytic and combustion processes. The final distribution of temperature, pressure, and other kinds of material component concentrations are obtained using the ADN thruster. The results of simulation conducted in the present study are well agree with previous experimental data, and the demonstration of the ADN thruster confirms that a good steady-state operation is achieved. The effects of spray inlet mass flux and porosity on monopropellant thruster performance are analyzed. The numerical results further show that a larger inlet mass flux results in better thruster performance and a catalytic bed porosity value of 0.5 can exhibit the best thruster performance. These findings can serve as a key reference for designing and testing non-toxic aerospace monopropellant thrusters

  6. Decision support for environmental management of industrial non-hazardous secondary materials: New analytical methods combined with simulation and optimization modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Keith W; Koralegedara, Nadeesha H; Northeim, Coleen M; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2017-07-01

    Non-hazardous solid materials from industrial processes, once regarded as waste and disposed in landfills, offer numerous environmental and economic advantages when put to beneficial uses (BUs). Proper management of these industrial non-hazardous secondary materials (INSM) requires estimates of their probable environmental impacts among disposal as well as BU options. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently approved new analytical methods (EPA Methods 1313-1316) to assess leachability of constituents of potential concern in these materials. These new methods are more realistic for many disposal and BU options than historical methods, such as the toxicity characteristic leaching protocol. Experimental data from these new methods are used to parameterize a chemical fate and transport (F&T) model to simulate long-term environmental releases from flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) when disposed of in an industrial landfill or beneficially used as an agricultural soil amendment. The F&T model is also coupled with optimization algorithms, the Beneficial Use Decision Support System (BUDSS), under development by EPA to enhance INSM management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High dietary quality of non-toxic cyanobacteria for a benthic grazer and its implications for the control of cyanobacterial biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Groendahl, Sophie; Fink, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria frequently cause detrimental effects to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, attempts haven been made to control cyanobacterial blooms through naturally co-occurring herbivores. Control of cyanobacteria through herbivores often appears to be constrained by their low dietary quality, rather than by the possession of toxins, as also non-toxic cyanobacteria are hardly consumed by many herbivores. It was thus hypothesized that the consu...

  8. Breast cancer stem-like cells are inhibited by a non-toxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald J Prud'homme

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have increased resistance to cancer chemotherapy. They can be enriched as drug-surviving CSCs (D-CSCs by growth with chemotherapeutic drugs, and/or by sorting of cells expressing CSC markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH. CSCs form colonies in agar, mammospheres in low-adherence cultures, and tumors following xenotransplantation in Scid mice. We hypothesized that tranilast, a non-toxic orally active drug with anti-cancer activities, would inhibit breast CSCs.We examined breast cancer cell lines or D-CSCs generated by growth of these cells with mitoxantrone. Tranilast inhibited colony formation, mammosphere formation and stem cell marker expression. Mitoxantrone-selected cells were enriched for CSCs expressing stem cell markers ALDH, c-kit, Oct-4, and ABCG2, and efficient at forming mammospheres. Tranilast markedly inhibited mammosphere formation by D-CSCs and dissociated formed mammospheres, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. It was effective against D-CSCs of both HER-2+ and triple-negative cell lines. Tranilast was also effective in vivo, since it prevented lung metastasis in mice injected i.v. with triple-negative (MDA-MB-231 mitoxantrone-selected cells. The molecular targets of tranilast in cancer have been unknown, but here we demonstrate it is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist and this plays a key role. AHR is a transcription factor activated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other ligands. Tranilast induced translocation of the AHR to the nucleus and stimulated CYP1A1 expression (a marker of AHR activation. It inhibited binding of the AHR to CDK4, which has been linked to cell-cycle arrest. D-CSCs expressed higher levels of the AHR than other cells. Knockdown of the AHR with siRNA, or blockade with an AHR antagonist, entirely abrogated the anti-proliferative and anti-mammosphere activity of tranilast. Thus, the anti-cancer effects of

  9. Decree of the 23 May 2016 related to installations of heat and/or electric power production from non-hazardous wastes prepared under the form of recovery solid fuels in installations designed for this purpose and associated or not with another fuel covered by section 2971 of the nomenclature of installations classified for the protection of the environment. Decree of the 23 May 2016 related to the preparation of recovery solid fuels in view of their use in installations covered by section 2971 of the nomenclature of installations classified for the protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortureux, M.

    2016-01-01

    A first decree presents the various prescriptions regulating installations used for the co-combustion of recovery solid fuels for the production of heat and/or electricity: definition and scope of application, design and general arrangement of installations, conditions for fuel admission and delivery, conditions of exploitation, risk prevention, air pollution prevention, water pollution prevention, management and processing of residues, release monitoring and impact on the environment, information on installation operation or stoppage. Appendices provide limit values for atmospheric releases, equivalence factors for dibenzo-para-dioxines and dibenzofuranes, limit values for liquid effluents. The second decree addresses the regulation of the preparation and production of recovery solid fuels

  10. Development and design of a high pressure carbon dioxide system for the separation of hazardous contaminants from non-hazardous debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, C.L.J.; Russick, E.M.; Smith, H.M.; Olson, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Air Force (USAF) Memorandum of Understanding, a system is being designed that will use high pressure carbon dioxide for the separation of oils, greases, and solvents from non-hazardous solid waste. The contaminants are dissolved into the high pressure carbon dioxide and precipitated out upon depressurization. The carbon dioxide solvent can then be recycled for continued use. Excellent extraction capability for common manufacturing oils, greases, and solvents has been measured. It has been observed that extraction performance follows the dilution model if a constant flow system is used. The solvents tested are extremely soluble and have been extracted to 100% under both liquid and mild supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. These data are being used to design a 200 liter extraction system

  11. Non-hazardous organic solvents in the paraffin-embedding technique: a rational approach. Aliphatic monoesters for clearing and dewaxing: butyldecanoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H; Holm, I; Prentø, P

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to substitute hazardous compounds, used in tissue processing and dewaxing, with compounds having lowest possible toxicity and inflammability without impairing the morphology, staining characteristics, or diagnostic value of the tissue sections. All aromatic compounds...... and aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. alkanes, isoparaffins, petroleum distillates, etc.) were rejected, primarily due to their high vapour pressure. Based on a theoretical study of compounds used for clearing, a number of non-hazardous potential substitutes were chosen. The following experimental study narrowed...... the group to three unbranched, saturated, aliphatic monoesters containing 12-14 carbon atoms. On large-scale testing of these compounds, we found butyldecanoate to be the closest to an ideal substitute for aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the histology department: the section quality is at least equal...

  12. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-01-01

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ζ-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent

  13. High concentrations of protein test substances may have non-toxic effects on Daphnia magna: implications for regulatory study designs and ecological risk assessments for GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Burns, Andrea; Hamer, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory testing for possible adverse effects of insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms (NTOs) is an important part of many ecological risk assessments for regulatory decision-making about the cultivation of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops. To increase confidence in the risk assessments, regulatory guidelines for effects testing specify that representative surrogate species for NTOs are exposed to concentrations of insecticidal proteins that are in excess of worst-case predicted exposures in the field. High concentrations in effects tests are achieved by using protein test substances produced in microbes, such as Escherichia coli. In a study that exposed Daphnia magna to a single high concentration of a microbial test substance containing Vip3Aa20, the insecticidal protein in MIR162 maize, small reductions in growth were observed. These effects were surprising as many other studies strongly suggest that the activity of Vip3Aa20 is limited to Lepidoptera. A plausible explanation for the effect on growth is that high concentrations of test substance have a non-toxic effect on Daphnia, perhaps by reducing its feeding rate. A follow-up study tested that hypothesis by exposing D. magna to several concentrations of Vip3Aa20, and a high concentration of a non-toxic protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Vip3Aa20 and BSA had sporadic effects on the reproduction and growth of D. magna. The pattern of the effects suggests that they result from non-toxic effects of high concentrations of protein, and not from toxicity. The implications of these results for regulatory NTO effects testing and ERA of IRGM crops are discussed.

  14. Cork Design : A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation comprises the systematic implementation of sustainable product innovation within the Portuguese cork sector, through action research. Cork is a natural, recyclable, non-toxic, and renewable resource,

  15. Synthesis of non-toxic As and Cr nanoparticles through redox activity of highly flexible layered coordination polymer of Ni(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A

    2018-03-09

    A simple method for the sequestration of As(III) and Cr(VI) from water has been demonstrated by utilizing a highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) of Ni(II) in its as synthesized form or without solvent removal. This PCP reduces the high toxicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) ions into non-toxic As(0) and Cr/Cr 2 O 3 /CrO 2 (zero, tri and tetravalent) nanoparticles (NPs) within its pores, and this is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The high functionality of this polymer is due to the presence of monodentate carboxylate groups of a benzenetricarboxylate linker, which provide anchoring sites to the metal ions of the metal precursors. Due to the highly oxidising nature of these toxic ions, a redox reaction takes place between the framework metal ions and toxic metal ions, which is explained by an electron paramagnetic resonance study. This is the first report to synthesize non-toxic, as well as useful, NPs of As and Cr from their highly toxic ions within the cavities of a PCP for remediation of the toxic waste stream and contaminated waste water.

  16. Synthesis of non-toxic As and Cr nanoparticles through redox activity of highly flexible layered coordination polymer of Ni(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple method for the sequestration of As(III) and Cr(VI) from water has been demonstrated by utilizing a highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) of Ni(II) in its as synthesized form or without solvent removal. This PCP reduces the high toxicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) ions into non-toxic As(0) and Cr/Cr2O3/CrO2 (zero, tri and tetravalent) nanoparticles (NPs) within its pores, and this is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The high functionality of this polymer is due to the presence of monodentate carboxylate groups of a benzenetricarboxylate linker, which provide anchoring sites to the metal ions of the metal precursors. Due to the highly oxidising nature of these toxic ions, a redox reaction takes place between the framework metal ions and toxic metal ions, which is explained by an electron paramagnetic resonance study. This is the first report to synthesize non-toxic, as well as useful, NPs of As and Cr from their highly toxic ions within the cavities of a PCP for remediation of the toxic waste stream and contaminated waste water.

  17. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mastan, Shaik G.

    2011-05-10

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Transition to non-toxic gunshot use in Olympic shooting: policy implications for IOC and UNEP in resolving an environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vernon George; Guitart, Raimon

    2013-10-01

    Olympic shooters discharge, annually, thousands of tons of lead shot which pose toxic risks to animals and may pollute both surface and ground waters. Non-toxic steel shot is an acceptable and effective substitute, but International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) rules prevent its adoption. The present policy and rules of the ISSF on lead shot use contravene the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Charter position on environmental protection. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a formal Olympic partner on environmental protection, has no stated policy on contamination from lead ammunition, despite having declared lead a Priority Area for remedial action, and is pressing to remove lead from the global human environment. The IOC Sport and Environment Commission and UNEP could examine the continued use of lead shot ammunition and advise the IOC Executive Board on appropriate changes in policy and rules that could halt the massive lead shot contamination of shooting range environments world-wide.

  19. Keampferol-3-O-rhamnoside abrogates amyloid beta toxicity by modulating monomers and remodeling oligomers and fibrils to non-toxic aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharoar Md

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregation of soluble, monomeric β- amyloid (Aβ to oligomeric and then insoluble fibrillar Aβ is a key pathogenic feature in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Increasing evidence suggests that toxicity is linked to diffusible Aβ oligomers, rather than to insoluble fibrils. The use of naturally occurring small molecules for inhibition of Aβ aggregation has recently attracted significant interest for development of effective therapeutic strategies against the disease. A natural polyphenolic flavone, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (K-3-rh, was utilized to investigate its effects on aggregation and cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Several biochemical techniques were used to determine the conformational changes and cytotoxic effect of the peptide in the presence and absence of K-3-rh. Results K-3-rh showed a dose-dependent effect against Aβ42 mediated cytotoxicity. Anti-amyloidogenic properties of K-3-rh were found to be efficient in inhibiting fibrilogenesis and secondary structural transformation of the peptide. The consequence of these inhibitions was the accumulation of oligomeric structural species. The accumulated aggregates were smaller, soluble, non-β-sheet and non-toxic aggregates, compared to preformed toxic Aβ oligomers. K-3-rh was also found to have the remodeling properties of preformed soluble oligomers and fibrils. Both of these conformers were found to remodel into non-toxic aggregates. The results showed that K-3-rh interacts with different Aβ conformers, which affects fibril formation, oligomeric maturation and fibrillar stabilization. Conclusion K-3-rh is an efficient molecule to hinder the self assembly and to abrogate the cytotoxic effects of Aβ42 peptide. Hence, K-3-rh and small molecules with similar structure might be considered for therapeutic development against AD.

  20. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85747 (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs.

  1. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep whith non-toxic dosis of the plant and ruminal content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciel Becker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Amorimiapubiflora (Malpighiaceae, which contains sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA is the main cause of "sudden death" in cattle in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. This research investigated the induction of resistance to the poisoning in sheep by the continuous administration of non-toxic doses of the plant and also the possibility to transfer this resistance to other sheep by the transfaunation of ruminal fluid. For this a group of four sheep (G1 received daily doses of 0.5g kg-1 for 20 days and after an interval of 15 days were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg-1 for 3 days. Also the transfer of resistance to A. pubiflora poisoning was evaluated by transfaunation of rumen fluid (100ml for 10 days from G1 sheep to five sheep (G2, followed by challenge with the dose of 1g kg-1 for 3 days (G2D2 and after a three-day interval they received a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G2D3. The degree of resistance was evaluated by monitoring the onset of clinical signs, heart rate, and outcome of the poisoning compared with the control groups, which were challenged with three daily doses of 1g kg1 (G3 and with a single dose of 3g kg-1 (G4. Clinical parameters evaluated in Groups G1 and G2 were significantly less pronounced than those observed in G3 and G4 (control (P<0.05. Sheep in G4 (control died after receiving a single dose of 3g kg-1, while those in G2 (transfaunated survived. These findings demonstrated that consumption of non-toxic doses of A. pubiflora induced resistance in sheep and that this resistance can be transferred by transfaunation. New experiments are needed to determine the most efficient ways to induce resistance and to use this technique in the field to prevent the poisoning.

  2. Biosorption of Cadmium by Non-Toxic Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS Synthesized by Bacteria from Marine Intertidal Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a major heavy metal found in polluted aquatic environments, mainly derived from industrial production processes. We evaluated the biosorption of solubilized Cd2+ using the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by Bacillus sp. MC3B-22 and Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10 (Microbactan; these bacteria were originally isolated from intertidal biofilms off the coast of Campeche, Mexico. EPS were incubated with different concentrations of cadmium in ultrapure water. Residual Cd2+ concentrations were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optic Emission Spectrometry and the maximum sorption capacity (Qmax was calculated according to the Langmuir model. EPS were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS before and after sorption. The Qmax of Cd2+ was 97 mg g−1 for Microbactan and 141 mg g−1 for MC3B-22 EPS, these adsorption levels being significantly higher than previously reported for other microbial EPS. In addition, XPS analysis revealed changes in structure of EPS after biosorption and showed that amino functional groups contributed to the binding of Cd2+, unlike other studies that show the carbohydrate fraction is responsible for this activity. This work expands the current view of bacterial species capable of synthesizing EPS with biosorbent potential for cadmium and provides evidence that different chemical moieties, other than carbohydrates, participate in this process.

  3. Co-occurrence of non-toxic (cyanopeptolin) and toxic (microcystin) peptides in a bloom of Microcystis sp. from a Chilean lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, U; Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Weckesser, J; Erhard, M

    2000-06-01

    A cyanobacterial bloom occurring in 1998 in lake Tres Pascualas (Concepción/Chile) was found to be dominated by Microcystis sp. The bloom contained both non-toxic (cyanopeptolin-type) and hepatotoxic (microcystin-type) peptides. Cyanopeptolin structure of the non-toxic peptides (called cyanopeptolin VW-1 and VW-2, respectively) was revealed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of whole cells, showing dominant molecular ions at m/z = 975 and m/z 995, respectively. On post source decay (PSD), both cyanopeptolins showed fragments deriving from Ahp-Phe-MTyr (3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone), the characteristic partial structure of cyanopeptolins. The amounts of each of the two cyanopeptolins could only roughly be estimated to be >0.1% of bloom material dry weight. In addition the blooms contained microcystins (20 microg/g bloom dry weight as determined by RP-HPLC, 13 microg/g according to ELISA determination). MALDI-TOF-MS revealed several structural variants of microcystin: MCYST-RR (microcystin with Arg and Arg, indicated by m/z 1,038 and confirmed by PSD revealing a m/z = 135 fragment deriving from the Adda side chain, MCYST-FR (microcystin with Phe and Arg, indicated by m/z = 1,015). The presence of [Asp(3)]-MCYST-LR (microcystin with Leu and Arg, Asp non-methylated, indicated by m/z 981), and [Asp(3)]-MCYST-YR (microcystin with Tyr and Arg, Asp non-methylated, indicated by m/z 1,031) were likely. The relative amounts of the peptides varied between February, April, and May. Whole cell extracts from the bloom material revealed specific enzyme inhibitory activities. The serin-proteases trypsin, plasmin, elastase were inhibited, assumable due to the cyanopeptolins found. Elastase and the cysteine-protease papain were not inhibited, inhibitions of protein kinase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were low. Strong inhibition was observed with protein-phosphatase-1, likely due to the microcystins present in the samples.

  4. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ≤ 10 μM, with six being very effective (IC50 ≤ 1 μM, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a

  5. Superconductivity at 108 K in the simplest non-toxic double-layer cuprate of Ba2CaCu2O4(O,F)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirage, P M; Shivagan, D D; Crisan, A; Tanaka, Y; Kodama, Y; Kito, H; Iyo, A

    2008-01-01

    We report the superconductivity in apical fluorine system of Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 6-y F y : the second member of Ba 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n (O,F) 2 homologous series. The polycrystalline samples of Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 6-y F y (F-0212) were synthesized under high pressure as a parameter of nominal fluorine content (y). Samples with y = 2.0 ∼ 1.2 elucidating the very sharp superconducting transitions in temperature dependence of susceptibility from under doping state to slightly over doping state via optimal doping state. A remarkable highest T c of 108 K has been achieved for the sample synthesized from a nominal composition of Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 4.4 F 1.6 . This T c is highest among the double CuO 2 layered system except for that including toxic elements such as Hg and T1. The T c has been systematically controlled from 57 K to 108 K by controlling the doping state, by designing the starting composition of fluorine and oxygen. The strong dependence of the 'a' and 'c' lattice constants were found on the nominal F content. We propose the Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 4 (O,F) 2 as a promising material for practical use due to its high T c and non-toxicity with a simple crystal structure

  6. Altered deoxyribonuclease activity in cancer cells and its role in non toxic adjuvant cancer therapy with mixed vitamins C and K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taper, Henryk S

    2008-01-01

    The alterations of deoxyribonuclease DNase activity in cancer cells were the basis of the utilization of mixed vitamins C and K3 in a nontoxic, adjuvant cancer therapy. In order to localize exactly the altered activities of DNase in cancer cells, histochemical methods were utilized. The deficiency of alkaline and acid DNase activity appeared to be characteristic for non-necrotic cells of malignant human and animal tumors. This enzymatic deficiency appeared in experimental carcinogenesis before the phenotypic signs of malignancy. Tumor promoters directly reduced the activity of both DNases. The incidence of spontaneous malignant human and animal tumors appeared to be inversely proportional to the intensity of the activity of both DNases in normal cells and tissues from which these tumors were derived. The fact that alkaline and acid DNase activity was reactivated during the spontaneous and therapeutically induced necrosis of cancer cells suggests that this enzymatic deficiency of DNase activity in cancer cells was due to the action of specific inhibitors of DNases. Characteristic variations of serum alkaline DNase activity in positive responders to therapy, examined in more than 800 cancer-bearing patients, may be the basis for the development of a useful test for therapeutic prognosis and for monitoring of cancer bearing patients. Acid DNase was selectively reactivated in malignant tumor cells by vitamin C (sodium ascorbate), whereas alkaline DNase was reactivated by vitamin K3. Joint vitamin C and K3 administration produced in vitro and in vivo tumor growth inhibition, potentiation and sensitization of chemo- and/or radiotherapy and a decrease in the number of metastases in animals with experimental tumors. Joint vitamin C and K3 administration may be considered as a possible new, non-toxic, adjuvant cancer therapy, which can be easily introduced into the classic protocols of clinical cancer therapy without any supplementary risk for patients.

  7. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre. The possibility of effect-amplification with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Steen J.; Nielsen, Viveque E.; Hegedues, Laszlo [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2006-12-15

    There is no consensus regarding the optimum treatment of benign non-toxic goitre. L-thyroxine suppressive therapy is widely used, but there is poor evidence of its efficacy, and it may have serious adverse effects on health. Surgery is first choice in large goitres or if malignancy is suspected. {sup 131}I therapy results in a one-year goitre reduction of around 40% in multinodular goitres, usually with a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement of the inspiratory capacity. The effect is attenuated with increasing goitre size. The risk of hypothyroidism is 22-58% within 5-8 years. A sufficient thyroid {sup 131}I uptake is mandatory for {sup 131}I therapy to be feasible and pre-stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) increases this considerably. This leads to an increased absorbed thyroid dose by approx.75%, mainly in those patients with the lowest thyroid {sup 131}I uptake, and a more homogeneous intrathyroidal isotope distribution. Pre-stimulation with even a small dose of rhTSH seems to allow a reduction of the {sup 131}I activity while still achieving a mean goitre reduction of approximately 40% within a year. A significantly lower extrathyroidal radiation is achieved by this approach. With an unchanged {sup 131}I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average thyroid volume increase of 35%. A similar goitre swelling may cause problems in susceptible patients during rhTSH-augmented {sup 131}I therapy. Thus, this concept still needs a closer evaluation before routine use.

  8. Non toxic biodegradable cationic gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and synergistic effect of sodium salicylate: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobin, Mohammad, E-mail: drmmobin@hotmail.com; Aslam, Ruby; Aslam, Jeenat

    2017-04-15

    Two biodegradable, non toxic cationic gemini surfactants having ester linkage in the spacer namely, C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub m}H{sub 2m+1}.2Cl{sup -} (m-E2-m, m = 12, 14), were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR and {sup 1}H-NMR. The corrosion inhibition performance of synthesized compounds separately and in combination with sodium salicylate (SS), along with the nature and stability of inhibitive film, for mild steel (MS) in 1 M HCl solution at 30–60 °C was evaluated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM/EDAX, TGA and quantum chemical calculations. Results of the studies confirm m-E2-m as effective corrosion inhibitor for MS in HCl; the inhibition effect being synergistically strengthened in presence of SS. The synthesized compounds act as mixed type inhibitor and adsorb on MS surface in accordance with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Experimentally measured inhibition efficiencies are correlated with the molecular parameters obtained using PM6 semi-empirical method. Empirical results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. - Graphical abstract: (a) Optimized geometry of studied inhibitors by PM6 method with (b) HOMO and (c) LUMO orbital occupation. - Highlights: • Environment friendly gemini surfactants were studied as corrosion inhibitor for MS. • Studied compounds act as good inhibitor for MS corrosion in 1 M HCl at 30–60 °C. • η of inhibitors is synergistically increased in presence of sodium salicylate. • The synthesized cationic gemini surfactants act as mixed-type inhibitor. • Experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  9. The potential of crude okara for isoflavone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankowiak, L.; Trifunovic, O.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction of isoflavones from crude okara, a by-product from soymilk production, using industrially relevant conditions. Ethanol and water were chosen as environmentally friendly and non-toxic solvents. A wide range of ethanol concentrations was tested (0–90% ethanol) for

  10. Solid-state, ambient-operation thermally activated delayed fluorescence from flexible, non-toxic gold-nanocluster thin films: towards the development of biocompatible light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talite, M. J. A.; Lin, H. T.; Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Huang, H. Y.; Heredia, E.; Flores, A.; Chao, Y. C.; Shen, J. L.; Lin, C. A. J.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-08-01

    Luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with good biocompatibility have gained much attention in bio-photonics. In addition, they also exhibit a unique photo-physical property, namely thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), by which both singlet and triplet excitons can be harvested. The combination of their non-toxic material property and unique TADF behavior makes AuNCs biocompatible nano-emitters for bio-related light-emitting devices. Unfortunately, the TADF emission is quenched when colloidal AuNCs are transferred to solid states under ambient environment. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method was used to generate efficient and stable TADF emissions from solid AuNCs under ambient environment using polyvinyl alcohol as a solid matrix. To unravel the underlying mechanism, temperature-dependent static and transient photoluminescence measurements were performed and we found that two factors are crucial for solid TADF emission: small energy splitting between singlet and triplet states and the stabilization of the triplet states. Solid TADF films were also deposited on the flexible plastic substrate with patterned structures, thus mitigating the waveguide-mode losses. In addition, we also demonstrated that warm white light can be generated based on a co-doped single emissive layer, consisting of non-toxic, solution-processed TADF AuNCs and fluorescent carbon dots under UV excitation.

  11. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  12. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczyńska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit α of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  13. [Glyphosate--a non-toxic pesticide?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniazek, Danuta; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2003-01-01

    Glyphosate is currently the most commonly applied herbicide and its use is still growing. Nowadays, over 50 commercial preparations containing this compound are used, and these formulations are much more toxic than their active compound, glyphosate, owing to the presence of many surfactants and carrier compounds. Toxicological investigations provide evidence that glyphosate is an extremely "safe" herbicide for animals. This is why its use in agriculture is universal. In June 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorized this compound into class E (according to EPA there are five categories of carcinogenicity), which means that it is probably not carcinogenic to humans. Unfortunately, the study carried out by Swedish oncologists in 2001 showed that glyphosate may induce cancer of the lymphatic system. The results of the Swedish study have changed our opinion about "safety" of this herbicide. Investigations concerning both its accumulation and toxic effect in animals and plants are now under way in many laboratories.

  14. Treatment of solitary, autonomously-functioning, non-toxic thyroid nodules with I131 Adenema tiroideo autónomo no tóxico tratamiento con I131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Uribe Londoño

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Fifteen euthyroid patients (14 women and 1man with solitary autonomously functioning non-toxic thyroid nodules (AFTN were treated with high doses of I131 (mean 19.2 mCi. Diagnosis was made by I131 thyroid scan and triiodothyronine suppression test. The size of the nodule was determined by thyroid ecography both before and after treatment. Evaluation of thyroid function was performed clinically and by T3 T4 and TSH determinations before therapy and during follow.up. AII patients had complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Two cases of hypothyroidism were found in the first two years of follow-up. We have no explanation for this fact since extranodular thyroid tissue was suppressed and the patients were receiving oral triiodothyronine during radioidine treatment. The nodules decreasedin size In 9 of 13 patients followed (average decrease 45% and disappeared in other 2. our findings suggest that solitary non-toxic AFTN should be treated with I131 particularly if complete suppression of the surrounding thyroid tissue is found. If complete disappearance of the nodule is considered desirable surgical removal must be performed.

    Se trataron 14 mujeres y un hombre, con adenomas tiroideos solitarios funcionalmente autónomos, no tóxicos, con I131 a una dosis promedio de 19.2 mCi. La gamagrafía tiroidea demostró hipercaptación del nódulo con supresión total del resto de la glándula. El tamaño del nódulo se determinó por medio de ecografía tiroidea antes y después del tratamiento, y su autonomía por la prueba de supresión con triyodotironina. El estado tiroideo se puso de presente clínicamente y por la medición de T3, T 4 y TSH en el plasma, antes de la terapia con el radiofármaco y durante la evolución postratamiento. En dos

  15. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  16. Amino acid sequence and biological characterization of BlatPLA₂, a non-toxic acidic phospholipase A₂ from the venom of the arboreal snake Bothriechis lateralis from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Laat, Marco; Fernández, Julián; Durban, Jordi; Villalobos, Eva; Camacho, Erika; Calvete, Juan J; Lomonte, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Bothriechis is considered a monophyletic, basal genus of arboreal Neotropical pitvipers distributed across Middle America. The four species found in Costa Rica (B. lateralis, B. schlegeli, B. nigroviridis, B. supraciliaris) differ in their venom proteomic profiles, suggesting that different Bothriechis taxa have evolved diverse trophic strategies. In this study, we isolated a phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) from B. lateralis venom, aiming at increasing our knowledge on the structural and functional characteristics of group II acidic PLA₂s, whose toxic actions are generally more restricted than those displayed by basic PLA₂s. The new acidic enzyme, BlatPLA₂, occurs as a monomer of 13,917 Da, in contrast to many basic group II PLA₂s which associate into dimers and often display myotoxicity and/or neurotoxicity. Its amino acid sequence of 122 residues predicts an isoelectric point of 4.7, and displays significant differences with previously characterized acidic PLA₂s, with which it shows a maximum sequence identity of 78%. BlatPLA₂ is catalytically active but appears to be devoid of major toxic activities, lacking intravenous or intracerebroventricular lethality, myotoxicity, in vitro anticoagulant activity, and platelet aggregation or inhibition effects. Phylogenetic relationships with similar group II enzymes suggest that BlatPLA₂ may represent a basal sequence to other acidic PLA₂s. Due to the metabolic cost of venom protein synthesis, the presence of a relatively abundant (9%) but non-toxic component is somewhat puzzling. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that BlatPLA₂ could have a role in the pre-digestion of prey, possibly having retained characteristics of ancestral PLA₂s without evolving towards potent toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic and toxinological characterization of North Atlantic strains of the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis and allelopathic interactions with toxic and non-toxic species from the genera Prorocentrum, Coolia and Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Portela, María; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José Mariano; Bañuelos, Rosa Mª; Rodríguez, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The genus Ostreopsis includes several toxic species that can develop blooms in benthic ecosystems, with potential harmful consequences for human health and marine invertebrates. Despite of this, little is known about the allelopathic interactions between these organisms and other co-occurring microalgae that exploit similar spatial and nutrient resources in benthic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to follow these interactions in cultures of two Ostreopsis ribotypes with different toxin profiles (O. cf. ovata contained ovatoxins-a, b, c and e, while only ovatoxin-d was found in O .sp. "Lanzarote-type"), mixed with species of three benthic dinoflagellate genera (Coolia, Prorocentrum and Gambierdiscus), isolated from the same area (North East Atlantic, Canary Islands). In a first experiment, the potential allelopathic effects on growth rates were followed, in mixed cultures of Coolia monotis (a non toxic species) exposed to the clarified medium and to cells of O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata. Growth delayed in C. monotis was observed specially in clarified medium, while the O. sp. "Lanzarote-type" strain attained much lower densities in mixed cultures. In a second experiment, we examined the potential effects of clarified media from O. sp."Lanzarote-type" and O. cf. ovata on the adherence capacity in two toxic species (Prorocentrum hoffmannianum and Gambierdiscus excentricus). Contrasting effects were found: a significant increase of adherence capacity in P. hoffmannianum vs attachment decline in G. excentricus, that experienced also severe deleterious effects (cell lysis). Our results suggest the existence of weak to moderate allelopathic interactions between the studied organisms, although the outcome is dependent on the species involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  19. Non-toxic novel route synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} thin films with tunable band gap characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agawane, G.L., E-mail: agawaneganesh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vanalakar, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Electrochemical Mat. Lab., Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Gurav, K.V.; Suryawanshi, M.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jae Ho, E-mail: yunjh92@kier.re.kr [Photovoltaic Research Group, KIER, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic CBD route is used to deposit ZnS thin films. • The ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} thin films formation takes place via annealing of ZnS thin films in Se atmosphere. • S/(S + Se) ratio found to be temperature dependent and easy tuning of band gap has been done by Se atom deposition. - Abstract: An environmentally benign chemical bath deposition (CBD) route was employed to deposit zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films. The CBD-ZnS thin films were further selenized in a furnace at various temperatures viz. 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C and the S/(S + Se) ratio was found to be dependent on the annealing temperature. The effects of S/(S + Se) ratio on the structural, compositional and optical properties of the ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} (ZnSSe) thin films were investigated. EDS analysis showed that the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6 when the film annealing temperature increased from 200 to 500 °C. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed that all the films were uniform, pin hole free, smooth, and adhered well to the glass substrate. The X-ray diffraction study on the ZnSSe thin films showed the formation of the cubic phase, except for the unannealed ZnSSe thin film, which showed an amorphous phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Zn-S, Zn-Se, and insignificant Zn-OH bonds formation from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2}, S 2p, Se 3d{sub 5/2}, and O 1s atomic states, respectively. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy study showed ∼80% transmittance in the visible region for all the ZnSSe thin films having various absorption edges. The tuning of the band gap energy of the ZnSSe thin films was carried out by selenizing CBD-ZnS thin films, and as the S/(S + Se) ratio decreased from 0.8 to 0.6, the band gap energy decreased from 3.20 to 3.12 eV.

  20. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.J.; Ravenscroft, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO 2 corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaswat; Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Das, Pallabi; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

    2013-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of oleo-chemical industry by-products for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are the surface active compounds produced by micro-organisms. The eco-friendly and biodegradable nature of biosurfactants makes their usage more advantageous over chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants encompass the properties of dropping surface tension, stabilizing emulsions, promoting foaming and are usually non- toxic and biodegradable. Biosurfactants offer advantages over their synthetic counterparts in many applications ranging from environmental, food, and biomedical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The important environmental applications of biosurfactants include bioremediation and dispersion of oil spills, enhanced oil recovery and transfer of crude oil. The emphasis of present review shall be with reference to the commercial production, current developments and future perspectives of a variety of approaches of biosurfactant production from the micro-organisms isolated from various oil- contaminated sites and from the by-products of oleo-chemical industry wastes/ by-products viz. used edible oil, industrial residues, acid oil, deodorizer distillate, soap-stock etc. PMID:24262384

  3. About neutralization of the toxic waste of galvanic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetzhanova, Z.Kh.; Samatov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    The nature of heavy metals ions migration to environment from the galvanic production is considered in the article. The method of toxic precipitations transformation to non-toxic ones is proposed. The essence of stabilization method of heavy metals hydroxides precipitations consists in transformation of galvanic precipitations mixture to same metals ferrites mixture. The reaction has followed in oxygen medium under heating of galvanic precipitations from 70 up 90 deg C. Before heating the precipitation have acid medium, after temperature treatment the medium turn to the neutral one. These compounds are presented as ferrite class and can be serve as base for various pigments. (author)

  4. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradable multifunctional oil production chemicals: Thermal polyaspartates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R J [Donlar Corporation (United States); Ravenscroft, P D [BP Exploration Operating Company, (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with biodegradable oil production chemicals. Control of both mineral scale and corrosion with a single, environmentally acceptable material is an ambitious goal. Polyaspartate polymers represent a significant milestone in the attainment of this goal. Thermal polyaspartates (TPA) are polycarboxylate polymers derived via thermal condensation of the naturally occurring amino acid aspartic acid. These protein-like polymers are highly biodegradable and non-toxic, and are produced by an environmentally benign manufacturing process. TPAs exhibit excellent mineral scale inhibition activity and CO{sub 2} corrosion control. Laboratory data on scale inhibition and corrosion control in the North Sea oil field production applications is presented. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.L.; Willson, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  7. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  8. Development of advanced, non-toxic, synthetic radiation shielding aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudgal, Manish; Chouhan, Ramesh Kumar; Verma, Sarika; Amritphale, Sudhir Sitaram; Das, Satyabrata [CSIR-Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India); Shrivastva, Arvind [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL), Mumbai (India)

    2018-04-01

    For the first time in the world, the capability of red mud waste has been explored for the development of advanced synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. Red mud, an aluminium industry waste consists of multi component, multi elemental characteristics. In this study, red mud from two different sources have been utilized. Chemical formulation and mineralogical designing of the red mud has been done by ceramic processing using appropriate reducing agent and additives. The chemical analysis, SEM microphotographs and XRD analysis confirms the presence of multi-component, multi shielding and multi-layered phases in both the different developed advance synthetic radiation shielding aggregate. The mechanical properties, namely aggregate impact value, aggregate crushing value and aggregate abrasion value have also been evaluated and was compared with hematite ore aggregate and found to be an excellent material useful for making advanced radiation shielding concrete for the construction of nuclear power plants and other radiation installations.

  9. Functional Genomics of a Non-Toxic Alexandrium Lusitanicum Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    cultured in the Laboratorio de Micro- minutum analyzed with the same methods and instrument biologia e Ecotoxicologia where the loss of toxicity was...and Lach.) dies., Gonyaulax tamarensis Leb., and Peridinium trochoideum (Stein) Lemm. Notas e Estudos do Instituto de Biologia Marinha 26: 1-21. Silva

  10. Non-Toxic, Self-Cleaning Silicone Fouling Release Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cella, James

    1997-01-01

    ... have been identified for preparation of gel wall microencapsulations. A carbinol terminated PDMS and two ablative oils were synthesized for use in the compositions downselected for panel preparation for subcontractor sites...

  11. Functional Genomics of a Non-Toxic Alexandrium Lusitanicum Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Claudia A

    2007-01-01

    .... The loss of toxicity was accompanied by a reduction in growth capability. A subculture of this isolate maintains the ability to produce toxins and to grow at rates and to cell abundances that were characteristic of the original Alexandrium culture...

  12. Evaluation of genetic diversity between toxic and non toxic Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for breeding improved varieties could be accelerated by DNA-based molecular marker technology. Wild Mexican accessions and accessions from other parts of the world (South America and Africa) were analyzed by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR primers were chosen on the grounds of their Tm ...

  13. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  14. Radioiodine therapy in non-toxic multinodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen J; Nielsen, Viveque E; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2006-01-01

    I activity, rhTSH pre-stimulation improves the goitre reduction by 30-50%. However, this is at the expense of a higher rate of hypothyroidism, cervical pain and transient thyrotoxicosis. Of particular concern is the observation made in healthy persons, that rhTSH results in a transient average...

  15. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Aninidita; Karmakar, Subrata; Mukherjee, Souti

    2010-10-01

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fuelled engines. Biodiesel, the non-toxic fuel, is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock like vegetable oils, animal fats and residual oils. Choice of feedstocks depends on process chemistry, physical and chemical characteristics of virgin or used oils and economy of the process. Extensive research information is available on transesterification, the production technology and process optimization for various biomaterials. Consistent supply of feedstocks is being faced as a major challenge by the biodiesel production industry. This paper reviews physico-chemical properties of the plant and animal resources that are being used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Efforts have also been made to review the potential resources that can be transformed into biodiesel successfully for meeting the ever increasing demand of biodiesel production. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ubiquitous quantum dot-sensitized nanoporous film for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Masahiro, E-mail: mmiyauchi@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); JST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Shiga, Yuhiro; Srinivasan, Nagarajan; Atarashi, Daiki; Sakai, Etsuo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    To develop the efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production device, tin monosulfide (SnS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto a nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. When Pt nanoparticles as co-catalysts were modified at the interface between the electroconductive glass substrate and nanoporous SnS QDs/TiO{sub 2} layer, hydrogen molecules were produced under visible-light irradiation without applying a bias potential. In addition, the size and color of SnS QDs could be tailored using SILAR method, and the optimal structure of the SnS QDs was determined for efficient photocurrent generation and hydrogen production. The photocatalysis device developed in the present study was constructed as a simple single plate consisting of non-toxic elements. - Highlights: • Unique photo-electrochemical thin film device without application of a bias potential. • Non-toxic and inexpensive SnS quantum dot for visible-light harvesting. • Tailored SnS quantum dots using the SILAR method for efficient hydrogen production.

  17. Ubiquitous quantum dot-sensitized nanoporous film for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Masahiro; Shiga, Yuhiro; Srinivasan, Nagarajan; Atarashi, Daiki; Sakai, Etsuo

    2015-01-01

    To develop the efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production device, tin monosulfide (SnS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto a nanoporous TiO 2 electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. When Pt nanoparticles as co-catalysts were modified at the interface between the electroconductive glass substrate and nanoporous SnS QDs/TiO 2 layer, hydrogen molecules were produced under visible-light irradiation without applying a bias potential. In addition, the size and color of SnS QDs could be tailored using SILAR method, and the optimal structure of the SnS QDs was determined for efficient photocurrent generation and hydrogen production. The photocatalysis device developed in the present study was constructed as a simple single plate consisting of non-toxic elements. - Highlights: • Unique photo-electrochemical thin film device without application of a bias potential. • Non-toxic and inexpensive SnS quantum dot for visible-light harvesting. • Tailored SnS quantum dots using the SILAR method for efficient hydrogen production

  18. Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

  19. Are safety data sheets for cleaning products used in Norway a factor contributing to the risk of workers exposure to chemicals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cleaning products are considered less hazardous than those used in other sectors. Suppliers and distributors are less conscientious when it comes to informing users on health risks. The aim of the study was to elaborate on the usefulness and clarity of information in the safety data sheets (SDS for cleaning products, and considering if the use of these SDSs can be seen as a risk factor towards occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in the sector. Material and Methods: Safety data sheets were selected based on the risk level of the product assigned in an industrial sector scheme. 320 SDSs for cleaning products were reviewed. Constituent components found in the products over a given threshold were listed and available information thereof used to assess the perceived non-hazard consideration of the chemicals. Results: The contents of the SDSs was generic and mostly incomplete. Safety measures and health information lacked sufficient specificity despite varying compositions and concentrations of components. There is generally incompatibility between mentioned sections on the suggested non-hazardous nature of the products and health effects. Not all substances used in these products have harmonized classifications, which makes them open to various classification of the products and the suggested safety measures. This results in different companies classifying similar products differently. Risk management measures and suggested personal protective equipment (PPEs are given haphazardly. Physical properties relevant to risk assessment are not included. Conclusions: The safety data sheets are ambiguous, and they lack relevant and important information. Inadequate information and risk assessment concerning the products can lead to workers being exposed to hazardous chemicals. Underestimation of the hazard contribution of the components of the products and the insufficient, non-objective mention of appropriate control and protective

  20. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozbas, Kahraman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  1. APPLICATION OF DIHYDROQUERCETIN IN THE PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS WITH PROLONGED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kostyria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use for the production of food products with prolonged shelf-life food additives - dihydroquercetin. Dihydroquercetin is a bioflavonoid natural origin, which has the highest antioxidant activity compared with all known exogenous antioxidants, including vitamins E, A, B, C, D, K, beta-carotene. This connection is included in the list of food additives, do not have harmful effects on health when used for cooking food. Dihydroquercetin is non-toxic, physiologically harmless to human health, not give them a foreign tastes and odors, does not change their color when using it.Additive stable with respect to temperature (from minus 50 to plus 1800 с, mechanical stress , and the processes taking place in the manufacture of products, i.e., meets all the requirements applicable generally to all food additives, and in particular, to the antioxidants. Dihydroquercetin has antibacterial properties against some types of bacteria, and has a positive impact on the development and growth of the lactic microflora. Dihydroquercetin has antibacterial properties against some types of bacteria, and has a positive impact on the development and growth of the lactic microflora. Bioflavonoid is not synthesized in the human body, so you need to eat foods in which it is contained ..In addition, the use of dihydroquercetin will produce food therapeutic orientation that the positive effect of bioflavonoids on human health has been proven through years of experimental and clinical research medical institutions of Russia.

  2. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon-nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Beversdorf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined three years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N speciation and inorganic carbon (C availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the toxic phase. Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment.

  3. Valorization of waste glycerol for the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by Cupriavidus necator and extraction in a sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels. Batch cultivation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production showed accumulation of 6.76g/L biomass containing 4.84g/L copolymer on WG with a maximum 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 24.6mol%. PHAs extraction using a non-toxic and recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C temperature and 30min incubation. This is the first report on jatropha based glycerol valorization for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production coupled with extraction using non-toxic solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  5. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  6. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of γ-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  7. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioengenharia

    1996-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  8. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, M.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of gamma-rays from 60 Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular weight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies, known to react with conformational epitopes in native crotoxin. Linear epitopes are also preserved, as demonstrated by peptide mapping of the aggregates. These same aggregates can function as antigens to raise antisera which cross-react and neutralize crotoxin. Compared with crotoxin, the aggregates appear to be less myotoxic, largely devoid of phospholipase activity and virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that the irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  9. Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassy, Beata; Krstanović, Marina; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-02-14

    Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) is a natural compound of bacterial origin. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, water-soluble immunostimulator potentiating humoral immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. It is fast degraded and its metabolic products-the pentapeptide (PP) and the disaccharide (DS)-are excreted from the mammalian organism upon parenteral administration. The present study investigates: (a). whether PGM could influence the long-living memory generation; (b). whether metabolic products retain adjuvant properties of the parent compound and contribute to its adjuvanticity. We report now that mice immunised twice with OVA+PGM had significantly higher anti-OVA IgG levels upon challenge with antigen alone 6 months later in comparison to control group immunised with OVA only. PP and DS were prepared enzymatically in vitro as apyrogenic and chemically pure compounds. When mice were immunised with OVA plus PP and DS, respectively, the level of anti-OVA IgGs in sera was not higher than in mice immunised with OVA alone, while PGM raised the level of specific antibodies. Results implicate that the adjuvant active molecule, capable of enhancing long-living memory generation, is PGM itself, and none of its metabolic products.

  10. Factors of enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ika

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study ... of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. ... Increasing energy crisis and environmental concerns by.

  11. Diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by Gram-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Diesel degradation rates and microbial cell number, increased with an increase in glucose ... that are less or non-toxic and represents one of the ... organic compounds (Larkin et al., 2005).

  12. Diagnosis of solid waste of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities in Brazil offshore sedimentary basins; Diagnostico dos residuos solidos das atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural em bacias sedimentares maritimas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Pedro Henrique Wisniewski; Mendonca; Gilberto Moraes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the generation and disposal of solid waste from the exploration and production activities of oil and natural gas in Brazilian waters. We used data from the implementation reports of pollution control project of the activities licensed by IBAMA. During 2009 the activities related to exploration and production of offshore oil and gas produced a total of 44,437 tons of solid waste, with the main waste generated corresponding to: oily waste (16,002 t); Metal uncontaminated (11,085 t); contaminated waste (5630 t), non recycling waste (4935 t); Wood uncontaminated (1,861 t), chemicals (1,146 t). Considering the total waste generated by activities during the period analyzed, it was observed that 54.3% are made up of waste Class I (hazardous waste), 27.9% of Class II wastes (waste non-hazardous non-inert); and 17.8% of waste Class IIB (non-hazardous and inert waste). The results obtained in this work enabled the scenario of waste generation by the E and P offshore activities. As a result, the survey serves as a starting point for monitoring the progress in implementing the projects sought Pollution Control of licensed projects, as well as support the monitoring of reflexes arising from the intensification of activities in certain regions. (author)

  13. USE OF ELECTROLYZED WATER IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Jirotková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility to use the properties of electrolyzed water to disinfect breeding halls and to water animals. The aim of the research was to find out whether elektrolyzed water used for desinfication of breedings hall and watering of animals influences selected indicators of the meat quality. Electrolyzed water is produced in a patent-protected device Envirolyte that produces biocide solution using potable water with added NaCl. The technology of production guarantees the product is entirely ecological, biologically fully degradable, non-toxic that can replace traditional chemical agents. Possibilities of disinfection using this solution have been verified directly in stables at the interval of 20, 40, 60 min. after application. Staphylococci and streptococci and enterococci were inactive always after 60 minutes of effect. There was significant decrease in the number of total number of microorganisms. Further, the solution of electrolyzed water was used to water poultry; and the affect on some of the properties of poultry meat, changes in pH, colour and loss of water (dripping in particular, was observed. Testing was carried out under working conditions in two breeding halls at a time and the technology of electrolyzed water to disinfect premises and to water chickens was used in one of the halls. When the chickens were slaughter mature, the poultry was slaughtered at the standard slaughterhouse and samples (127 pieces were taken in order to measure pH, colour and loss of water (dripping. The values of pH, colour and loss of water (dripping ascertained, processed by the T-test did not confirm the hypothesis of the assumed possible differences in occurrence of critical values of these indicators in both groups observed.

  14. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  16. Production of hydrogen in the reaction between aluminum and water in the presence of NaOH and KOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Porciúncula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the production of hydrogen as an energy source by means of the reaction of aluminum with water. This reaction only occurs in the presence of NaOH and KOH, which behave as catalysts. The main advantages of using aluminum for indirect energy storage are: recyclability, non-toxicity and easiness to shape. Alkali concentrations varying from 1 to 3 mol.L-1 were applied to different metallic samples, either foil (0.02 mm thick or plates (0.5 and 1 mm thick, and reaction temperatures between 295 and 345 K were tested. The results show that the reaction is strongly influenced by temperature, alkali concentration and metal shape. NaOH commonly promotes faster reactions and higher real yields than KOH.

  17. Micro -algae biomass as an alternative resource for fishmeal and fish oil in the production of fish feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed

    evident that the continued exploitation of industrial fish as a resource fish feed will ultimately become both environmentally and economically unsustainable. Microalgae are at the base of the entire aquatic food chain and play a major role in the diet of aquatic animals such as fish. Microalgae’s main...... application for aquaculture are related to nutrition, being used as a sole fresh feed or an additive, e.g. source of pigment. Algae produce almost all nutritious compounds which are required for fish. The diverse biochemical composition of microalgae represents them as a promising candidate...... for the formulation of fish feed. The nutritional composition of microalgae depends on the species, environmental conditions and growth medium composition. Microalgae for use in aquaculture should be non-toxic and possess the essential nutritive constituents, in a reasonable price. Photosynthetic production of algae...

  18. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  19. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  20. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  2. Highly porous polytriazole ion exchange membranes cast from solutions in non-toxic cosolvents

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan; Torsello, Monica; Avanzato, Marco; Xie, Yihui; Boi, Cristiana; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    are selective for protein adsorption. The starting material was a hydroxyl-functionalized polytriazole, which is an advantageous platform for further modification. The polymer was dissolved in a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim

  3. heavy metal fixation in contaminated soil using non-toxic agents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... agricultural ecosystems (Chukwuka and Omotayo,. 2008), as well as remediation of former industrial sites which have been exposed to diffuse pollution by toxic heavy metals (Finžgar et al., 2006; Belviso et al., 2010). Among the remediation technologies available for contaminated sites, in situ (in place) ...

  4. Glycopeptides as Analgesics: Non-Toxic Alternatives to Morphine for Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    locomotor activity’ l6 with Stereotypie patterns of movement ,17 and increases in muscular rigidity, including Straub tail.18 Unlike morphine and...effects, including initiation of movement [17], regulation of pain and reward circuitry, as well as other complex CNS behaviors (mood/ affect and...Eds). Freeman & Co., San Francisco, CA, USA, 198-199 (1968). 42 Saffman PG, Delbrück M. Brownian motion in biological membranes. Proc. Natl Acad

  5. Highly porous polytriazole ion exchange membranes cast from solutions in non-toxic cosolvents

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2017-04-04

    The development of highly functionalized porous materials for protein separation is important for biotech processes. We report the preparation of highly porous polytriazole with sulfonic acid functionalization. The resulting ion exchange membranes are selective for protein adsorption. The starting material was a hydroxyl-functionalized polytriazole, which is an advantageous platform for further modification. The polymer was dissolved in a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which can be both considered green solvents. The polymer solubilization was only possible due to an interesting effect of cosolvency, which is discussed, based in phase diagrams. Membranes were prepared by solution casting, followed by immersion in a non-solvent bath. We then grafted sulfone groups on the membranes, by reacting the hydroxyl groups with 1,3-propane sultone and 1,4-butane sultone. Lysozyme adsorption was successfully evaluated. Membranes modified with 1,4-butane sultone adsorbed more protein than those with 1,3-propane sultone.

  6. 3-Aminothiophene-2-Acylhydrazones: Non-Toxic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Lead-Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Karla Cupertino da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different chemotypes are described as anti-inflammatory. Among them the N-acylhydrazones (NAH are highlighted by their privileged structure nature, being present in several anti-inflammatory drug-candidates. In this paper a series of functionalized 3-aminothiophene-2-acylhydrazone derivatives 5a–i were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. These new derivatives showed great anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency and efficacy. Compounds 5a and 5d stand out in this respect, and were also active in CFA-induced arthritis in rats. After daily treatment for seven days with 5a and 5d (50 µmol/Kg, by oral administration, these compounds were not renal or hepatotoxic nor immunosuppressive. Compounds 5a and 5d also displayed good drug-scores and low risk toxicity calculated in silico using the program OSIRIS Property Explorer.

  7. Analysis of Toxic and Non-Toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Species Using Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Therriault, J.-C. (1988). Cladistic analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonyaulax. Botanica Marina 31: 39- 51. 8... Botanica Marina 34: 575-587. Halegraeff, G. M., and Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ship’s ballast water: implications...analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonv-u.!a,. Botanica Marina 31: 39-51. Curran, J., Baillie, D.L

  8. Broad-spectrum non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles with a virucidal inhibition mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Valeria; Andreozzi, Patrizia; D'Alicarnasso, Marco; Jacob Silva, Paulo; Mueller, Marie; Galloux, Marie; Le Goffic, Ronan; Jones, Samuel T.; Vallino, Marta; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Sen, Soumyo; Janeček, Emma-Rose; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Sanavio, Barbara; Martinelli, Chiara; Donalisio, Manuela; Rameix Welti, Marie-Anne; Eleouet, Jean-Francois; Han, Yanxiao; Kaiser, Laurent; Vukovic, Lela; Tapparel, Caroline; Král, Petr; Krol, Silke; Lembo, David; Stellacci, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Viral infections kill millions yearly. Available antiviral drugs are virus-specific and active against a limited panel of human pathogens. There are broad-spectrum substances that prevent the first step of virus-cell interaction by mimicking heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the highly conserved target of viral attachment ligands (VALs). The reversible binding mechanism prevents their use as a drug, because, upon dilution, the inhibition is lost. Known VALs are made of closely packed repeating units, but the aforementioned substances are able to bind only a few of them. We designed antiviral nanoparticles with long and flexible linkers mimicking HSPG, allowing for effective viral association with a binding that we simulate to be strong and multivalent to the VAL repeating units, generating forces (~190 pN) that eventually lead to irreversible viral deformation. Virucidal assays, electron microscopy images, and molecular dynamics simulations support the proposed mechanism. These particles show no cytotoxicity, and in vitro nanomolar irreversible activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papilloma virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), dengue and lenti virus. They are active ex vivo in human cervicovaginal histocultures infected by HSV-2 and in vivo in mice infected with RSV.

  9. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura [Ospedale Maggiore IRCCS (Pad. Granelli), Institute of Endocrine Sciences, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ({sup 131}I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive {sup 131}I plus lithium (group I+L) or {sup 131}I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, {sup 131}I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after {sup 131}I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after {sup 131}I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, {sup 131}I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low {sup 131}I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  10. Aloe vera is non-toxic to cells: A microculture tetrazolium technique colorimetric assay study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gopakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera (Av, a succulent of Liliaceae family is now a widely used medicinal plant. Its′ application covers a wide spectrum of human diseases, including oral mucosa, gastric mucosa and skin. Aloe vera preparations in the form of gel, mouth washes and cream are applied topically for many oral diseases. The applications include oral lichen planus, candidiasis, oral submucous fibrosis, geographic tongue, etc. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of Av on human fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Aloe vera preparation (70% was applied on the fibroblast cell lineage and the cell viability was evaluated by microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT colorimetric assay. Results: The cell viability at different concentrations was measured. The cells have maintained their viability at different concentrations used in the study. Conclusion: Our study shows the cell viability at different sample concentrations of Av. This could open up wide clinical applications of Av for reactive, inflammatory and potentially malignant oral and other mucocutaneous diseases.

  11. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvara, Simona; Muresan, Liana Maria; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi

    2008-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L -1 Na 2 SO 4 + 0.2 g L -1 NaHCO 3 at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent

  12. Evaluation of some non-toxic thiadiazole derivatives as bronze corrosion inhibitors in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varvara, Simona [Department of Topography, ' 1 Decembrie 1918' University, 11-13 Nicolae Iorga Street, 510009 Alba Iulia (Romania); Muresan, Liana Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 11 Arany-Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)], E-mail: limur@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Rahmouni, Kamal; Takenouti, Hisasi [UPMC LISE - UPR 15 of the CNRS, ' Pierre and Marie Curie' University, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The inhibiting effect of four innoxious thiadiazole derivatives (2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAT), 2-mercapto-5-acetylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MAcAT), 2-mercapto-5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MMeT) and 2-mercapto-5-phenylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MPhAT)) on bronze corrosion in an aerated solution of 0.2 g L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.2 g L{sup -1} NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 5 was studied by potentiodynamic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion parameters determined from the polarisation curves indicate that the addition of the investigated thiadiazole derivatives decreases both cathodic and anodic current densities, due to an inhibition of the corrosion process, through the adsorption of thiadiazoles on the bronze surface. The inhibiting effect of the investigated organic compounds appears to be more pronounced on the anodic process than on the cathodic one and, except for the case MPhAT, it is enhanced by the increases of the inhibitors' concentration. The adsorption of the thiadiazole derivatives on bronze was confirmed by the presence of the nitrogen atoms in the EDX spectra of the bronze exposed to inhibitor-containing solutions. The magnitude of polarisation resistance values and, consequently, the inhibition efficiencies are influenced by the molecular structure of thiadiazole derivatives. The strongest inhibition was noticed in the presence of compounds with phenyl amino- or amino-functionalities in their molecules. The maximum protection efficiencies were obtained by addition of: 5 mM MAT (95.9%), 1 mM MAcAT (95.7%), 5 mM MMeT (92.6%) and 0.1 mM MPhAT (97%). EIS measurements also revealed that the inhibitor effectiveness of the optimal concentrations of thiadiazole is time-dependent.

  13. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  14. Development of Non-Toxic Quantum Dots for Flexible Display Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    reaction ( SILAR ) method on CdSe/CdS and CdS/ZnS QDs it was reported that PL QY of the core/shell nanocrystals increased as the shell thickness increased...shell over InP core was done by growing different size shells following SILAR method. Initially over a 27 | P a g e green emitting InP core a...combinations of Zn and Se precursor and various layers of ZnSe and ZnS by SILAR method were attempted. None of them produced any increase in QY, instead a

  15. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. PMID:27869768

  16. Design and characterization of non-toxic nano-hybrid coatings for corrosion and fouling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy resin modified with nano scale fillers offers excellent combination of properties such as enhanced dimensional stability, mechanical and electrical properties, which make them ideally suitable for a wide range of applications. However, the studies about functionalized nano-hybrid for coating applications still require better insight. In the present work we have developed silane treated nanoparticles and to reinforce it with diglycidyl epoxy resin to fabricate surface functionalized nano-hybrid epoxy coatings. The effect of inorganic nano particles on the corrosion and fouling resistance properties was studied by various (1, 3, 5 and 7 wt% filler loading concentrations. Diglycidyl epoxy resin (DGEBA commonly was used for coating. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES was used as a coupling agent to surface treats the TiO2 nanoparticles. The corrosion and fouling resistant properties of these coatings were evaluated by electrochemical impedance and static immersion tests, respectively. Nano-hybrid coating (3 wt% of APTES–TiO2 showed corrosion resistance up to 108 Ω cm2 after 30 days immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution indicating an excellent corrosion resistance. Static immersion test was carried out in Bay of Bengal (Muttukadu which has reflected good antifouling efficiency of the 3 wt% APTES–TiO2 loaded nano-hybrid coating up to 6 months.

  17. Non-Toxic Multifunctional Silsesquioxane Diamine Monomer for Use in Aerospace Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-03

    in practice, therefore there is a growing need for high temperature capable, low flow viscosity resin systems. In service, POSS containing ...not available for this effort. Therefore, Hexcel IM7 4 harness satin weave carbon fiber fabric with GP ( high temperature epoxy sizing) was utilized...molecular packing which is expected to be of lower efficiency in the POSS- containing oligomers due to high volume occupation of the POSS segments. The 0N

  18. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-11-19

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na⁺ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol-gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids' final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules.

  19. Radioiodine treatment of non-toxic multinodular goitre: effects of combination with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannucchi, Guia; Mannavola, Deborah; Dazzi, Davide; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Fugazzola, Laura; Chiti, Arturo; Rodari, Marcello; Tadayyon, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of radioiodine ( 131 I), alone or in combination with lithium, on thyroid volume and the prevention of radioiodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. This is the first clinical trial including only patients with multinodular goitre, normal TSH values and negative anti-thyroid auto-antibodies at baseline. Eighty consecutive patients were randomised to receive 131 I plus lithium (group I+L) or 131 I alone (group I). Thyroid ultrasonography and biochemical analyses were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment. At 1-4 weeks after treatment, 131 I-induced hyperthyroidism was observed in 58.8% of patients and was prevented by lithium administration. A low incidence of hypothyroidism (19%) was recorded at 24 months, whereas up to 44% of patients developed anti-thyroid antibodies. A significant reduction in thyroid volume was observed after 131 I, with a mean decrease of 47.2% (median 48.2%) at 24 months, without differences between the groups. Moreover, it was shown that the decrease in thyroid volume after 131 I was also due to the significant shrinkage of thyroid nodules. This demonstrates that adjunctive lithium is able to reduce radioiodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Therefore, such treatment appears to be safe in older patients and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. In the present large series, 131 I therapy was demonstrated to be highly effective in reducing thyroid and nodular volume even in patients treated with low 131 I doses (2.5 MBq/ml of thyroid tissue), further supporting the view that radioiodine therapy represents a real alternative to surgery. (orig.)

  20. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practical and social barriers to switching from lead to non-toxic gunshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    without jeopardising the hunters’ interests and weakening the hunters’ community. On the contrary, it is believed, though never investigated, that the public image value of hunting not being connected to a pollutant such as lead is of paramount importance for the perception and long-term political...... targeted at sea ducks. In Denmark, the use of lead shot was first regulated in 1985 by setting up a ban on inter alia the use of lead shot for hunting in 26 wetlands designated as Ramsar-sites and for clay pigeon shooting in certain areas. Denmark enforced a total ban on the use of lead shot in 1993 in all...... areas outside forests and with a subsequent enforcement of a lead shot ban in forests in 1996. Since then all use, trade and possession of lead shot has been banned throughout the country (Kanstrup 2006). The phase-out of lead shot raised a number of practical and social barriers. The first barrier...

  2. Genetic divergence among toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria of the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Harshini M; Magana Arachchi, Dhammika N; Chandrasekaran, Naduviladath V

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has rich cyanobacterial diversity, however, only few studies have been conducted to identify the potential toxin producers in water bodies used for human consumption. As the detection of cyanotoxin is vital in water quality management, a study was done by employing 16S rRNA gene to explore the genetic divergence, phylogenetic relationships and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria in reservoirs and well waters in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Forty five, 16S rRNA gene sequences were assayed and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Among 45 isolates, 20 isolates were classified as unidentified cyanobacteria and considered as novel cyanobacterial genera. Of 25 identified isolates, seven isolates were identified up to species level. With 16S rRNA phylogeny, 20 unidentified cyanobacterial isolates were able to place on their taxonomic positions up to order level. Results revealed that water samples understudy had vast cyanobacterial diversity with potential microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producers and eleven clusters clearly demonstrated five cyanobacterial orders with more than 90% similarity irrespective to their toxicity which showed the suitability of 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic differentiation. Sixteen isolates had the potential to produce MC and two isolates to produce CYN. Findings of the study confirm the rich cyanobacterial diversity and the divergence among the potential cyanotoxin producers in the dry zone water bodies of Sri Lanka.

  3. Diffuse Non-toxic Goitre Therapy with Iodine Alone or with Combination of Iodine and Levothyroxine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Galkina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess the efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iodine therapy compared with the combination of iodine and levothyroxine in endemic goitre patients. Methods: 12-month prospective study was performed, in which 81 patients were randomized on two groups: Group 1 (n = 40 - KI (200 micrograms/day and Group 2 (n = 41 - KI (100 mcg/day + L-T4 (1.0 mcg/kg. Thyroid volume, TSH and Anti-TPO-Ab levels were evaluated at baseline, at 8 month of the treatment and at 12 month (4 month after the cessation of the therapy. Results: the significant decreasing of thyroid volumes was found in group 1 at 8 month compared with baseline (20.5 ml at baseline and 16,4 ml at 8 month р < 0.001. After the therapy cessation the further benefit of a sustained effect was demonstrated (16.4 ml at 8 month and 16.1 ml at 12 month, р = 0.31. Iodine-induced hypo- and hyperthyroidism were not observed. High Anti-TPO-Ab level was found in one of 31 patients (3%. In group 2 significant difference between thyroid volumes was found at 8 month compared with baseline (20,5 ml at baseline and 16.2 ml at 8 month р < 0.001. The sustained effect was revealed at least 4 month after the therapy cessation (16.2 ml at 8 month and 16.1 ml at 12 month, р = 0.77. One man had iodine-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. Anti-TPO-Ab was not detected in this group. No significant difference between thyroid volume decreasing, TSH and Anti-TPO-Ab levels in two comparable groups was observed. Conclusion: KI alone (200 mcg/day or the combination of L-T4 (1.0 mcg/kg and KI (100 mcg/day are equally effective and tolerable for endemic goitre therapy.

  4. Broad-spectrum non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles with a virucidal inhibition mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cagno, V.; Andreozzi, P.; D'Alicarnasso, M.; Silva, P. J.; Mueller, M.; Galloux, M.; Le Goffic, R.; Jones, S. T.; Vallino, M.; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Sen, S.; Janeček, E. R.; Bekdemir, A.; Sanavio, B.; Martinelli, C.; Donalisio, M.; Welti, M. A. R.; Eleouet, J. F.; Han, Y.; Kaiser, L.; Vukovic, L.; Tapparel, C.; Král, P.; Krol, S.; Lembo, D.; Stellacci, F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2018), s. 195-203 ISSN 1476-1122 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11207 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : coli polysaccharide derivatives * multivalent gold nanoparticles * respiratory syncytial virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 39.737, year: 2016

  5. Efficient, full-spectrum, long-lived, non-toxic microwave lamp for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.P.; Dolan, J.T.; Ury, M.G.; Gustafson, P. [Fusion Systems Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fusion Systems Corporation has developed a mercury-free, low infra-red, efficient microwave lamp using a benign sulfur based fill optimized for visible light. Our literature search and discussions with researchers directed us to enhance the bulbs red output. We have demonstrated a photosynthetic efficacy of over 2 micro-moles per microwave joule which corresponds to over 1.3 micro-moles per joule at the power main. Recent work has shown we can make additional increases in overall system efficiency. During the next two years, we expect to demonstrate a system capable of producing more than 1.5 micro-moles/joule measured at the power main with significantly less IR than alternative lamp systems.

  6. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren; Kelarakis, Antonios; Estevez, Luis; Lin, Qin; Dana, Kausik; Chung, Yi-Lin; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer

  7. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K.G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein

  8. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer to facilitate polymer mixing during melt compounding. We demonstrate that the nanocomposites based on sulfonated polyester are a reliable alternative to their imidazolium counterparts, exhibiting enhanced properties (water vapor and UV transmission), without sacrificing the excellent transparency, clarity and mechanical strength of the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural studies on a non-toxic homologue of type II RIPs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... bond of a specific adenine in 28 S rRNA (Endo and Tsurugi. 1987; Barbieri et .... model. The structures were refined using Refmac. (Murshudov et al. 1997) from the ...... kine expression in treated spleen cells of rats. Mol. Cell.

  10. Fluoride at non-toxic dose affects odontoblast gene expression in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtz, Tilmann; Houari, Sophia; Mauro, Nicole; MacDougall, Mary; Peters, Heiko; Berdal, Ariane

    2008-01-01

    Elevated fluoride intake may lead to local tissue disturbances, known as fluorosis. Towards an understanding of this effect, fluoride-induced molecular responses were analyzed in MO6-G3 cultured odontoblasts cells. NaF at 1 mM changed expression of genes implicated in tissue formation and growth, without affecting cell proliferation or inducing stress factor RNAs. Up to 1 mM NaF, DNA accumulation was not inhibited, whereas at 3 mM, cells detached from their support and did not proliferate. Intracellular structures, characterized by EM, were normal up to 1 mM, but at 3 mM, necrotic features were evident. No sign of apoptotic transformation appeared at any NaF concentration. Fluoride-sensitive genes were identified by microarray analysis; expression levels of selected RNAs were determined by conventional and real-time RT-PCR. At 1 mM fluoride, RNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins asporin and fibromodulin, and the cell membrane associated proteins periostin and IMT2A were 10-fold reduced. RNA coding for signaling factor TNF-receptor 9 was diminished to one-third, whereas that for the chemokine Scya-5 was enhanced 2.5-fold. These RNAs are present in vivo in tooth forming cells. This was demonstrated by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR on RNA from dissected tissue samples; for the presence and functioning of fibromodulin in dentin matrix, a more comprehensive study has earlier been performed by others [Goldberg, M., Septier, D., Oldberg, A., Young, M.F., Ameye, L.G., 2006. Fibromodulin deficient mice display impaired collagen fibrillogenesis in predentin as well as altered dentin mineralization and enamel formation. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54, 525-537]. Expression of most other RNA species, in particular of stress factor coding RNAs, was not altered. It was concluded that fluoride could influence the transcription pattern without inducing cell stress or apoptosis. In odontoblasts in vivo, aberrant expression of these fluoride-sensitive genes may impair the formation of the extracellular matrix and influence cell communication, with the possible consequence of fluorotic patterns of normal and deviant dentin

  11. Anti-Aging Activity and Non-Toxic Dose of Phytooxyresveratrol from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    , 4Division of Medical Molecular. Biology, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University,. Bangkok 10700, Thailand. Abstract. Purpose: To determine the anti-aging activity and toxicity doses ...

  12. A non-toxic herbal remedy which enhance lymphocyte activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... 1State Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Department of Prosthodontics, West ... lucidum has the ability to enhance lymphocyte proliferation and metabolism without any significant .... It acts as a reference point to our study.

  13. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ilie Spataru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA and its alkaline salt (OLANa. Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA, with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1 required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC (TG-DSC analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules.

  14. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  15. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  16. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  17. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  18. REDUCTION OF EXCESS SLUDGE PRODUCTION IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM BASED ON LYSIS-CRYPTIC GROWTH, UNCOUPLING METABOLISM AND FOLIC ACID ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Velho

    Full Text Available Abstract The following sludge reduction alternatives were tested in wastewater biological reactors: oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA-process; ultrasonic disintegration (UD; chlorination (CH; 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS; and folic acid (FA. Compared to the control system, UD reduced 55% of the sludge production, and greater substrate and nutrient removal efficiency was achieved. CH worsened the sludge settleability and increased the SVI values; the system achieved 25% of sludge reduction. OSA showed 50% and 60% of sludge reduction after 16 and 10 hours under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The observed sludge yield during TCS addition was decreased by 40%, and the sludge settleability worsened. FA presented the highest sludge reduction (75%, and the system improved the nutrient removal efficiency by 30% compared to the control system and maintained the sludge properties. Acute toxicity conducted with Daphnia magna classified the effluent from the sludge reduction systems as non-toxic for discharge into water sources.

  19. Biochemical and immunological characterization of the main products of crotoxin irradiation; Caracterizacao bioquimica e imunologica dos principais produtos gerados pela irradiacao de crotoxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Nanci do

    1995-07-01

    Irradiation of crotoxin and its subunits with 2,000 Gy of {gamma}-rays from {sup 60} Co source leads to aggregation and generation of lower molecular wight breakdown products. Aggregates separated by gel filtration retain at least part of their higher-ordered structure, based on their reactivity with monoclonal antibodies known to react with conformation epitopes in native crotoxin. These same aggregates can serve as antigens to raise antisera that cross-reacts and neutralizes crotoxin. Compared with native crotoxin, aggregates appears less myotoxic, are largely devoid of phospholipase activity, and are virtually non-toxic in mice. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant detoxification, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties of native crotoxin. (author)

  20. Design and validation of inert homemade explosive simulants for X-ray-based inspection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; Nacson, Sabatino; Koffler, Bruce; Bourbeau, Éric; Gagne, Louis; Laing, Robin; Anderson, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Transport Canada (TC), the Canadian Armed Forces, and other public security agencies have an interest in the assessment of the potential utility of advanced explosives detection technologies to aid in the detection and interdiction of commercial grade, military grade, and homemade or improvised explosives (HME or IE). The availability of suitable, non-hazardous, non-toxic, explosive simulants is of concern when assessing the potential utility of such detection systems. Lack of simulants limits the training opportunities, and ultimately the detection probability, of security personnel using these systems. While simulants for commercial and military grade explosives are available for a wide variety of detection technologies, the design and production of materials to simulate improvised explosives has not kept pace with this emerging threat. Funded by TC and the Canadian Safety and Security Program, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Visiontec Systems, and Optosecurity engaged in an effort to develop inert, non-toxic Xray interrogation simulants for IE materials such as ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and triacetone triperoxide. These simulants were designed to mimic key X-ray interrogation-relevant material properties of real improvised explosives, principally their bulk density and effective atomic number. Different forms of the simulants were produced and tested, simulating the different explosive threat formulations that could be encountered by front line security workers. These simulants comply with safety and stability requirements, and as best as possible match form and homogeneity. This paper outlines the research program, simulant design, and validation.

  1. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  2. Straight-chain halocarbon forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production – Tests with yttria-stabilized zirconia microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Colorado Center for Advanced Ceramics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Braley, J.C. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Chemistry and Geochemistry Department, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • YSZ TRISO kernels formed in three alternative, non-hazardous forming fluids. • Kernels characterized for size, shape, pore/grain size, density, and composition. • Bromotetradecane is suitable for further investigation with uranium-based precursor. - Abstract: Current methods of TRISO fuel kernel production in the United States use a sol–gel process with trichloroethylene (TCE) as the forming fluid. After contact with radioactive materials, the spent TCE becomes a mixed hazardous waste, and high costs are associated with its recycling or disposal. Reducing or eliminating this mixed waste stream would not only benefit the environment, but would also enhance the economics of kernel production. Previous research yielded three candidates for testing as alternatives to TCE: 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane. This study considers the production of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) kernels in silicone oil and the three chosen alternative formation fluids, with subsequent characterization of the produced kernels and used forming fluid. Kernels formed in silicone oil and bromotetradecane were comparable to those produced by previous kernel production efforts, while those produced in chlorooctadecane and iodododecane experienced gelation issues leading to poor kernel formation and geometry.

  3. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  4. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  5. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  6. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

  7. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  8. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  10. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-12-11

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  11. Utilization of Paneer Whey Waste for Cost-Effective Production of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed at isolating rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize paneer whey, an abundant waste source as sole medium for the production purpose. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, SR17, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil that could efficiently utilize paneer whey for rhamnolipid production and reduce surface tension of the medium from 52 to 26.5 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant obtained was 2.7 g/l, upgraded to 4.8 g/l when supplemented with 2 % glucose and mineral salts. Biochemical, FTIR, and LC-MS analysis revealed that extracted biosurfactant is a combination of both mono and di-rhamnolipid congeners. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was measured to be 110 mg/l. Emulsification activity of the biosurfactant against n-hexadecane, olive oil, kerosene, diesel oil, engine oil, and crude oil were found to be 83, 88, 81, 92, 86, and 100 %, respectively. The rhamnolipid was detected to be non-toxic against mouse fibroblastic cell line L292.

  12. Continuous low cost transesterification process for the production of coconut biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.; Kumar, D.; Singh, S.; Kothari, S.; Bhatt, S.; Singh, CH. P. [Department of Chemistry, Sahu Jain College, Najibabad, 246763 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, or alkyl ester, is an alternative renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel fuel produced by the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil. Here we characterize a system for continuous transesterification of vegetable oil using five continuous stirring tank reactors. We tested residence times of 16-43 min, stirring speeds of 200-800 rpm, a catalyst concentration (KOH) of 0.25-1 wt% of oil (in gram), different total flow rates of the oil and MeOH, and on the production performance of the 5 stage continuous reactor for transesterification of vegetable oil. Using a molar ratio of oil:methanol of 1:7 and a reaction temperature of 65 {sup o}C, we show that a high stirring speed increased the reaction rate, but an excessive stir speed decreased the reaction rate and conversion to biodiesel. Furthermore, a higher catalyst percentage significantly increased the reaction rate and production capacity. A catalyst percentage of 1 wt% of oil gave the best conversion; 99.04 {+-} 0.05%. The resulting biodiesel esters were characterized for their physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, iodine volume, acid volume, cloud point, pure point, gross heat of combustion, and volatility. The purity and conversion of the biodiesel was analyzed by HPLC. (author)

  13. Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-15

    Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal.

  14. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must obtain a signed, FDA-prescribed risk acknowledgement certification before use that states that they have been informed of the risks to health that may result from use of sunlamp products. Using tanning lamps, booths, or beds: If you ...

  15. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  16. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  17. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  18. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  19. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  20. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: Another potential mechanism of immune-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiello, Maria R.; Rotunno, Crescenzia; Coluccia, Addolorata; Carratu, Maria R.; Di Santo, Angelomaria; Evangelista, Virgilio; Semeraro, Nicola; Colucci, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA), an ubiquitous contaminant of food products endowed with a wide spectrum of toxicity, affects several functions of mononuclear leukocytes. Monocytes/macrophages play a major role in fibrin accumulation associated with immune-inflammatory processes through the production of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2). We studied the effect of OTA on TF and PAI-2 production by human blood mononuclear cells (MNC). The cells were incubated for 3 or 18 h at 37 deg. C with non toxic OTA concentrations in the absence and in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other inflammatory agents. TF activity was measured by a one-stage clotting test. Antigen assays were performed by specific ELISAs in cell extracts or conditioned media and specific mRNAs were assessed by RT-PCR. OTA had no direct effect on TF and PAI-2 production by MNC. However, OTA caused a dose-dependent reduction in LPS-induced TF (activity, antigen and mRNA) and PAI-2 (antigen and mRNA) production with > 85% inhibition at 1 μg/ml. Similar results were obtained when monocyte-enriched preparations were used instead of MNC. TF production was also impaired by OTA (1 μg/ml) when MNC were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (98% inhibition), IL-1β (83%) or TNF-α (62%). The inhibition of TF and PAI-2 induction might represent a hitherto unrecognized mechanism whereby OTA exerts immunosuppressant activity

  1. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  2. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  3. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  4. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  5. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  6. Phytosanitary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

  7. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  8. Metabolomics Analysis of the Toxic Effects of the Production of Lycopene and Its Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Miguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using cells as microbial factories enables highly specific production of chemicals with many advantages over chemical syntheses. A number of exciting new applications of this approach are in the area of precision metabolic engineering, which focuses on improving the specificity of target production. In recent work, we have used precision metabolic engineering to design lycopene-producing Escherichia coli for use as a low-cost diagnostic biosensor. To increase precursor availability and thus the rate of lycopene production, we heterologously expressed the mevalonate pathway. We found that simultaneous induction of these pathways increases lycopene production, but induction of the mevalonate pathway before induction of the lycopene pathway decreases both lycopene production and growth rate. Here, we aim to characterize the metabolic changes the cells may be undergoing during expression of either or both of these heterologous pathways. After establishing an improved method for quenching E. coli for metabolomics analysis, we used two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS to characterize the metabolomic profile of our lycopene-producing strains in growth conditions characteristic of our biosensor application. We found that the metabolic impacts of producing low, non-toxic levels of lycopene are of much smaller magnitude than the typical metabolic changes inherent to batch growth. We then used metabolomics to study differences in metabolism caused by the time of mevalonate pathway induction and the presence of the lycopene biosynthesis genes. We found that overnight induction of the mevalonate pathway was toxic to cells, but that the cells could recover if the lycopene pathway was not also heterologously expressed. The two pathways appeared to have an antagonistic metabolic effect that was clearly reflected in the cells’ metabolic profiles. The metabolites homocysteine and homoserine exhibited particularly interesting

  9. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  10. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  11. Liquid clay emulsion--alternate daily cover and erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, L. [L/M Chemical Service, Ancona, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Formula 480 Biodegradable Clay Based Product, developed in 1985, is a non-toxic liquid bentonite clay product that comes in concentrate form for dilution with water and/or leachate. The concentrate allows this product y to be used for erosion and dust control, grass seeding, as well as a daily or intermediate cover for landfills. It inhibits the activities of birds and vectors, while controlling dust, erosion, odor, and blowing debris. By varying the dilution of Formula 480, the product can be set up from porous and flexible, to durable and waterproof. Having a clay base, high cation exchange capacity offers nutrient stabilization for grass seeding. When using leachate for product dilution, it will percolate, waterproof, and be recycled back into the surface as a solid. The product is economical at $.03 to $.08/sq.ft., depending on thickness of application, smoothness of surface or compaction ratio. Application is done with a self-contained sprayer developed specifically for Formula 480. It can be sprayed with a high volume handgun or an economical and efficient spray boom. This product is cleared for use in over 15 states and is currently being used on hazardous and non-hazardous fills throughout the U.S. and Germany. Ease of application, economy, and effectiveness warrants people to look at this product for many uses.

  12. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  13. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  14. Lepton production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are $e/\\mu$ universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the "anomalous" low mass pairs.\\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of:\\\\- electron identification\\\\ - muon identification \\\\ - missing energy measurement for neutrinos \\\\ - vertex identification (for $\\tau \\simeq \\tau_{charm}$). \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size $\\simeq 50 \\mu$ impinges on a beryllium target of diameter $50 \\mu$, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segmented front section of the Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter. Essentially t...

  15. Effects of Chemical Components on the Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii Mutant and PHB Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Mohd Razak; Safiyyah Zainuddin; Ying, P.L.W.; Chyan, J.B.; Elly Ellyna Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) is a non-toxic biodegradable polymer produced by some bacteria and can be applied in medical, pharmacology and food industry. Eight types of chemical components acting as supplements were added to culture medium as nutrient pulses. The growth of bacteria was monitored by recording the absorbance value at 600 nm for every 24 hours of cultivation. PHB was extracted using chloroform. Reading at 235 nm was recorded to determine the PHB concentration. By observing the dry cell weight, we observed the addition of sucrose increased the biomass of Azotobacter vinelandii mutant from 1.5 mg/ mL to 5.6 mg/ mL and 8.4 mg/ mL after 3, 4 and 7 days of cultivation, respectively. The highest PHB concentration of 859.27 μg/ mL was obtained after seven days of cultivation in the medium which was supplied with urea sequentially, With sucrose, the PHB concentration increased from 25.45 μg/ ml to 99.59 μg/ ml and 655.56 μg/ ml after 3, 4 and 7 days of cultivation, respectively. The PHB concentrations obtained with sucrose-pulses were the second highest after urea. As a conclusion, sucrose and urea are the two major factors in the growth and PHB production by A. vinelandii mutant. (author)

  16. Growth, Toxin Production and Allelopathic Effects of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under Iron-Enriched Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda Sobrinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of Fe-enrichment on the growth and domoic acid (DA production of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, static cultures that received the addition of different iron (Fe concentrations were maintained for 30 days. Intra- and extracellular DA concentrations were evaluated over time, and growth and chain-formation were compared to those of non-toxic diatoms, Bacillaria sp. Growth rates of P. multiseries (μ = 0.45–0.73 d−1 were similar among cultures containing different Fe concentrations. Likewise, the similar incidence and length of P. multiseries stepped cell chains (usually 2–4; up to 8-cell long among the treatments reinforces that the cultures were not growth-inhibited under any condition tested, suggesting an efficient Fe acquisition mechanism. Moreover, DA concentrations were significantly higher under the highest Fe concentration, indicating that Fe is required for toxin synthesis. Bacillaria sp. reached comparable growth rates under the same Fe concentrations, except when the dissolved cell contents from a P. multiseries culture was added. The 50–70% reduction in cell density and 70–90% decrease in total chlorophyll-a content of Bacillaria sp. at early stationary growth phase indicates, for the first time, an allelopathic effect of undetermined compounds released by Pseudo-nitzschia to another diatom species.

  17. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAIFUDDIN, N.; SITI FAZLILI, A.; KUMARAN, P.; PEI-JUA, N.; PRIATHASHINI, P.

    2016-03-01

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C8-C12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1:6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.

  18. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  19. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  20. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  1. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  2. Key factors which concur to the correct therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in free radical-induced diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare eMancuso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years now the world's scientific literature has been perfused with articles on the therapeutic potential of natural products, the vast majority of which have herbal origins, as in the case of free radical-induced diseases. What is often overlooked is the effort of researchers who take into consideration the preclinical and clinical evaluation of these herbal products, in order to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy and safety. The first critical issue to be addressed in the early stages of the preclinical studies is related to pharmacokinetics, which is sometimes not very favorable, of some of these products, which limits the bioavailability after oral intake. In this regard, it is worthy underlining how it is often unethical to propose the therapeutic efficacy of a compound on the basis of preclinical results obtained with far higher concentrations to those which, hopefully, could be achieved in organs and tissues of subjects taking these products by mouth. The most widely used approach to overcome the problem related to the low bioavailability involves the complexation of the active ingredients of herbal products with non-toxic carriers that facilitate the absorption and distribution. Even the induction or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes by herbal products, and the consequent variations of plasma concentrations of co-administered drugs, are phenomena to be carefully evaluated as they can give rise to side-effects. This risk is even greater when considering that people lack the perception of the risk arising from an over use of herbal products that, by their very nature, are considered risk-free.

  3. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  4. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  5. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  6. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory

  7. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase oxidant production by N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide reduces brain damage in a murine model of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Liang, Ye; Huang, Ziming; Jones, Deron W; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Zhang, Hao

    2016-05-24

    Oxidative stress plays an important and causal role in the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury increases brain damage after stroke. Accordingly, reducing oxidative stress has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for limiting damage in the brain after stroke. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a highly potent oxidative enzyme that is capable of inducing both oxidative and nitrosative stress in vivo. To determine if and the extent to which MPO-generated oxidants contribute to brain I/R injury, we treated mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel, specific and non-toxic inhibitor of MPO. Behavioral testing, ischemic damage, blood-brain-barrier disruption, apoptosis, neutrophils infiltration, microglia/macrophage activation, and MPO oxidation were analyzed within a 7-day period after MCAO. Our studies show that KYC treatment significantly reduces neurological severity scores, infarct size, IgG extravasation, neutrophil infiltration, loss of neurons, apoptosis, and microglia/macrophage activation in the brains of MCAO mice. Immunofluorescence studies show that KYC treatment reduces the formation of chlorotyrosine (ClTyr), a fingerprint biomarker of MPO oxidation, nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) in MCAO mice. All oxidative products colocalized with MPO in the infarcted brains, suggesting that MPO-generated oxidants are involved in forming the oxidative products. MPO-generated oxidants play detrimental roles in causing brain damage after stroke which is effectively reduced by KYC.

  8. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

    2012-08-16

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.

  9. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  10. Production management (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Ryong

    1976-03-01

    This book introduces production management theory, which gives descriptions of production and system, systems approach, development of production management, Taylor system, Ford system, types of production system, measuring ingredients model of production management, decision of production management, selection of production facilities, arrangement of facilities design of work method and task, work measure system, demanding fore casting, production quality system and credibility system.

  11. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Synergistically Acting Natural Product Enhancing the Performance of Biomaterial Based Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sivasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    with other features including non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and safety.

  12. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  13. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  14. Utilization of Yatagan Power Plant Fly Ash in Production of Building Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önel, Öznur; Tanriverdi, Mehmet; Cicek, Tayfun

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal combustion, which accumulates in large quantities near the coal-fired power plants as waste material. Fly ash causes serious operational and environmental problems. In this study, fly ash from Yatağgan thermal power plant was used to produce light-weight building bricks. The study aimed to reduce the problems related to fly ash by creating a new area for their use. The optimum process parameters were determined for the production of real size bricks to be used in construction industry. The commercial size bricks (200 × 200 × 90-110 mm) were manufactured using pilot size equipment. Mechanical properties, thermal conductivity coefficients, freezing and thawing strengths, water absorption rates, and unit volume weights of the bricks were determined. Etringite (Ca6Al2 (SO4)3 (OH)12 25(H2O)) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (2CaO.SiO2.4H2O) were identified as the binding phases in the real size brick samples after 2 days of pre-curing and 28 days curing at 50° C and 95% relative moisture. The water absorption rate was found to be 27.7 % in terms of mass. The mechanical and bending strength of the brick samples with unit volume weight of 1.29 g.cm-3 were determined as 6.75 MPa and 1,56 MPa respectively. The thermal conductivity of the fly ash bricks was measured in average as 0,340 W m-1 K-1. The fly ash sample produced was subjected to toxic leaching tests (Toxic Property Leaching Procedure (EPA-TCLP 1311), Single-step BATCH Test and Method-A Disintegration Procedure (ASTM)). The results of these tests suggested that the materials could be classified as non-hazardous wastes / materials.

  15. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  17. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  18. The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater.

  19. Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Juliana; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Fouillaud, Mireille; Petit, Thomas; Vinale, Francesco; Dufossé, Laurent; Caro, Yanis

    2017-06-28

    The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera ( Penicillium , Talaromyces , Fusarium , Aspergillus , Trichoderma , Dreschlera , and Paecilomyces ). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium , Fusarium oxysporum , marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride , as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N -threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus -like azaphilone pigment.

  20. Food production and nutrition in biosphere 2: results from the first mission September 1991 to September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S. E.; Nelson, M.

    The initial test of the Biosphere 2 agricultural system was to provide a nutritionally adequate diet for eight crew members during a two year closure experiment, 1991-1993. The overall results of that trial are presented in this paper. The 2000 m^2 cropping area provided about 80 percent of overall nutritional needs during the two years. Adaptation of the crew to the diet which averaged 2200 calories, 73 g. of protein and 32 g. of fat per person over the course of the two years. The diet was primarily vegetarian, with only small amounts of milk, meat and eggs from the system's domestic animals. The crew experienced 10-20 percent weight loss, most of which occurred in the first six months of the closure reflecting adaptation to the diet and lower caloric intake during that period. Since Biosphere 2 is a tightly sealed system, non-toxic methods of pest and disease control were employed and inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes and human waste-water were processed and nutrients returned to the soil. Crop pests and diseases, especially broad mites and rootknot nematode, reduced yields, and forced the use of alternative crops. Outstanding crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals. Overall, the agriculture and food processing required some 45% of the crew time.

  1. The role of some natural products in protecting against the effect of gamma irradiation on the gastrointestinal tract in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces a wide range of biological effects including inflammation, DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, mutation, carcinogenesis, and hereditary diseases. These effects are mainly mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect particularly tissues with a high rate of cell turnover, such as gastrointestinal tract. Thus, patients with abdominal and pelvic malignancies are at high risk of developing ulceration, perforation, chronic atrophic gastroenteritis, and depression of secretory and motor function due to high doses of ionizing radiation exposure. Therefore there is a continued interest and need for the identification and development of non-toxic and effective radio-protective compounds that can reduce the deleterious effect of radiation. Such compounds could potentially protect humans against the genetic damage, mutation, alteration in the immune system and teratogenic effects of toxic agents including radiation, which act through the generation of free radicals. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is known to contain flavonoids which confer on it various biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects. However in Ginger, the gingerols were identified as the major active components which have radio protective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, stimulation of digestion and absorption in the digestive tract. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of certain natural products such as Ginkgo biloba extract and Ginger powder and their mechanism of actions in guarding against the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction induced in gastrointestinal tissues after exposure to whole body γ-radiation as acute doses.

  2. The Dynamics of Microcystis Genotypes and Microcystin Production and Associations with Environmental Factors during Blooms in Lake Chaohu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Kong, Fanxiang; Zhang, Min; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Xiaoli; Du, Mingyong

    2014-01-01

    Lake Chaohu, which is a large, shallow, hypertrophic freshwater lake in southeastern China, has been experiencing lake-wide toxic Microcystis blooms in recent decades. To illuminate the relationships between microcystin (MC) production, the genotypic composition of the Microcystis community and environmental factors, water samples and associated environmental data were collected from June to October 2012 within Lake Chaohu. The Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and HPLC, respectively. The results showed that the abundances of Microcystis genotypes and MC concentrations varied on spatial and temporal scales. Microcystis exists as a mixed population of toxic and non-toxic genotypes, and the proportion of toxic Microcystis genotypes ranged from 9.43% to 87.98%. Both Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regressions demonstrated that throughout the entire lake, the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations showed significant positive correlation with the total phosphorus and water temperature, suggesting that increases in temperature together with the phosphorus concentrations may promote more frequent toxic Microcystis blooms and higher concentrations of MC. Whereas, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was negatively correlated with the abundances of total and toxic Microcystis and MC concentrations, indicating that rising DIC concentrations may suppress toxic Microcystis abundance and reduce the MC concentrations in the future. Therefore, our results highlight the fact that future eutrophication and global climate change can affect the dynamics of toxic Microcystis blooms and hence change the MC levels in freshwater. PMID:25474494

  3. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankir, Nurdan Demirci, E-mail: nsankir@etu.edu.tr; Aydin, Erkan; Ugur, Esma; Sankir, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} heterojunction solar cells. • Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells. • Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. • AZO–Ag–AZO sandwich structure. • Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO was studied as a function of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 10{sup 6} times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) of the Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. The maximum J{sub sc} of 9.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc} of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 μm-thick In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed thin film solar cells.

  4. Vitamin D status in Egyptian euthyroid multinodular non-toxic goiter patients and its correlation with TSH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Elshafei, Maha M; Elsayed, Eman

    2016-10-01

    Although the prevalence of MNG is widespread throughout the world, its pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the complex interactions of both genetic predisposition and the individuals' environment are likely. However, to the best of our knowledge, it remains unknown whether there is a relationship between vitamin D status and prevalence or pathogenesis of euthyroid MNG. Therefore, the goal of the present study was determination of vitamin D status in euthyroid MNG as well as exploration of the correlation between vitamin D status & TSH levels. A total of 77 patients diagnosed with euthyroid MNG and 50 subjects without goiter were matched according to age, weight and BMI as control group in this case control study. We found that patients with euthyroid MNG had statistically significant lower mean of [25(OH)D] (24.21±8.68ng/mL) in comparison with its mean in control subjects (28.37±10.91ng/mL, P value=0.019). The 28 sufficient vitamin D MNG patients had statistically significant lower level of TSH than 49 insufficient vitamin D MNG patients. Vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in MNG patients in Pearson correlation. Also 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients in regression analysis. Patients with euthyroid MNG have lower levels of vitamin D and TSH levels correlate with vitamin D levels in euthyroid MNG patients. In addition, 25 OH vitamin D was a significant independent predictor for TSH levels among euthyroid MNG patients. We recommend hypovitaminosis D evaluation and correction in patients with MNG. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversal in competitive dominance of a toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterium in response to rising CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; Finke, J.F.; Vournazou, V.; Immers, A.K.; Kardinaal, W.E.A.; Tonk, L.; Becker, S.; van Donk, E.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change scenarios predict a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of this century. Yet, how rising CO2 will affect the species composition of aquatic microbial communities is still largely an open question. In this study, we develop a resource competition model to

  6. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under non-toxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nienke E; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees N J

    2010-04-01

    A MFC-based biosensor can act as online toxicity sensor. Electrical current is a direct linear measure for metabolic activity of electrochemically active microorganisms. Microorganisms gain energy from anodic overpotential and current strongly depends on anodic overpotential. Therefore control of anodic overpotential is necessary to detect toxic events and prevent false positive alarms. Anodic overpotential and thus current is influenced by anode potential, pH, substrate and bicarbonate concentrations. In terms of overpotential all factor showed a comparable effect, anode potential 1.2% change in current density per mV, pH 0.43%/mV, bicarbonate 0.75%/mV and acetate 0.8%/mV. At acetate saturation the maximum acetate conversion rate is reached and with that a constant bicarbonate concentration. Control of acetate and bicarbonate concentration can be less strict than control of anode potential and pH. Current density changes due to changing anode potential and pH are in the same order of magnitude as changes due to toxicity. Strict control of pH and anode potential in a small range is required. The importance of anodic overpotential control for detection of toxic compounds is shown. To reach a stable baseline current under nontoxic conditions a MFC-based biosensor should be operated at controlled anode potential, controlled pH and saturated substrate concentrations. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilizing the baseline current of a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor through overpotential control under non-toxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A MFC-based biosensor can act as online toxicity sensor Electrical current is a direct linear measure for metabolic activity of electrochemically active microorganisms Microorganisms gain energy from anodic overpotential and current strongly depends on anodic overpotential Therefore control of

  8. Isatin derivatives as a non-toxic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 20% H2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A.; Singh, Ambrish

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mild steel protection in 20% H 2 SO 4 by TZs. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of TZs are mixed type but cathodically predominant. • The adsorption of TZs obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Examination of surface morphology by SEM and EDX. • Correlation between experimental and quantum chemical results. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition action of Isatin-β-thiosemicarbzone derivatives namely 1-Benzylidene-5-(2-oxoindoline-3-ylidene) Thiocarbohydrazone (TZ-1) and 1-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-5-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) Thiocarbohydrazone (TZ-2) was studied on mild steel surface in 20% H 2 SO 4 by gravimetric measurements, Electrochemical measurements (EIS and Tafel), SEM, EDX and quantum chemical methods. Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the TZs act as mixed type inhibitors exhibiting predominantly cathodic behavior. The adsorption of TZs obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (E a , K ads , ΔG° ads ) were also computed and discussed

  9. Testicular Busulfan Injection in Mice to Prepare Recipients for Spermatogonial Stem Cell Transplantation Is Safe and Non-Toxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, YuSheng; Liu, Ling; He, YaNan; Wang, Chen; Liang, MingYuan; Chen, XiaoLi; Hao, HaiSheng; Qin, Tong; Zhao, XueMing; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of administering busulfan to remove the endogenous germ cells cause hematopoietic toxicity, require special instruments and a narrow transplantation time. We use a direct testicular injection of busulfan method for preparing recipients for SSC transplantation. Male ICR mice (recipients) were divided into four groups, and two experimental groups were treated with a bilateral testicular injection of 4 or 6 mg/kg/side busulfan (n = 60 per concentration group). Mice received an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 40 mg/kg busulfan (n = 60, positive control) and bilateral testicular injections of 50% DMSO (n = 60, negative control). Donor SSCs from RFP-transgenic C57BL/6J mice were introduced into the seminiferous tubules of each recipient testis via efferent duct injection on day 16-17 after busulfan treatment. Recipient mice mated with mature female ICR mice and the number of progeny was recorded. The index detected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 70 after busulfan treatment. Blood analysis shows that the toxicity of busulfan treated groups was much lower than i.p. injection groups. Fertility was restored in mice treated with busulfan and donor-derived offspring were obtained after SSC transplantation. Our study indicated that intratesticular injection busulfan for the preparation of recipients in mice is safe and feasible.

  10. Formation of non-toxic Aβ fibrils by small heat shock protein under heat-stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakono, Masafumi [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); PRESTO, JST, Saitama (Japan); Utsumi, Arata [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Zako, Tamotsu, E-mail: zako@riken.jp [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Yohda, Masafumi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Mizuo [Bioengineering Laboratory, RIKEN Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We examined effect of the quaternary structure of yeast sHsp on Aβ aggregation. ► Aβ aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of sHsp, but not by dimeric sHsp. ► The fibrillar amyloids consisted of both Aβ and dimeric sHsp. ► They exhibited different inner structure and cytotoxicity from authentic Aβ amyloids. ► These results suggest the formation of new type fibrillar Aβ amyloid by sHsp. -- Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) is a molecular chaperone with a conserved alpha-crystallin domain that can prevent protein aggregation. It has been shown that sHsps exist as oligomers (12–40 mer) and their dissociation into small dimers or oligomers is functionally important. Since several sHsps are upregulated and co-localized with amyloid-β (Aβ) in senile plaques of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), sHsps are thought to be involved in AD. Previous studies have also shown that sHsp can prevent Aβ aggregation in vitro. However, it remains unclear how the quaternary structure of sHsp influences Aβ aggregation. In this study, we report for the first time the effect of the quaternary structure of sHsp on Aβ aggregation using sHsp from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpHsp16.0) showing a clear temperature-dependent structural transition between an oligomer (30 °C) and dimer (50 °C) state. Aβ aggregation was inhibited by the oligomeric form of SpHsp16.0. In contrast, amyloid fibrils were formed in the presence of dimeric SpHsp16.0. Interestingly, these amyloid fibrils consisted of both Aβ and SpHsp16.0 and showed a low ThT intensity and low cytotoxicity due to their low binding affinity to the cell surface. These results suggest the formation of novel fibrillar Aβ amyloid with different characteristics from that of the authentic Aβ amyloid fibrils formed in the absence of sHsp. Our results also suggest the potential protective role of sHsp in AD under stress conditions.

  11. Development of HuperTacrines as non-toxic, cholinesterase inhibitors for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioua, Mourad; Pérez, Marta; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Yañez, Matilde; López, Manuela G; Romero, Alejandro; Cacabelos, Ramón; de la Bellacasa, Raimon Puig; Brogi, Simone; Butini, Stefania; Borrell, José I; Marco-Contelles, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes our preliminary results on the ADMET, synthesis, biochemical evaluation, and molecular modeling of racemic HuperTacrines (HT), new hybrids resulting from the juxtaposition of huperzine A and tacrine for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The synthesis of these HT was executed by Friedländer-type reactions of 2-amino-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles, or 7-amino-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine- 8-carbonitriles, with cyclohexanone. In the biochemical evaluation, initial and particular attention was devoted to test their toxicity on human hepatoma cells, followed by the in vitro inhibition of human cholinesterases (hAChE, and hBuChE), and the kinetics/mechanism of the inhibition of the most potent HT; simultaneous molecular modeling on the best HT provided the key binding interactions with the human cholinesterases. >From these analyses, (±)-5-amino-3-methyl- 3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (HT1) and (±)-5-amino-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-3,4,6,7,8,9- hexahydrobenzo[b][1,8]naphthyridin-2(1H)-one (HT3) have emerged as characterized by extremely low liver toxicity reversible mixed-type, selective hAChE and, quite selective irreversible hBuChEIs, respectively, showing also good druglike properties for AD-targeted drugs.

  12. Rapid generation of an anthrax immunotherapeutic from goats using a novel non-toxic muramyl dipeptide adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Cassandra D; O'Loughlin, Chris; Gelder, Frank B; Peterson, Johnny W; Sower, Laurie E; Cirino, Nick M

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a clear need for vaccines and therapeutics for potential biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging diseases. Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, has been used as both a biological warfare agent and bioterrorist weapon previously. Although antibiotic therapy is effective in the early stages of anthrax infection, it does not have any effect once exposed individuals become symptomatic due to B. anthracis exotoxin accumulation. The bipartite exotoxin...

  13. Hydrophobic Sand Is a Non-Toxic Method of Urine Collection, Appropriate for Urinary Metal Analysis in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F. Hoffman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobic sand is a relatively new method of urine collection in the rodent, comparable to the established method using a metabolic cage. Urine samples are often used in rodent research, especially for biomarkers of health changes after internal contamination from embedded metals, such as in a model of a military shrapnel wound. However, little research has been done on the potential interference of hydrophobic sand with urine metal concentrations either by contamination from the sand particulate, or adsorption of metals from the urine. We compare urine collected from rats using the metabolic cage method and the hydrophobic sand method for differences in metal concentration of common urinary metals, and examine physical properties of the sand material for potential sources of contamination. We found minimal risk of internal contamination of the rat by hydrophobic sand, and no interference of the sand with several common metals of interest (cobalt, strontium, copper, and manganese, although we advise caution in studies of aluminum in urine.

  14. Testicular Busulfan Injection in Mice to Prepare Recipients for Spermatogonial Stem Cell Transplantation Is Safe and Non-Toxic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuSheng Qin

    Full Text Available Current methods of administering busulfan to remove the endogenous germ cells cause hematopoietic toxicity, require special instruments and a narrow transplantation time. We use a direct testicular injection of busulfan method for preparing recipients for SSC transplantation. Male ICR mice (recipients were divided into four groups, and two experimental groups were treated with a bilateral testicular injection of 4 or 6 mg/kg/side busulfan (n = 60 per concentration group. Mice received an intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of 40 mg/kg busulfan (n = 60, positive control and bilateral testicular injections of 50% DMSO (n = 60, negative control. Donor SSCs from RFP-transgenic C57BL/6J mice were introduced into the seminiferous tubules of each recipient testis via efferent duct injection on day 16-17 after busulfan treatment. Recipient mice mated with mature female ICR mice and the number of progeny was recorded. The index detected at day 14, 21, 28, 35 and 70 after busulfan treatment. Blood analysis shows that the toxicity of busulfan treated groups was much lower than i.p. injection groups. Fertility was restored in mice treated with busulfan and donor-derived offspring were obtained after SSC transplantation. Our study indicated that intratesticular injection busulfan for the preparation of recipients in mice is safe and feasible.

  15. Non-toxic, non-biocide-release antifouling coatings based on molecular structure design for marine applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurioglu, A.G.; Carvalho Esteves, de A.C.; With, de G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine biofouling generally refers to the undesirable accumulation of biological organisms on surfaces in contact with seawater. This natural phenomenon represents a major economic concern for marine industries, e.g. for ships and vessels, oil and wind-turbine sea-platforms, pipelines, water valves

  16. Grazing on colonial and filamentous, toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Bontes, B.M.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    Colony forming and toxic cyanobacteria form a problem in surface waters of shallow lakes, both for recreation and wildlife. Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have been employed to help to restore shallow lakes in the Netherlands, dominated by cyanobacteria, to their former clear state. Zebra

  17. Treatment with a non-toxic, self-replicating anti-prion delays or prevents prion disease in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Espinoza, R; Morales, R; Concha-Marambio, L; Moreno-Gonzalez, I; Moda, F; Soto, C

    2018-03-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurological disorders caused by prions, which are composed of a misfolded protein (PrP Sc ) that self-propagates in the brain of infected individuals by converting the normal prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Here, we report a novel experimental strategy for preventing prion disease based on producing a self-replicating, but innocuous PrP Sc -like form, termed anti-prion, which can compete with the replication of pathogenic prions. Our results show that a prophylactic inoculation of prion-infected animals with an anti-prion delays the onset of the disease and in some animals completely prevents the development of clinical symptoms and brain damage. The data indicate that a single injection of the anti-prion eliminated ~99% of the infectivity associated to pathogenic prions. Furthermore, this treatment caused significant changes in the profile of regional PrP Sc deposition in the brains of animals that were treated, but still succumbed to the disease. Our findings provide new insights for a mechanistic understanding of prion replication and support the concept that prion replication can be separated from toxicity, providing a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-02-14

    In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days.

  19. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  20. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  1. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  2. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  3. Production management (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book includes basic concept of production management, production system, strategy and mission of production, decision of production management, operation of decision making, life cycle of items and development, value of productions, design for reliability of productions, equipment layout and manufacturing process, quantitative forecast, schedule plan, inventory system, concept, input and output of MRP, Montekalo simulation, quality management, and automation system.

  4. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  5. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Keneni, Yadessa Gonfa; Marchetti, Jorge Mario

    2017-01-01

    Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fo...

  6. Redeployment-based drug screening identifies the anti-helminthic niclosamide as anti-myeloma therapy that also reduces free light chain production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanim, F L; Merrick, B A M E; Giles, H V; Jankute, M; Jackson, J B; Giles, L J; Birtwistle, J; Bunce, C M; Drayson, M T

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM cell lines and primary MM cells as efficiently as or better than standard chemotherapy and existing anti-myeloma drugs individually or in combinations, with little impact on normal donor cells. Cell death was associated with markers of both apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, niclosamide rapidly reduced free light chain (FLC) production by MM cell lines and primary MM. FLCs are a major cause of renal impairment in MM patients and light chain amyloid and FLC reduction is associated with reversal of tissue damage. Our data indicate that niclosamides anti-MM activity was mediated through the mitochondria with rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and production of mitochondrial superoxide. Niclosamide also modulated the nuclear factor-κB and STAT3 pathways in MM cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that MM cells can be selectively targeted using niclosamide while also reducing FLC secretion. Importantly, niclosamide is widely used at these concentrations with minimal toxicity

  7. Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

  8. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  9. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  10. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  11. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George S.; Priyadharsini, Sethu; Sajayan, Arya; Priyadharsini, Gopal B.; Poulose, Navya; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent against S. aureus. PMID

  12. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

  13. Production of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant by a Marine Nesterenkonia sp. and Its Application in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are smart biomolecules which have wide spread application in medicines, processed foods, cosmetics as well as in bioremediation. In food industry, biosurfactants are used as emulsion stabilizing agents, antiadhesives, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm agents. Nowadays biosurfactant demands in industries has increased tremendously and therefore new bacterial strains are being explored for large scale production of biosurfactants. In this study, an actinobacterial strain MSA31 was isolated from a marine sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa which showed high activity in biosurfactant screening assays such as drop collapsing, oil displacement, lipase and emulsification. Lipopeptide produced by MSA31 was found to be thermostable which was evident in differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The spectral data obtained in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of aliphatic groups combined with peptide moiety which is a characteristic feature of lipopeptides. The stability index of lipopeptide MSA31 revealed “halo-alkali and thermal tolerant biosurfactant” which can be used in the food industry. Microtiter plate assay showed 125 μg/ml of lipopeptide was effective in reducing the biofilm formation activity of pathogenic multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images provided further evidences that lipopeptide MSA31 was an effective antibiofilm agent. The antioxidant activity of lipopeptide MSA31 may be due to the presence of unsaturated fatty acid present in the molecule. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay showed lipopeptide MSA31 was non-toxic and can be used as food additives. Incorporation of lipopeptide MSA31 in muffin showed improved organoleptic qualities compared to positive and negative control. This study provides a valuable input for this lipopeptide to be used in food industry as an effective emulsifier, with good antioxidant activity and as a protective agent

  14. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  15. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  16. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  17. Lignin fate and characterization during ionic liquid biomass pretreatment for renewable chemicals and fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh; Kevin M. Holtman; Daniel J. Yelle; Trevor Morgan; Vitalie Stavila; Jeffrey Pelton; Harvey Blanch; Blake A. Simmons; Anthe George

    2014-01-01

    The fate of lignin from wheat straw, Miscanthus, and Loblolly pine after pretreatment by a non-toxic and recyclable ionic liquid (IL), [C2mim][OAc], followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. The lignin partitioned into six process streams, each of which was quantified and analyzed by a combination of a novel solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic...

  18. Lignin fate and characterization during ionic liquid biomass pretreatment for renewable chemicals and fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of lignin from wheat straw, Miscanthus, and Loblolly pine after pretreatment by a non-toxic and recyclable ionic liquid (IL), [C2mim][OAc], followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. The lignin partitioned into six process streams, each of which was quantified and analyzed by a comb...

  19. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  20. Assessing the efficacy over time of the addition of industrial by-products to remediate contaminated soils at a pilot-plant scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Núñez, Raquel; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the addition of industrial by-products (gypsum and calcite) on the leaching of As and metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) in a soil contaminated by pyritic minerals was monitored over a period of 6 months at a two-pit pilot plant. The contaminated soil was placed in one pit (non-remediated soil), whereas a mixture of the contaminated soil (80% w/w) with gypsum (10% w/w) and calcite (10% w/w) was placed in the other pit (remediated soil). Soil samples and leachates of the two pits were collected at different times. Moreover, the leaching pattern of major and trace elements in the soil samples was assessed at laboratory level through the application of the pH stat leaching test. Addition of the by-products led to an increase in initial soil pH from around 2.0 to 7.5, and it also provoked that the concentration of trace elements in soil extracts obtained from the pH stat leaching test decreased to values lower than quantification limits of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and lower than the hazardous waste threshold for soil management. The trace element concentration in the pilot-plant leachates decreased over time in the non-remediated soil, probably due to the formation of more insoluble secondary minerals containing sulphur, but especially decreased in pit of the remediated soil, in agreement with laboratory data. The pH in the remediated soil remained constant over the 6-month period, and the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that the phases did not vary over time, thus indicating the efficacy of the addition of the by-products. This finding suggests that soil remediation may be a feasible option for the re-use of non-hazardous industrial by-products.

  1. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  2. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  3. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  4. Production of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Min; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Ting; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT) SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4′-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1) and 8,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2), based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum production yields of compound (1) and (2) in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under non-toxic conditions. Among the effects, compound (1) decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 μM. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1) with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity. PMID:26610478

  5. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  6. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  7. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  9. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, their metabolites/transformation products and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Česen, Marjeta; Eleršek, Tina; Novak, Matjaž; Žegura, Bojana; Kosjek, Tina; Filipič, Metka; Heath, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) and ifosfamide (IF) are commonly used cytostatic drugs that repress cell division by interaction with DNA. The present study investigates the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of CP, IF, their human metabolites/transformation products (TPs) carboxy-cyclophosphamide (CPCOOH), keto-cyclophosphamide (ketoCP) and N-dechloroethyl-cyclophosphamide (NdCP) as individual compounds and as mixture. The two parent compounds (CP and IF), at concentrations up to 320 mg L −1 , were non-toxic towards the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and cyanobacterium Synecococcus leopoliensis. Further ecotoxicity studies of metabolites/TPs and a mixture of parent compounds and metabolites/TPs performed in cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis, showed that only CPCOOH (EC 50  = 17.1 mg L −1 ) was toxic. The measured toxicity (EC 50  = 11.5 mg L −1 ) of the mixture was lower from the toxicity predicted by concentration addition model (EC 50  = 21.1 mg L −1 ) indicating potentiating effects of the CPCOOH toxicity. The SOS/umuC assay with Salmonella typhimurium revealed genotoxic activity of CP, CPCOOH and the mixture in the presence of S9 metabolic activation. Only CPCOOH was genotoxic also in the absence of metabolic activation indicating that this compound is a direct acting genotoxin. This finding is of particular importance as in the environment such compounds can directly affect DNA of non-target organisms and also explains toxicity of CPCOOH against cyanobacteria S. leopoliensis. The degradation study with UV irradiation of samples containing CP and IF showed efficient degradation of both compounds and remained non-toxic towards S. leopoliensis, suggesting that no stable TPs with adverse effects were formed. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of the commonly used cytostatics CP and IF, their known metabolites/TPs and their mixture. The results indicate the importance of toxicological evaluation and

  10. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  11. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss......This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products...

  12. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...

  13. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

    2013-10-01

    Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic cellulose as support for β-galactosidase immobilization: Matrix characterization and application on galacto -oligosaccharides production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Mariana Rodrigues; Cabrera, Mariana Paola; Vidal, Esteban Espinosa; Neri, David Fernando de Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Galacto oligosaccharides (GOS) offer positive health effects if are introduce in the diet, associated with the reduction of cholesterol level, anticarcinogenic properties and vitamins production [1]. Cellulose is an abundant renewable organic resource, biodegradable, eco-friendly [2] and is actually considered as adequate to be used as enzymatic non-toxic support. Cellulose when magnetized offers some advantages: rapid separation, reduce operational costs, absence or diminution of contaminants and easy removal of the reaction medium [3]. In this work, magnetic cellulose particles (MCP) functionalized with 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were successfully developed and used for covalent immobilization of β-galactosidase Aspergillus oryzae, via glutaraldehyde. The MCP was characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DSC and TGA and BET. The XRD possible to verify and guarantee the presence of the magnetic particles in the composite. Furthermore, the TGA curve showed decomposition range referring to cellulose, suggesting that the material is free of other substances. This enzymatic derivative was capable of acting on lactose and to produce GOS. An experimental design 2 4 was proposed to observe the influence of temperature (40 to 60 °C), the concentration of lactose (300 to 500 g/L), pH (4.0 to 5.0), and the reaction time (0.5 to 1 hour). The best responses obtained were: 79.8 g/L for the amount of GOS; 99.8 g/L/h for GOS productivity; and 66.6% for GOS yield. High temperatures and concentration of lactose were favorable for transgalactosylation mechanism. The reuse of the enzyme showed that after 10 cycles of use retained 84.6% of the initial activity. The results showed that the MCP appears as a promising matrix for the immobilization of other biomolecules. Reference: [1] Osman et al, J Biotech. 150 (2010);[2] Kang et al, Polymer 70 (2015);[3] CAO et al, J Phys.: Condens. Matter 28 (2016). (author)

  15. Magnetic cellulose as support for β-galactosidase immobilization: Matrix characterization and application on galacto -oligosaccharides production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Mariana Rodrigues; Cabrera, Mariana Paola, E-mail: marii_rxavier@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vidal, Esteban Espinosa [Centro de Tecnologias Estrategicas do Nordeste (CETENE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Neri, David Fernando de Morais [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Galacto oligosaccharides (GOS) offer positive health effects if are introduce in the diet, associated with the reduction of cholesterol level, anticarcinogenic properties and vitamins production [1]. Cellulose is an abundant renewable organic resource, biodegradable, eco-friendly [2] and is actually considered as adequate to be used as enzymatic non-toxic support. Cellulose when magnetized offers some advantages: rapid separation, reduce operational costs, absence or diminution of contaminants and easy removal of the reaction medium [3]. In this work, magnetic cellulose particles (MCP) functionalized with 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were successfully developed and used for covalent immobilization of β-galactosidase Aspergillus oryzae, via glutaraldehyde. The MCP was characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD, DSC and TGA and BET. The XRD possible to verify and guarantee the presence of the magnetic particles in the composite. Furthermore, the TGA curve showed decomposition range referring to cellulose, suggesting that the material is free of other substances. This enzymatic derivative was capable of acting on lactose and to produce GOS. An experimental design 2{sup 4} was proposed to observe the influence of temperature (40 to 60 °C), the concentration of lactose (300 to 500 g/L), pH (4.0 to 5.0), and the reaction time (0.5 to 1 hour). The best responses obtained were: 79.8 g/L for the amount of GOS; 99.8 g/L/h for GOS productivity; and 66.6% for GOS yield. High temperatures and concentration of lactose were favorable for transgalactosylation mechanism. The reuse of the enzyme showed that after 10 cycles of use retained 84.6% of the initial activity. The results showed that the MCP appears as a promising matrix for the immobilization of other biomolecules. Reference: [1] Osman et al, J Biotech. 150 (2010);[2] Kang et al, Polymer 70 (2015);[3] CAO et al, J Phys.: Condens. Matter 28 (2016). (author)

  16. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  17. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  18. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  19. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  20. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  1. Thermal management of electric vehicle`s batteries using phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafalovich, A.; Longardner, W.; Keller, G.; Schmidter, T.C. [SHAPE, Inc., Indianapolis (United States); Fleming, F. [Hawker Energy Products Ltd, Newport (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    SHAPE, Inc. (USA) and Hawker Energy Products Ltd. (UK) have successfully developed a passive thermal management system for sealed lead acid batteries featuring Phase Change Materials (PCM`s). The system utilizes a reversible, high energy density PCM with a transition temperature that is comparable to the optimum operating temperature of lead acid batteries. SHAPE`s thermal storage, containing non-toxic, non-hazardous, non-flammable PCM, absorbs excess heat generated by a battery and thus provides a substantial improvement in thermal stability, operating performance, and battery life. This thermal management system also assists in maintaining higher battery temperatures in cold weather environments. A mathematical model has been developed to accurately predict the thermal behavior of a battery, with and without PCM, during cycling. The results of this model have been verified through experimental battery cycling as well as through actual battery testing. The success of the model permits analysis of a thermally managed battery through an extreme range of ambient temperatures (-40 deg C to 40 deg C). (orig.)

  2. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  3. Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjom, Mouzhgun

    Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068

  4. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  5. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi......-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need...... of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all...

  6. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  7. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  8. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  9. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  10. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, F.M.

    1976-06-01

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l + l - production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons [fr

  11. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  12. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  13. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product ... control bulbs carpenter ants caterpillars crabgrass control deer dogs dogs/cats fertilizer w/insecticide fertilizer w/weed ...

  14. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  15. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  16. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  17. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  18. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  19. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  20. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  1. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  2. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  3. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  4. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to

  5. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  6. Polling, production & priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Polling, Production & Priorities The present monograph focuses on the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP), which deals with the make-to-stock production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity under random demands, possibly random setup

  7. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  8. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  9. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  10. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    .In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.......This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  11. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  12. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  13. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  14. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....

  15. Play as productionproduction as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Play-related products and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy production and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...

  16. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  17. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Leticia P.; Aguiar, Nayara V.; Rodrigues, Willias da L.; Silva, Rafael S. da; Moreira, Carly K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic. It's derived from the deacetylation of chitin, which constitutes the most part of the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans and fungal cell wall. After cellulose, chitin is more organic compound found in nature. The Chitin was separated from others components of shrimp waste (Macrobrachium amazonicum) by a chemical process that involves three steps: demineralization, deproteination and depigmentation. The chitosan produced was characterized by potentiometric titration, to find the degree of deacetylation (85,32 %), determining the intrinsic viscosity to define its molecular weight (503.223 g/mol), and X-ray diffraction to determine its crystallinity index (58,4 %). (author)

  18. Green fracing : as the U.S. frac debate rolls on, service firms are developing cleaner fracing products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2010-09-15

    Apache Corporation fracing operations in British Columbia's Horn River Basin have involved 274 frac stimulations in 16 shale gas wells. The multi-stage horizontal well completions in the Horn River Basin are massive operations. The American Petroleum Institute has stated that hydraulic fracturing is so important that without it, the industry would lose 45 percent of domestic natural gas production and 17 percent of oil production within five years. The Marcellus fairway which covers parts of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, West Virginia and Maryland, covers about 10 times the area of the core Barnett shale play. Production from the Marcellus may reach 489 trillion cubic feet of natural gas over a 50-year period. However, the amount of hydraulic fracing required for Marcellus production has raised concerns about potential harm to underground aquifers. Green Century Capital Management and New York State Common Retirement Fund are among the investor groups that are asking for greater transparency about the business and environmental risks associated with fracturing. Schlumberger has developed OpenFRAC, a new group of fracturing fluid additives that are all water-based. In order to eliminate contamination risks to formations, aquifers and product handlers, Trican unveiled its EcoClean-GSW slickwater system, which includes non-toxic, biodegradable and non-bioaccumulating additives. Sanjel Corporation in Canada also plans to unveil a new friction reducer as an alternative to polyacrylamides. However, in the short term, there may be higher costs and lower efficiency with the new enviro-friendly fracing fluids and additives. Water issues must also be addressed. Since slickwater fracing uses a lot of water, most companies are looking at the recycling and re-use of water. The B.C. Oil and Gas Commission is seeking to establish some ground rules to avoid conflict. A new Oil and Gas Activities Act will expand the commission's power to manage water withdrawals and

  19. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  1. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crop by-product for producing lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Ribas-Manero, V.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the growing amount of residues in Europe, it is mandatory to provide a viable alternative for managing wastes contributing to the efficient use of resources. Besides, it is also essential to move towards a low carbon economy, priority EU by 2050. Among these, it is important to highlight the development of sustainable alternatives capable of incorporating different kind of wastes in their formulations.Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) is estimated to increase in Europe, where the accessibility of landfill is restricted. Bottom ash (BA) is the most significant by-product from MSWI as it accounts for 85 - 95 % of the solid product resulting from combustion. BA is a mixture of calcium-rich compounds and others silicates enriched in iron and sodium. In addition, it is categorized as non-hazardous waste which can be revalorized as secondary material in construction or civil engineering fields, previous weathering stabilization during 2 - 3 months. Taking into account the relative proportion of each size fraction and the corresponding material characterization, the content of glass (primary and secondary) is estimated to be around 60 wt%. Furthermore, as a renewable resource and according to waste management European policies, residual agricultural biomass has attracted attention in preparation of advanced materials for various applications, due to their low cost, abundance, and environment friendliness. Among this residual biomass, rice husk is a by-product of rice milling industry which has high content of silica and has been widely used in buildings as natural thermal insulation material.Weathered BA (WBA) with a particle size less than 30 mm was milled under 100 μm, mixed with 2.0 - 5.0 mm rice husk, formed into ball-shaped pellets and sintered by different thermal treatments, which remove the organic matter content generating a large porosity. Physico-chemical analysis and mechanical behavior of the manufactured lightweight aggregates were tested

  2. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  3. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  4. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  5. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  6. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

  7. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  8. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  9. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  10. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  11. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  12. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  13. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  14. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  15. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  17. DESIGN VERSUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edu Grieco Mazzini Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design or product development? The questioning in relation to the employment of such terminology dates back to possible misconceptions regarding interpretation and approach them. Therefore, it can be stated that there are differences between these two terms? In this context, we highlight two views concerning the origin of the design. The first character creative and based on pre-industrial revolution, based on projective and methodologies directed towards the practice of designing products. And second, where design is understood as an industrial process: the development of new products includes, besides a creative procedure are developed, and symbolic formal solutions for products, but also a technical procedure based on the definition of the requirements concerning the product engineering. Is this the most widely accepted interpretation? theoretical studies were conducted from interpretations of the concept of the design proposed by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design – ICSDI (2012, and for the characterization of the process of product development, we sought to develop an analogy between these two terminologies and can be proved that the use of one of terminology will not cause deviations of interpretation, since both deal with the life cycle of the product. The main results obtained until now the definition of design proposed by the ICSID where it is characterized as a creative activity focused on the complete life cycle of products is the more approaches of the concept of product development.

  18. The Internationalisation of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2013-01-01

    practice is further analysed in terms of (1) general information of each case company; (2) motivation of production internationalisation of each case company; (3) limitations as SMEs to internationalise production; (4) operational activities during the internationalization; (5) benefits of joint effort......This paper mainly aims to explore how SMEs internationalise their production. Directed by this objective, a new practice adopted by five Danish SMEs to internationalise their production to China is identified, which to our knowledge has never been reported by any of the existing literature. The new...

  19. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept...... of state-contingent production functions and a definition of inputs including both sort of input, activity and alloca-tion technology. It also analyses production decisions where production is combined with trading in state-contingent claims such as insurance contracts. The final part discusses...

  20. SMART Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    . The ambition of The Danish Industry Foundation and The Kata Foundation was to develop a method; a robust and specific approach to ensure that product innovation in Danish enterprises in practice would result in products of the highest quality, producible at lower costs and profitable at competitive prices...... products to our neighboring countries continues to suffer. The customers’ financial capacity has been reduced and cheaper products from Asia and other regions have found their way into our local markets. Competition is fierce – especially pricewise. This was the starting point for the SMART project...

  1. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  2. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  3. Biotransformation and detoxification of xylidine orange dye using immobilized cells of marine-derived Lysinibacillus sphaericus D3

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Sheikh, F.; Pereira, R.; Narkhede, N.; Amonkar, D.; Tilvi, S.; Meena, R.M.

    for decolorization and the products formed were evaluated for toxicity by disc diffusion assay against common marine bacteria which revealed the non-toxic nature of the dye-degraded products. Decolorization of the brightly colored dye to colorless products...

  4. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trois, Cristina, E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile [Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent [Laboratoire d' etude de Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, UMR 5564 (CNRS/INPG/IRD/UJF), Universite de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-09-15

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1}. Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

  5. Effect of pine bark and compost on the biological denitrification process of non-hazardous landfill leachate: Focus on the microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trois, Cristina; Coulon, Frederic; Polge de Combret, Cecile; Martins, Jean M.F.; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to optimize the cost-efficiency of landfill leachate treatment by biological denitrification process, our study focused on finding low-cost alternatives to traditional expensive chemicals such as composted garden refuse and pine bark, which are both available in large amount in South African landfill sites. The overall objective was to assess the behaviour of the bacterial community in relation to each substrate while treating high strength landfill leachates. Denitrification processes in fixed bed reactors were simulated at laboratory scale using anaerobic batch tests with immature compost and pine bark. High strength leachate was simulated using a solution of water and nitrate at a concentration of 500 mg l -1 . Results suggest that pine bark released large amounts of phenolic compounds and hydroxylated benzene rings, which both can delay the acclimatization time and inhibit the biological denitrification (only 30% efficiency). Furthermore, presence of potential pathogens like Enterobacter and Pantoea agglomerans prevents the applicability of the pine bark in full-scale operations. On the other hand, lightly composted garden refuse (CGR) offered an adequate substrate for the formation of a biofilm necessary to complete the denitrification process (total nitrate removal observed within 7 days). CGR further contributed to a rapid establishment of an active consortium of denitrifiers including Acinetobacter, Rhizobium, Thermomonas, Rheinheimera, Phaeospirillum and Flavobacterium. Clearly the original composition, nature, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and degree of maturity and stability of the substrates play a key role in the denitrification process, impacting directly on the development of the bacterial population and, therefore, on the long-term removal efficiency.

  6. Standard Specification for ESD Controlled Garments Required in Cleanrooms and Controlled Environments for Spacecraft for Non-Hazardous and Hazardous Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

  7. Industrial production of products like petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurier, P J.H.

    1925-02-25

    This invention has as its object a process for separating tars, oils, or gases coming from the distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as lignities or shales, to separate all other substances of the same kind and to prepare products like petroleum. The process for present consideration consists essentially in achieving simultaneously hydrogenation of the material (treated for conversion to stable products) and desulfurization of the materials showing the following characteristics: The substances to be treated are fed in the gaseous state, as vapors or pulverized and made to react at a temperature of 300 to 450/sup 0/C in the presence of excess water vapor, on divided metals capable of decomposing the water with release of hydrogen, at a temperature below 450/sup 0/C.

  8. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  9. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  10. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Questionnaire typography and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1975-06-01

    This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.

  12. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  13. Training for Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

  14. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  15. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  16. Products from cottonseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushenkova,

    1977-01-01

    A review with 41 references is made on the manufacture of oil, protein, and other products from cottonseed, the effects of gossypol on protein yield and quality and technology of gossypol removal. A process eliminating thermal treatment of the kernels and permitting the production of oil, proteins, phytin, gossypol, sugar, sterols, phosphatides, tocopherols, and residual shells and bagasse is described.

  17. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  18. Product Placement in Cartoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Oroz Štancl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

  19. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...

  20. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  1. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  2. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  3. Spectra and strangeness production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    Particle production (π ± , K ± and p ± ) has been measured in p + A and Si + A reactions using the E802 spectrometer. The comparison of the particle production (rapidity distributions, momentum distributions, and the integrated yields ratios) between p + Be, p + Au and central Si + Au collisions and the effects of rescattering is discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs

  4. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are

  5. Accelerated product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Seth, J.N.; Malhotra, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated product development is a competitive strategy that seeks to reduce the development cycle time of new products. However, there has been little theoretical advancement and empirical model testing in the identification of the conditions under which cycle time reduction is appropriate, the

  6. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  7. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  8. Improved wound care product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound....

  9. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  10. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  11. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  12. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  13. Risks of Leveraged Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLeveraged investments have become a fundamental feature of modern economies. The new financial products allow people to take greater-than-usual exposures to risk factors. This thesis analyzes several different aspects of the risks involved by some frequently used leveraged products:

  14. Quarkonia production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, R.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of J/ψ, ψ', χ c and Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) production in the proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different production mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs

  15. Glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02: Enzymatic properties and specific functions in glutamic acid synthesis for poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a natural biopolymer, is widely used in cosmetics, medicine, food, water treatment, and agriculture owing to its features of moisture sequestration, cation chelation, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Intracellular glutamic acid, the substrate of γ-PGA, is a limiting factor for high yield in γ-PGA production. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis are both important γ-PGA producing strains, and B. subtilis synthesizes glutamic acid in vivo using the unique GOGAT/GS pathway. However, little is known about the glutamate synthesis pathway in B. licheniformis. The aim of this work was to characterize the glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in glutamic acid synthesis from B. licheniformis with both in vivo and in vitro experiments. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the rocG gene deletion mutant WX-02ΔrocG produced intracellular glutamic acid with a concentration of 90ng/log(CFU), which was only 23.7% that of the wild-type WX-02 (380ng/log(CFU)). Furthermore, the γ-PGA yield of mutant WX-02ΔrocG was 5.37g/L, a decrease of 45.3% compared to the wild type (9.82g/L). In vitro enzymatic assays of RocG showed that RocG has higher affinity for 2-oxoglutarate than glutamate, and the glutamate synthesis rate was far above degradation. This is probably the first study to reveal the glutamic acid synthesis pathway and the specific functions of RocG in B. licheniformis. The results indicate that γ-PGA production can be enhanced through improving intracellular glutamic acid synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal Product Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Matta, Rafael; Popov, Sergey V; Sogo, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    We model a market, such as an online software market, in which an intermediary connects sellers and buyers by displaying sellers' products. With two vertically-differentiated products, an intermediary can place either: (1) one product, not necessarily the better one, on the first page, and the other hidden on the second page; or (2) both products on the first page. We show that it can be optimal for the intermediary to obfuscate a product-possibly the better one-since this weakens price competition and allows the sellers to extract a greater surplus from buyers; however, it is not socially optimal. The choice of which one to obfuscate depends on the distribution of search costs.

  17. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  18. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  19. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  20. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  1. Health products inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, M.

    2009-01-01

    To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

  2. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  3. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  4. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  5. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  6. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  7. A Framework For Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    -aspect approach to product development; understanding the strategic conditions that affect product development; developing a coherent approach to product quality based on product-life thinking; addressing environmental needs in a proactive manner through innovation techniques; and understanding both...

  8. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  9. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  10. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  11. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  12. The dynamics of toxic microcystis strains and microcystin production in two hypertrofic South African reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Sandra; Conradie, Karin Ronel

    2012-01-01

    The South African impoundments of Hartbeespoort and Roodeplaat experience excessive blooms of Microcystis species each year. Microcystins, produced primarily by strains of cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Microcystis, Anabaena and Planktothrix, are harmful cyanobacterial hepatotoxins. These bloom-forming cyanobacteria form toxic and non-toxic strains that co-occur and are visually indistinguishable, but can be identified and quantified molecularly. We described the relationships between ...

  13. Agriculture wastes conversion for biofertilizer production using beneficial microorganisms for sustainable agriculture applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, S. I. S.; Aziz, R.; Awad, H. M.; Sarip, S. H. M.; Sarmidi, M. R.; Hanapi, S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The emphasis of this study is to generate new valuable bioproducts from non-toxic cleaning waste for environmental healing technology. Methodology and Results: Comparisons between different types of biofertilizer formulations and the field trial effectiveness were done. Results indicated that biofertilizer C contained the highest N value (1.8%) when compared with biofertilizers B and A, which only contained 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Biofertilizer A showed significant difference in th...

  14. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) a...

  15. Concurrency in product realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    1994-03-01

    Technology per se does not provide a competitive advantage. Timely exploitation of technology is what gives the competitive edge, and this demands a major shift in the product development process and management of the industrial enterprise. `Teaming to win' is more than a management theme; it is the disciplined engineering practice that is essential to success in today's global marketplace. Teaming supports the concurrent engineering practices required to integrate the activities of people responsible for product realization through achievement of shorter development cycles, lower costs, and defect-free products.

  16. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  17. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  18. OPEC's production policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, R.

    1989-01-01

    An enlightening study on the workings of OPEC its policies and practices, agreements and disagreements, and how each affects the world petroleum market. The book explores OPEC's production patterns and quota agreements and the relationship between production and pricing policies. Political compromises that have hindered OPEC production agreements and their successful implementation are covered - compromises such as concessions made to the U.A.E. and those resulting from the Gulf war. Notable historical events are cited, and a look into the future at what we can expect of OPEC in coming years concludes the study

  19. Production of Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said...... micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid...

  20. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  1. Property Rights and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of land titling on agricultural productivity in Vietnam and the productivity effects of single versus joint titling for husband and wife. Using a plot-fixed-effects approach our results show that obtaining a land title is associated with higher yields, for both...... individually and jointly held titles. We conclude that there is no tradeoff between joint titling and productivity, and so joint titles are potentially an effective way to improve women’s bargaining power within the household with no associated efficiency losses....

  2. SMART product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    Among the inspirations for the SMART process is “design to customer value,” where products are modified based on a thorough understanding of customers that allows product developers to eliminate features that do not affect customer satisfaction while including only the elements and functionality...... that customers really appreciate. The SMART process includes methods to understand product value for the customer and the user; analyse the cost of components and processes; combine customer value and cost reduction potentials into feasible, high-value concepts; and generate prototypes that can be tested...... with users and customers....

  3. Will marine productivity wane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.

  4. Glocalized Production: The Evolution of Global Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Marianna; Bilberg, Arne

    In light of the challenges of the current globalized production model, four global Danish companies were interviewed with the purpose of exploring “glocalized production” as the new step and solution to the challenges of the “global village.” The research sought to gauge the interest on “glocalized...... production” by key managers of these companies, and test three hypotheses: that a definition could be established from “glocalization” aspects, that it will reduce supply chain complexity, and that it can affect organizational trust levels. The results are presented along with suggestions to pave the way...

  5. Product numerical range in a space with tensor product structure

    OpenAIRE

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Skowronek, Łukasz; Choi, Man-Duen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    We study operators acting on a tensor product Hilbert space and investigate their product numerical range, product numerical radius and separable numerical range. Concrete bounds for the product numerical range for Hermitian operators are derived. Product numerical range of a non-Hermitian operator forms a subset of the standard numerical range containing the barycenter of the spectrum. While the latter set is convex, the product range needs not to be convex nor simply connected. The product ...

  6. Soy production and certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena

    2010-01-01

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...

  7. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition.......Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...

  8. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also ... For example, a high degree of positive segregation in the central region .... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode.

  9. Household Products Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bathroom, and on the shelves in your laundry room? Learn more about what's in these products, ... MD 20894 National Institutes of Health , Health & Human Services Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Last ...

  10. PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-23

    Feb 23, 2016 ... The pulp and kernels of the fruit are the only by-products marketed by women and mainly girls who .... characteristics of trees and fruit involved, 30 adult hermaphrodite ..... Ethnobotanical research and traditional health care in.

  11. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  12. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  13. Products by Glycation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of sweet and acid whey products were incremented by polymerization of their proteins by glycation of whey protein concentrates (WPC and their hydrolyzates (WPCH with ribose and glucose in individual experiments under similar concentration. Heating at 50°C during 20 h maximum and pH 7 and pH 9 were used in all tests. The higher activity was found in WPC glycosylates products with ribose at pH 7 and heating during 10–15 h. In comparable form, antioxidant activity in WPCH was incremented by prior hydrolysis to glycation with 25–45% of hydrolysis degree. Further functional properties of whey proteins (solubility, emulsion, and foam were also improved by the polymerization with ribose. The color of polymerized products due to Maillard reactions was associated with antioxidant activity of each compound; however comparative color in glycosylates products with glucose and ribose did not show this effect.

  14. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  15. NSP Production Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Production Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...

  16. OSU Chlorophyll Bloom Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This product was developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) data obtained by the MODerate...

  17. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  18. Kronecker Products on Preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2013-01-01

    techniques have become increasingly popular due to their great potential on large scale computation. In this work, we present preconditioning techniques for linear systems built with tensor product basis functions. Efficient algorithms are designed

  19. Challenges in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennuit, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a sustainable process combining waste treatment, nutrient recycling and energy production which can contribute to limit climate change and environmental problems. However, in order for this technique to be more widely used, production of biogas from available wastes...... from a mixture of pig manure and other waste materials by separating the solid fraction of digestate and recycling it back to the digester. It is shown that separation and recycling of the dry matter rich solid fraction could successfully increase biogas production and a preliminary economic evaluation...... showed a potential increase of 1.9 to 6.8€ per ton of biomass treated. In the second part of this study, a biological treatment to improve energy production from wastewater sludge was investigated. Wastewater sludge was subjected to thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) from 2h to 5d. Increase in biogas...

  20. Proprietary policy and production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    -, č. 287 (2006), s. 1-14 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : proprietary regime * direct production * model Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp287.pdf

  1. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  2. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  3. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Behzad, H.; Archer, John A.C.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  4. Top Production at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Santana Rangel, Murilo

    2015-01-01

    Single and pair top production in the forward direction at the LHC allows for precision tests of the Standard Model. The observation of top quarks in 7 and 8 TeV data and prospects for precision measurements are shown.

  5. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  6. Product lifecycle management

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, John

    2016-01-01

    This third edition updates and adds to the successful second edition and gives the reader a thorough description of PLM, providing them with a full understanding of the theory and the practical skills to implement PLM within their own business environment. This new and expanded edition is fully updated to reflect the many technological and management advances made in PLM since the release of the second edition. Describing the environment in which products are developed, manufactured and supported, before addressing the Five Pillars of PLM: business processes, product data, PLM applications, Organisational Change Management (OCM) and Project Management, this book explains what Product Lifecycle Management is, and why it’s needed. The final part of the book addresses the PLM timeline, showing the typical steps and activities of a PLM project or initiative. “Product Lifecycle Management” will broaden the reader’s understanding of PLM, nurturing the skills needed to implement PLM successfully and to achi...

  7. From Environment to Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-04-29

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we are expressing desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals

  8. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  9. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  10. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  11. Bottonium production at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    The production of γ ('3S 1 ) and η b ( 1 S 0 ) with two gluons from Z decay is investigated. It is found that at LEP luminosities experimental detection will hardly be feasible. (author). 9 refs.; 1 fig

  12. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  13. Acetone production by methylobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A W; O'Neill, J G; Wilkinson, J F

    1976-09-01

    An accumulation of acetone was observed during the metabolism of ethane and products of ethane oxidation by washed suspensions of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3B. This strain possessed an acetoacetate decarboxylase and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and a decline in poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid occurred under the same conditions as acetone formation. A pathway of acetone production from poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid via 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate was suggested.

  14. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  15. Productivity Improvement for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    organization and the likely positions or types of work that will be required of the engineer in the future. There should therefore, be a balance of...Mall, P., Improving Total Productivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Miller, R.B., Participative Management-Quality of Worklife and Job Enrichment...Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1977. Hughes Aircraft Co., R & D Productivity-Study Report, Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City , California, 1974

  16. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  17. Mycotoxins in poultry production

    OpenAIRE

    Resanović Radmila M.; Nešić Ksenija D.; Nesić Vladimir D.; Palić Todor D.; Jaćević Vesna M.

    2009-01-01

    All poultry is sensitive to mycotoxins. This partly depends on the type, age and production categories of poultry, their living conditions and nutritive status and partly on the type, quantity and duration of mycotoxin ingestion. The presence of mycotoxins results in significant health disorders and a decrease in production performances. This leads to considerable economic loss for the poultry industry - either direct losses, i.e. death of the poultry or the indirect ones, i.e. the decrease i...

  18. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  19. New product pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

  20. Selling new products

    OpenAIRE

    Borgh, van der, W.

    2012-01-01

    As we proceed into the 21st century, companies are facing increasingly complex and dynamic business environments. Many organizations have to deal with intense competition as more products are introduced faster, with shorter life cycles, and less competitive differentiation. Consequently, companies are pushed to not only be more adept in product development but also in capitalizing on these innovative activities. However, while companies have become more successful in inventing and developing ...