Sample records for non-tidal oceanic mass

  1. Detection and Modeling of Non-Tidal Oceanic Effects on the Earth's Rotation Rate (United States)

    Marcus, S. L.; Chao, Y.; Dickey, J. O.; Gegout, P.


    Sub-decadal changes in the Earth's rotation rate, and hence in the length-of-day (LOD), are largely controlled by variations in atmospheric angular momentum. Results from two oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), forced by observed wind stress and heat flux for the years 1992-1994, show that ocean current and mass distribution changes also induce detectable LOD variations.

  2. Atmospheric, Non-Tidal Oceanic and Hydrological Loading Effects Observed with GPS Measurements (United States)

    Boy, J. P.; Memin, A.; Watson, C.; Tregoning, P.


    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  3. Non-Tidal Ocean Loading Correction for the Argentinean-German Geodetic Observatory Using an Empirical Model of Storm Surge for the Río de la Plata (United States)

    Oreiro, F. A.; Wziontek, H.; Fiore, M. M. E.; D'Onofrio, E. E.; Brunini, C.


    The Argentinean-German Geodetic Observatory is located 13 km from the Río de la Plata, in an area that is frequently affected by storm surges that can vary the level of the river over ±3 m. Water-level information from seven tide gauge stations located in the Río de la Plata are used to calculate every hour an empirical model of water heights (tidal + non-tidal component) and an empirical model of storm surge (non-tidal component) for the period 01/2016-12/2016. Using the SPOTL software, the gravimetric response of the models and the tidal response are calculated, obtaining that for the observatory location, the range of the tidal component (3.6 nm/s2) is only 12% of the range of the non-tidal component (29.4 nm/s2). The gravimetric response of the storm surge model is subtracted from the superconducting gravimeter observations, after applying the traditional corrections, and a reduction of 7% of the RMS is obtained. The wavelet transform is applied to the same series, before and after the non-tidal correction, and a clear decrease in the spectral energy in the periods between 2 and 12 days is identify between the series. Using the same software East, North and Up displacements are calculated, and a range of 3, 2, and 11 mm is obtained, respectively. The residuals obtained after applying the non-tidal correction allow to clearly identify the influence of rain events in the superconducting gravimeter observations, indicating the need of the analysis of this, and others, hydrological and geophysical effects.

  4. Uncertainty in ocean mass trends from GRACE (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine J.; Ponte, Rui M.


    Ocean mass, together with steric sea level, are the key components of total observed sea level change. Monthly observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) can provide estimates of the ocean mass component of the sea level budget, but full use of the data requires a detailed understanding of its errors and biases. We have examined trends in ocean mass calculated from 6 yr of GRACE data and found differences of up to 1 mmyr-1 between estimates derived from different GRACE processing centre solutions. In addition, variations in post-processing masking and filtering procedures required to convert the GRACE data into ocean mass lead to trend differences of up to 0.5 mmyr-1. Necessary external model adjustments add to these uncertainties, with reported postglacial rebound corrections differing by as much as 1 mmyr-1. Disagreement in the regional trends between the GRACE processing centres is most noticeably in areas south of Greenland, and in the southeast and northwest Pacific Ocean. Non-ocean signals, such as in the Indian Ocean due to the 2004 Sumatran-Andean earthquake, and near Greenland and West Antarctica due to land signal leakage, can also corrupt the ocean trend estimates. Based on our analyses, formal errors may not capture the true uncertainty in either regional or global ocean mass trends derived from GRACE.

  5. Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Bo


    Oceanic transports of heat, salt, fresh water, dissolved CO2, and other tracers regulate global climate change and the distribution of natural marine resources. The time-mean ocean circulation transports fluid as a conveyor belt, but fluid parcels can also be trapped and transported discretely by migrating mesoscale eddies. By combining available satellite altimetry and Argo profiling float data, we showed that the eddy-induced zonal mass transport can reach a total meridionally integrated value of up to 30 to 40 sverdrups (Sv) (1 Sv = 10(6) cubic meters per second), and it occurs mainly in subtropical regions, where the background flows are weak. This transport is comparable in magnitude to that of the large-scale wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. AUS approaches for non-tidal high-water delineation (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Zimba, P. V.; Wang, L.; Su, L.; Huang, I. S.; Berryhill, J.; Schwind, M.; Bridges, D. H.; Birchfield, M.


    In June, 2015, the TAMU-CC Unmanned Aircraft Systems Program, with the support of the Lone Star UAS Center of Excellence and Innovation, conducted a week-long UAS exercise in the coastal region near Port Mansfield, Texas. The platform used was TAMU-CC's RS-16, a variant of the Arcturus T-16XL, that was equipped with a three-camera imaging system which acquired high-resolution images in the optical range of the electromagnetic spectrum and lower resolution images in the infrared and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum. The Laguna Madre is non-tidal in this region, making property line determination contentious with state agencies. Elevation of beach locations and ground truth samples for algal pigment content were collected coincidently with overflights and hand-held spectral radiometric profiles. Elevation was significantly (negatively) related to all pigments classes (r= -0.54—0.69). Two clear zones were identified with differing cyanobacteria and diatom contributions. This research has direct economic impact, as well as the identification of an unreported "blue carbon" contribution.

  7. Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans (United States)

    Raymond, David


    Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and

  8. A comparative study of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in tidal and non-tidal riverine wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, J. T.A.; Whigham, D.F.; van Logtestijn, R.; O'Neill, J.K.


    This paper describes a study of nutrient dynamics in 12 tidal and non-tidal freshwater riverine wetlands in The Netherlands, Belgium, and Maryland (USA). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between nutrient cycling processes in riverine wetlands that were geographically

  9. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied...... ocean redox change over the largest mass extinction event in Earth history, at the Permian-Tri¬assic boundary (at ~252 Ma). This event is marked by a major perturbation in the global exogenic carbon cycle (and associated major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE)), likely initiated by carbon...... (anoxic but not euxinic) coinciding with the main extinction event. Molybdenum enrichments, often indicative for freely available sulfide in the water-column, only occur dur¬ing the second phase of euxinia. This pattern of ocean redox-change in Svalbard direct¬ly reflects similar trends in Greenland...

  10. Flourishing ocean drives the end-Permian marine mass extinction. (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; Stebbins, Alan; Ghaderi, Abbas; Strauss, Harald; Korn, Dieter; Korte, Christoph


    The end-Permian mass extinction, the most severe biotic crisis in the Phanerozoic, was accompanied by climate change and expansion of oceanic anoxic zones. The partitioning of sulfur among different exogenic reservoirs by biological and physical processes was of importance for this biodiversity crisis, but the exact role of bioessential sulfur in the mass extinction is still unclear. Here we show that globally increased production of organic matter affected the seawater sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope signature that has been recorded in carbonate rock spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. A bifurcating temporal trend is observed for the strata spanning the marine mass extinction with carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope excursions toward decreased and increased values, respectively. By coupling these results to a box model, we show that increased marine productivity and successive enhanced microbial sulfate reduction is the most likely scenario to explain these temporal trends. The new data demonstrate that worldwide expansion of euxinic and anoxic zones are symptoms of increased biological carbon recycling in the marine realm initiated by global warming. The spatial distribution of sulfidic water column conditions in shallow seafloor environments is dictated by the severity and geographic patterns of nutrient fluxes and serves as an adequate model to explain the scale of the marine biodiversity crisis. Our results provide evidence that the major biodiversity crises in Earth's history do not necessarily implicate an ocean stripped of (most) life but rather the demise of certain eukaryotic organisms, leading to a decline in species richness.

  11. Mass, nutrient and oxygen budgets for the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Maze


    Full Text Available The northeast Atlantic is a key horizontal and vertical crossroads region for the meridional overturning circulation, but basic nutrient and oxygen fluxes are still poorly constrained by observations in the region. A surface to bottom northeast Atlantic Ocean budget for mass, nutrients (nitrate and phosphate and oxygen is determined using an optimization method based on three surveys of the OVIDE transect (from Greenland to Portugal completed with the World Ocean Atlas 2009. Budgets are derived for two communicating boxes representing the northeastern European basin (NEEB and the Irminger Sea.

    For the NEEB (Irminger box, it is found that 30% of the mass import (export across the OVIDE section reach (originate from the Nordic Seas, while 70% are redistributed between both boxes through the Reykjanes Ridge (9.3 ± 0.7 × 109 kg s−1.

    Net biological source/sink terms of nitrate point to both the Irminger and NEEB boxes as net organic matter production sites (consuming nitrate at a rate of –7.8 ± 6.5 kmol s−1 and –8.4 ± 6.6 kmol s−1, respectively. Using a standard Redfield ratio of C : N = 106 : 16, nitrate consumption rates indicate that about 40 TgC yr−1 of carbon is fixed by organic matter production between the OVIDE transect and the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. Nutrient fluxes also induce a net biological production of oxygen of 73 ± 60 kmol s−1 and 79 ± 62 kmol s−1 in the Irminger and NEEB boxes, which points to the region as being autotrophic.

    The abiotic air–sea oxygen flux leads to an oceanic oxygen uptake in the two regions (264 ± 66 kmol s−1 in the north and 443 ± 70 kmol s−1 in the south. The abiotic flux is partitioned into a mixing and a thermal component. It is found that the Irminger Sea oceanic oxygen uptake is driven by an air–sea heat flux cooling increasing the ocean surface

  12. Seismic Characterization of Oceanic Water Masses, Water Mass Boundaries, and Mesoscale Eddies SE of New Zealand (United States)

    Gorman, Andrew R.; Smillie, Matthew W.; Cooper, Joanna K.; Bowman, M. Hamish; Vennell, Ross; Holbrook, W. Steven; Frew, Russell


    The Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts, which separate Subtropical, Subantarctic, and Antarctic Intermediate Waters, are diverted to the south of New Zealand by the submerged continental landmass of Zealandia. In the upper ocean of this region, large volumes of dissolved or suspended material are intermittently transported across the Subtropical Front; however, the mechanisms of such transport processes are enigmatic. Understanding these oceanic boundaries in three dimensions generally depends on measurements collected from stationary vessels and moorings. The details of these data sets, which are critical for understanding how water masses interact and mix at the fine-scale (seismic reflection images of oceanic water masses have been produced using petroleum industry data. These seismic sections clearly show three main water masses, the boundary zones (fronts) between them, and associated thermohaline fine structure that may be related to the mixing of water masses in this region. Interpretations of the data suggest that the Subtropical Front in this region is a landward-dipping zone, with a width that can vary between 20 and 40 km. The boundary zone between Subantarctic Waters and the underlying Antarctic Intermediate Waters is also observed to dip landward. Several isolated lenses have been identified on the three data sets, ranging in size from 9 to 30 km in diameter. These lenses are interpreted to be mesoscale eddies that form at relatively shallow depths along the south side of the Subtropical Front.

  13. Radon-222 as an indicator of continental air masses and air mass boundaries over ocean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.E.; Bressan, D.J.


    Radon ( 222 Rn) has proven to be an excellent indicator of the continental nature of over-ocean air and air mass boundaries. Radon is almost exclusively of continental origin, and low-level real-time monitoring is possible with our improved radon measurement techniques. The transition from continental to maritime air in offshore and onshore winds is rather obvious and can easily be established near large islands or continents as an order-of-magnitude change in radon concentration from a few tens of picocuries per cubic meter or more to a few picocuries per cubic meter or less. Sharply changing radon concentrations are usually associated with frontal areas. Our data have offered insights into air movements, and hence transport of continental materials and pollutants over oceanic areas

  14. The hydromedusae and water masses of the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Navas-Pereira


    Full Text Available This analysis of distribution and abundance of species of Hydromedusae completes a report (Vannucci & Navas, 1973b on the ecology of Indian Ocean Hydromedusae based on the zooplankton collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE. Distribution and abundance are taken here to be the ecological expression of variability of species in space and time. The aim was to identify the biological signature of below surface water masses that cannot be identified by remote sensing techniques. Selected species were taken as biological units, the oceanic water masses as defined by their T-S and T-O2 diagrammes were taken as the non biological units. Taken together they define different ecosystems of the Indian Ocean. About 45,000 specimens of hydromedusae taken at 480 stations were sorted from 900 plankton samples and all specimens were determined and counted. Several hauls, mostly stratified, were taken with closing nets, but not all contained hydromedusae. The distribution of each species was studied in relation to water salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen; the limits of ecological tolerance and preference were defined by the environmental characteristics of the layers sampled by the nets and are given for each species. These can be grouped as follows: 1. Deep water species, cold tolerant, often eurytopic; 2. Antarctic species, cold loving, usually stenothermal with preference for low salinity; 3. Indian Ocean Central Water species, with preference for temperature lower than 19ºC and salinity not much higher than 35%o, usually found at sub-surface or intermediate depths, they may spread into the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in surface layers; 4. Indian Ocean Equatorial System species, warm tolerant, usually prefer comparatively low salinity, high temperature and high oxygen content; 5. Bay of Bengal Surface Water species, found in surface layers of the Bay, with preference for low salinity, high temperature and high oxygen content

  15. Effect of tidal simulations and entrainment of an endogenous tidal rhythm in a non-tidal population of Gammarus zaddachi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijenga, Paul J.; Dieleman, Jan C.


    The activity of G. zaddachi from a non-tidal environment (the brackish lake “De Putten”, prov. North Holland, The Netherlands), has been studied in a current chamber in which tidal cycles can be simulated, in order to make a comparison with estuarine populations. The animals show a clear nocturnal

  16. Turbulent heat/mass transfer at oceanic interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstad, Lars Inge


    The thesis studies heat/mass transfer and uses various simulation techniques. A numerical method has been developed. 4 papers which describes the work, are included. In the first paper we look at such flow configuration where the flow is driven by a constant pressure gradient and the interface is cooled from above. Papers 2 and 3. 2: The effect of stable density stratification on turbulent vortical structures near an atmosphere-ocean interface driven by low wind shear. 3: Low shear turbulence structures beneath a gas-liquid interface under neutral and stable stratified conditions. A well known feature of the upper layer of the ocean is the presence of counter-rotating streamwise vorticity, so called Langmuir circulation. Earlier numerical investigations show that similar vortex structures appear on small scale induced by shear instability only. Short wave solar radiation may create a stable situation which affects the turbulence near the interface. In these papers we investigate such a flow situation by employing a uniform and constant shear stress at the interface together with a similar heat flux into the interface. In both articles we also use a two-point correlation to give a statistical representation of the streamwise vorticity. The spatial extent and intensity are decreased by stable stratification. In addition, in article 3, we find that the Reynolds stress is damped by stable stratification. This leads to an increased mean velocity since decreased Reynolds stress is compensated by a larger mean velocity gradient. The cospectra of the Reynolds stress in the spanwise direction show that the production of Reynolds stress is decreased at lower wave numbers and thus shifted to higher wave numbers in the presence of stable stratification. The streak structure created by the streamwise vorticity is disorganized by stable stratification. Article 4: A numerical study of a density interface using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) coupled with a Navier Stokes

  17. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, Maria; Stocchi, Paolo; von der Heydt, Anna; Dijkstra, Hendrik; Brinkhuis, Henk


    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean dynamic

  18. Emplacement of Antarctic ice sheet mass affects circumpolar ocean flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugenstein, M.; Stocchi, P.; van der Heydt, A.; Brinkhuis, H.


    During the Cenozoic the Antarctic continent experienced large fluctuations in ice-sheet volume. We investigate the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) on Southern Ocean circulation for the first continental scale glaciation of Antarctica (~ 34 Myr) by combining solid Earth and ocean

  19. Site condition, structure, and growth of baldcypress along tidal/non-tidal salinity gradients (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Conner, W.H.; Day, Richard H.; Inabinette, L.W.; Whitbeck, J.L.


    This report documents changes in forest structure and growth potential of dominant trees in salt-impacted tidal and non-tidal baldcypress wetlands of the southeastern United States. We inventoried basal area and tree height, and monitored incremental growth (in basal area) of codominant baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees monthly, for over four years, to examine the inter-relationships among growth, site fertility, and soil physico-chemical characteristics. We found that salinity, soil total nitrogen (TN), flood duration, and flood frequency affected forest structure and growth the greatest. While mean annual site salinity ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppt, sites with salinity concentrations of 1.3 ppt or greater supported a basal area of less than 40 m2/ha. Where salinity was < 0.7 ppt, basal area was as high as 87 m2/ha. Stand height was also negatively affected by higher salinity. However, salinity related only to soil TN concentrations or to the relative balance between soil TN and total phosphorus (TP), which reached a maximum concentration between 1.2 and 2.0 ppt salinity. As estuarine influence shifts inland with sea-level rise, forest growth may become more strongly linked to salinity, not only due to salt effects but also as a consequence of site nitrogen imbalance.

  20. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia (United States)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.


    Emerging geochemical evidence suggests that the atmosphere-ocean system underwent a significant decrease in O2 content following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), leading to a mid-Proterozoic ocean (ca. 2.0-0.8 Ga) with oxygenated surface waters and predominantly anoxic deep waters. The extent of mid-Proterozoic seafloor anoxia has been recently estimated using mass-balance models based on molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and chromium (Cr) enrichments in organic-rich mudrocks (ORM). Here, we use a temporal compilation of concentrations for the redox-sensitive trace metal rhenium (Re) in ORM to provide an independent constraint on the global extent of mid-Proterozoic ocean anoxia and as a tool for more generally exploring how the marine geochemical cycle of Re has changed through time. The compilation reveals that mid-Proterozoic ORM are dominated by low Re concentrations that overall are only mildly higher than those of Archean ORM and significantly lower than many ORM deposited during the ca. 2.22-2.06 Ga Lomagundi Event and during the Phanerozoic Eon. These temporal trends are consistent with a decrease in the oceanic Re inventory in response to an expansion of anoxia after an interval of increased oxygenation during the Lomagundi Event. Mass-balance modeling of the marine Re geochemical cycle indicates that the mid-Proterozoic ORM with low Re enrichments are consistent with extensive seafloor anoxia. Beyond this agreement, these new data bring added value because Re, like the other metals, responds generally to low-oxygen conditions but has its own distinct sensitivity to the varying environmental controls. Thus, we can broaden our capacity to infer nuanced spatiotemporal patterns in ancient redox landscapes. For example, despite the still small number of data, some mid-Proterozoic ORM units have higher Re enrichments that may reflect a larger oceanic Re inventory during transient episodes of ocean oxygenation. An improved understanding of the modern oceanic Re

  1. Ocean redox change at the Permian-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    and marine (mass) ex¬tinction. The geographic and temporal extend and the intensity (ferruginous vs. euxinic) of anoxic con¬ditions is, however, strongly debated and not well constraint. This complicates understanding of close coupling between Earth’s physical, chemical and bi¬ological processes. We studied...... outgassing from the Siberian Traps. We measured redox-sensitive trace element concentrations (e.g. Mo, Cu, U) and the speciation of iron [Fe-HR/Fe-T and Fe-PY/ Fe- HR] in marine sediments from Svalbard (Festningen). We compare these data to additional, new, high-lati-tude data from eastern Greenland...

  2. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.


    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  3. Ocean Bottom Deformation Due To Present-Day Mass Redistribution and Its Impact on Sea Level Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, T.; Riva, R.E.M.; King, A. Matt


    Present-day mass redistribution increases the total ocean mass and, on average, causes the ocean bottom to subside elastically. Therefore, barystatic sea level rise is larger than the resulting global mean geocentric sea level rise, observed by satellite altimetry and GPS-corrected tide gauges.

  4. Violent volcanism, stagnant oceans and some inferences regarding petroleum, strata-bound ores and mass extinctions (United States)

    Keith, M. L.


    Past changes from a well-mixed aerated ocean to a stratified stagnant ocean are indicated by decreasing δ13C of limestone (opposite to prior conclusions) as well as by increasing δ34S of marine sulfates. The proposed stagnant ocean model includes a warm CO 2-enriched atmosphere and a bathyal to abyssal marine system dominated by bacterial components in the food web and by consequent 'light' carbon in organic material and biogenic carbonates. Culminations of prolonged stagnant episodes correspond with marine faunal extinctions of Late Permian and Late Cretaceous time, and the protracted changes and correlations provide evidence against any hypothesis of mass extinction by sudden worldwide catastrophe, including the asteroid impact hypothesis. The Cretaceous stagnant ocean, taken as the prime example, is attributed to climatic warming triggered by volcanic CO 2 (greenhouse effect) and several feedbacks, including decreased Earth albedo and increased sinking of warm evaporite brines instead of aerated polar waters. Marine extinctions are attributed to upward expansion of the oxygen minimum zone and to catastrophic mixing of surface waters with poisonous sulfidic waters of the deeps. The stagnant ocean provided a counterbalance between deep reduction and shallow oxidation, conditions that favored maximal formation of black sulfidic shales, protopetroleum and sedimentary sulfide ores and shallow to mid-depth barite, phosphorite, iron ore, cherty iron formation, and sulfate-bearing red-beds. Trace elements concentrated in stagnant ocean sediments include chalcophile and Pt-group metals, negating claims that Ir provides a unique 'fingerprint' of meteorite impact and cosmic accretion.

  5. Integrating Non-Tidal Sea Level data from altimetry and tide gauges for coastal sea level prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per


    The main objective of this paper is to integrate Non-Tidal Sea Level (NSL) from the joint TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite altimetry with tide gauge data at the west and north coast of the United Kingdom for coastal sea level prediction. The temporal correlation coefficient between altimetric...... NSLs and tide gauge data reaches a maximum higher than 90% for each gauge. The results show that the multivariate regression approach can efficiently integrate the two types of data in the coastal waters of the area. The Multivariate Regression Model is established by integrating the along-track NSL...... from the joint TOPEX/Jason-1/Jason-2 altimeters with that from eleven tide gauges. The model results give a maximum hindcast skill of 0.95, which means maximum 95% of NSL variance can be explained by the model. The minimum Root Mean Square Error (RMSe) between altimetric observations and model...

  6. Time of Emergence of Ocean Interior Acidification and De-oxygenation in a Water Mass Framework (United States)

    Coronado, M.; Frenger, I.; Froelicher, T. L.; Rodgers, K. B.; Schlunegger, S.; Sasano, D.; Ishii, M.


    Potential marine ecosystem stressors, such as acidification and de-oxygenation, are expected to impact biology over the course of the 21st century. Detection of these changes in ocean biogeochemistry is made complicated by the background natural variability of the climate system (Frölicher et al., 2007 and Rodgers et al., 2015). Here we present a novel method for the interpretation of ocean interior measurement for environmental change. We use a water mass framework to compare a high-frequency repeat hydrographic section at 165E in the Pacific (Sasano et al., 2015) with initial condition ensemble experiments ran with GFDL's Earth System Model (ESM2M). In this study, "emergence" for a trend occurs when an anthropogenic signal (either modeled or observed) exceeds the noise (envelope of spread amongst ensemble members, generated by internal variability). By using a water mass as opposed to the standard depth framework, we remove the effects of anthropogenic trends and internal variability of deepening isopycnals, allowing for greater emergence of bio-geochemical signals. We find that emergence of anthropogenic trends in acidification and omega aragonite emerge sooner and with greater confidence than do trends in ocean interior oxygen concentrations. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of applying initial condition ensembles to interpret ocean interior variability and trends, rather than the traditional practice of using observations to validate models.

  7. Spatial Distributions of DDTs in the Water Masses of the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Sobek, Anna; Salvadó, Joan A; Gustafsson, Örjan


    There is a scarcity of data on the amount and distribution of the organochlorine pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in intermediate and deep ocean water masses. Here, the distribution and inventories of DDTs in water of the Arctic shelf seas and the interior basin are presented. The occurrence of ∑ 6 DDT (0.10-66 pg L -1 ) in the surface water was dominated by 4,4'-DDE. In the Central Arctic Ocean increasing concentrations of DDE with depth were observed in the Makarov and Amundsen basins. The increasing concentrations down to 2500 m depth is in accordance with previous findings for PCBs and PBDEs. Similar concentrations of DDT and DDEs were found in the surface water, while the relative contribution of DDEs increased with depth, demonstrating a transformation over time and depth. Higher concentrations of DDTs were found in the European part of the Arctic Ocean; these distributions likely reflect a combination of different usage patterns, transport, and fate of these compounds. For instance, the elevated concentrations of DDTs in the Barents and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean indicate the northbound Atlantic current as a significant conveyor of DDTs. This study contributes to the very rare data on OCPs in the vast deep-water compartments and combined with surface water distribution across the Arctic Ocean helps to improve our understanding of the large-scale fate of DDTs in the Arctic.

  8. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins. (United States)

    Ydenberg, Ronald C; Dekker, Dick; Kaiser, Gary; Shepherd, Philippa C F; Ogden, Lesley Evans; Rickards, Karen; Lank, David B


    We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  9. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  10. Mass-dependent Mo isotope variations in oceanic basalts - a new tracer for mantle recycling processes (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Freymuth, H.; Hibbert, K.; Lai, Y. J.; Elliott, T.


    How and to what extent crustal material is recycled into the deeper mantle as a result of plate tectonic processes is a long-standing but still not fully understood question in Earth Sciences. Indirect evidence from chemical as well as radiogenic isotope data in oceanic basalts suggest that such a process may indeed have operated over much of Earth's history. Yet, uncertainties in characterising the age of the presumed recycled crustal components as well as the wide range in their chemical composition do not allow us to verify the mantle recycling hypothesis. Technological advances now enable us to explore new isotopic tracers that could shed light on this question. One of these new tools are mass-dependent isotope variation of molybdenum (Mo). Mass-dependent Mo isotope data in clastic and chemical sediments are a well-established geochemical tool to study redox conditions in the Earth's water masses over the geological past [1, 2, 3]. Being an intrinsic property of rocks exposed to the hydrosphere (see Anbar [4] for an overview), mass-dependent Mo isotope variation in mantle-derived rocks from oceanic settings could therefore be used a tracer of recycled crustal material in the Earth's mantle. In this contribution we provide a current overview over how different geological and magmatic processes - such as seawater alteration of oceanic crust, slab dehydration during plate subduction as well as magmatic emplacement - could affect the Mo isotopic composition of crustal components being transferred into the deeper mantle, as well as that of mantle melts that may contain such a recycled component. With this in mind, we explore the use of mass-dependent Mo isotope variations in mantle-derived rocks as a tracer of recycled crust in the mantle. [1] Archer & Vance (2008) Nature Geoscience 1, 597-600. [2] Barling et al. (2001) EPSL 193, 447-457. [3] Siebert et al. (2003) EPSL 211, 159-171. [4] Anbar (2004) Rev. Min. Geochem. 55, 429-454.

  11. Time-variable gravity fields and ocean mass change from 37 months of kinematic Swarm orbits (United States)

    Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Löcher, Anno


    Measuring the spatiotemporal variation of ocean mass allows for partitioning of volumetric sea level change, sampled by radar altimeters, into mass-driven and steric parts. The latter is related to ocean heat change and the current Earth's energy imbalance. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided monthly snapshots of the Earth's time-variable gravity field, from which one can derive ocean mass variability. However, GRACE has reached the end of its lifetime with data degradation and several gaps occurred during the last years, and there will be a prolonged gap until the launch of the follow-on mission GRACE-FO. Therefore, efforts focus on generating a long and consistent ocean mass time series by analyzing kinematic orbits from other low-flying satellites, i.e. extending the GRACE time series. Here we utilize data from the European Space Agency's (ESA) Swarm Earth Explorer satellites to derive and investigate ocean mass variations. For this aim, we use the integral equation approach with short arcs (Mayer-Gürr, 2006) to compute more than 500 time-variable gravity fields with different parameterizations from kinematic orbits. We investigate the potential to bridge the gap between the GRACE and the GRACE-FO mission and to substitute missing monthly solutions with Swarm results of significantly lower resolution. Our monthly Swarm solutions have a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.0 mm with respect to GRACE, whereas directly estimating constant, trend, annual, and semiannual (CTAS) signal terms leads to an RMSE of only 1.7 mm. Concerning monthly gaps, our CTAS Swarm solution appears better than interpolating existing GRACE data in 13.5 % of all cases, when artificially removing one solution. In the case of an 18-month artificial gap, 80.0 % of all CTAS Swarm solutions were found closer to the observed GRACE data compared to interpolated GRACE data. Furthermore, we show that precise modeling of non-gravitational forces

  12. Closing the Time-Varying Mass and Heat Budgets for Large Ocean Areas: The Tasman Box. (United States)

    Roemmich, Dean; Gilson, John; Willis, Josh; Sutton, Philip; Ridgway, Ken


    The role of oceanic advection in seasonal-to-interannual balances of mass and heat is studied using a 12-yr time series of quarterly eddy-resolving expendable bathythermograph (XBT) surveys around the perimeter of a region the authors call the Tasman Box in the southwestern Pacific. The region contains the South Pacific's subtropical western boundary current system and associated strong mesoscale variability. Mean geostrophic transport in the warm upper ocean (temperature greater than 12°C) is about 3.8 Sv (1 Sv 106 m3s-1) southward into the box across the Brisbane, Australia-Fiji northern edge. Net outflows are 3.3 Sv eastward across the Auckland, New Zealand-Fiji edge, and 2.7 Sv southward across Sydney, Australia-Wellington, New Zealand. Mean Ekman convergence of 2.2 Sv closes the mass budget. Net water mass conversions in the upper ocean consist of inflow of waters averaging about 26°C and 35.4 psu balanced by outflow at about 18°C and 35.7 psu, and reflect the net evaporation and heat loss in the formation of South Pacific Subtropical Mode Water. The mean heat balance shows good agreement between ocean heat flux convergence (42.3 W m-2), heat loss to the atmosphere from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (39.2 W m-2), and heat storage calculated from data in the box interior (1.3 W m-2). On interannual time scales, volume transport through the box ranges from about 1 to 9 Sv, with heat flux convergence ranging from about 20 to 60 W m-2. An interannual balance in the heat budget of the warm layer is achieved to within about 10 W m-2 (or 6 W m-2 for the upper 100 m alone). Maxima in the advective heat flux convergence occurred in 1993, 1997, and 1999-2000, and corresponded to maxima in air-sea heat loss. The evolution of surface-layer temperature in the region is the residual of nearly equal and opposing effects of ocean heat flux convergence and air-sea exchange. Hence, ocean circulation is a key element in the interannual heat budget of the air-sea climate system in

  13. Water-mass transformation in the Atlantic Ocean in a Lagrangian frame work (United States)

    Berglund, Sara; Döös, Kristofer; Nycander, Jonas


    The world ocean is constantly moving, mostly due to density differences and atmospheric winds. This circulation is commonly refereed to as the Conveyor Belt circulation. In the Southern parts of the Atlantic, around the tip of South Africa, warm and saline water is entering. The water travels northward towards the equator where it increases in salinity. After passing the equator and reaching the North Atlantic, the water becomes cold and fresh, due to heat release to the atmosphere. Previous studies has introduced and computed the thermohaline stream function to connect water-mass transformations to the Conveyor Belt circulation in a temperature and salinity space. It has been suggested that the northward flowing water mass in the Atlantic Ocean can be shown in the stream function as water that converts from warm and saline to cold and fresh, and that the conversion is due to air-sea interactions. In the present study, Lagrangian trajectories are used to quantify the northward flowing water masses in the Atlantic Oceans contribution to the Conveyor Belt circulation in TS-space by introducing the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function. The stream function shows the Atlantic water-mass transformation, where warm and saline water is converted to cold and fresh, as the water flows from 17°S to 58°N. This conversion is found to be both isopycnal and diapycnal. To connect the water-mass transformation to a geographical position in the Atlantic Ocean, the Lagrangian divergence of heat and salt flux is introduced. Conversions of temperature and salinity shown by the Lagrangian thermohaline stream function are found to occur in the same region of the domain, however, with a different spread. The conversion of temperature is found to take place in the Gulf Stream, the upper flank of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, and in the North Atlantic Drift, whereas the conversion of salinity occurs over a narrower band in the same regions. To be able to study the processes

  14. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S


    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Penetration of bomb radiocarbon in the tropical Indian Ocean measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, E.; Arnold, M.; Maurice, P.; Monfray, P.; Duplessy, J.C.; Oestlund, H.G.


    Radiocarbon measurements performed on seawater samples by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enable to reduce by a factor of 2000 the water sample size needed for the 14 C measurements. Therefore no chemical treatment on board the oceanographic vessel is required. Seventy-four AMS 14 C determinations on samples collected in the tropical-equatorial Indian Ocean during the second leg of the INDIGO program (1986) are presented and compared with the β-counting results obtained during the same campaign and the GEOSECS program (1978). A pronounced reduction of the equatorial 14 C deficit suggests that substantial amounts of bomb- 14 C are associated with the westward flowing Pacific water which enters the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesia Archipelago and/or to meridional mixing with 14 C-rich water of the southern subtropical gyre. (orig.)

  16. Microphytobenthic primary production along a non-tidal sandy beach gradient: an annual study from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Urban-Malinga


    Full Text Available The microphytobenthic primary production and chlorophyll a content were studied over the annual cycle (May 1998 - May 1999 on a non-tidal Baltic sandy beach at three stations along the beach gradient: littoral, waterline and splash zone. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied between 0.88 and 12.18 µg cm-3. Net and gross primary production rates respectively lay within the ranges 0.1-31.4 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.2-41.8 mgC m-2 h-1. The highest values of both Chl a content and primary production were noted at the littoral station, the lowest ones at the waterline. The mean annual P/B ratio was highest at the waterline. The differences in Chl a content between stations were statistically significant and may be related to water dynamics, resuspension and water content. Production rates were highly variable on monthly time scales, and the highest results at all the study locations were noted in July. The gross photosynthetic rates were significantly correlated with water temperature.

  17. Investigating A Unique Open Ocean Geochemical Record Of the End Triassic Mass Extinction from Panthalassa (United States)

    Marroquín, S. M.; Gill, B. C.; Them, T. R., II; Trabucho-Alexandre, J. P.; Aberhan, M.; Owens, J. D.; Gröcke, D. R.; Caruthers, A. H.


    The end-Triassic mass extinction ( 201 Ma) was a time of intense disturbance for marine communities. This event is estimated to have produced as much as a loss of 80% of known marine species. The protracted interval of elevated extinction rates is also characterized by a major carbon cycle perturbation and potentially widespread oxygen deficiency within the oceans. While the causes of extinction and environmental feedbacks are still debated it is hypothesized to have been triggered by massive volcanism associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province flood basalts. However, our understanding of the Latest Triassic-Earliest Jurassic interval is limited due to the lack of well-preserved stratigraphic successions outside of the Tethys Ocean (present day Europe), with most of the records from epicontinental and marginal marine settings. To expand our understanding of this critical interval, our study seeks to document biological and environmental changes elsewhere. Specifically, we document and reconstruct these changes in the equatorial Panthalassan Ocean. We will present new data from a sedimentary succession preserved in the Wrangell Mountains of Alaska that spans the Late Triassic through Early Jurassic. The sedimentary succession represents a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp that was deposited at tropical latitudes, adjacent to an island arc in the open Panthalassan Ocean. This succession affords a unique view of open marine conditions, and also holds the potential for excellent temporal control as it contains abundant ash layers throughout, as well as, key ammonite and bivalve fossil occurrences that provide biostratigraphic control. We will present an integrated geochemical and paleontological record from this site using several geochemical proxies (carbon, δ13Ccarb and % total organic carbon, sulfur, δ34S, as well as pyrite contents and iron speciation) along with ammonite and bivalve occurrence data to reconstruct the record of environmental and

  18. Long-term oceanic changes prior the end-Triassic mass extinction (United States)

    Clémence, Marie-Emilie; Mette, Wolfgang; Thibault, Nicolas; Korte, Christoph


    A number of potential causes and kill mechanisms have been proposed for the end-Triassic mass extinction such as palaeoclimatic and sea-level variations, massive volcanism and ocean acidification. Recent analysis of the stomatal index and density of fossil leaves and geochemical research on pedogenic carbonate nodules are suggestive of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and fluctuating climate in the Rhaetian. It seems therefore probable that the end-Triassic event was preceded by large climatic fluctuations and environmental perturbations in the Rhaetian which might have partly affected the composition and diversity of the terrestrial and marine biota prior to the end-Triassic interval. The Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) has long been favored for the study of the Rhaetian, since the GSSP of the Triassic/Jurassic (T/J) boundary and other important T/J sections are situated in this region. However, the most famous Rhaetian sections in the NCA are composed of carbonates from the Koessen Formation and were situated in a large isolated intraplatform Basin (the Eiberg Basin), bordered to the south-east by a well-developed coral reef in the NW of the Tethys border. Several Rhaetian sections composed of marls and shales of the Zlambach Formation were deposited at the same time on the other side of this reef, in the oceanic Halstatt Basin, which was in direct connection to the Tethys. Here, we present new results on sedimentology, stable isotope and trace element analysis of both intraplatform and oceanic basin deposits in the NCA. Intraplatform Rhaetian sections from the Koessen Formation bear a few minor intervals of shales with enrichments in organic matter, some of which are associated to carbon isotopic excursions. Oceanic sections from the Hallstatt Basin are characterized at the base by very cyclic marl-limestone alternations. Higher up in the section, sediments progressively turn into pure shale deposits and the top of the Formation is characterized by organic

  19. Establishing Functional Relationships between Abiotic Environment, Macrophyte Coverage, Resource Gradients and the Distribution of Mytilus trossulus in a Brackish Non-Tidal Environment.

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    Jonne Kotta

    Full Text Available Benthic suspension feeding mussels are an important functional guild in coastal and estuarine ecosystems. To date we lack information on how various environmental gradients and biotic interactions separately and interactively shape the distribution patterns of mussels in non-tidal environments. Opposing to tidal environments, mussels inhabit solely subtidal zone in non-tidal waterbodies and, thereby, driving factors for mussel populations are expected to differ from the tidal areas. In the present study, we used the boosted regression tree modelling (BRT, an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to explain the distribution and biomass of the suspension feeding mussel Mytilus trossulus in the non-tidal Baltic Sea. BRT models suggested that (1 distribution patterns of M. trossulus are largely driven by separate effects of direct environmental gradients and partly by interactive effects of resource gradients with direct environmental gradients. (2 Within its suitable habitat range, however, resource gradients had an important role in shaping the biomass distribution of M. trossulus. (3 Contrary to tidal areas, mussels were not competitively superior over macrophytes with patterns indicating either facilitative interactions between mussels and macrophytes or co-variance due to common stressor. To conclude, direct environmental gradients seem to define the distribution pattern of M. trossulus, and within the favourable distribution range, resource gradients in interaction with direct environmental gradients are expected to set the biomass level of mussels.

  20. Ocean Bottom Deformation Due To Present-Day Mass Redistribution and Its Impact on Sea Level Observations (United States)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo E. M.; King, Matt A.


    Present-day mass redistribution increases the total ocean mass and, on average, causes the ocean bottom to subside elastically. Therefore, barystatic sea level rise is larger than the resulting global mean geocentric sea level rise, observed by satellite altimetry and GPS-corrected tide gauges. We use realistic estimates of mass redistribution from ice mass loss and land water storage to quantify the resulting ocean bottom deformation and its effect on global and regional ocean volume change estimates. Over 1993-2014, the resulting globally averaged geocentric sea level change is 8% smaller than the barystatic contribution. Over the altimetry domain, the difference is about 5%, and due to this effect, barystatic sea level rise will be underestimated by more than 0.1 mm/yr over 1993-2014. Regional differences are often larger: up to 1 mm/yr over the Arctic Ocean and 0.4 mm/yr in the South Pacific. Ocean bottom deformation should be considered when regional sea level changes are observed in a geocentric reference frame.

  1. Sea ice and its effect on mass transport between the atmosphere and the Southern Ocean interior (United States)

    Loose, Brice; Schlosser, Peter


    We examine gas exchange in the presence of sea ice in the Southern Ocean using tracer data and simple models of the oceanic surface layer. Convective cooling leads to sea ice formation over much of the ocean surface, precisely when the water column is most turbulent and has the greatest ability to exchange mass across the air-sea interface. It is this asynchrony of sea ice advance and retreat, versus mixed-layer convection and stratification that determines the net physical flux of gases between the atmosphere and the abyssal ocean interior. However, there is very little antecedent knowledge of the gas transfer velocity, k, through ice-covered waters. The only known estimate, using the radon-deficit method in the Barents Sea, yielded a value of k660 = 6 cm h-1 under ca. 90% ice cover. Here we attempt a second estimate using an isopycnal inventory of three water column tracers measured during the 1992 Ice Station Weddell drift: 3He, CFC-11 and salinity. This effort produced a mean value of 0.9 cm h-1 through ca. 92% ice cover, which is markedly reduced, despite the apparent similarity in ice cover. However, it is difficult to assess the turbulent forcing conditions in both estimates, and therefore we lack a complete basis for comparison. We use these disparate estimates to formulate alternative scenarios for gas ventilation through the seasonal ice zone in the Southern Ocean, by applying them to the Robin boundary condition on a reactive transport model for inorganic carbon. The results show that CO2 flux through sea ice represents 13-34% of the net annual air-sea flux, depending on the relationship between sea ice cover and k. However, the model also indicates that more restriction of natural CO2 in winter produces greater ventilation in the springtime marginal ice zone, with fluxes increasing by 200-700% over the winter value, despite photosynthetic activity. These results highlight the importance of understanding the physical, as well as biological, processes

  2. Mass coral mortality under local amplification of 2 °C ocean warming (United States)

    Decarlo, Thomas M.; Cohen, Anne L.; Wong, George T. F.; Davis, Kristen A.; Lohmann, Pat; Soong, Keryea


    A 2 °C increase in global temperature above pre-industrial levels is considered a reasonable target for avoiding the most devastating impacts of anthropogenic climate change. In June 2015, sea surface temperature (SST) of the South China Sea (SCS) increased by 2 °C in response to the developing Pacific El Niño. On its own, this moderate, short-lived warming was unlikely to cause widespread damage to coral reefs in the region, and the coral reef “Bleaching Alert” alarm was not raised. However, on Dongsha Atoll, in the northern SCS, unusually weak winds created low-flow conditions that amplified the 2 °C basin-scale anomaly. Water temperatures on the reef flat, normally indistinguishable from open-ocean SST, exceeded 6 °C above normal summertime levels. Mass coral bleaching quickly ensued, killing 40% of the resident coral community in an event unprecedented in at least the past 40 years. Our findings highlight the risks of 2 °C ocean warming to coral reef ecosystems when global and local processes align to drive intense heating, with devastating consequences.

  3. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Arizona: Geochronology of the Climatic Record and Connections with the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Jull


    Full Text Available There are many diverse uses of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. 14C studies at our laboratory include much research related to paleoclimate, with 14C as a tracer of past changes in environmental conditions as observed in corals, marine sediments, and many terrestrial records. Terrestrial records can also show the influence of oceanic oscillations, whether they are short term, such as ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation, or on the millennial time scale. In tracer applications, we have developed the use of 129I as well as 14C as tracers for nuclear pollution studies around radioactive waste dump sites, in collaboration with IAEA. We discuss some applications carried out in Tucson, AZ, for several of these fields and hope to give some idea of the breadth of these studies.

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona: geochronology of the climate record and connections with the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jull, A.J.T.; Burr, G.S.; Beck, J.W.; Donahue, D.J.; Biddulph, D.; Hatheway, A.L.; Lange, T.E.; McHargue, L.R.


    There are many diverse uses of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Carbon-14 studies at our laboratory include much research related to paleoclimate, both with 14 C as a tracer of past changes in environmental conditions as observed in corals, marine sediments and many terrestrial records. Terrestrial records such as forest fires can also show the influence of oceanic oscillations, whether they are short-term such as ENSO, or on the millennial time scale. In tracer applications, we have developed the use of 129 I as well as 14 C as tracers for nuclear pollution studies around radioactive waste dump sites, in collaboration with IAEA. We discuss some applications carried out in Tucson for several of these fields and hope to give some idea of the breadth of these studies

  5. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.


    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  6. Bioessential element-depleted ocean following the euxinic maximum of the end-Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Kimura, Kazuhiko; Kaiho, Kunio; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi


    We describe variations in trace element compositions that occurred on the deep seafloor of palaeo-superocean Panthalassa during the end-Permian mass extinction based on samples of sedimentary rock from one of the most continuous Permian-Triassic boundary sections of the pelagic deep sea exposed in north-eastern Japan. Our measurements revealed low manganese (Mn) enrichment factor (normalised by the composition of the average upper continental crust) and high cerium anomaly values throughout the section, suggesting that a reducing condition already existed in the depositional environment in the Changhsingian (Late Permian). Other redox-sensitive trace-element (vanadium [V], chromium [Cr], molybdenum [Mo], and uranium [U]) enrichment factors provide a detailed redox history ranging from the upper Permian to the end of the Permian. A single V increase (representing the first reduction state of a two-step V reduction process) detected in uppermost Changhsingian chert beds suggests development into a mildly reducing deep-sea condition less than 1 million years before the end-Permian mass extinction. Subsequently, a more reducing condition, inferred from increases in Cr, V, and Mo, developed in overlying Changhsingian grey siliceous claystone beds. The most reducing sulphidic condition is recognised by the highest peaks of Mo and V (second reduction state) in the uppermost siliceous claystone and overlying lowermost black claystone beds, in accordance with the end-Permian mass extinction event. This significant increase in Mo in the upper Changhsingian led to a high Mo/U ratio, much larger than that of modern sulphidic ocean regions. This trend suggests that sulphidic water conditions developed both at the sediment-water interface and in the water column. Above the end-Permian mass extinction horizon, Mo, V and Cr decrease significantly. On this trend, we provide an interpretation of drawdown of these elements in seawater after the massive element precipitation event

  7. Ocean Acidification and the End-Permian Mass Extinction: To What Extent does Evidence Support Hypothesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Béatrice Forel


    Full Text Available Ocean acidification in modern oceans is linked to rapid increase in atmospheric CO2, raising concern about marine diversity, food security and ecosystem services. Proxy evidence for acidification during past crises may help predict future change, but three issues limit confidence of comparisons between modern and ancient ocean acidification, illustrated from the end-Permian extinction, 252 million years ago: (1 problems with evidence for ocean acidification preserved in sedimentary rocks, where proposed marine dissolution surfaces may be subaerial. Sedimentary evidence that the extinction was partly due to ocean acidification is therefore inconclusive; (2 Fossils of marine animals potentially affected by ocean acidification are imperfect records of past conditions; selective extinction of hypercalcifying organisms is uncertain evidence for acidification; (3 The current high rates of acidification may not reflect past rates, which cannot be measured directly, and whose temporal resolution decreases in older rocks. Thus large increases in CO2 in the past may have occurred over a long enough time to have allowed assimilation into the oceans, and acidification may not have stressed ocean biota to the present extent. Although we acknowledge the very likely occurrence of past ocean acidification, obtaining support presents a continuing challenge for the Earth science community.

  8. Reduction of ocean tide aliasing in the context of a next generation gravity field mission (United States)

    Hauk, Markus; Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland


    Ocean tide aliasing is currently one of the main limiting factors for temporal gravity field determination and the derivation of mass transport processes in the Earth system. This will be true even more for future gravity field missions with improved measurement technology, which cannot be fully exploited due to this dominant systematic error source. In several previous studies it has been shown that temporal aliasing, related to tidal and non-tidal sources, can be significantly reduced by double-pair formations, e.g., in a so-called Bender configuration, and its effects can be migrated to higher frequencies by an optimum orbit choice, especially the orbit altitude (Murböck et al. 2013). Improved processing strategies and extended parameter models should be able to further reduce the problem. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the parameterization of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2013), but it does not really work for the very short-period signals of ocean tides with mainly semi-diurnal and diurnal periods (Daras 2015). In this contribution, several methods dealing with the reduction of ocean tide aliasing are investigated both from a methodological and a numerical point of view. One of the promising strategies is the co-estimation of selected tidal constituents over long time periods, also considering the basic orbit frequencies of the satellites. These improved estimates for ocean tide signals can then be used in a second step as an enhanced de-aliasing product for the computation of short-period temporal gravity fields. From a number of theoretical considerations and numerical case-studies, recommendations for an optimum orbit selection with respect to reduction of ocean tide aliasing shall be derived for two main mission scenarios. The first one is a classical Bender configuration being composed of a (near-) polar and an inclined in

  9. Ca and Sr isotope records support ocean acidification during end-Permian mass extinction (United States)

    Wang, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Zhang, H.; Ramezani, J.; Sageman, B. B.; Hurtgen, M.; Bowring, S. A.; Shen, S.


    The end-Permian mass extinction represents the most devastating loss of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic. A negative carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion that accompanies the event suggests a significant perturbation to the global carbon cycle, likely induced by CO2 emissions during eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province. The carbon cycle is linked with the Ca and Sr cycles through chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation. Therefore, analyses of Ca (δ44/40Ca), radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr), and stable Sr (δ88/86Sr) isotope abundance variations in marine carbonate rocks spanning the Permian-Triassic Boundary (PTB) can reveal key information about biogeochemical changes that occurred during this time. We report δ44/40Ca, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ88/86Sr records analyzed by TIMS for the Meishan and Dajiang sections in China. δ44/40Ca values exhibit similar patterns in both sections. The values remain unchanged across the extinction event layer (EXT) and then decrease by 0.20‰ before increasing by 0.20‰ to 0.40‰ around the PTB. In the Meishan section, 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase after the EXT and return to pre-excursion levels by the PTB. Simultaneously, δ88/86Sr values decrease by 0.12‰ across the EXT and increase by 0.08‰ by the PTB. The patterns of our data support the hypothesis that elevated atmospheric CO2 levels enhanced chemical weathering inputs and might have caused transient ocean acidification, with an "alkalinity overshoot" and increased carbonate deposition occurring after the extinction. Additional measurements and model calculations are underway to help refine and improve these preliminary interpretations.

  10. Time-variable aliasing effects of ocean tides, atmosphere, and continental water mass on monthly mean GRACE gravity field (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Jekeli, Christopher; Shum, C. K.


    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission will provide new measurements of Earth's static and time-variable gravity fields with monthly resolution. The temporal effects due to ocean tides and atmospheric mass redistribution are assumed known and could be removed using current models. In this study we quantify the aliasing effects on monthly mean GRACE gravity estimates due to errors in models for ocean tides and atmosphere and due to ground surface water mass variation. Our results are based on simulations of GRACE recovery of monthly gravity solution complete to degree and order 120 in the presence of the respective model errors and temporal aliasing effects. For ocean tides we find that a model error in S2 causes errors 3 times larger than the measurement noise at n corrupt recovered coefficients and introduce 30% more error in the global monthly geoid estimates up to maximum degree 120. Assuming daily CDAS-1 data for continental surface water mass redistribution, the analysis indicates that the daily soil moisture and snow depth variations with respect to their monthly mean produce a systematic error as large as the measurement noise over the continental regions.

  11. A project summary: Water and energy budget assessment for a non-tidal wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta (United States)

    Anderson, F.E.; Snyder, R.L.; Paw, U.K.T.; Drexler, J.Z.


    The methods used to obtain universal cover coefficient (Kc) values for a non-tidal restored wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin river delta, US, during the summer of the year 2002 and to investigate possible differences during changing wind patterns are described. A micrometeorological tower over the wetland was established to quantify actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates and surface energy fluxes for water and energy budget analysis. The eddy-covariance (EC) system was used to measure the surface energy budget data in the period from May 23 to November 6, 2002. The results show that K c values should be lower during westerly than northerly wind events during the midseason period due to the reduced vapor pressure deficit.

  12. Spreading of water masses and regeneration of silica and sup(226)Ra in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Yuan-Hui, Li

    Ocean using the GEOSECS data. The regenerated quantities of these two parameters were calculated as the difference between the observed and the expected concentrations; the latter were estimated from a three end-member mixing model employing potential...

  13. Time-variable gravity fields and ocean mass change from 37 months of kinematic Swarm orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lück


    Full Text Available Measuring the spatiotemporal variation of ocean mass allows for partitioning of volumetric sea level change, sampled by radar altimeters, into mass-driven and steric parts. The latter is related to ocean heat change and the current Earth's energy imbalance. Since 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission has provided monthly snapshots of the Earth's time-variable gravity field, from which one can derive ocean mass variability. However, GRACE has reached the end of its lifetime with data degradation and several gaps occurred during the last years, and there will be a prolonged gap until the launch of the follow-on mission GRACE-FO. Therefore, efforts focus on generating a long and consistent ocean mass time series by analyzing kinematic orbits from other low-flying satellites, i.e. extending the GRACE time series. Here we utilize data from the European Space Agency's (ESA Swarm Earth Explorer satellites to derive and investigate ocean mass variations. For this aim, we use the integral equation approach with short arcs (Mayer-Gürr, 2006 to compute more than 500 time-variable gravity fields with different parameterizations from kinematic orbits. We investigate the potential to bridge the gap between the GRACE and the GRACE-FO mission and to substitute missing monthly solutions with Swarm results of significantly lower resolution. Our monthly Swarm solutions have a root mean square error (RMSE of 4.0 mm with respect to GRACE, whereas directly estimating constant, trend, annual, and semiannual (CTAS signal terms leads to an RMSE of only 1.7 mm. Concerning monthly gaps, our CTAS Swarm solution appears better than interpolating existing GRACE data in 13.5 % of all cases, when artificially removing one solution. In the case of an 18-month artificial gap, 80.0 % of all CTAS Swarm solutions were found closer to the observed GRACE data compared to interpolated GRACE data. Furthermore, we show that precise modeling of non

  14. Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1): Trace element mass balance in adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite (United States)

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi


    We present a new numerical trace element mass balance model for adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite for estimating mantle potential temperature, depth of melting column, and pyroxenite fraction in the source mantle for a primary ocean basalt/picrite. The Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1) uses a thermodynamic model of adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite with experimentally/thermodynamically parameterized liquidus-solidus intervals and source mineralogy. OBS1 can be used to calculate a sequence of adiabatic melting with two melting models, including (1) melting of peridotite and pyroxenite sources with simple mixing of their fractional melts (melt-melt mixing model), and (2) pyroxenite melting, melt metasomatism in the host peridotite, and melting of the metasomatized peridotite (source-metasomatism model). OBS1 can be used to explore (1) the fractions of peridotite and pyroxenite, (2) mantle potential temperature, (3) pressure of termination of melting, (4) degree of melting, and (5) residual mode of the sources. In order to constrain these parameters, the model calculates a mass balance for 26 incompatible trace elements in the sources and in the generated basalt/picrite. OBS1 is coded in an Excel spreadsheet and runs with VBA macros. Using OBS1, we examine the source compositions and conditions of the mid-oceanic ridge basalts, Loihi-Koolau basalts in the Hawaiian hot spot, and Jurassic Shatsky Rise and Mikabu oceanic plateau basalts and picrites. The OBS1 model shows the physical conditions, chemical mass balance, and amount of pyroxenite in the source peridotite, which are keys to global mantle recycling.

  15. High-precision measurements of 14C as a circulation tracer in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reden, Karl F. von; Peden, John C.; Schneider, Robert J.; Bellino, Mary; Donoghue, Joanne; Elder, Kathryn L.; Gagnon, Alan R.; Long, Patricia; McNichol, Ann P.; Morin, Tracey; Stuart, Dana; Hayes, John M.; Key, Robert M.


    The National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS) has completed the carbon isotope analysis of a major fraction of the 13,500 sea water samples collected in the framework of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from three of the major world oceans between 1991 and 1996. We will describe the AMS technique employed at NOSAMS and, using 3-D data visualization techniques we will demonstrate the present status of the data set and offer some preliminary conclusions about the distribution of natural and anthropogenic 14 C in the oceans. In particular, we will be able to compare some of the data with results from the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS, 1972-1978) to obtain information about the time dependence of oceanic circulation processes, tracing the 14 C signal introduced into the oceans during the atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in the 1950's and 1960's

  16. Finding the missing plastic -resolving the global mass (im)balance for plastic pollution in the ocean (United States)

    Wilcox, C.; van Sebille, E.


    Several global studies have attempted to estimate the standing stock of plastic debris in the oceans at the global scale. However, recent work estimating the amount lost from land on an annual basis suggests that the standing stock should be several orders of magnitude larger than the global estimates. We investigate the role of coastal deposition within the first few weeks after plastic enters the ocean and very near its sources, one of the hypothesized sinks for the missing plastic in this mass balance. We utilize a continental scale dataset of plastics collected along Australia's coast and in the offshore regions together with models of plastic release and transport based on Lagrangian tracking to investigate the role of local deposition in the coastal environment. Our models predict that the vast majority of positively buoyant plastic is deposited within a very short distance from its release point, with only a small fraction escaping into the open ocean. These predictions match our coastal and offshore observations, providing clear evidence that this mechanism of immediate coastal deposition is, at least in part, driving the apparent mismatch between coastal emissions and the standing stock in the ocean.

  17. {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I as tracers of water masses in the Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, Nuria; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Synal, Hans-Arno [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH-Zurich (Switzerland); Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Loeff, Michiel van der [AWI-Geochemistry, Alfred Wegener Institut Fuer Polar und Meeresforshung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Masque, Pere [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)


    Recently {sup 236}U attested to be a new transient oceanographic tracer: it is conservative in seawater and far from having reached steady state in the oceans. Its main sources in the North Atlantic are global fallout and European reprocessing plants. In this study, concentrations of {sup 236}U and {sup 129}I of eight deep profiles in the Arctic Ocean collected in 2011-2012 were determined with a compact ETH Zurich AMS system (TANDY). Results on {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U show a steep gradient, from the lowest ever-reported {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atomic ratio in open ocean water (5±5) x 10{sup -12} up to (3700±80) x 10{sup -12}. Whereas the very low ratios are indicative for deep old waters, high ratios in shallow and surface waters show a clear signature of Atlantic Waters (AW) penetrating to the Arctic Ocean. The combination of {sup 236}U with {sup 129}I, both being released by the nuclear reprocessing plants of Sellafield and La Hague, with a distinct temporal input function, is used to estimate transit time of AW distributions in the Arctic Ocean.

  18. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density off central California - Oceanic season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Oc0_mass.shp) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oc0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  19. Long-term oceanic changes prior the end-Triassic mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemence, Marie-Emilie; Mette, Wolfgang; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph


    and oceanic basin deposits in the NCA. Intraplatform Rhaetian sections from the Koessen Formation bear a few minor intervals of shales with enrichments in organic matter, some of which are associated to carbon isotopic excursions. Oceanic sections from the Halstatt Basin are characterized at the base by very...... cyclic marl-limestone alternations. Higher up in the section, sediments progressively turn into pure shale deposits and the top of the Formation is characterized by organic-rich, laminated black shales. This interval of black shales is associated with a 2 per mil negative carbon isotopic excursion...

  20. Seasonal Mass Changes and Crustal Vertical Deformations Constrained by GPS and GRACE in Northeastern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Pan


    Full Text Available Surface vertical deformation includes the Earth’s elastic response to mass loading on or near the surface. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS stations record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. We used 41 CGPS stations to construct a time series of coordinate changes, which are decomposed by empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs, in northeastern Tibet. The first common mode shows clear seasonal changes, indicating seasonal surface mass re-distribution around northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived result is then assessed in terms of the mass changes observed in northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived common mode vertical change and the stacked Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass change are consistent, suggesting that the seasonal surface mass variation is caused by changes in the hydrological, atmospheric and non-tidal ocean loads. The annual peak-to-peak surface mass changes derived from GPS and GRACE results show seasonal oscillations in mass loads, and the corresponding amplitudes are between 3 and 35 mm/year. There is an apparent gradually increasing gravity between 0.1 and 0.9 μGal/year in northeast Tibet. Crustal vertical deformation is determined after eliminating the surface load effects from GRACE, without considering Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA contribution. It reveals crustal uplift around northeastern Tibet from the corrected GPS vertical velocity. The unusual uplift of the Longmen Shan fault indicates tectonically sophisticated processes in northeastern Tibet.

  1. Indian Ocean warming during peak El Niño cools surrounding land masses (United States)

    Herold, N.; Santoso, A.


    Understanding the interactions between the Pacific and other ocean basins during extreme phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is necessary for explaining its global climate impacts. Here climate model experiments are used to highlight a mechanism by which the characteristic warming of the Indian Ocean during peak El Niño months can cool North Africa and South Asia, an area encompassing over three billion people. It is found that warming of the Indian Ocean during extreme El Niño events leads to broader upper tropospheric geopotential height anomalies than would otherwise occur. This weakens the extratropical Rossby wave response initiated in the tropics and leads to higher pressure and reduced cloud forcing over North Africa and South Asia. Reanalysis data provides empirical support for this mechanism, although it is likely only to be prominent during strong El Niño events when Indian Ocean warming tends to be larger. This dampening effect needs to be taken into account in understanding the climatic impact of extreme El Niño events, which are projected to increase under global warming.

  2. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.


    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  3. Warming of the Global Ocean: Spatial Structure and Water-Mass Trends (United States)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Rhines, Peter B.; Worthen, Denise L.


    This study investigates the multidecadal warming and interannual-to-decadal heat content changes in the upper ocean (0-700 m), focusing on vertical and horizontal patterns of variability. These results support a nearly monotonic warming over much of the World Ocean, with a shift toward Southern Hemisphere warming during the well-observed past decade. This is based on objectively analyzed gridded observational datasets and on a modeled state estimate. Besides the surface warming, a warming climate also has a subsurface effect manifesting as a strong deepening of the midthermocline isopycnals, which can be diagnosed directly from hydrographic data. This deepening appears to be a result of heat entering via subduction and spreading laterally from the high-latitude ventilation regions of subtropical mode waters. The basin-average multidecadal warming mainly expands the subtropical mode water volume, with weak changes in the temperature-salinity (u-S) relationship (known as ''spice'' variability). However, the spice contribution to the heat content can be locally large, for example in Southern Hemisphere. Multidecadal isopycnal sinking has been strongest over the southern basins and weaker elsewhere with the exception of the Gulf Stream/North Atlantic Current/subtropical recirculation gyre. At interannual to decadal time scales, wind-driven sinking and shoaling of density surfaces still dominate ocean heat content changes, while the contribution from temperature changes along density surfaces tends to decrease as time scales shorten.

  4. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Day


    Full Text Available The observed decline in summer sea ice extent since the 1970s is predicted to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free during the 21st Century. This will lead to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in ocean surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers and is expected to experience rapid warming over the 21st Century. The total sea level rise if all the land ice on Svalbard were to melt completely is 0.02 m.

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on Svalbard's surface mass balance (SMB and to determine, in particular, what proportion of the projected changes in precipitation and SMB are a result of changes to the Arctic sea ice cover. To investigate this a regional climate model was forced with monthly mean climatologies of sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090 under two emission scenarios. In a novel forcing experiment, 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice were used to force one simulation to investigate the role of sea ice forcing. This experiment results in a 3.5 m water equivalent increase in Svalbard's SMB compared to the present day. This is because over 50 % of the projected increase in winter precipitation over Svalbard under the A1B emissions scenario is due to an increase in lower atmosphere moisture content associated with evaporation from the ice free ocean. These results indicate that increases in precipitation due to sea ice decline may act to moderate mass loss from Svalbard's glaciers due to future Arctic warming.

  5. Consequences of an uncertain mass mortality regime triggered by climate variability on giant clam population management in the Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Andréfouët, Serge; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Remoissenet, Georges


    Despite actions to manage sustainably tropical Pacific Ocean reef fisheries, managers have faced failures and frustrations because of unpredicted mass mortality events triggered by climate variability. The consequences of these events on the long-term population dynamics of living resources need to be better understood for better management decisions. Here, we use a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) spatially explicit population model to compare the efficiency of several management strategies under various scenarios of natural mortality, including mass mortality due to climatic anomalies. The model was parameterized by in situ estimations of growth and mortality and fishing effort, and was validated by historical and new in situ surveys of giant clam stocks in two French Polynesia lagoons. Projections on the long run (100 years) suggested that the best management strategy was a decrease of fishing pressure through quota implementation, regardless of the mortality regime considered. In contrast, increasing the minimum legal size of catch and closing areas to fishing were less efficient. When high mortality occurred due to climate variability, the efficiency of all management scenarios decreased markedly. Simulating El Niño Southern Oscillation event by adding temporal autocorrelation in natural mortality rates increased the natural variability of stocks, and also decreased the efficiency of management. These results highlight the difficulties that managers in small Pacific islands can expect in the future in the face of global warming, climate anomalies and new mass mortalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Realistically Perturbed Atmosphere and Ocean De-Aliasing Model for Future Gravity Mission Simulation Studies (United States)

    Dobslaw, Henryk; Forootan, Ehsan; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank


    Recently completed performance studies of future gravity mission concepts arrived at sometimes contradicting conclusions about the importance of non-tidal aliasing errors that remain in the finally retrieved gravity field time-series. In those studies, typically a fraction of the differences between two different models of atmosphere and ocean mass variability determined the magnitude of the aliasing errors. Since differences among arbitrary pairs of the numerical models available might lead to widely different aliasing errors and thus conclusions regarding limiting error contributors of a candidate mission, we present here for the first time a version of a realistically perturbed de-aliasing model that is consistent with the updated ESA Earth System Model for gravity mission simulation studies (Dobslaw et al., 2015). The error model is available over the whole 12-year period of the ESA ESM and consists of two parts: (i) a component containing signals from physical processes that are intentionally omitted from de-aliasing models, as for a example, variations in global eustatic sea-level; and (ii) a series of true errors that consist of in total five different components with realistically re-scaled variability at both small and large spatial scales for different frequency bands ranging from sub-daily to sub-monthly periods. Based on a multi-model ensemble of atmosphere and ocean mass variability available to us for the year 2006, we will demonstrate that our re-scaled true errors have plausible magnitudes and correlation characteristics in all frequency bands considered. The realism of the selected scaling coefficients for periods between 1 and 30 days is tested further by means of a variance component estimation based on the constrained daily GRACE solution series ITSG-GRACE2014. Initial full-scale simulation experiments are used to re-assess the relative importance of non-tidal de-aliasing errors for the GRACE-FO mission, which might be subsequently expanded to

  7. The hydrocarbon cycle and its role in hyperthermals, ocean anoxic events and mass extinctions (United States)

    Dahlgren, Torbjørn


    Release of light isotopic carbon, ocean oxygen deficiency and extinction characterizes the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) has been linked to gas hydrate decomposition and/or methane release due to igneous intrusions in sedimentary basins. In reviewing the published geological and geochemical data it became apparent that the majority of observations are in fact compatible with a different source(s) of the light isotopic carbon, namely, that of fluids trapped in sedimentary basins. Here I make a connection between the drilled paleo-accumulations of oil and gas in the Barents Sea, their burial and tectonic history, and published data of the PETM that may be reinterpreted as to reflect large scale leakage of oil and gas accumulations. I focus on oil, as leaked oil has a preservation potential in the sedimentary record. In contrast, gas from either leaked gas accumulations or exsolution from pore waters has little preservation potential other than contributing to the CIE. Sedimentary records compatible with leaked oil is present in the Arctic Ocean and Spitsbergen as fluorescent bitumen/amorphous organic matter (AOM) with carbon isotope ratios and biomarker signatures similar to those recorded in Barents Sea oil samples. Bitumen/AOM-rich immature sediments are also found in the North Sea and unresolved complex organic matter compatible with highly weathered oil has been found as far south as Walvis Ridge, offshore Namibia. Large scale fluid leakage from sedimentary basins can also explain the increase in radiogenic Osmium and Rhenium that mimic the CIE. Also biological evidence such as the extinction of North Atlantic benthic foraminifera lineages, the A. Augustum bloom and the occurrence of malformed micro/nanno-fossils may be linked to large scale leakage of oil and diagenetically altered porewaters. The leaked oil and gas was partially re-cycled into an organic rich shale (source rock) suggesting a 'hydrocarbon cycle

  8. Organic Carbon and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Loads from a Constructed, Non-Tidal Wetland in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Fleck


    Full Text Available Wetland restoration on peat islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta will change the quality of island drainage waters entering the Delta, a primary source of drinking water in California. Peat island drainage waters contain high concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC and organic precursors to drinking water disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs. We quantified the net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors from a constructed subsidence mitigation wetland on Twitchell Island in the Delta to determine the change in drainage water quality that may be caused by conversion of agricultural land on peat islands to permanently flooded, non-tidal wetlands. Creation of permanently flooded wetlands halts oxidative loss of the peat soils and thereby may mitigate the extensive land-surface subsidence of the islands that threatens levee stability in the Delta. Net loads from the wetland were dominated by DOC flushed from the oxidized shallow peat soil layer by seepage flow out of the wetland. The permanently flooded conditions in the overlying wetland resulted in a gradual evolution to anaerobic conditions in the shallow soil layer and a concomitant decrease in the flow could be minimized by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wetland and the adjacent drainage ditch. Estimates of net loads from the wetland assuming efflux of surface water only were comparable in magnitude to net loads from nearby agricultural fields, but the wetland and agricultural net loads had opposite seasonal variations. Wetland surface water net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors were lower during the winter months when the greatest amounts of water are available for diversion from the Delta to drinking water reservoirs.

  9. Submarine mass wasting and associated tsunami risk offshore western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schwab


    Full Text Available 2-D seismic data from the top and the western slope of Mergui Ridge in water depths between 300 and 2200 m off the Thai west coast have been investigated in order to identify mass transport deposits (MTDs and evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides in this outer shelf area. Based on our newly collected data, 17 mass transport deposits have been identified. Minimum volumes of individual MTDs range between 0.3 km3 and 14 km3. Landslide deposits have been identified in three different settings: (i stacked MTDs within disturbed and faulted basin sediments at the transition of the East Andaman Basin to the Mergui Ridge; (ii MTDs within a pile of drift sediments at the basin-ridge transition; and (iii MTDs near the edge of/on top of Mergui Ridge in relatively shallow water depths (< 1000 m. Our data indicate that the Mergui Ridge slope area seems to have been generally unstable with repeated occurrence of slide events. We find that the most likely causes for slope instabilities may be the presence of unstable drift sediments, excess pore pressure, and active tectonics. Most MTDs are located in large water depths (> 1000 m and/or comprise small volumes suggesting a small tsunami potential. Moreover, the recurrence rates of failure events seem to be low. Some MTDs with tsunami potential, however, have been identified on top of Mergui Ridge. Mass-wasting events that may occur in the future at similar locations may trigger tsunamis if they comprise sufficient volumes. Landslide tsunamis, emerging from slope failures in the working area and affecting western Thailand coastal areas therefore cannot be excluded, though the probability is very small compared to the probability of earthquake-triggered tsunamis, arising from the Sunda Trench.

  10. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Shetye, S.; Maya, M.V.; Mangala, K.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    strait. Journal of Geophysical Research 101(C5), 12455-12464. Baylor, E.R., Sutcliffe, W.H., Hirschfeid D.S., 1962. Adsorption of phosphate onto bubbles. Deep Sea Research 9, 120-124. Deutsch, C., Gruber, N., Key, R.M., Sarmiento, J.L., 2001... meridian the upheaval of the water mass below the mixed layer during spring and summer monsoon (Fig 7 d,e) depressed the nitrate levels at the equator whereas the undercurrent to the north of the equator depressed the nitrate isolines to greater depths...

  11. Evaluation of the RL05 GRACE atmosphere and ocean dealiasing level 1B (AOD1B) product with precise orbit and altimetry analysis (United States)

    Fagiolini, Elisa; Rudenko, Sergei; Esselborn, Saskia; Schöne, Tilo; Dobslaw, Henryk; Flechtner, Frank


    GRACE Atmospheric and Oceanic De-aliasing Level-1B (AOD1B) product is intended to serve as a background model for a wide range of satellite missions. The main usage of AOD1B is the removal of high-frequency non-tidal mass variations due to short-term (daily and sub-daily) mass transport in the atmosphere and oceans AOD1B shall avoid aliasing of these high frequency signals into monthly gravity models derived from modern gravity missions (CHAMP, GRACE or GRACE-FO) and shall help to derive consistent orbit solutions for altimetry and SLR satellites. The latest AOD1B Release 05 (RL05) is provided for the period Jan 1st, 2001 till today and updated on an approximately weekly basis. It includes several improvements over the ocean due to an updated parametrization and spatial resolution of the oceanic part contributed by the Ocean Model for Circulation and Tides (OMCT). For the atmospheric part, as well as for the ocean response to atmospheric pressure, the necessary input data is extracted from the operational analyses of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). Recently, we successfully extended backward to 1976 the last AOD1B RL05, based on ERA-Interim and ERA-40 (ECMWF Re-Analysis) input data. The new time series are stable and free from discontinuities caused by changes in the ECMWF input model. Some results of the evaluation of the new and previous releases of the AOD1B product for precise orbit determination (POD) of altimetry satellites ERS-1 (1991-1996), ERS-2 (1995-2006), TOPEX-Poseidon (1992-2005), Envisat (2002-2012) and Jason-1 (2002-2012) at the time intervals given and altimetry analysis are presented.

  12. Toward a Global 1/25 deg HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides (United States)


    with new target densities (Figure 7) indicates marked improvement in simulation of the Atlantic Water circulation and thermohaline structure in extract the mesoscale circulation , 2) data assimilation using the de-tided forward model, 3) combine tidal and the corrected non-tidal component...topography (experiment “NRL-ST”, Table 1) revealed noticeable biases in the simulated temperature and salinity as well as ocean circulation in the

  13. The size, mass, and composition of plastic debris in the western North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Morét-Ferguson, Skye; Law, Kara Lavender; Proskurowski, Giora; Murphy, Ellen K; Peacock, Emily E; Reddy, Christopher M


    This study reports the first inventory of physical properties of individual plastic debris in the North Atlantic. We analyzed 748 samples for size, mass, and material composition collected from surface net tows on 11 expeditions from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to the Caribbean Sea between 1991 and 2007. Particles were mostly fragments less than 10mm in size with nearly all lighter than 0.05 g. Material densities ranged from 0.808 to 1.24 g ml(-1), with about half between 0.97 and 1.04 g ml(-1), a range not typically found in virgin plastics. Elemental analysis suggests that samples in this density range are consistent with polypropylene and polyethylene whose densities have increased, likely due to biofouling. Pelagic densities varied considerably from that of beach plastic debris, suggesting that plastic particles are modified during their residence at sea. These analyses provide clues in understanding particle fate and potential debris sources, and address ecological implications of pelagic plastic debris. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales (United States)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten; Nowald, Nico; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold


    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analysed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales. High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production (mostly by diatoms) largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter and occasionally in summer/autumn enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on short timescales via the ballasting effect. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) might have weakened the relationships between fluxes and large-scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by incorporating dust into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all bulk fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost 1 year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. For decadal timescales, Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling

  15. Reconciling ocean mass content change based on direct and inverse approaches by utilizing data from GRACE, altimetry and Swarm (United States)

    Rietbroek, R.; Uebbing, B.; Lück, C.; Kusche, J.


    Ocean mass content (OMC) change due to the melting of the ice-sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, melting of glaciers and changes in terrestrial hydrology is a major contributor to present-day sea level rise. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite mission serves as a valuable tool for directly measuring the variations in OMC. As GRACE has almost reached the end of its lifetime, efforts are being made to utilize the Swarm mission for the recovery of low degree time-variable gravity fields to bridge a possible gap until the GRACE-FO mission and to fill up periods where GRACE data was not existent. To this end we compute Swarm monthly normal equations and spherical harmonics that are found competitive to other solutions. In addition to directly measuring the OMC, combination of GRACE gravity data with altimetry data in a global inversion approach allows to separate the total sea level change into individual mass-driven and steric contributions. However, published estimates of OMC from the direct and inverse methods differ not only depending on the time window, but also are influenced by numerous post-processing choices. Here, we will look into sources of such differences between direct and inverse approaches and evaluate the capabilities of Swarm to derive OMC. Deriving time series of OMC requires several processing steps; choosing a GRACE (and altimetry) product, data coverage, masks and filters to be applied in either spatial or spectral domain, corrections related to spatial leakage, GIA and geocenter motion. In this study, we compare and quantify the effects of the different processing choices of the direct and inverse methods. Our preliminary results point to the GIA correction as the major source of difference between the two approaches.

  16. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases (United States)

    Skuce, A. G.


    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  17. Carbonate system in the water masses of the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during February and March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Dávila


    Full Text Available Carbonate system variables were measured in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC from February to March 2008. Eddies detached from the retroflection of the Agulhas Current increased the gradients observed along the fronts. Minima in the fugacity of CO2, fCO2, and maxima in pH on either side of the frontal zone were observed, noting that within the frontal zone fCO2 reached maximum values and pH was at a minimum.

    Vertical distributions of water masses were described by their carbonate system properties and their relationship to CFC concentrations. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW and Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW offered pHT,25 values of 7.56 and 7.61, respectively. The UCDW also had higher concentrations of CFC-12 (>0.2 pmol kg−1 as compared to deeper waters, revealing that UCDW was mixed with recently ventilated waters. Calcite and aragonite saturation states (Ω were also affected by the presence of these two water masses with high carbonate concentrations. The aragonite saturation horizon was observed at 1000 m in the subtropical area and north of the Subantarctic Front. At the position of the Polar Front, and under the influence of UCDW and LCDW, the aragonite saturation horizon deepened from 800 m to 1500 m at 50.37° S, and reached 700 m south of 57.5° S. High latitudes proved to be the most sensitive areas to predicted anthropogenic carbon increase. Buffer coefficients related to changes in [CO2], [H+] and Ω with changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (CT and total alkalinity (AT offered minima values in the Antarctic Intermediate Water and UCDW layers. These coefficients suggest that a small increase in CT will sharply decrease the status of pH and carbonate saturation

  18. A new release 06 of the GRACE Atmosphere and Ocean De-aliasing Level-1B (AOD1B) product (United States)

    Fagiolini, E.; Dobslaw, H.; Flechtner, F.; Rudenko, S.


    We present a new release 06 of the GRACE AOD1B product, intended to serve as a background model for the removal of high-frequency non-tidal mass variations due to short-term (daily and sub-daily) mass transport in the atmosphere and oceans. AOD1B shall avoid aliasing of these high frequency signals into monthly gravity models derived from modern gravity missions (CHAMP, GRACE or GRACE-FO) and shall help to consistently reprocess altimetry and SLR satellites for later combination of gravimetric and geometric results. Therefore, AOD1B RL06 will be provided for an extended time-range (from 1976 till present). Some results on the use of the new and previous releases of the AOD1B product for precise orbit determination (POD) of these satellites are presented as well. For AOD1B RL06 the ocean part is the same as in RL05, while the atmospheric one includes an improved algorithm for the vertical integration of the atmospheric columns as well as a correction strategy for errors (jumps) present in the atmospheric input data. These errors are estimated by comparing the standard atmospheric coefficients based on the ECMWF operational analysis with independently generated coefficients based on the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this, we are able to correct the 6-hourly AOD1B data sets applied during GRACE POD. The derived gravity solutions, as well as the monthly averages 'GAA' (atmosphere only) and 'GAC' (atmosphere combined with ocean), are then free from errors present in the atmospheric input data. Furthermore, we are checking routinely processing changes at ECMWF, since they are strictly associated with the above mentioned errors, and will estimate new correction coefficients, if necessary.

  19. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris


    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  20. Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils (United States)

    Fontaine, E.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Delanoë, J.; Wobrock, W.; Leroy, D.; Dupuy, R.; Gourbeyre, C.; Protat, A.


    In this study the density of ice hydrometeors in tropical clouds is derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2-D-array probes and associated reflectivities measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, the mass-diameter m(D) relationship is formulated as a power law with two unknown coefficients (pre-factor, exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors, where absolute ice density measurement methods do not apply. Here, at first an extended theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3-D and arbitrarily projected on a 2-D plan allowed to constrain the exponent βof the m(D) relationship from the exponent σ of the surface-diameterS(D)relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2-D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivities matching the measured reflectivities along the aircraft trajectory. The study was performed as part of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, where two types of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were investigated: (i) above the African continent and (ii) above the Indian Ocean. For the two data sets, two parameterizations are derived to calculate the vertical variability of m(D) coefficients α and β as a function of the temperature. Originally calculated (with T-matrix) and also subsequently parameterized m(D) relationships from this study are compared to other methods (from literature) of calculating m(D) in tropical convection. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC (Condensed Water Content) and Z-CWC-T-fitted parameterizations.

  1. Impact of the new equation of state of seawater (TEOS-10) on the estimates of water mass mixture and meridional transport in the Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Almeida, Lucas; de Azevedo, José Luiz Lima; Kerr, Rodrigo; Araujo, Moacyr; Mata, Mauricio M.


    The equation of state of seawater (EOS) provides a simple way to link the properties of seawater that are the most important for ocean dynamics and the ocean-atmosphere climate system. In 2010, the set of equations used to derive all thermodynamic properties of seawater were updated using a thermodynamic approach. The new approach, named TEOS-10, results in better estimates of seawater properties, such as salinity and temperature, when compared to the previous EOS version (EOS-80). Since several physical processes in the oceans are driven by these properties, improvements in the EOS performance are expected to lead to a better and more realistic representation of the ocean. This work focuses on assessing the main differences of the: (i) contribution of water masses to a total mixture, (ii) baroclinic velocity, and (iii) volume and heat transport, as calculated by the EOS-80 and by the TEOS-10, along four zonal transects at 26.5°N, 10°N, 11°S, and 34.5°S in the Atlantic Ocean. The density differences (always between TEOS-10 and EOS-80) increase with depth and hence the results indicate that the most significant difference in the water mass contributions was found for Antarctic Bottom Water. Within that layer, the differences reach up to 10% on its fraction of the mixture when calculated by the TEOS-10, although the difference in the North Atlantic Deep Water contribution was not negligible either. The estimated baroclinic velocities showed considerable differences in all studied areas, being more significant over boundary current systems. The Gulf Stream presented lower velocity, while the Brazil Current presented increasing velocity when using TEOS-10. The comparison between values computed for volume transported by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation showed a total difference of about +6%, which cannot be neglected when considering the space and time variability involved. The heat transport showed significant differences in the study areas at the

  2. An integrated approach for estimating global glacio isostatic adjustment, land ice, hydrology and ocean mass trends within a complete coupled Earth system framework (United States)

    Schumacher, M.; Bamber, J. L.; Martin, A.


    Future sea level rise (SLR) is one of the most serious consequences of climate change. Therefore, understanding the drivers of past sea level change is crucial for improving predictions. SLR integrates many Earth system components including oceans, land ice, terrestrial water storage, as well as solid Earth effects. Traditionally, each component have been tackled separately, which has often lead to inconsistencies between discipline-specific estimates of each part of the sea level budget. To address these issues, the European Research Council has funded a five year project aimed at producing a physically-based, data-driven solution for the complete coupled land-ocean-solid Earth system that is consistent with the full suite of observations, prior knowledge and fundamental geophysical constraints. The project is called "GlobalMass" and based at University of Bristol. Observed mass movement from the GRACE mission plus vertical land motion from a global network of permanent GPS stations will be utilized in a data-driven approach to estimate glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) without introducing any assumptions about the Earth structure or ice loading history. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) will be used as the framework to combine the satellite and in-situ observations alongside prior information that incorporates the physics of the coupled system such as conservation of mass and characteristic length scales of different processes in both space and time. The BHM is used to implement a simultaneous solution at a global scale. It will produce a consistent partitioning of the integrated SLR signal into its steric (thermal) and barystatic (mass) component for the satellite era. The latter component is induced by hydrological mass trends and melting of land ice. The BHM was developed and tested on Antarctica, where it has been used to separate surface, ice dynamic and GIA signals simultaneously. We illustrate the approach and concepts with examples from this test case

  3. Investigation of thallium fluxes from subaerial volcanism-Implications for the present and past mass balance of thallium in the oceans (United States)

    Baker, R.G.A.; Rehkamper, M.; Hinkley, T.K.; Nielsen, S.G.; Toutain, J.P.


    A suite of 34 volcanic gas condensates and particulates from Kilauea (Hawaii), Mt. Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Mt. Merapi (Indonesia), White Island and Mt. Nguaruhoe (New Zealand) were analysed for both Tl isotope compositions and Tl/Pb ratios. When considered together with published Tl-Pb abundance data, the measurements provide globally representative best estimates of Tl/Pb = 0.46 ?? 0.25 and ??205Tl = -1.7 ?? 2.0 for the emissions of subaerial volcanism to the atmosphere and oceans (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio from NIST SRM 997 isotope standard in parts per 10,000). Compared to igneous rocks of the crust and mantle, volcanic gases were found to have (i) Tl/Pb ratios that are typically about an order of magnitude higher, and (ii) significantly more variable Tl isotope compositions but a mean ??205Tl value that is indistinguishable from estimates for the Earth's mantle and continental crust. The first observation can be explained by the more volatile nature of Tl compared to Pb during the production of volcanic gases, whilst the second reflects the contrasting and approximately balanced isotope fractionation effects that are generated by partial evaporation of Tl during magma degassing and partial Tl condensation as a result of the cooling and differentiation of volcanic gases. Mass balance calculations, based on results from this and other recent Tl isotope studies, were carried out to investigate whether temporal changes in the volcanic Tl fluxes could be responsible for the dramatic shift in the ??205Tl value of the oceans at ???55 Ma, which has been inferred from Tl isotope time series data for ferromanganese crusts. The calculations demonstrate that even large changes in the marine Tl input fluxes from volcanism and other sources are unable to significantly alter the Tl isotope composition of the oceans. Based on modelling, it is shown that the large inferred change in the ??205Tl value of seawater is best explained if the oceans

  4. Mediterranean Sea large-scale low-frequency ocean variability and water mass formation rates from 1987 to 2007: A retrospective analysis (United States)

    Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco; Adani, Mario; Coppini, Giovanni; Fratianni, Claudia; Oddo, Paolo; Simoncelli, Simona; Tonani, Marina; Lyubartsev, Vladislav; Dobricic, Srdjan; Bonaduce, Antonio


    We describe a synthesis of the Mediterranean Sea circulation structure and dynamics from a 23-year-long reanalysis of the ocean circulation carried out by Adani et al. (2011). This mesoscale permitting dynamical reconstruction of past ocean variability in the Mediterranean Sea allows the study of the time-mean circulation and its low frequency, decadal, components. It is found that the time-mean circulation is composed of boundary and open ocean intensified jets at the border of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres. The large scale basin circulation is generally characterized in the northern regions by cyclonic gyres and in its southern parts by anticyclonic gyres and eddy-dominated flow fields, with the exception of the Tyrrhenian and the northern Ionian Sea. The time-mean Tyrrhenian Sea circulation is dominated by cyclonic gyres of different intensity and intermittency. The northern Ionian Sea circulation, however, reverses in sign in two ten-year periods, the first in 1987-1996 and the second in 1997-2006, which is here called the Northern Ionian reversal phenomenon. This reversal is provoked by the excursion of the Atlantic-Ionian Stream from the middle to the northern parts of the basin. The decadal variability of other parts of the basin is characterized by changes in strength of the basin scale structures. The water mass formation rates and variability are dominated by event-like periods where the intermediate and deep waters are formed for 2-3 years at higher rates. The largest deep water formation events of the past 23 years occurred separately in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin: the first coincided with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (Roether et al., 1996) and the second with the western Mediterranean deep water formation event in 2005-2006 (Smith et al., 2008). A new schematic of the basin-scale circulation is formulated and commented.

  5. (238)U/(235)U isotope ratios of crustal material, rivers and products of hydrothermal alteration: new insights on the oceanic U isotope mass balance. (United States)

    Noordmann, Janine; Weyer, Stefan; Georg, R Bastian; Jöns, Svenja; Sharma, Mukul


    significantly lower δ(238)U (-0.55 and -0.59 ‰) than seawater (-0.38 ‰). These findings, together with the heavier U isotope composition observed for some altered basalts and carbonate veins support a model, in which redox processes mostly drive U isotope fractionation. This may result in a slightly heavier U isotope composition of U that is removed from seawater during hydrothermal seafloor alteration compared to that of seawater. Using the estimated isotope compositions of rivers and all U sinks from the ocean (of this study and the literature) for modelling of the isotopic U mass balance, this gives reasonable results for recent estimates of the oceanic U budget. It furthermore provides additional constraints on the relative size of the diverse U sinks and respective net isotope fractionation during U removal.

  6. BedMachine v3: Complete Bed Topography and Ocean Bathymetry Mapping of Greenland From Multibeam Echo Sounding Combined With Mass Conservation. (United States)

    Morlighem, M; Williams, C N; Rignot, E; An, L; Arndt, J E; Bamber, J L; Catania, G; Chauché, N; Dowdeswell, J A; Dorschel, B; Fenty, I; Hogan, K; Howat, I; Hubbard, A; Jakobsson, M; Jordan, T M; Kjeldsen, K K; Millan, R; Mayer, L; Mouginot, J; Noël, B P Y; O'Cofaigh, C; Palmer, S; Rysgaard, S; Seroussi, H; Siegert, M J; Slabon, P; Straneo, F; van den Broeke, M R; Weinrebe, W; Wood, M; Zinglersen, K B


    Greenland's bed topography is a primary control on ice flow, grounding line migration, calving dynamics, and subglacial drainage. Moreover, fjord bathymetry regulates the penetration of warm Atlantic water (AW) that rapidly melts and undercuts Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers. Here we present a new compilation of Greenland bed topography that assimilates seafloor bathymetry and ice thickness data through a mass conservation approach. A new 150 m horizontal resolution bed topography/bathymetric map of Greenland is constructed with seamless transitions at the ice/ocean interface, yielding major improvements over previous data sets, particularly in the marine-terminating sectors of northwest and southeast Greenland. Our map reveals that the total sea level potential of the Greenland ice sheet is 7.42 ± 0.05 m, which is 7 cm greater than previous estimates. Furthermore, it explains recent calving front response of numerous outlet glaciers and reveals new pathways by which AW can access glaciers with marine-based basins, thereby highlighting sectors of Greenland that are most vulnerable to future oceanic forcing.

  7. Natural radioactivity of the atmosphere over the Indian land mass, inside deep mines, and over adjoining oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Rangarajan, C.; Eapen, C.D.


    Measurements of the activities of short-lived radon and thoron daughters, long-lived RaD ( 210 Pb), and cosmic-ray produced 7 Be in the surface atmosphere of different regions of India and the neighboring seas are presented. The seasonal and geographical variations of the activities and the meteorological significance of these variations are also discussed. Over land, the natural activities due to radon and thoron daughters undergo an annual and diurnal cycle, which is an index of the variation in the vertical mixing of the surface atmosphere. Over the oceans the diurnal variations are not so pronounced as over the land. Detailed measurements at stationary positions over the Arabian Sea showed significant changes in radon which were in phase at all the positions. The levels of radon daughters in the Kolar Gold Field mines, the second deepest in the world, have been measured. Maximum values are about 10 pCi/liter, and the daughter products are in a state of high disequilibrium. RaD( 210 Pb) over the land undergoes a seasonal cycle similar to radon with winter maximums and summer minimums, indicating that it is mainly supported from ambient radon. Beryllium-7 undergoes a seasonal cycle similar to stratospheric fallout with reduced amplitude. This can be interpreted as being due to the presence of a seasonally dependent stratospheric 7 Be mixing with a constant level of 7 Be produced within the troposphere itself

  8. High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.


    resonance envelopes typical of an intricate mixture of natural organic matter with noticeable peaks of anomerics and C-aromatics carbon whereas oxygenated aromatics and ketones were of too low abundance to result in noticeable humps at the S/N ratio provided. Integration according to major substructure regimes revealed continual increase of carboxylic acids and ketones from surface to deep marine DOM, reflecting a progressive oxygenation of marine DOM, with concomitant decline of carbohydrate-related substructures. Isolation of marine DOM by means of SPE likely discriminated against carbohydrates but produced materials with beneficial NMR relaxation properties: a substantial fraction of dissolved organic molecules present allowed the acquisition of two-dimensional NMR spectra with exceptional resolution. JRES, COSY and HMBC NMR spectra were capable to depict resolved molecular signatures of compounds exceeding a certain minimum abundance. Here, JRES spectra suffered from limited resolution whereas HMBC spectra were constrained because of limited S/N ratio. Hence, COSY NMR spectra appeared best suited to depict organic complexity in marine DOM. The intensity and number of COSY cross peaks was found maximal for sample FMAX and conformed to about 1500 molecules recognizable in variable abundance. Surface DOM (FISH) produced a slightly (~25%) lesser number of cross peaks with remarkable positional accordance to FMAX (~80% conforming COSY cross peaks were found in FISH and FMAX). With increasing water depth, progressive attenuation of COSY cross peaks was caused by fast transverse NMR relaxation of yet unknown origin. However, most of the faint COSY cross peak positions of deep water DOM conformed to those observed in the surface DOM, suggesting the presence of a numerous set of identical molecules throughout the entire ocean column even if the investigated water masses belonged to different oceanic regimes and currents. Aliphatic chemical environments of methylene (CH2) and

  9. TELLUS_OCEAN_GIF_GFZ_RL05:1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the GFZ GRACE ocean...

  10. Basal melt, seasonal water mass transformation, ocean current variability, and deep convection processes along the Amery Ice Shelf calving front, East Antarctica} (United States)

    Herraiz Borreguero, Laura; Church, John A.; Alison, Ian; Peña Molino, Beatriz; Coleman, Richard; Tomczak, Mathias; Craven, Mike


    Despite the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) being the third largest ice shelf in Antarctica, the seasonal variability of the physical processes involved in the AIS-ocean interaction remains undocumented and a robust observational, oceanographic-based basal melt rate estimate has been lacking. Here we use year-long time series of water column temperature, salinity, and horizontal velocities measured along the ice shelf front from 2001 to 2002. Our results show strong zonal variations in the distribution of water masses along the ice shelf front: modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) arrives in the east, while in the west, Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formed in the Mackenzie polynya dominate the water column. Baroclinic eddies, formed during winter deep convection (down to 1100 m), drive the inflow of DSW into the ice shelf cavity. Our net basal melt rate estimate is 57.4±25.3 Gt yr?1 (1±0.4 m yr?1), larger than previous modeling-based and glaciological-based estimates, and results from the inflow of DSW (0.52±0.38 Sv; 1 Sv=106 m3 s?1) and mCDW (0.22±0.06 Sv) into the cavity. Our results highlight the role of the Mackenzie polynya in the seasonal exchange of water masses across the ice shelf front, and the role of the ISW in controlling the formation rate and thermohaline properties of DSW. These two processes directly impact on the ice shelf mass balance, and on the contribution of DSW/ISW to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water.

  11. Equatorial Kelvin waves generated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean trigger mass and heat transport within the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica (United States)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Davis, Earl E.


    Sequences of correlated seafloor temperature, current velocity, and acoustic backscatter events recorded at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites at 4300 m depth in the Middle America Trench have been inferred to result from tidally induced turbidity currents generated in the vicinity of the 3300 m deep sill at the southern end of the trench. New data from the borehole observatories extend the temperature records to 11 years (November 2002 to December 2013) and confirm the highly episodic nature of the events. We present satellite altimetry data and ocean circulation model results to show that event timing is correlated with intraseasonal Kelvin wave motions in the equatorial Pacific. The observed temperature events had a mean (±1 standard deviation) occurrence interval of 61 (±24) days, which spans the periods of the first two baroclinic modes. Lag times between peak bottom water temperatures at the ODP sites and the passage of eastward-propagating Kelvin wave crests at locations in the eastern equatorial Pacific are consistent with the time for mode-1 waves to propagate to the southern end of the trench at a mean phase speed of 2.0 m s-1. Findings indicate that Kelvin wave currents augment tidal motions in the vicinity of the sill, triggering turbidity currents that travel northwestward along the trench axis at mean speeds of ˜0.1 m s-1. We conclude that mode-1 (or, possibly, mixed mode-1 and mode-2) baroclinic Kelvin waves generated by large-scale atmospheric processes in the western tropical Pacific lead to heat and mass transport deep within Middle America Trench in the eastern tropical Pacific.

  12. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses. (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo


    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of variable seawater conductivity on motional induction simulated with an ocean general circulation model (United States)

    Irrgang, C.; Saynisch, J.; Thomas, M.


    Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As seawater flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for ocean-induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of seawater conductivity is often neglected and the effect on the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field unknown. To model magnetic fields that are induced by non-tidal global ocean currents, an electromagnetic induction model is implemented into the Ocean Model for Circulation and Tides (OMCT). This provides the opportunity to not only model ocean-induced magnetic signals but also to assess the impact of oceanographic phenomena on the induction process. In this paper, the sensitivity of the induction process due to spatial and temporal variations in seawater conductivity is investigated. It is shown that assuming an ocean-wide uniform conductivity is insufficient to accurately capture the temporal variability of the magnetic signal. Using instead a realistic global seawater conductivity distribution increases the temporal variability of the magnetic field up to 45 %. Especially vertical gradients in seawater conductivity prove to be a key factor for the variability of the ocean-induced magnetic field. However, temporal variations of seawater conductivity only marginally affect the magnetic signal.

  14. Ocean Circulation


    Thompson, Andrew F.; Rahmstorf, Stefan


    The ocean moderates the Earth's climate due to its vast capacity to store and transport heat; the influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on changes in climate is considered in this chapter. The ocean experiences both buoyancy forcing (through heating/cooling and evaporation/precipitation) and wind forcing. Almost all ocean forcing occurs at the surface, but these changes are communicated throughout the entire depth of the ocean through the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). In ...

  15. TELLUS_OCEAN_GIF_CSR_RL05:1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The images were generated from the monthly ocean mass grids, which contain ocean water mass given as equivalent water thickness derived from the Center of Space...

  16. The Dominant Role of the East Siberian Sea in Driving the Oceanic Flow Through the Bering Strait—Conclusions From GRACE Ocean Mass Satellite Data and In Situ Mooring Observations Between 2002 and 2016 (United States)

    Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Woodgate, Rebecca A.


    It is typically stated that the Pacific-to-Arctic oceanic flow through the Bering Strait (important for Arctic heat, freshwater, and nutrient budgets) is driven by local wind and a (poorly defined) far-field "pressure head" forcing, related to sea surface height differences between the Pacific and the Arctic. Using monthly, Arctic-wide, ocean bottom pressure satellite data and in situ mooring data from the Bering Strait from 2002 to 2016, we discover the spatial structure of this pressure head forcing, finding that the Bering Strait throughflow variability is dominantly driven from the Arctic, specifically by sea level change in the East Siberian Sea (ESS), in turn related to westward winds along the Arctic coasts. In the (comparatively calm) summer, this explains approximately two thirds of the Bering Strait variability. In winter, local wind variability dominates the total flow, but the pressure head term, while still correlated with the ESS-dominated sea level pattern, is now more strongly related to Bering Sea Shelf sea level variability.

  17. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  18. Convective and large-scale mass flux profiles over tropical oceans determined from synergistic analysis of a suite of satellite observations (United States)

    Masunaga, Hirohiko; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny


    A new, satellite-based methodology is developed to evaluate convective mass flux and large-scale total mass flux. To derive the convective mass flux, candidate profiles of in-cloud vertical velocity are first constructed with a simple plume model under the constraint of ambient sounding and then narrowed down to the solution that matches satellite-derived cloud top buoyancy. Meanwhile, the large-scale total mass flux is provided separately from satellite soundings by a method developed previously. All satellite snapshots are sorted into a composite time series that delineates the evolution of a vigorous and organized convective system. Principal findings are the following. First, convective mass flux is modulated primarily by convective cloud cover, with the intensity of individual convection being less variable over time. Second, convective mass flux dominates the total mass flux only during the early hours of the convective evolution; as convective system matures, a residual mass flux builds up in the mass flux balance that is reminiscent of stratiform dynamics. The method developed in this study is expected to be of unique utility for future observational diagnosis of tropical convective dynamics and for evaluation of global climate model cumulus parameterizations in a global sense.

  19. Palaeogeographic variation in the Permian–Triassic boundary microbialites: A discussion of microbial and ocean processes after the end-Permian mass extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kershaw


    Determining the cause of geographic variation of post-extinction microbialites is problematic and may include one or more of the following possibilities: 1 because calcifying microbial organisms that create calcimicrobes were benthic, they may have lacked planktonic stages that would have allowed migration, 2 eastern Tethyan seas were possibly more saturated with respect to calcium carbonates and microbes, so microbes there were possibly more able to calcify, 3 significant reduction of Tethyan ocean circulation, perhaps by large-scale upwelling disrupting ocean surface circulation, may have limited lateral migration of benthic microbial communities but did not prevent migration of other organisms, and 4 microbes may have been subject to local environmental controls, the mechanisms of which have not yet been recognized in the facies. The difficulty of distinguishing between these possibilities (and maybe others not identified demonstrates that there is a lot still to learn about the post-extinction microbialites and their controls.

  20. Effects of tides on the quasi-steady upwelling-downwelling regimes and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. (United States)

    Luneva, Maria; Harle, James


    Astronomical tides are strong in the regions of the Arctic shelf and GIN Seas, with amplitudes reaching up to 4.4m in the Hudson Strait, 2-3m in the White Sea and greater than 1m in the Canadian Archipelago. If nonlinear friction is present, at the sea bed or within a stratification water column, periodical motions transfer energy to shear stresses with a substantial non-periodic component. Over bottom topography, anomalous bottom shear stress generates vorticity and vertical motions, resulting in either an ageostrophic circulation or geostrophic upwelling/downwelling of isopycnals. Using a pan-Arctic and a North Atlantic ocean-ice model, both of which explicitly resolve tides, we examine the effects of tides on the vertical motions generated by Ekman pumping near the sea bed and at the ice-ocean interface, and the stretching and tilting of vorticity. We found that tides significantly increase the intensity of vertical upwellings and downwelling regimes near the shelf break. We extend the semi-geostrophic two dimensional Eliassen -Sawyer equation and three-dimensional omega-equation to take into account the effects of tides. We also discuss the application of the equations for the analysis of watermass transformations and dense water overflow in the main gateways between the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans : Fram Strait, Yermak Plateau, Barents Sea shelf break, Denmark Strait and Faroe Channel.

  1. Ocean bottom pressure modeling for detection of seafloor vertical deformation (United States)

    Inazu, D.; Hino, R.; Fujimoto, H.


    Detection of seafloor crustal deformation is a difficult problem in marine geodesy. Horizontal displacement of the ocean bottom has been detected with accuracy of several centimeters per year by the GPS/Acoustic positioning of seafloor reference points (Spiess et al. 1998). Meanwhile, bottom pressure observations can record the vertical deformation of seafloor and there have been many challenges to detect vertical seafloor displacement. However, ocean bottom pressure variations are highly dominated by oceanic signals such as tidal and subinertial motions. The tidal and other oceanic variations in bottom pressure records are mostly equivalent to several tens and several centimeters water height anomalies, respectively. Generally, the ocean tide is efficiently corrected. Non-tidal components are required to be accurately removed from the bottom pressure records so that the vertical displacement of less than ten centimeters, the expected amount of displacement caused by slow slip events often observed in several subduction zones, is detected by continuous bottom pressure monitoring. We examine the bottom pressure estimations derived from the Kalman filter and smoother runs of the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation & Climate of the Ocean) product to compare in-situ bottom pressure records. The assimilated bottom pressure moderately represents the seasonal variation, and hardly represents the variation with periods less than a few months. This high frequency variation is mainly explained by the barotropic phenomena induced by meteorological disturbances. Hirose et al. (2001) and Carrère and Lyard (2003) modeled the barotropic ocean motion with the forcing of atmospheric pressure loading and wind over global oceans for the sake of the correction of satellite observations. This study addresses the accurate bottom pressure modeling, which enables us to detect vertical displacement of several centimeters from the in-situ bottom pressure observations. We develop accurate

  2. Diagnosing oceanic nutrient deficiency (United States)

    Moore, C. Mark


    The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  3. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María


    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...

  4. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L


    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  5. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Properties of an upper ocean front associated with water mass boundaries at the entrance to the Gulf of California, November 2004


    Collins, Curtis A.; Castro, Ruben; Mascarenhas, Affonso


    The article of record as published may be located at The structure of an upper ocean front at the entrance to the Gulf of California is described. The front occurred in a region of strong cyclonic shear between fresher Pacific waters, which flowed into the Gulf along Sinaloa, and salty Gulf of California waters, which flowed out of the Gulf along Baja California. Observations included two high -resolution hydrographic sections across the entr...

  7. Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  8. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  9. Ocean Color (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  10. Ocean Quality


    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis


    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  11. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals. (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru


    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nested high resolution models for the coastal areas of the North Indian Ocean (United States)

    Wobus, Fred; Shapiro, Georgy


    Oceanographic processes at coastal scales require much higher horizontal resolution from both ocean models and observations as compared to deep water oceanography. Aside from a few exceptions such as land-locked seas, the hydrodynamics of coastal shallow waters is strongly influenced by the tides, which in turn control the mixing, formation of temperature fronts and other phenomena. The numerical modelling of the coastal domains requires good knowledge of the lateral boundary conditions. The application of lateral boundary conditions to ocean models is a notoriously tricky task, but can only be avoided with global ocean models. Smaller scale regional ocean models are typically nested within global models, and even smaller-scale coastal models may be nested within regional models, creating a nesting chain. However a direct nesting of a very high resolution coastal model into a coarse resolution global model results in degrading of the accuracy of the outputs due to the large difference between the model resolutions. This is why a nesting chain has to be applied, so that every increase in resolution is kept within a reasonable minimum (typically by a factor of 3 to 5 at each step). Global models are traditionally non-tidal, so at some stage of the nesting chain the tides need to be introduced. This is typically done by calculating the tidal constituents from a dedicated tidal model (e.g. TPXO) for all boundary points of a nested model. The tidal elevation at each boundary location can then be calculated from the harmonics at every model time step and the added to the parent model non-tidal SSH. This combination of harmonics-derived tidal SSH and non-tidal parent model SSH is typically applied to the nested domain using the Flather condition, together with the baroclinic velocities from the parent model. The harmonics-derived SSH cannot be added to an SSH signal that is already tidal, so the parent model SSH has to be either detided or taken from a non-tidal model

  13. Circulation in the Arctic Ocean


    Jones, E. Peter


    Much information on processes and circulation within the Arctic Ocean has emerged from measurements made on icebreaker expeditions during the past decade. This article offers a perspective based on these measurements, summarizing new ideas regarding how water masses are formed and how they circulate. Best understood at present is the circulation of the Atlantic Layer and mid-depth waters, to depths of about 1700 m, which move in cyclonic gyres in the four major basins of the Arctic Ocean. New...

  14. Mixing of water masses caused by a drifting iceberg affects bacterial activity, community composition and substrate utilization capability in the Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Dinasquet, Julie; Richert, Inga; Logares, Ramiro; Yager, Patricia; Bertilsson, Stefan; Riemann, Lasse


    The number of icebergs produced from ice-shelf disintegration has increased over the past decade in Antarctica. These drifting icebergs mix the water column, influence stratification and nutrient condition, and can affect local productivity and food web composition. Data on whether icebergs affect bacterioplankton function and composition are scarce, however. We assessed the influence of iceberg drift on bacterial community composition and on their ability to exploit carbon substrates during summer in the coastal Southern Ocean. An elevated bacterial production and a different community composition were observed in iceberg-influenced waters relative to the undisturbed water column nearby. These major differences were confirmed in short-term incubations with bromodeoxyuridine followed by CARD-FISH. Furthermore, one-week bottle incubations amended with inorganic nutrients and carbon substrates (a mix of substrates, glutamine, N-acetylglucosamine, or pyruvate) revealed contrasting capacity of bacterioplankton to utilize specific carbon substrates in the iceberg-influenced waters compared with the undisturbed site. Our study demonstrates that the hydrographical perturbations introduced by a drifting iceberg can affect activity, composition, and substrate utilization capability of marine bacterioplankton. Consequently, in a context of global warming, increased frequency of drifting icebergs in polar regions holds the potential to affect carbon and nutrient biogeochemistry at local and possibly regional scales. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  16. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  17. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of mari...

  18. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Hydroxyl Radical (OH) Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OH observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the

  19. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele


    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  20. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence


    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  1. Method validation for high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry determination of the emerging contaminants in the open ocean: Rare earth elements as a case study (United States)

    Wysocka, Irena; Vassileva, Emilia


    Analytical procedure for the determination of fourteen rare earth elements (REEs) in the seawater samples has been developed and validated. The elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) at ultra-trace level were measured by high resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-SFMS) after off-line analytes pre-concentration and matrix separation. The sample pre-treatment was carried out by commercially available automated system seaFAST-pico™, which is a low-pressure ion chromatography technique, based on solid phase extraction principles. Efficient elimination of seawater matrix and up to 50-fold pre-concentration of REEs enabled their accurate and precise quantification at ng L- 1 level. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines were followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range, linearity, recovery (from 92% to 102%), repeatability (1%-4%), intermediate precision (2%-6%), limits of detection (0.001-0.08 ng L- 1) were systematically assessed. The total uncertainty associated to each result was estimated and the main sources of uncertainty sorted out. All major contributions to the combined uncertainty of the obtained results were identified and propagated together, following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at range from 10.4% to 11.6% (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results was also presented. Due to the low limits of detection, this method enables the determination of ultra-low levels of REEs in the open seawater as well as small variations in their concentrations. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on combination of seaFAST-pico™ for sample preparation and HR ICP-SFMS, was demonstrated by direct analysis of seawater form different regions of the world.

  2. Winter use of sea ice and ocean water mass habitat by southern elephant seals: The length and breadth of the mystery (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Vacquié-Garcia, Jade; Heerah, Karine; Guinet, Christophe; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Authier, Matthieu; Picard, Baptiste; Roquet, Fabien; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit


    Understanding the responses of animals to the environment is crucial for identifying critical foraging habitat. Elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) from the Kerguelen Islands (49°20‧S, 70°20‧E) have several different foraging strategies. Why some individuals undertake long trips to the Antarctic continent while others utilize the relatively close frontal zones is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how physical properties within the sea ice zone are linked to foraging activities of southern elephant seals (SES). To do this, we first developed a new approach using indices of foraging derived from high temporal resolution dive and accelerometry data to predict foraging behaviour in an extensive, low resolution dataset from CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs). A sample of 37 post-breeding SES females were used to construct a predictive model applied to demersal and pelagic dive strategies relating prey encounter events (PEE) to dive parameters (dive duration, bottom duration, hunting-time, maximum depth, ascent speed, descent speed, sinuosity, and horizontal speed) for each strategy. We applied these models to a second sample of 35 seals, 20 males and 15 females, during the post-moult foraging trip to the Antarctic continental shelf between 2004 and 2013, which did not have fine-scale behavioural data. The females were widely distributed with important foraging activity south of the Southern Boundary Front, while males predominately travelled to the south-eastern part of the East Antarctica region. Combining our predictions of PEE with environmental features (sea ice concentration, water masses at the bottom phase of dives, bathymetry and slope index) we found higher foraging activity for females over shallower seabed depths and at the boundary between the overlying Antarctic Surface Water (AASW) and the underlying Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW). Increased biological activity associated with the upper boundary of MCDW, may provide

  3. Ocean Science Communication in Japan (United States)

    Ichikawa, H.


    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  4. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.


    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  5. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  6. Planet Ocean (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel


    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  7. Evaluation of a global internal-tide resolving and submesoscale admitting ocean simulation (United States)

    Ubelmann, C.; Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.; Zhao, Z.


    We will present ongoing evaluation of a global ocean and sea ice configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) that has 0.75 to 2.2 km horizontal grid spacing and 1-m thick vertical levels near the surface. Surface boundary conditions are from the 0.14-degree European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric operational model analysis, starting in 2011, including atmospheric pressure forcing. The simulation also includes tidal forcing. A unique feature of this simulation is that we save hourly output of full 3-dimensional model prognostic variables, making it a remarkable tool for the study of ocean processes and for the simulation of satellite observations. Although this initial simulation was run without ocean data constraints, it already presents very interesting features and interactions between an exceptionally wide range of scales. The simulation resolves geostrophic eddies and internal tides and admits submesoscale variability and unbalanced dynamics such as internal waves at non-tidal frequencies.We will present some evaluation of these different components based on altimetry observations and moorings. As a first result, the internal tides for the major tidal components have overall realistic amplitudes and spatial patterns compared to independent analyses from altimetry, although some discrepancies arise in equatorial regions. Despite discrepancies with observations, this simulation already constitutes an extremely useful tool for ocean process studies and for satellite observation system experiments, for example, in preparation for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. As a preliminary exercise, the simulation has been tested in the SWOT simulator developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Fu et al., in this session). Some illustrations of the challenges will be presented.

  8. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  9. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.


    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  10. Toward a Global 1/25 degree HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides (United States)


    Nordic Seas The Nordic Seas (Greenland, Norwegian, Iceland, and Barents Seas) is a key region for maintenance of the Arctic Ocean thermohaline ...Misrepresentation of these processes in the ocean models will eventually result in biases of thermohaline structure of the Arctic Ocean. Ocean processes...ocean impact the water mass formation processes in the model (Fig. 6). 4 Fig. 4. Winter mean upper-ocean circulation in the Nordic Seas from


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gurbuz


    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS observations can precisely estimate the total zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD and precipitable water vapour (PWV for weather prediction and atmospheric research as a continuous and all-weather technique. However, apart from GNSS technique itself, estimations of ZTD and PWV are subject to effects of geophysical models with large uncertainties, particularly imprecise ocean tide models in Turkey. In this paper, GNSS data from Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st of 2014 are processed at 4 co-located GNSS stations (GISM, DIYB, GANM, and ADAN with radiosonde from Turkish Met-Office along with several nearby IGS stations. The GAMIT/GLOBK software has been used to process GNSS data of 30-second sample using the Vienna Mapping Function and 10° elevation cut-off angle. Also tidal and non-tidal atmospheric pressure loadings (ATML at the observation level are also applied in GAMIT/GLOBK. Several widely used ocean tide models are used to evaluate their effects on GNSS-estimated ZTD and PWV estimation, such as IERS recommended FES2004, NAO99b from a barotropic hydrodynamic model, CSR4.0 obtained from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry with the model FES94.1 as the reference model and GOT00 which is again long wavelength adjustments of FES94.1 using TOPEX/Poseidon data at 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. The ZTD and PWV computed from radiosonde profile observations are regarded as reference values for the comparison and validation. In the processing phase, five different strategies are taken without ocean tide model and with four aforementioned ocean tide models, respectively, which are used to evaluate ocean tide models effects on GNSS-estimated ZTD and PWV estimation through comparing with co-located Radiosonde. Results showed that ocean tide models have greatly affected the estimation of the ZTD in centimeter level and thus the precipitable water vapour in millimeter level, respectively at stations near coasts. The ocean tide model FES2004 that is

  12. Treatment of ocean tide aliasing in the context of a next generation gravity field mission (United States)

    Pail, Roland; Michael, Murböck; Honecker, Johanna; Dobslaw, Henryk


    One of the most promising configurations of a future gravity field mission beyond GRACE-FO will be a double-pair formation of two in-line pairs in a so-called Bender configuration. In spite of the fact that it has been shown in several previous studies that temporal aliasing can be significantly reduced by this constellation, also in this case ocean tide aliasing will still be one of the main limiting factors for the gravity field performance. In addition to the optimum orbit choice, which can further significantly reduce temporal aliasing or at least shift the effect to certain bands in the harmonic spectrum (Murböck et al. 2013, J Geod), improved processing strategies and extended parameter models should be able to further reduce the problem. In this contribution, several methods dealing with the reduction of ocean tide aliasing are investigated both from a methodological and a numerical point of view. One of the promising strategies is the co-estimation of selected tidal constituents over long time periods, considering the basic orbit frequencies of the two pairs. These improved estimates for ocean tide signals can then be used in a second step as an enhanced de-aliasing product for the computation of short-period temporal gravity fields. From a number of theoretical considerations and numerical case-studies, recommendations for an optimum orbit selection with respect to reduction of ocean tide aliasing shall be derived. An interesting approach to improve especially non-tidal temporal aliasing is the co-estimation of short-period low-degree gravity fields ("Wiese approach"). As a further aspect of this work, the cross-correlation of the Wiese approach with the co-estimation of tidal parameters is analysed in detail.

  13. The Ocean-Atmosphere Hydrothermohaline Conveyor Belt (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Kjellsson, Joakim; Zika, Jan; Laliberté, Frédéric; Brodeau, Laurent


    The ocean thermohaline circulation is linked to the hydrothermal circulation of the atmosphere. The ocean thermohaline circulation is expressed in potential temperature-salinity space and comprises a tropical upper-ocean circulation, a global conveyor belt cell and an Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The atmospheric hydrothermal circulation in a potential temperature-specific humidity space unifies the tropical Hadley and Walker cells as well as the midlatitude eddies into a single, global circulation. Superimposed, these thermohaline and hydrothermal stream functions reveal the possibility of a close connection between some parts of the water and air mass conversions. The exchange of heat and fresh water through the sea surface (precipiation-evaporation) and incoming solar radiation act to make near-surface air warm and moist while making surface water warmer and saltier as both air and water travel towards the Equator. In the tropics, air masses can undergo moist convection releasing latent heat by forming precipitation, thus acting to make warm surface water fresher. We propose that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship for moist near-surface air acts like a lower bound for the atmospheric hydrothermal cell and an upper bound for the ocean thermohaline Conveyor-Belt cell. The analysis is made by combining and merging the overturning circulation of the ocean and atmosphere by relating the salinity of the ocean to the humidity of the atmosphere, where we set the heat and freshwater transports equal in the two stream functions By using simulations integrated with our Climate-Earth system model EC-Earth, we intend to produce the "hydrothermohaline" stream function of the coupled ocean-atmosphere overturning circulation in one single picture. We explore how the oceanic thermohaline Conveyor Belt can be linked to the global atmospheric hydrothermal circulation and if the water and air mass conversions in humidity-temperature-salinity space can be related and linked to each

  14. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  15. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography. (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A


    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  16. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.


    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  17. Origin of the ``Ocean Bible" (United States)

    Munk, W. H.


    ``The Oceans" is such a landmark for Sverdrup and the Scripps Institution that one ought to take a look at how it came about. The book came very close to NOT being written. Sverdrup was about to decline an invitation by Prentice Hall when his secretary persuaded him to accept. The contract called for 500-600 pages, it ended up with 1087 pages. Royalty was 10% (\\$0.27 to each author for the copy I purchased in 1943). Sverdrup had estimated a market of 550 copies. By the end of 1965 23,766 copies of the American edition alone had been sold. The book was completed in the early war years under very trying conditions for Sverdrup personally. When it did appear in print, a year after Pearl Harbor, the distribution was restricted to the continental United States because `` would be of great aid to the enemy should it fall into his hands." The book carries the mark of Sverdrup's lifelong emphasis on the synthesis of observations: ``we have preferred definite statements to mere enumeration of uncorrelated observations and conflicting interpretations." The result was a coherent presentation of ocean science, a remarkable achievement considering how badly the ocean was undersampled. I will describe my experience as a willing listener while Sverdrup was contemplating of how to organize Chapter XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

  18. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  19. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University


    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  20. Ocean Uses: California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  1. Ocean Disposal Sites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  2. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  3. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  4. Ocean Station Vessel (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  5. Ocean Acidification Product Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. On the Temporal Variability of Low-Mode Internal Tides in the Deep Ocean (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.


    In situ measurements of internal tides are typically characterized by high temporal variability, with strong dependence on stratification, mesoscale eddies, and background currents commonly observed. Thus, it is surprising to find phase-locked internal tides detectable by satellite altimetry. An important question is how much tidal variability is missed by altimetry. We address this question in several ways. We subset the altimetry by season and find only very small changes -- an important exception being internal tides in the South China Sea where we observe strong seasonal dependence. A wavenumber-domain analysis confirms that throughout most of the global ocean there is little temporal variability in altimetric internal-tide signals, at least in the first baroclinic mode, which is the mode that dominates surface elevation. The analysis shows higher order modes to be significantly more variable. The results of this study have important practical implications for the anticipated SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission, for which removal of internal tide signals is critical for observing non-tidal submesoscale phenomena.

  8. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K


    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  9. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope. (United States)

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker


    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  10. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.


    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  11. The future of the oceans past (United States)

    Jackson, Jeremy B. C.


    Major macroevolutionary events in the history of the oceans are linked to changes in oceanographic conditions and environments on regional to global scales. Even small changes in climate and productivity, such as those that occurred after the rise of the Isthmus of Panama, caused major changes in Caribbean coastal ecosystems and mass extinctions of major taxa. In contrast, massive influxes of carbon at the end of the Palaeocene caused intense global warming, ocean acidification, mass extinction throughout the deep sea and the worldwide disappearance of coral reefs. Today, overfishing, pollution and increases in greenhouse gases are causing comparably great changes to ocean environments and ecosystems. Some of these changes are potentially reversible on very short time scales, but warming and ocean acidification will intensify before they decline even with immediate reduction in emissions. There is an urgent need for immediate and decisive conservation action. Otherwise, another great mass extinction affecting all ocean ecosystems and comparable to the upheavals of the geological past appears inevitable. PMID:20980323

  12. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik


    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  13. Ocean Circulation and Mixing Relevant to the Global System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Arnold


    .... Arlindo's goal is to resolve the circulation and water mass stratification within the Indonesian Seas in order to formulate a thorough description of the source, spreading patterns, inter-ocean...

  14. Distribution of pelagic harpacticoid copepods from the Indian ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haridas, P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Pelagic harpacticoid copepods have been studied from the International Indian Ocean Expedition collections. Macrosetella gracilis and Miracia efferata were the most common species of harpacticoids with high densities near land masses. Other three...

  15. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.


    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  16. The Southern Ocean Observing System


    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise


    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  17. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.


    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  18. World Ocean Circulation Experiment (United States)

    Clarke, R. Allyn


    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  19. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity. (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P


    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  20. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter


    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  1. Blue ocean strategy. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  2. Global Ocean Phytoplankton (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.


    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Blue Ocean Thinking (United States)

    Orem, Donna


    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  5. Communicating Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth


    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  6. The Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    There are two unique aspects of geography of the Indian Ocean that profoundly influence its climate and circulation: (a) The Indian Ocean’s northern expanse is curtailed by the Eurasian landmass around the Tropic of Cancer (making it the only ocean...

  7. Rossby Waves in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Schmith, Torben

    The Arctic Ocean has a characteristic stable stratification with fresh and cold water occupying the upper few hundred meters and the warm and more saline Atlantic waters underneath. These water masses are separated by the cold halocline. The stability of the cold halocline regulates the upward...... directed turbulent heat flux from the Atlantic water to the Arctic water. This heat flux is a part of the arctic energy budget and is important for large scale sea ice formation and melting. Due to the strong vertical stratification combined with its almost circular boundary, the Arctic Ocean supports...

  8. Determining the Ocean's Role on the Variable Gravity Field on Earth Rotation (United States)

    Ponte, Rui M.


    A number of ocean models of different complexity have been used to study changes in the oceanic mass field and angular momentum and their relation to the variable Earth rotation and gravity field. Time scales examined range from seasonal to a few days. Results point to the importance of oceanic signals in driving polar motion, in particular the Chandler and annual wobbles. Results also show that oceanic signals have a measurable impact on length-of-day variations. Various circulation features and associated mass signals, including the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the equatorial currents, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current play a significant role in oceanic angular momentum variability.

  9. Ocean acidification postcards (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit:

  10. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun


    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  11. Organics and Ocean Worlds (United States)

    Horst, S. M.


    We now know that the outer solar system contains a number of Ocean Worlds (and candidate Ocean Worlds), including Europa, Titan, Enceladus, Callisto, and Ganymede. The presence of liquid water on these worlds (and also liquid hydrocarbons on the multi-ocean world Titan) means they are particularly intriguing sites for searching for life in the solar system. In addition to the presence of liquid, the search for life centers around understanding the abundance and composition of organic materials available for the origin, evolution, and persistence of life. Characterization of these organics is necessary for assessing the habitability of Ocean Worlds and searching for past or extant life, which in turn requires a robust framework for identifying biosignatures and instruments that are capable of the required measurements. I will review our current understanding of organic materials and Ocean Worlds and discuss future prospects for improving the state of knowledge including the search for life.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.


    In Paper I, we presented a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the winds of close-in exoplanets. However, close-in exoplanets are tidally locked and irradiated only on the day sides by their host stars. This requires two-dimensional hydrodynamic models with self-consistent radiative transfer calculations. In this paper, for the tidal-locking (two-dimensional radiative transfer) and non-tidal-locking cases (one-dimensional radiative transfer), we constructed a multi-fluid two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with detailed radiative transfer to depict the escape of particles. We found that the tidal forces (the sum of tidal gravity of the star and centrifugal force due to the planetary rotation) supply significant accelerations and result in anisotropic winds. An important effect of the tidal forces is that it severely depresses the outflow of particles near the polar regions where the density and the radial velocity are a factor of a few (ten) smaller than those of the low-latitude regions. As a consequence, most particles escape the surface of the planet from the regions of low latitude. Comparing the tidal-locking and non-tidal-locking cases, we found that their optical depths are very different so that the flows also emerge with a different pattern. In the case of non-tidal locking, the radial velocities at the base of the wind are higher than the meridional velocities. However, in the case of tidal locking, the meridional velocities dominate the flow at the base of the wind, and they can effectively transfer mass and energy from the day sides to the night sides. Further, we also found that the differences of the winds show a middle extent at large radii. This means that the structure of the wind at the base can be changed by the two-dimensional radiative transfer due to large optical depths, but the extent is reduced with an increase in radius. Because the escape is depressed in the polar regions, the mass-loss rate predicted by the non-tidal-locking model, in

  13. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from 1955 to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data (NCEI Accession 0164586) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains ocean heat content change, oceanic temperature and salinity changes, and steric sea level change (change in volume without change in mass),...

  14. Tide, Ocean and Climate on Exoplanets (United States)

    Si, Y.; Yang, J.


    On Earth, tide is a main part of the driving force for the deep ocean overturning circulation. For habitable planets around low-mass stars, the tidal force is expected to be much stronger than that on Earth, due to the fact that the habitable zone is very close to the host stars and that tide force is inversely proportional to the orbital distance cubed. The deep ocean overturning circulation on this type of planets is therefore expected to be much stronger than that on Earth, if all else being equal. We test this hypothesis using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model, the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). Our results show that the intensity of oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is approximately proportional to κ1/3, where κ is the mixing coefficient across density interfaces and it is mainly determined by the strength of the tidal force. As a result of the enhanced MOC, more heat is transported to dark regions and sea ice melts completely there, and meanwhile more heat is mixed from the surface to the deep ocean and thereby the entire ocean becomes much warmer (Fig. 1). A positive cloud feedback further warms the global ocean and atmosphere. These results imply that one planet with a stronger tidal force will likely enter a globally ice-covered snowball state at a lower stellar flux and enter a moist greenhouse or runaway greenhouse state at also a lower stellar flux, meaning that the tidal force acts to push the habitable zone outward. This study significantly improves our understanding of the possible coupling between planetary orbit, ocean, climate, and habitability on exoplanets.

  15. Western Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Land Mass Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal hydrography that defines the primary land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity...

  16. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  17. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Slomp


    Full Text Available A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P and carbon (C is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC, on geological time scales. The model explicitly represents the exchanges of water and particulate matter between the continental shelves and the open ocean, and it accounts for the redox-dependent burial of POC and the various forms of reactive P (iron(III-bound P, particulate organic P (POP, authigenic calcium phosphate, and fish debris. Steady state and transient simulations indicate that a slowing down of global ocean circulation decreases primary production in the open ocean, but increases that in the coastal ocean. The latter is due to increased transfer of soluble P from deep ocean water to the shelves, where it fuels primary production and causes increased reactive P burial. While authigenic calcium phosphate accounts for most reactive P burial ocean-wide, enhanced preservation of fish debris may become an important reactive P sink in deep-sea sediments during periods of ocean anoxia. Slower ocean circulation globally increases POC burial, because of enhanced POC preservation under anoxia in deep-sea depositional environments and higher primary productivity along the continental margins. In accordance with geological evidence, the model predicts increased accumulation of reactive P on the continental shelves during and following periods of ocean anoxia.

  18. Biotic Proxies For Ocean Acidification? (United States)

    Thomas, E.


    the Cretaceous/Tertiary mass extinction may have led to carbonate oversaturation in the oceans, with associated increased abundance and presence at greater depth of the large and heavily calcified Stensioeina beccariiformis, a species which became extinct during deep-sea acidification at the end of the Paleocene (3). These tentative patterns suggest that detailed observations on benthic foraminiferal assemblages and comparison with geochemical proxies for carbonate saturation in the same samples may lead to establishment of biotic proxies for carbonate under-saturation in the oceans. 1. Hönisch et al., 2012. Science, 335: 1058-1963, doi: 10.1126/science.12082772. 2. Foster et al., 2013. PNAS, 110: 9273-9276, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1300579110; 3. Alegret, L. and Thomas, E., submitted Mar. Micropal.

  19. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans (United States)

    Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; van der Zwet, Joost; Damsteeg, Jan-Willem; Slat, Boyan; Andrady, Anthony; Reisser, Julia


    Plastics in the marine environment have become a major concern because of their persistence at sea, and adverse consequences to marine life and potentially human health. Implementing mitigation strategies requires an understanding and quantification of marine plastic sources, taking spatial and temporal variability into account. Here we present a global model of plastic inputs from rivers into oceans based on waste management, population density and hydrological information. Our model is calibrated against measurements available in the literature. We estimate that between 1.15 and 2.41 million tonnes of plastic waste currently enters the ocean every year from rivers, with over 74% of emissions occurring between May and October. The top 20 polluting rivers, mostly located in Asia, account for 67% of the global total. The findings of this study provide baseline data for ocean plastic mass balance exercises, and assist in prioritizing future plastic debris monitoring and mitigation strategies.

  20. Quantifying the role of climate variability on extreme total water level impacts: An application of a full simulation model to Ocean Beach, California (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.; Barnard, P.; Long, J.


    Many coastal communities worldwide are vulnerable to flooding and erosion driven by extreme total water levels (TWL), potentially dangerous events produced by the combination of large waves, high tides, and high non-tidal residuals. The West coast of the United States provides an especially challenging environment to model these processes due to its complex geological setting combined with uncertain forecasts for sea level rise (SLR), changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños. Our research therefore aims to develop an appropriate methodology to assess present-day and future storm-induced coastal hazards along the entire U.S. West coast, filling this information gap. We present the application of this framework in a pilot study at Ocean Beach, California, a National Park site within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area where existing event-scale coastal change data can be used for model calibration and verification. We use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (TWL-FSM; Serafin and Ruggiero, in press) that captures the seasonal and interannual climatic variability in extremes using functions of regional climate indices, such as the Multivariate ENSO index (MEI), to represent atmospheric patterns related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In order to characterize the effect of climate variability on TWL components, we refine the TWL-FSM by splitting non-tidal residuals into low (monthly mean sea level anomalies) and high frequency (storm surge) components. We also develop synthetic climate indices using Markov sequences to reproduce the autocorrelated nature of ENSO behavior. With the refined TWL-FSM, we simulate each TWL component, resulting in synthetic TWL records providing robust estimates of extreme return level events (e.g., the 100-yr event) and the ability to examine the relative contribution of each TWL component to these extreme events. Extreme return levels are then used to drive storm impact models

  1. Ocean Technology Development Tank (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  2. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  3. Ocean, Spreading Centre

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    along the mid-oceanic ridges, in general, control the internal structure. Geophysical experiments over the global midoceanic ridges have found some explicit relationships between spreading rate, seismic structure, and ridge-axis morphology....

  4. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  5. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  6. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  7. Ocean microbial metagenomics (United States)

    Kerkhof, Lee J.; Goodman, Robert M.


    Technology for accessing the genomic DNA of microorganisms, directly from environmental samples without prior cultivation, has opened new vistas to understanding microbial diversity and functions. Especially as applied to soils and the oceans, environments on Earth where microbial diversity is vast, metagenomics and its emergent approaches have the power to transform rapidly our understanding of environmental microbiology. Here we explore select recent applications of the metagenomic suite to ocean microbiology.

  8. Monsoon-ocean coupling


    Gadgil, Sulochana


    The Indian monsoon is maintained by propagation of convective systems of synoptic (lows, depressions, etc.) and planetary scale (tropical convergence zones) from the warm tropical oceans, onto the heated subcontinent. As a result, the monsoon variability on subseasonal scales (between wet and dry spells) and on interannual scales (good monsoons and droughts) is linked to variation of the convective systems over the ocean, where variability in turn depends on the sea surface temperature throug...

  9. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter


    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  10. Ocean circulation studies (United States)

    Koblinsky, C. J.


    Remotely sensed signatures of ocean surface characteristics from active and passive satellite-borne radiometers in conjunction with in situ data were utilized to examine the large scale, low frequency circulation of the world's oceans. Studies of the California Current, the Gulf of California, and the Kuroshio Extension Current in the western North Pacific were reviewed briefly. The importance of satellite oceanographic tools was emphasized.

  11. Microplast in the ocean


    Jedal, Jonathan Yngve Bech; Lynderup, Martine Pedersen; Nielsen, Lykke Bebbie; Paul, Maj Wilborg


    This paper deals with the complex problems followed by the presence of microplastic in ocean, and its negative effects on the marine environment. This is specified in the following problem: Which problems do the presence of microplast, and the toxins present in the ocean, provide for the marine environment? An increased amount of microplastic from both primary and secondary sources disrupts the marine environment. Due to its amorphous structure, plastic is able to release toxic monomers and a...

  12. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe (United States)

    Person, Abraham


    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  13. The Ocean: Our Future (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario


    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  14. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  15. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)


    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  16. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala


    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the is...... 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer.......Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations...... of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters...

  17. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender


    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R.; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R.; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender


    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  19. A New Desalination Pump Helps Define the pH of Ocean Worlds (United States)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D.


    We study ocean exoplanets, for which the global surface ocean is separated from the rocky interior by a high-pressure ice mantle. We describe a mechanism that can pump salts out of the ocean, resulting in oceans of very low salinity. Here we focus on the H2O–NaCl system, though we discuss the application of this pump to other salts as well. We find our ocean worlds to be acidic, with a pH in the range of 2–4. We discuss and compare between the conditions found within our studied oceans and the conditions in which polyextremophiles were discovered. This work focuses on exoplanets in the super-Earth mass range (∼2 M ⊕), with water composing at least a few percent of their mass. However, the principle of the desalination pump might extend beyond this mass range.

  20. Stable isotope composition and volume of Early Archaean oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes between mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust) and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time oxygen was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hydrogen was not, as it can...... escape to space [1]. Hydrogen isotope ratios of serpentinites from the ~3.8Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are between -53 and -99‰; the highest values are in antigorite ± lizardite serpentinites from a low-strain lithologic domain where hydrothermal reaction of Archaean seawater with oceanic...... of continents present at that time), and the mass of Early Archaean oceans to ~109 to 126% of present day oceans. Oxygen isotope analyses from these Isua serpentinites (δ18O = +0.1 to 5.6‰ relative to VSMOW) indicate that early Archaean δ18OSEAWATER similar to modern oceans. Our observations suggest...

  1. Ocean circulation using altimetry (United States)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Brossier, C.; Gennero, M. C.; Mazzega, P.; Remy, F.; Letraon, P. Y.; Blanc, F.


    Our group has been very actively involved in promoting satellite altimetry as a unique tool for observing ocean circulation and its variability. TOPEX/POSEIDON is particularly interesting as it is optimized for this purpose. It will probably be the first instrument really capable of observing the seasonal and interannual variability of subtropical and polar gyres and the first to eventually document the corresponding variability of their heat flux transport. The studies of these phenomena require data of the best quality, unbiased extraction of the signal, mixing of these satellite data with in situ measurements, and assimilation of the whole set into a dynamic description of ocean circulation. Our group intends to develop responses to all these requirements. We will concentrate mostly on the circulation of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans: This will be done in close connection with other groups involved in the study of circulation of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, in the altimetry measurements (in particular, those of the tidal issue), and in the techniques of data assimilation in ocean circulation models.

  2. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.


    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  3. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  4. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson


    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  5. NOAA's Ocean Climate Observation Program (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Legler, D. M.


    Over the past 20+ years there has been remarkable progress in developing a global ocean observing system. Global in-situ observations of essential climate variables in the ice-free ocean from the surface down to 2000m depth are now routinely available to address the long-term observational requirements of forecast and modeling centers, international research programs, major scientific assessments, and decision-makers. NOAA contributes nearly half of the world's in-situ ocean observations. This presentation will review NOAA's Ocean Climate Observation contributions supporting more than a dozen arrays that make up the global ocean observing system (e.g., Argo, deep-ocean hydrography, surface drifters, tropical moored buoys, OceanSITES, GLOSS); data systems; and a suite of ocean products. The poster will describe the program's scope of activities and offer a chance for the community to review and discuss NOAA's international collaborations, technology evolution for observing, and implementation of OceanObs'09 plans.

  6. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition (United States)

    Baltar, F.; Currie, K.; Stuck, E.; Roosa, S.; Morales, S.


    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Bacterioplankton (including Bacteria and Archaea) drive oceanic biogeochemical cycles, regulating the composition of Earth's atmosphere and influencing climate. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand. Transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean, where fronts serve as clear transition zones, indicating boundaries for bacterioplankton distribution in the ocean. Owing to the widespread abundance of fronts in the marine environment, future efforts should focus on confirming their roles in demarking bacterioplankton distribution and whether they act as indicators of ecosystem process changes. This would allow a better understanding of the forces that control energy flow in the ocean as well as the cycling of compounds that influence climate change, and concomitantly building more accurate models of global biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermuelen, Ryan; Soto, Inia; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Yang, Haoping


    Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE MASS OF CELLULAR RETINOIC ACID BINDING PROTEIN I. INVESTIGATED BY 13C DEPLETION AND MASS SPECTROMETRY. Lin Zhang1*, Zeqing Song2 and Yanmei Wen1. 1College of Science, Guangdong Ocean University, ...

  9. Oceanic fronts: transition zones for bacterioplankton community composition. (United States)

    Baltar, Federico; Currie, Kim; Stuck, Esther; Roosa, Stéphanie; Morales, Sergio E


    Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features that exist in the boundary between different water masses. Despite the recognized importance of bacterioplankton (including bacteria and archaea) on the marine biogeochemical cycles and the ubiquitousness of fronts, the effect of frontal zones on the distribution of bacterioplankton community remains unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses, we demonstrate strong shifts in bacterioplankton community composition (BCC) across the subtropical frontal zone off New Zealand. The transition between water masses resulted in a clear modification of the dominant taxa and a significant increase in community dissimilarity. Our results, linking physical oceanography and marine molecular ecology, support the strong role of oceanic frontal zones in delimiting the distribution of bacterioplankton in the ocean. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Tsay, S.C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  11. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones (United States)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.


    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy. (United States)

    Berkovsky, Boris


    Describes Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) as a method for exploiting the temperature difference between warm surface waters of the sea and its cold depths. Argues for full-scale demonstrations of the technique for producing energy for coastal regions. (TW)

  13. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  14. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics (United States)


    Ocean Acoustics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...paper and presented on global acoustic propagation (including on Europa, a small moon of Jupiter ) at the International Conference of Sound and

  15. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.


    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  16. An Ocean of Possibilities (United States)

    Williams, Doug


    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  17. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide (United States)

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.


    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  18. Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge. (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise


    In the hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, sea water penetrates the fractured crust, becomes heated by its proximity to the hot magma, and returns to the sea floor as hot fluids enriched in various chemical elements. In contradiction to earlier results that predict diminishing hydrothermal activity with decreasing spreading rate, a survey of the ultra-slowly spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) by Edmonds et al. and Michael et al. suggests that, instead of being rare, the hydrothermal activity is abundant--exceeding by at least a factor of two to three what would be expected by extrapolation from observation on faster spreading ridges. Here we use helium-3 (3He), a hydrothermal tracer, to show that this abundance of venting sites does not translate, as would be expected, into an anomalous hydrothermal 3He output from the ridge. Because of the wide implications of the submarine hydrothermal processes for mantle heat and mass fluxes to the ocean, these conflicting results call for clarification of the link between hydrothermal activity and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges.

  19. Indispensable Ocean : Aligning Ocean Health and Human Well-Being


    Blue Ribbon Panel


    A healthy ocean is fundamental to human wellbeing and an indispensable part of the Earth's life-support system, which sustains the species and the ecosystems upon which we depend. The ocean regulates our climate and, as part of the hydrological cycle, drives weather patterns that determine rainfall, droughts, and floods. The ocean has also reduced the impact of human-induced climate change...

  20. Isotopic evidence for oxygenated Mesoarchaean shallow oceans (United States)

    Eickmann, Benjamin; Hofmann, Axel; Wille, Martin; Bui, Thi Hao; Wing, Boswell A.; Schoenberg, Ronny


    Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) in Archaean sediments results from photochemical processing of atmospheric sulfur species in an oxygen-depleted atmosphere. Geological preservation of MIF-S provides evidence for microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in low-sulfate Paleoarchaean (3.8-3.2 billion years ago (Ga)) and Neoarchaean (2.8-2.5 Ga) oceans, but the significance of MSR in Mesoarchaean (3.2-2.8 Ga) oceans is less clear. Here we present multiple sulfur and iron isotope data of early diagenetic pyrites from 2.97-Gyr-old stromatolitic dolomites deposited in a tidal flat environment of the Nsuze Group, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We identified consistently negative Δ33S values in pyrite, which indicates photochemical reactions under anoxic atmospheric conditions, but large mass-dependent sulfur isotope fractionations of 30‰ in δ34S, identifying active MSR. Negative pyrite δ56Fe values (-1.31 to -0.88‰) record Fe oxidation in oxygen-bearing shallow oceans coupled with biogenic Fe reduction during diagenesis, consistent with the onset of local Fe cycling in oxygen oases 3.0 Ga. We therefore suggest the presence of oxygenated near-shore shallow-marine environments with ≥5 μM sulfate at this time, in spite of the clear presence of an overall reduced Mesoarchaean atmosphere.

  1. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  2. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  3. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  4. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  5. ocean_city_md.grd (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  6. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  7. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  8. Geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean (United States)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Madec, G.


    Long considered a negligible contribution to ocean dynamics, geothermal heat flow (GHF) is now increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the large scale ocean's deep structure and circulation. This presentation will review the history of theories regarding geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean. Though the contribution to the thermal structure was recognized early on, its potential in driving a circulation [Worthington, 1968] was largely ignored on the grounds that it could not materially affect potential vorticity. Huang [JPO, 1999] proposed that GHF may provide 30-50% of the energy available for deep mixing, a calculation that later proved too optimistic [Wunsch & Ferrari ARFM 2004]. Model simulations suggested that a uniform GHF of 50 mW/m2 could drive an abyssal of a few Sverdrups (1 Sv = 106 m3.s-1) [Adcroft et al, GRL 2001], but it was not until Emile-Geay & Madec [OS, 2009] (EM09) that GHF began to be taken seriously [Mashayek et al, GRL 2013; Voldoire et al. Clim. Dyn. 2013; Dufresnes et al., Clim. Dyn. 2013]. Using analytical and numerical approaches, the study made 3 main points: GHF brings as much energy to the deep ocean as intense diapycnal mixing (1 cm2/s). GHF consumes the densest water masses, inducing a deep circulation of 5 Sv even without mixing. This circulation varies in inverse proportion to abyssal stratification. The spatial structure of GHF, highest at mid-ocean ridges and lowest in abyssal plains, matters far less than the fact that it bathes vast fractions of the ocean floor in a relatively low, constant flux. EM09 concluded that GHF "is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies". Recent work has confirmed that geothermal heat flow is of comparable importance to ocean circulation as bottom-intensified mixing induced by internal wave breaking [De Lavergne et al, JPO 2016a,b]. Thus, including GHF in ocean general circulation models improves abyssal structure and

  9. Nominal Mass? (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius


    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. (United States)

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. Mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlov, V.E.; Nedelin, P.N.; Lukichev, A.N.; Sapozhkov, L.K.; Turubarov, V.I.


    Mass spectrometers of different types are suggested to use for qualitative and quantitative analyses of gas. The operation principles of static and dynamic mass spectrometer are studied. In static mass spectrometers mass separation of ions is performed by changing the value of accelerating voltage in the ion source when retaining the magnetic field intensity. Such devices are stationary. The device mass is conditioned by the magnet mass. Mass separation in dynamic mass spectrometers is dependent on the degree of energy increment of ions in HF-electric fields. Radio frequency mass spectrometers are used with advantage for studying upper layers of an atmosphere and are installed on radiosondes and satellites. The main technical characteristics of the MX-1330 mass spectrometer, the basis of which is the analyzer with 180 deg deviation of an ion beam in the field of permanent magnet, are presented. The device is intended for controlling the environment and permits to analyze gases with a molecular mass up to 450 using various systems of gas filling. The error of determination of molecular substance is not greater than +-3 %; the magnetic field intensity constitutes 4.8x10 5 A/m; the supply voltage is 380/220 V; the total power is 5.0 kVA [ru

  12. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  13. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  14. Hot and sour in the deep ocean (United States)

    Sabine, Christopher L.


    Stable layering in the ocean limits the rate that human-derived carbon dioxide can acidify the deep ocean. Now observations show that ocean warming, however, can enhance deep-ocean acidification through increased organic matter decomposition.

  15. The Volvo Ocean Adventure (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.


    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 ( Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  16. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.


    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  17. Ocean Observations of Climate Change (United States)

    Chambers, Don


    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  18. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.


    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  19. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos


    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  20. Ocean contribution to seismic gravity changes : The sea level equation for seismic perturbations revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.; Riva, R.E.M.; Vermeersen, B.


    During megathrust earthquakes, great ruptures are accompanied by large scale mass redistribution inside the solid Earth and by ocean mass redistribution due to bathymetry changes. These large scale mass displacements can be detected using the monthly gravity maps of the GRACE satellite mission. In

  1. Oxidation in Enceladus' Ocean (United States)

    Ray, C.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Glein, C.; Teolis, B. D.


    The detection of molecular hydrogen in the plume of Saturn's icy moon Enceladus reports that there is positive chemical affinity for methanogenesis, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon dioxide to form methane and water [Waite et al., 2017]. Methanogenesis, however, is just one of many possible metabolic pathways that could be utilized. While some of the oxidants involved in these metabolic pathways have already been detected in the plume (i.e. carbon dioxide), sulfate, which could play an important role in several of these reactions, has not yet been observed. To constrain the amount of sulfate and other oxidants that could be present to support these metabolisms, we present a geochemical model of Enceladus' ocean based on detections made by the Cassini INMS instrument [Waite et. al, 2017]. We use a model of radiolysis on the surface of Enceladus to estimate the amount of molecular oxygen (O2) contained in the ice. We calculate the delivery rate of O2 from the surface ice to the ocean using previous estimates of the rate of ice deposition on the south polar region [Kempf et al., 2010], and the meteoritic gardening rate for the older surface of the moon. Assuming this activity has occurred over 4.5 billion years, we obtain an upper limit of > 1020 moles of O2 delivered to the ocean over Enceladus' lifetime. This large amount of oxygen could react with sulfides, reduced iron, or organic materials to produce sulfate, ferric oxyhydroxides, or carbon dioxide/carboxylic acids, respectively. We calculate upper limits on the amounts of these materials using a mineralogical model of Enceladus' core [Waite et al., 2017]. We find that the abiotic oxidation of pyrrhotite, which is the most likely pathway for sulfate production, could yield a sulfate concentration > 4 mol/(kg H2O). We suggest that oxidants should be abundant in the ocean and plume unless they are being consumed by life, the rate of ice deposition on the surface is much smaller than what has been predicted, or

  2. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos


    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  3. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.


    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  4. MASS SPECTROMETER (United States)

    White, F.A.


    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  5. Come On Down! Galapagos Rift Expedition--Grades 7-8. Overview: Ocean Exploration. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about ocean exploration. Students are expected to research the development and implementation of a research vessel/vehicle used for deep ocean exploration, calculate the density of objects by determining the mass and volume, and construct a device that exhibits neutral buoyancy. The activity provides learning…

  6. Ocean topography mapping, improvement of the marine geoid, and global permanent ocean circulation studies from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data (United States)

    Marsh, James G.; Lerch, F. J.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Klosko, S. M.; Williamson, R. G.


    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be the first global observations of the sea surface with accuracy sufficient to make quantitative determinations of the ocean's general circulation and its variations. These measurements are an important step to understanding global change in the ocean and its impact on the climate. Our investigation will focus on the examination of features in the sea surface elevation at the largest spatial and temporal scales. TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be used in conjunction with observations from past satellite-altimeter missions, such as NASA's GEOS-3 and Seasat, the U.S. Navy's Geosat and SALT, and the European Remote Sensing satellite in order to address the following issues: (1) Improve models of the marine geoid, especially at wavelengths needed to understand the basin-scale ocean dynamic topograpy. (2) Measure directly from the altimeter data the expression of the mean global ocean circulation in the sea surface at the largest scales through a simultaneous solution for gravity, orbital, and oceanographic parameters. (3) Examine the sea surface measurements for changes in global ocean mass or volume, interannual variations in the basin-scale ocean circulation, and annual changes in the heating and cooling of the upper ocean.

  7. Fine structure of oceanic natural radioactivity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'ichev, V.I.; Kobylyanskij, V.V.; Myagkikh, A.I.; Ol'shanskij, Yu.I.; Kharlamov, Yu.M.


    The precise measurement of the intensity of the natural ocean gamma-radiation in terms of fine thermochaline structure of water masses is carried out by the series of slow vertical probings using a high-sensitivity gamma-spectrometer with the synchronous measurement of hydrological characteristics (temperature, salinity, pressure). The existence of nonhomogeneity in the distribution of natural radioactivity in depth not accompanied by analogous changes in the salinity is shown. It is assumed that the main role in this case is played by the binary diffusion

  8. Deep Ocean Warming Assessed from Altimeters, GRACE, 3 In-situ Measurements, and a Non-Boussinesq OGCM (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony; Colberg, Frank


    Observational surveys have shown significant oceanic bottom water warming, but they are too spatially and temporally sporadic to quantify the deep ocean contribution to the present-day sea level rise (SLR). In this study, altimetry sea surface height (SSH), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) ocean mass, and in situ upper ocean (0-700 m) steric height have been assessed for their seasonal variability and trend maps. It is shown that neither the global mean nor the regional trends of altimetry SLR can be explained by the upper ocean steric height plus the GRACE ocean mass. A non-Boussinesq ocean general circulation model (OGCM), allowing the sea level to rise as a direct response to the heat added into the ocean, is then used to diagnose the deep ocean steric height. Constrained by sea surface temperature data and the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation measurements, the model reproduces the observed upper ocean heat content well. Combining the modeled deep ocean steric height with observational upper ocean data gives the full depth steric height. Adding a GRACE-estimated mass trend, the data-model combination explains not only the altimetry global mean SLR but also its regional trends fairly well. The deep ocean warming is mostly prevalent in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, and along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, suggesting a strong relation to the oceanic circulation and dynamics. Its comparison with available bottom water measurements shows reasonably good agreement, indicating that deep ocean warming below 700 m might have contributed 1.1 mm/yr to the global mean SLR or one-third of the altimeter-observed rate of 3.11 +/- 0.6 mm/yr over 1993-2008.

  9. The global marine phosphorus cycle : sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.; Van Cappellen, P.


    A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC), on geological time scales. The model explicitly

  10. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, C.P.; Van Cappellen, P.


    A new mass balance model for the coupled marine cycles of phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) is used to examine the relationships between oceanic circulation, primary productivity, and sedimentary burial of reactive P and particulate organic C (POC), on geological time scales. The model explicitly

  11. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian


    Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...

  12. Polar oceans in a changing climate. (United States)

    Barnes, David K A; Tarling, Geraint A


    Most of Earth's surface is blue or white, but how much of each would depend on the time of observation. Our planet has been through phases of snowball (all frozen), greenhouse (all liquid seas) and icehouse (frozen and liquid). Even during current icehouse conditions, the extent of ice versus water has changed considerably between ice ages and interglacial periods. Water has been vital for life on Earth and has driven and been influenced by transitions between greenhouse and icehouse. However, neither the possession of water nor having liquid and frozen seas are unique to Earth (Figure 1). Frozen water oceans on the moons Enceladus and Europa (and possibly others) and the liquid and frozen hydrocarbon oceans on Titan probably represent the most likely areas to find extraterrestrial life. We know very little about life in Earth's polar oceans, yet they are the engine of the thermohaline 'conveyor-belt', driving global circulation of heat, oxygen, carbon and nutrients as well as setting sea level through change in ice-mass balance. In regions of polar seas, where surface water is particularly cold and dense, it sinks to generate a tropic-ward flow on the ocean floor of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Cold water holds more gas, so this sinking water exports O 2 and nutrients, thereby supporting life in the deep sea, as well as soaking up CO 2 from the atmosphere. Water from mid-depths at lower latitudes flows in to replace the sinking polar surface water. This brings heat. The poles are cold because they receive the least energy from the sun, and this extreme light climate varies on many different time scales. To us, the current warm, interglacial conditions seem normal, yet such phases have represented only ∼10% of Homo sapiens' existence. Variations in Earth's orbit (so called 'Milankovitch cycles') have driven cyclical alternation of glaciations (ice ages) and warmer interglacials. Despite this, Earth's polar regions have been our planet's most

  13. Degradation Signatures of Open Ocean Microplastic Debris (United States)

    Lavender Law, K. L.; Donohue, J. L.; Collins, T.; Proskurowsi, G.; Andrady, A. L.


    Microplastics collected from the open ocean offer few clues about their origin and history. There is currently no method to determine how long ocean plastic has undergone environmental weathering, how quickly fragmentation has occurred, or how small microplastic particles will ultimately become before (or if) they are fully degraded by microbial action. In the current absence of results from laboratory and field experiments designed to address these questions, we meticulously examined physical and chemical characteristics of open ocean microplastic particles collected over a 16-year period for clues about their weathering history. More than 1000 microplastic particles collected in the western North Atlantic between 1991 and 2007 were analyzed to determine polymer type, material density, mass and particle size, and were used to create a detailed catalogue of common microscopic surface features likely related to environmental exposure and weathering. Polyethylene and polypropylene, the two buoyant resins most commonly collected at the sea surface, can typically be distinguished by visual microscopy alone, and their particular characteristics lead us to hypothesize that these two resins weaken and fragment in different ways and on different time scales. A subset of resin pellets collected at sea were also analyzed using FTIR-ATR and/or FTIR microscopy for signatures of chemical degradation (e.g., carbonyl index) that are related to physical weathering characteristics such as color, quantified by the yellowness index.

  14. Variability of the oceanic bottom pressure from sensor observations and ocean models (United States)

    Androsov, Alexey; Schröter, Jens; Danilov, Sergey; Lück, Christina; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Ren, Le; Schön, Steffen; Boebel, Olaf; Macrander, Andreas; Ivanciu, Ioana


    We discuss time series of ocean bottom pressure (OBP) computed by the Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) driven by realistic forcing. The influence of atmospheric pressure and mesoscale eddies on the OBP and surface height anomalies on time scales up to years was investigated. Also, we estimated space and time scales of mass variability simulated by both climate-type (resolution about 1 degree) and eddy resolving (down to about 10 km) versions of the model. We analyze the African sector of the Southern Ocean. A part of the OBP variance there is associated with eddy activity (especially in the Agulhas region) and explore its respective contribution. Assessment of averaging interval of simulated data for the purpose of minimizing aliasing in variability of OBP is additionally carried out. An important aspect of this study is the comparison of modeled and in situ OBP records. High frequency measurements of OBP with sub-daily resolution available from Pressure Inverted Echo Sounders (PIES) used to infer temporal co-spectra of OBP variability. The PIES are placed along the prime meridian south of Africa can be used to evaluate variations of both barotropic and baroclinic geostrophic transport fluctuations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and verify corresponding GRACE estimates. The distance between PIES stations is chosen to resolve the major oceanic fronts for this region, which allows us to compare co-spectra of observed and simulated OBP variability.

  15. Blue ocean leadership. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  16. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas


    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  17. Ocean bottom seismometer technology (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  18. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C


    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  19. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  20. Isotopes as tracers of the oceanic circulation: Results from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.; Jenkins, W.J.; Key, R.; Lupton, J.


    During the past decades, natural and anthropogenic isotopes such as tritium ( 3 H), radiocarbon ( 14 C), 3 He, or the stable isotopes of water have been used in studies of the dynamics of natural systems. Early applications of tracers to studies of the ocean were directed at determination of circulation patterns and mean residence times of specific water masses, as well as estimates of mixing coefficients. These exploratory studies suggested that tracers can add significantly to our understanding of the oceanic circulation. In order to fully exploit this potential, the first global tracer study, the GEochemical Ocean SECtions Study (GEOSECS), was launched. From the GEOSECS results it was immediately apparent that very close coordination of tracer programs with physical oceanography studies is required for full utilization of tracer data. During the 1980s plans for the World OCean Experiment (WOCE) were developed. As part of its Hydrographic Program (WHP), especially during the one-time survey, a set of tracers were measured on a global scale with unprecedented spatial resolution (both lateral and vertical). The original plan included a larger number of tracers (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, 39 Ar, stable isotopes of water, helium isotopes, 228 Ra, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 85 Kr) than could actually be measured systematically (CFCs, 3 H/ 3 He, 14 C, H 2 18 O/H 2 16 O, helium isotopes). Nevertheless, the resulting data set, which presently is under evaluation, exceeds those obtained from pre-WOCE tracer studies by a wide margin. In this contribution, we describe the existing WOCE data set and demonstrate the type of results that can be expected from its interpretation on the basis of a few selected examples. These examples include: (1) the application of tritium and 3 He to studies of the ventilation of the upper waters in the Pacific Ocean, (2) the spreading of intermediate water in the Pacific and Indian oceans as derived from the distribution of 3 He, and (3) the evaluation of

  1. Extraction of crustal deformations and oceanic fluctuations from ocean bottom pressures (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Nagano, Akira; Hasegawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kido, Motoyuki; Igarashi, Toshihiro; Uchida, Naoki; Iinuma, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yusuke


    It has been well known that megathrust earthquakes such as the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (Mw 9.1) and the 2011 the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) had devastated the coastal areas in the western of Indonesia and in the north-eastern of Japan, respectively. To mitigate the disaster of those forthcoming megathrust earthquakes along Nankai Trough, the Japanese government has established seafloor networks of cable-linked observatories around Japan: DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Nankai Trough) and S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench). The advantage of the cable-linked network is to monitor the propagation process of tsunami and seismic waves as well as seismic activity in real time. DONET contains pressure gauges as well as seismometers, which are expected to detect crustal deformations driven by peeling off subduction plate coupling process. From our simulation results, leveling changes are different sense among the DONET points even in the same science node. On the other hand, oceanic fluctuations such as melting ice masses through the global warming have so large scale as to cause ocean bottom pressure change coherently for all of DONET points especially in the same node. This difference suggests the possibility of extracting crustal deformations component from ocean bottom pressure data by differential of stacking data. However, this operation cannot be applied to local-scale fluctuations related to ocean mesoscale eddies and current fluctuations, which affect ocean bottom pressure through water density changes in the water column (from the sea surface to the bottom). Therefore, we need integral analysis by combining seismology, ocean physics and tsunami engineering so as to decompose into crustal deformation, oceanic fluctuations and instrumental drift, which will bring about high precision data enough to find geophysical phenomena. In this study

  2. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander


    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  3. Pliocene palaeoceanography of the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas. (United States)

    Matthiessen, Jens; Knies, Jochen; Vogt, Christoph; Stein, Ruediger


    The Pliocene is important in the geological evolution of the high northern latitudes. It marks the transition from restricted local- to extensive regional-scale glaciations on the circum-Arctic continents between 3.6 and 2.4Ma. Since the Arctic Ocean is an almost land-locked basin, tectonic activity and sea-level fluctuations controlled the geometry of ocean gateways and continental drainage systems, and exerted a major influence on the formation of continental ice sheets, the distribution of river run-off, and the circulation and water mass characteristics in the Arctic Ocean. The effect of a water mass exchange restricted to the Bering and Fram Straits on the oceanography is unknown, but modelling experiments suggest that this must have influenced the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Cold conditions associated with perennial sea-ice cover might have prevailed in the central Arctic Ocean throughout the Pliocene, whereas colder periods alternated with warmer seasonally ice-free periods in the marginal areas. The most pronounced oceanographic change occurred in the Mid-Pliocene when the circulation through the Bering Strait reversed and low-salinity waters increasingly flowed from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The excess freshwater supply might have facilitated sea-ice formation and contributed to a decrease in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

  4. Hydrothermal systems in small ocean planets. (United States)

    Vance, Steve; Harnmeijer, Jelte; Kimura, Jun; Hussmann, Hauke; Demartin, Brian; Brown, J Michael


    We examine means for driving hydrothermal activity in extraterrestrial oceans on planets and satellites of less than one Earth mass, with implications for sustaining a low level of biological activity over geological timescales. Assuming ocean planets have olivine-dominated lithospheres, a model for cooling-induced thermal cracking shows how variation in planet size and internal thermal energy may drive variation in the dominant type of hydrothermal system-for example, high or low temperature system or chemically driven system. As radiogenic heating diminishes over time, progressive exposure of new rock continues to the current epoch. Where fluid-rock interactions propagate slowly into a deep brittle layer, thermal energy from serpentinization may be the primary cause of hydrothermal activity in small ocean planets. We show that the time-varying hydrostatic head of a tidally forced ice shell may drive hydrothermal fluid flow through the seafloor, which can generate moderate but potentially important heat through viscous interaction with the matrix of porous seafloor rock. Considering all presently known potential ocean planets-Mars, a number of icy satellites, Pluto, and other trans-neptunian objects-and applying Earth-like material properties and cooling rates, we find depths of circulation are more than an order of magnitude greater than in Earth. In Europa and Enceladus, tidal flexing may drive hydrothermal circulation and, in Europa, may generate heat on the same order as present-day radiogenic heat flux at Earth's surface. In all objects, progressive serpentinization generates heat on a globally averaged basis at a fraction of a percent of present-day radiogenic heating and hydrogen is produced at rates between 10(9) and 10(10) molecules cm(2) s(1).

  5. Abdominal mass (United States)

    ... such as CBC and blood chemistry Colonoscopy EGD Isotope study Sigmoidoscopy Alternative Names Mass in the abdomen ... WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A. ...

  6. Scrotal masses (United States)

    ... in your scrotum. Any new growth in the testicle or scrotum needs to be checked by your provider to determine if it may be testicular cancer. Prevention You can prevent scrotal masses caused by sexually ...

  7. Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses (United States)

    Palmer, M. D.; Roberts, C. D.; Balmaseda, M.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chepurin, G.; Ferry, N.; Fujii, Y.; Good, S. A.; Guinehut, S.; Haines, K.; Hernandez, F.; Köhl, A.; Lee, T.; Martin, M. J.; Masina, S.; Masuda, S.; Peterson, K. A.; Storto, A.; Toyoda, T.; Valdivieso, M.; Vernieres, G.; Wang, O.; Xue, Y.


    Accurate knowledge of the location and magnitude of ocean heat content (OHC) variability and change is essential for understanding the processes that govern decadal variations in surface temperature, quantifying changes in the planetary energy budget, and developing constraints on the transient climate response to external forcings. We present an overview of the temporal and spatial characteristics of OHC variability and change as represented by an ensemble of dynamical and statistical ocean reanalyses (ORAs). Spatial maps of the 0-300 m layer show large regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans where the interannual variability of the ensemble mean exceeds ensemble spread, indicating that OHC variations are well-constrained by the available observations over the period 1993-2009. At deeper levels, the ORAs are less well-constrained by observations with the largest differences across the ensemble mostly associated with areas of high eddy kinetic energy, such as the Southern Ocean and boundary current regions. Spatial patterns of OHC change for the period 1997-2009 show good agreement in the upper 300 m and are characterized by a strong dipole pattern in the Pacific Ocean. There is less agreement in the patterns of change at deeper levels, potentially linked to differences in the representation of ocean dynamics, such as water mass formation processes. However, the Atlantic and Southern Oceans are regions in which many ORAs show widespread warming below 700 m over the period 1997-2009. Annual time series of global and hemispheric OHC change for 0-700 m show the largest spread for the data sparse Southern Hemisphere and a number of ORAs seem to be subject to large initialization `shock' over the first few years. In agreement with previous studies, a number of ORAs exhibit enhanced ocean heat uptake below 300 and 700 m during the mid-1990s or early 2000s. The ORA ensemble mean (±1 standard deviation) of rolling 5-year trends in full-depth OHC shows a relatively steady

  8. Long range transport of hydrocarbons in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinturier, L.; Leureillard, J.; Arnold, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Pichon, J.J.; Gireaudau, J.


    We report here the first results for hydrocarbon analyses of deep surface sediments collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were taken along a north-south transect ranging from 43 deg. S to 55 deg. S in the southwestern Crozet Basin. In order to identify these compounds and elucidate their origins, various techniques were used: gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Tandetron: mass spectrometer coupled with a Tandem accelerator allowing the measure of 14 C/ 12 C ratio)

  9. Warming of the water column in the southwest Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Church, John A.


    THE response of the deep ocean to long-period temperature variations at the ocean surface is a crucial issue in understanding climate change1. There are, however, very few observations available for studying changes in the thermal structure of ocean interiors. On the basis of measurements made 22 years apart of full-depth temperature sections in the Pacific Ocean between Australia and New Zealand, we show here that there has been a depth-averaged warming of 0.04 °C and 0.03 °C at 43° S and 28° S, respectively, throughout most of the water column below the mixed layer. The sea-level rise caused by expansion between a depth of 300 m and the ocean floor is 2-3 cm, consistent with the observed rate of global sea-level rise2. In the main thermocline there is a coherent cooling and freshening on density surfaces, consistent with surface warming in the Southern Ocean where these waters originate. Similar observations in the North Atlantic3 show comparable changes in the thermal structure and water-mass volumes, but further measurements in other regions are required before firm conclusions can be drawn about the global significance of these changes.

  10. Sensitivity of coccolithophores to carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification. (United States)

    Beaufort, L; Probert, I; de Garidel-Thoron, T; Bendif, E M; Ruiz-Pino, D; Metzl, N; Goyet, C; Buchet, N; Coupel, P; Grelaud, M; Rost, B; Rickaby, R E M; de Vargas, C


    About one-third of the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) released into the atmosphere as a result of human activity has been absorbed by the oceans, where it partitions into the constituent ions of carbonic acid. This leads to ocean acidification, one of the major threats to marine ecosystems and particularly to calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Coccolithophores are abundant phytoplankton that are responsible for a large part of modern oceanic carbonate production. Culture experiments investigating the physiological response of coccolithophore calcification to increased CO(2) have yielded contradictory results between and even within species. Here we quantified the calcite mass of dominant coccolithophores in the present ocean and over the past forty thousand years, and found a marked pattern of decreasing calcification with increasing partial pressure of CO(2) and concomitant decreasing concentrations of CO(3)(2-). Our analyses revealed that differentially calcified species and morphotypes are distributed in the ocean according to carbonate chemistry. A substantial impact on the marine carbon cycle might be expected upon extrapolation of this correlation to predicted ocean acidification in the future. However, our discovery of a heavily calcified Emiliania huxleyi morphotype in modern waters with low pH highlights the complexity of assemblage-level responses to environmental forcing factors.

  11. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim


    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  12. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather. (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan


    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1)…

  13. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  14. Proceedings of the ocean energy information dissemination workshop, December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, D.


    The workshop was held to discuss the status of marketing ocean energy information and to develop an understanding of information needs and how to satisfy them. Presentations were made by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) staff and media consultants about the effective use of audio-visual and print products, the mass media, and audience needs. Industry and government representatives reported on current efforts in each of their communication programs and outlined future plans. Four target audiences (DOE contractors, researchers, influencers, and general public) were discussed with respect to developing priorities for projects to enhance the commercialization of ocean energy technology.

  15. Profile and bottle data collected on the RV Melville (cruise Vancouver 06) from the Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Transport Experiment (ASTTEX) in the Atlantic Ocean from 20030102 to 20030115 (NODC Accession 0074001) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Introduction: The Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Experiment (ASTTEX) examined the fluxes of heat, salt and mass entering the South Atlantic ocean via the...

  16. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.


    of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume......Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... an Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell of variable conductance with a realistic ID mantle underneath. Simulations using both models predict an amplitude range of +/-2 nT at Swarm altitude (430 km). However at sea level, the higher resolution simulation predicts a higher strength...

  17. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.


    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  18. Broken Chains: The Effect of Ocean Acidification on Bivalve and Echinoid Development (United States)

    Richardson, K.


    Global warming is one of the most urgent issues facing the interconnected systems of our planet. One important impact of global warming is ocean acidification, which is a change in the pH of the oceans due to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This can harm ocean life in many ways, including the disintegration of reef structures and the weakening of many types of sea animals' shells. The purpose of this project is to assess the efficacy of a novel method of raising the pH of increasingly acidic ocean waters. The experiment was set up with water of varying pH levels. There were three different experiment groups, including current ocean water (pH 8.1), increased acidity ocean water (pH 7.5), and an increased acidity ocean water with an activated carbon filter (pH 7.5). Six bivalve shells were placed in each solution . Mass loss data was taken from bivalve shells every three days over the course of thirty days (for a total of ten measurements). I hypothesized that the carbon filter would improve the pH of the ocean water (by raising the pH from 7.5) to that of normal ocean water (pH 8.1). The data showed that while the acidic ocean water shell's weight decreased (by 13%), the acidic water with the filter and current ocean water decreased by 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Overall, the activated carbon filter decreased the amount of weight change from the acidic water. The data is applicable to helping solve ocean acidification - activated charcoal greatly improved the effects of very acidic ocean water, which could be used in the future to help offset the impact of ocean acidification on its creatures.

  19. Oceanic nitrogen reservoir regulated by plankton diversity and ocean circulation. (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis


    The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio of marine phytoplankton (16N:1P) is closely matched to the nutrient content of mean ocean waters (14.3N:1P). This condition is thought to arise from biological control over the ocean's nitrogen budget, in which removal of bioavailable nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria ensures widespread selection for diazotrophic phytoplankton that replenish this essential nutrient when it limits the growth of other species. Here we show that in the context of a realistic ocean circulation model, and a uniform N:P ratio of plankton biomass, this feedback mechanism yields an oceanic nitrate deficit more than double its observed value. The critical missing phenomenon is diversity in the metabolic N:P requirement of phytoplankton, which has recently been shown to exhibit large-scale patterns associated with species composition. When we model these variations, such that diazotrophs compete with high N:P communities in subtropical regions, the ocean nitrogen inventory rises and may even exceed the average N:P ratio of plankton. The latter condition, previously considered impossible, is prevented in the modern ocean by shallow circulations that communicate stoichiometric signals from remote biomes dominated by diatoms with low N:P ratios. Large-scale patterns of plankton diversity and the circulation pathways connecting them are thus key factors determining the availability of fixed nitrogen in the ocean.

  20. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  1. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  2. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  3. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 10 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Pacific Northwest, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  4. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 9 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in EPA Pacific Southwest. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  5. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 6 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in South Central, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  6. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  7. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 4 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Southeast United States. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  8. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  9. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 2 (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in NY, NJ and Puerto Rico. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  10. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  11. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  12. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V


    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  13. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro


    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  14. Role of Southern Ocean stratification in glacial atmospheric CO2 reduction evaluated by a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Oka, Akira


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during glacial periods is known to be considerably lower than during interglacial periods. However, previous studies using an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) fail to reproduce this. Paleoclimate proxy data of the Last Glacial Maximum indicate high salinity (>37.0 practical salinity unit) and long water mass residence time (>3000 years) in the Southern Ocean, suggesting that salinity stratification was enhanced and more carbon was stored there. Reproducibility of salinity and water mass age is considered insufficient in previous OGCMs, which might affect the reproducibility of atmospheric CO2 concentration. This study investigated the role of increased stratification of the Southern Ocean in the glacial CO2 variation using an OGCM. We found that deep water formation in East Antarctica is required to explain high salinity in South Atlantic. Saltier deep Southern Ocean resulted in increased atmospheric CO2 concentration against previous estimates. This is partly due to increased volume transport of Antarctic Bottom Water and associated decrease in the water mass age of the deep Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, weakening of vertical mixing contributed to increase of the vertical gradient of dissolved inorganic carbon and decrease of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, we show that it is unable to explain all of the glacial CO2 variations by the contribution of the Southern Ocean. Our findings indicate that detailed understanding of the impact of enhanced stratification in the Southern Ocean on the Pacific Ocean might be crucial to understanding the mechanisms behind the glacial-interglacial ocean carbon cycle variations.

  15. Stellar Masses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    later stages of evolution into a red giant differs considerably. It may lead to the formation of a white dwarf via a planetary nebula phase (for stars like the Sun) or the formation of a neutron star via a supernova explosion (for massive stars). The exact course is decided by the mass again. The energy produced is proportional to ...

  16. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  17. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama


    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  18. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.


    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  19. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  20. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo


    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  1. A review of the studies on pteropods from the northern Indian Ocean A review of the studies on pteropods of the northern Indian Ocean region with a report on the pteropods of Irrawaddy continental shelf off Myanmar (Burma)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panchang, R.; Nigam, R.; Riedel, F.; Janssen, A.W.; Hla, U Ko Yi

    as used their spatial distribution and a marker of the latitudinal biogeographical boundary within the Arabian Sea 43 . Sakthivel 41 observed a swarm of Cavolina uncinata pulsata, an oceanic species indicative of the Bay of Bengal water mass... on the seasonal variation of Limacina species in the Indian Ocean, Bull. Natl. Inst. Sci., 38(1968) 700-717. 40 Sakthivel, M., Studies on Euthecosomata of the Indian Ocean, Ph.D. Thesis, Cochin University, India, 1972. 41 Sakthivel, M., Swarming of a...

  2. Ocean state indicators from MyOcean altimeter products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bessières


    Full Text Available The European MyOcean project ( provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the ENSO events in the tropical Pacific, the El Niño/La Niña events, since 1992. The second ocean indicator tracks the contracted or extended state of the Kuroshio Extension. The last ocean indicator is dedicated to the Ionian Basin in the Mediterranean Sea and permits separation of "zonal-cyclonic" state (1998–2005 and since 2011 up to now from the "anticyclonic" state (1993–1996 usually discussed in the literature. In addition, it allows identifying a third state in which both the anticyclonic circulation around the northern part of the basin and the strong zonal Mid-Ionian Jet co-exist (2008–2010.

  3. Vertical distribution of236U in the North Pacific Ocean. (United States)

    Eigl, R; Steier, P; Sakata, K; Sakaguchi, A


    The first extensive study on 236 U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios and the 236 U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10 -10 to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10 -10 , which corresponds to 236 U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10 5 atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10 5 atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in 236 U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes. Uranium-236 inventories on the water column of each sampling station were calculated and varied between (3.89 ± 0.08) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 and (7.03 ± 0.50) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 , which is lower than in former studies on comparable latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of Japan. The low inventories of 236 U found for the North Pacific Ocean in this study can be explained by the lack of additional input sources of artificial radionuclides, apart from global and regional/local fallout. This study expands the use of 236 U as oceanographic circulation tracer to yet another ocean basin and shows that this isotope can be used for tracing circulation patterns of water masses in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are oceanic fronts ecotones? Seasonal changes along the subtropical front show fronts as bacterioplankton transition zones but not diversity hotspots. (United States)

    Morales, Sergio E; Meyer, Moana; Currie, Kim; Baltar, Federico


    Ecotones are regarded as diversity hotspots in terrestrial systems, but it is unknown if this 'ecotone effect' occurs in the marine environment. Oceanic fronts are widespread mesoscale features, present in the boundary between different water masses, and are arguably the best potential examples of ecotones in the ocean. Here we performed the first seasonal study along an oceanic front, combining 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with a high spatial resolution analysis of the physical properties of the water masses. Using the Subtropical Frontal Zone off New Zealand we demonstrate that fronts delimit shifts in bacterioplankton community composition between water masses, but that the strength of this effect is seasonally dependent. While creating a transition zone where physicochemical parameters and bacterioplankton communities get mixed, this ecotone does not result in increased diversity. Thus unlike terrestrial ecotones, oceanic fronts are boundaries but not hotspots of bacterioplankton diversity in the ocean. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Determining the Ocean's Role on the Variable Gravity Field and Earth Rotation (United States)

    Ponte, Rui M.; Frey, H. (Technical Monitor)


    A number of ocean models of different complexity have been used to study changes in the oceanic angular momentum (OAM) and mass fields and their relation to the variable Earth rotation and gravity field. Time scales examined range from seasonal to a few days. Results point to the importance of oceanic signals in driving polar motion, in particular the Chandler and annual wobbles. Results also show that oceanic signals have a measurable impact on length-of-day variations. Various circulation features and associated mass signals, including the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the equatorial currents, and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current play a significant role in oceanic angular momentum variability. The impact on OAM values of an optimization procedure that uses available data to constrain ocean model results was also tested for the first time. The optimization procedure yielded substantial changes, in OAM, related to adjustments in both motion and mass fields,as well as in the wind stress torques acting on the ocean. Constrained OAM values were found to yield noticeable improvements in the agreement with the observed Earth rotation parameters, particularly at the seasonal timescale.

  6. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert


    the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has...... glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water...... are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different...

  7. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert


    glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water...... the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has...... are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different...

  8. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities. (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L


    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  9. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John


    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  10. Spaceborne studies of ocean circulation (United States)

    Patzert, W. C.


    The history and near-term future of ocean remote sensing to study ocean circulation are examined. Seasat provided the first-ever global data sets of sea surface topography (altimeter) and marine winds (scatterometer) and laid the foundation for the next generation of satellite missions planned for the late 1980s. The future missions are the next generation of altimeter and scatterometer to be flown aboard TOPEX (TOPography EXperiment) and NROSS (Navy Remote Sensing System), respectively. The data from these satellites will be coordinated with measurements made at sea to determine the driving forces of ocean circulation and to study the oceans' role in climate variability. The significance of such studies to such matters as climatic changes, fisheries, commerce, waste disposal, and national defense is noted.

  11. JPL Ecco Ocean Data Assimilation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ECCO was established in 1998 as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) with the goal of combining a general circulation model (GCM) with diverse...

  12. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  13. Topographic stress in the oceans (United States)

    Holloway, Greg; Müller, Peter

    The influence of seafloor topography on ocean circulation has long been a subject of research and speculation. Recent attention to this topic has shown that the interaction with currents is both more complicated and (possibly) more influential than may have been supposed.An important question is whether inadequate representation of topographic effects in numerical ocean models may be a significant source of model infidelity. On the other side, direct observation of momentum exchange between the ocean and variations of seafloor elevation remains a daunting challenge. To focus on these and related issues and to consider possible avenues for future research, the workshop Topographic Stress was held January 23-25, 1989, at Keahou Bay, Kona, Hawaii, drawing on numerical modelers, oceanic observers, theorists, atmospheric scientists and laboratory modelers.

  14. Towards operational ocean state estimation (United States)

    Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L.; Cheng, B.; Tang, B.; Xing, Z.; Giering, R.


    An assimilation effort is undertaken with the goal of understanding seasonal-to-interannual changes of the tropical Pacific Ocean from the late '80s to the present, encompassing the WOCE and TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) periods.

  15. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    With increased exploitation of the onshore mineral resources, oceans that cover almost 71% of earth's surface and known as storehouse of minerals, provide a suitable alternative. Amongst the various underwater mineral resources, placer deposits...

  16. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  17. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  18. Biogeochemical proxies in Scleractinian corals used to reconstruct ocean circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilderson, T.P.; Kashgarian, M.; Schrag, D.P.


    We utilize monthly 14 C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: 1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and 2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon ( 14 C) in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral 14 C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution Δ 14 C time-series such as these, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment onetime surveys such as GEOSECS and WOCE. These data not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can be used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate change. (author)

  19. Use of Real Time Satellite Infrared and Ocean Color to Produce Ocean Products (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Westhaver, D.; Gawlikowski, G.; Upton, M.; Hall, C.


    Real-time data products derived from infrared and ocean color satellites are useful for several types of users around the world. Highly relevant applications include recreational and commercial fisheries, commercial towing vessel and other maritime and navigation operations, and other scientific and applied marine research. Uses of the data include developing sampling strategies for research programs, tracking of water masses and ocean fronts, optimizing ship routes, evaluating water quality conditions (coastal, estuarine, oceanic), and developing fisheries and essential fish habitat indices. Important considerations for users are data access and delivery mechanisms, and data formats. At this time, the data are being generated in formats increasingly available on mobile computing platforms, and are delivered through popular interfaces including social media (Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and others), Google Earth and other online Geographical Information Systems, or are simply distributed via subscription by email. We review 30 years of applications and describe how we develop customized products and delivery mechanisms working directly with users. We review benefits and issues of access to government databases (NOAA, NASA, ESA), standard data products, and the conversion to tailored products for our users. We discuss advantages of different product formats and of the platforms used to display and to manipulate the data.

  20. Ocean circulation and climate change (United States)

    Hasselmann, Klaus


    Recent numerical simulations using global ocean circulation models are reviewed together with model experiments involving further important climate sub-systems with which the ocean interacts: the atmosphere, the air-sea interface and the global carbon cycle. A common feature of all ocean circulation experiments considered is the strong sensitivity of the circulation to relatively minor changes in surface forcing, particularly to the buoyancy fluxes in regions of deep water formation in high latitudes. This may explain some of the well-known deficiencies of past global ocean circulation simulations. The strong sensitivity may also have been the cause of rapid climate changes observed in paleoclimatic records and can lead further to significant natural climate variability on the time scales of a few hundred years through the stochastic forcing of the ocean by atmospheric weather variability. Gobal warming computations using two different coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the "business-as-usual" scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change yield a significantly stronger warming delay due to the heat uptake by the oceans in the Southern Ocean than estimated on the basis of box-diffusion models. Recent advances in surface wave modelling, illustrated by a comparison of wave height fields derived from the WAM model and the GEOSAT altimeter, hold promise for the development of an improved representation of ocean-atmosphere coupling based on an explicit description of the dynamical processes at the air-sea interface. Global carbon cycle simulations with a three dimensional carbon cycle model tuned to reproduce past variations of carbon cycle indices show a significant impact of variations in the ocean circulation on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and thereby on climate. The series of experiments suggest that for the study of climate in the time scale range from 101-103years, it would be highly desirable, and has indeed now become feasible, to couple

  1. Ocean and coastal data management (United States)

    de La Beaujardière, Jeff; Beegle-Krause, C; Bermudez, Luis; Hankin, Steven C.; Hazard, Lisa; Howlett, Eoin; Le, Steven; Proctor, Roger; Signell, Richard P.; Snowden, Derrick P.; Thomas, Julie


    We introduce data management concepts, including what we mean by "data" and its "management," sources of data, interoperability, and data geometry. We then discuss various components of a data management system. Finally, we summarize some existing ocean and coastal data management efforts. We make specific recommendations throughout the paper. We are generally optimistic that ocean and coastal data management is an interesting and solvable challenge that will provide great benefit to society.

  2. Contribution of topographically generated submesoscale turbulence to Southern Ocean overturning (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaozhou; Thompson, Andrew F.; Flexas, Mar M.; Sprintall, Janet


    The ocean's global overturning circulation regulates the transport and storage of heat, carbon and nutrients. Upwelling across the Southern Ocean's Antarctic Circumpolar Current and into the mixed layer, coupled to water mass modification by surface buoyancy forcing, has been highlighted as a key process in the closure of the overturning circulation. Here, using twelve high-resolution hydrographic sections in southern Drake Passage, collected with autonomous ocean gliders, we show that Circumpolar Deep Water originating from the North Atlantic, known as Lower Circumpolar Deep Water, intersects sloping topography in narrow and strong boundary currents. Observations of strong lateral buoyancy gradients, enhanced bottom turbulence, thick bottom mixed layers and modified water masses are consistent with growing evidence that topographically generated submesoscale flows over continental slopes enhance near-bottom mixing, and that cross-density upwelling occurs preferentially over sloping topography. Interactions between narrow frontal currents and topography occur elsewhere along the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which leads us to propose that such interactions contribute significantly to the closure of the overturning in the Southern Ocean.

  3. Numerical modeling of oceanic crustal hydrothermal systems (United States)

    Latychev, Konstantin

    The oceanic crust is a complex rock-mineral formation which extends up to several kilometers below the sea floor and covers laterally about two thirds of the planet. Hydrothermal circulation within the crust is driven by magmatic sources and carried by the fluid residing in pores and cracks. Hydrothermal advection transfers about one quarter of the Earth's total heat power from the interior. Marine sediments are believed to be the largest repositories of solid ice-like methane clathrate hydrates. The compliance technique is an important tool for assessment of this resource. It makes use of the oceanic surface gravity waves to induce pressure variations on the sea floor and measure the corresponding vertical deformation. This thesis deals with the convective heat and mass transfer within the oceanic crust, as a fractured porous medium, and the elastic, quasi-static response of hydrated marine sediments to gravity wave loading. Both generic and site-specific applications are considered. Most applications are tackled numerically in three spatial dimensions. The major results are as follows. Fractures can trigger and maintain hydrothermal circulation. The permeability-thickness product in the direction of flow is an adequate parameter to represent the fracture if convection is not vigorous. A new temperature homogenization mechanism for the off-axial convection is proposed which is due to quasi-lateral circulation within a permeable zone between sediment cover and basalt. It explains both the observed correlation between surface heat flux and sediment thickness, as well as regular heat flux variations when no buried topography is present. A hydrothermal model for the CoAxial Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge predicts ridge-parallel convection with the low-temperature vents spaced 1 km apart. The compliance approach is feasible for a non-layered medium. The average compliance response depends on the bulk hydrate content, but not on a particular connectivity pattern

  4. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE) (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.


    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  5. Response of mangroves to drought and non-tidal conditions in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At these two sites the salinity (>34.5) was significantly higher and the surface sediment water content (<30%) was significantly lower than at other sites. Highest tree density was found at a freshwater seepage site, where all size classes were represented, while the permanently flooded site between the Mfolozi River and St ...

  6. Seasonal variability of tidal and non-tidal currents off Beypore, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P; Srinivas, K.; AnilKumar, N.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Natl_Symp_METOC-2004_401.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Natl_Symp_METOC-2004_401.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A.; Lekshmi, S.

    The tidal regimes over the continental shelves are often less documented due to lack of coastal water level data. This is of concern since continental shelves rule the global dissipation of tidal energy. The tides along the Southwest Indian shelf...

  8. Tidal and non-tidal frequencies found in the seismicity of California

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalenda, Pavel; Málek, Jiří; Skalský, Lumír

    M-29 /395/, - (2006), s. 107-118 ISSN 0138-015X. [Mining and environmental Geophysics. Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium/30./. Ladek Zdrój, 06.06.2005-08.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : tides * triggering * seismicity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  9. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  10. Diagnosis of CO2 Fluxes in the Coastal Ocean (United States)

    Dai, M.; Cao, Z.; Yang, W.; Guo, X.; Yin, Z.; Zhao, Y.


    Coastal ocean carbon is an important component of the global carbon cycle. However, its mechanistic-based conceptualization, a prerequisite of coastal carbon modeling and its inclusion in the Earth System Model, remains difficult due to the highest variability in both time and space. Here we show that the inter-seasonal change of the global coastal pCO2 is more determined by non-temperature factors such as biological drawdown and water mass mixing, the latter of which features the dynamic boundary processes of the coastal ocean at both land-margin and margin-open ocean interfaces. Considering these unique features, we resolve the coastal CO2 fluxes using a semi-analytical approach coupling physics-biogeochemistry and carbon-nutrients and conceptualize the coastal carbon cycle into Ocean-dominated Margins (OceMar) and River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar). The diagnostic result of CO2 fluxes in the South China Sea basin and the Arabian Sea as OceMars and in the Pearl River Plume as a RioMar is consistent with field observations. Our mechanistic-based diagnostic approach therefore helps better understand and model coastal carbon cycle yet the stoichiometry of carbon-nutrients coupling needs scrutiny when applying our approach.

  11. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification. (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J


    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  12. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Weinberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Melanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Correa, Matthias Lopez; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray


    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth׳s largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium–thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  13. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray


    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  14. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  15. Arctic Ocean Pathways in the 21st century (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; van Gennip, Simon J.; Kelly, Stephen J.; Popova, Ekaterina E.; Yool, Andrew


    In the last three decades, changes in the Arctic environment have been occurring at an increasing rate. The opening up of large areas of previously sea ice-covered ocean affects the marine environment with potential impacts on Arctic ecosystems, including through changes in Arctic access, industries and societies. Changes to sea ice and surface winds result in large-scale shifts in ocean circulation and oceanic pathways. This study presents a high-resolution analysis of the projected ocean circulation and pathways of the Arctic water masses across the 21st century. The analysis is based on an eddy-permitting high-resolution global simulation of the ocean general circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at the 1/4-degree horizontal resolution. The atmospheric forcing is from HadGEM2-ES model output from IPCC Assessment Report 5 (AR5) simulations performed for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5), and follow the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. During the 21st century the AO experiences a significant warming, with sea surface temperature increased by in excess of 4 deg. C. Annual mean Arctic sea ice thickness drops to less than 0.5m, and the Arctic Ocean is ice-free in summer from the mid-century. We use an off-line tracer technique to investigate Arctic pathways of the Atlantic and Pacific waters (AW and PW respectively) under this future climate. The AW tracers have been released in the eastern Fram Strait and in the western Barents Sea, whereas the PW tracer has been seeded in the Bering Strait. In the second half of the century the upper 1000 m ocean circulation shows a reduction in the eastward AW flow along the continental slopes towards the Makarov and Canada basins and a deviation of the PW flow away from the Beaufort Sea towards the Siberian coast. Strengthening of Arctic boundary current and intensification of the cyclonic gyre in the Nansen basin of the Arctic Ocean is accompanied by

  16. Global ocean modeling on the Connection Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Malone, R.C.


    The authors have developed a version of the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model (Bryan, 1969; Semtner, 1976; Cox, 1984) for massively parallel computers. Such models are three-dimensional, Eulerian models that use latitude and longitude as the horizontal spherical coordinates and fixed depth levels as the vertical coordinate. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with a turbulent eddy viscosity, and mass continuity equation are solved, subject to the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations. The traditional model formulation uses a rigid-lid approximation (vertical velocity = 0 at the ocean surface) to eliminate fast surface waves. These waves would otherwise require that a very short time step be used in numerical simulations, which would greatly increase the computational cost. To solve the equations with the rigid-lid assumption, the equations of motion are split into two parts: a set of twodimensional ''barotropic'' equations describing the vertically-averaged flow, and a set of three-dimensional ''baroclinic'' equations describing temperature, salinity and deviations of the horizontal velocities from the vertically-averaged flow

  17. Quaternary radiolarian faunal changes in the tropical Indian Ocean: Inferences to paleomonsoonal oscillation of the 10 degrees S hydrographic front

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, S.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    The northern Indian Ocean is characterized by three distinct surface water masses, i.e. (1) highly saline (greater than 34.5 ppt) Arabian Sea, (2) low saline (less than 34.5 ppt) Bay of Bengal and (3) a moderate salinity Indian Ocean watermass south...

  18. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Lianke Alinda te


    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is

  19. Impact on the earth, ocean and atmosphere (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; O'Keefe, John D.


    On the basis of finite-difference techniques, cratering flow calculations are used to obtain the spatial attenuation of shock pressure with radius along the impact axis for the impact of silicate rock and iron impactors on a silicate half-space at speeds of 5 to 45 km/sec. Upon impact of a 10 to 30 km diameter silicate or water object onto a 5 km deep ocean overlying a silicate half-space planet at 30 km/sec, it is found that from 12 to 15 percent of the incident energy is coupled into the water. The mass of atmosphere lost due to impacts of 1 to 5 km radius projectiles is calculated.

  20. Lagrangian numerical methods for ocean biogeochemical simulations (United States)

    Paparella, Francesco; Popolizio, Marina


    We propose two closely-related Lagrangian numerical methods for the simulation of physical processes involving advection, reaction and diffusion. The methods are intended to be used in settings where the flow is nearly incompressible and the Péclet numbers are so high that resolving all the scales of motion is unfeasible. This is commonplace in ocean flows. Our methods consist in augmenting the method of characteristics, which is suitable for advection-reaction problems, with couplings among nearby particles, producing fluxes that mimic diffusion, or unresolved small-scale transport. The methods conserve mass, obey the maximum principle, and allow to tune the strength of the diffusive terms down to zero, while avoiding unwanted numerical dissipation effects.

  1. Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean (United States)

    Krumhansl, R.; Kochevar, R. E.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Louie, J.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.; Busey, A.


    The availability of scientific data sets online opens up exciting new opportunities to raise students' understanding of the worlds' oceans and the potential impacts of climate change. The Oceans of Data Institute at EDC; Stanford University; and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have been collaborating, with the support of three National Science Foundation grants over the past 5 years, to bring marine science data sets into high school and undergraduate classrooms. These efforts have culminated in the development of a web-based student interface to data from the Tagging of Pacific Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and NASA Earth-orbiting satellites through a student-friendly Web interface, customized data analysis tools, multimedia supports, and course modules. Ocean Tracks (, which incorporates design principles based on a broad range of research findings in fields such as cognitive science, visual design, mathematics education and learning science, focuses on optimizing students' opportunities to focus their cognitive resources on viewing and comparing data to test hypotheses, while minimizing the time spent on downloading, filtering and creating displays. Ocean Tracks allows students to display the tracks of elephant seals, white sharks, Bluefin tuna, albatross, and drifting buoys along with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-A, bathymetry, ocean currents, and human impacts overlays. A graphing tool allows students to dynamically display parameters associated with the track such as speed, deepest daily dive and track tortuosity (curviness). These interface features allow students to engage in investigations that mirror those currently being conducted by scientists to understand the broad-scale effects of changes in climate and other human activities on ocean ecosystems. In addition to supporting the teaching of the Ocean and Climate Literacy principles, high school curriculum modules facilitate the teaching

  2. Carbonate compensation depth: relation to carbonate solubility in ocean waters. (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, S; Ruth, E; Kaplan, I R


    In situ calcium carbonate saturometry measurements suggest that the intermediate water masses of the central Pacific Ocean are close to saturation with resppect to both calcite and local carbonate sediment. The carbonate compensation depth, located at about 3700 meters in this area, appears to represent a depth above which waters are essentially saturated with respect to calcite and below which waters deviate toward undersaturation with respect to calcite.

  3. Indian Ocean circulation and productivity during the last glacial cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Piotrowski, A.M.; Banakar, V.K.; Scrivner, A.E.; Elderfield, H.; Galy, A.; Dennis, A.

    Nd and δ 13 C records from the deep Cape Basin (Piotrowski et al., 2005; Piotrowski et al., 2008), suggesting that the δ 13 C of deep water in the deep South Atlantic changed independently of ocean circulation during glacial... isotopes can be interpreted as changes in deep-water δ 13 C composition independent of circulation, resulting from climate-dependant changes in either biological productivity, the pre-formed δ 13 C of a water mass by biological productivity, or air...

  4. Determination of the Prebomb Southern (Antarctic) Ocean Radiocarbon in Organic Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilderson, T P


    The Southern Hemisphere is an important and unique region of the world's oceans for water-mass formation and mixing, upwelling, nutrient utilization, and carbon export. In fact, one of the primary interests of the oceanographic community is to decipher the climatic record of these processes in the source or sink terms for Southern Ocean surface waters in the CO 2 balance of the atmosphere. Current coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling efforts to trace the input of CO 2 into the ocean imply a strong sink of anthropogenic CO 2 in the southern ocean. However, because of its relative inaccessibility and the difficulty in directly measuring CO 2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean, these results are controversial at best. An accepted diagnostic of the exchange of CO 2 between the atmosphere and ocean is the prebomb distribution of radiocarbon in the ocean and its time-history since atmospheric nuclear testing. Such histories of 14 C in the surface waters of the Southern Ocean do not currently exist, primarily because there are few continuous biological archives (e.g., in corals) such as those that have been used to monitor the 14 C history of the tropics and subtropics. One of the possible long-term archives is the scallop Adamussium collbecki. Although not independently confirmed, relatively crude growth rate estimates of A. collbecki indicate that it has the potential to provide continuous 100 year time-series. We are exploring the suitability of this potential archive

  5. Nonuniform ocean acidification and attenuation of the ocean carbon sink (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Palevsky, Hilary I.


    Surface ocean carbon chemistry is changing rapidly. Partial pressures of carbon dioxide gas (pCO2) are rising, pH levels are declining, and the ocean's buffer capacity is eroding. Regional differences in short-term pH trends primarily have been attributed to physical and biological processes; however, heterogeneous seawater carbonate chemistry may also be playing an important role. Here we use Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Version 4 data to develop 12 month gridded climatologies of carbonate system variables and explore the coherent spatial patterns of ocean acidification and attenuation in the ocean carbon sink caused by rising atmospheric pCO2. High-latitude regions exhibit the highest pH and buffer capacity sensitivities to pCO2 increases, while the equatorial Pacific is uniquely insensitive due to a newly defined aqueous CO2 concentration effect. Importantly, dissimilar regional pH trends do not necessarily equate to dissimilar acidity ([H+]) trends, indicating that [H+] is a more useful metric of acidification.

  6. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia



    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  7. Ocean eddies and climate predictability. (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P; Perlin, Natalie; Siqueira, Leo


    A suite of coupled climate model simulations and experiments are used to examine how resolved mesoscale ocean features affect aspects of climate variability, air-sea interactions, and predictability. In combination with control simulations, experiments with the interactive ensemble coupling strategy are used to further amplify the role of the oceanic mesoscale field and the associated air-sea feedbacks and predictability. The basic intent of the interactive ensemble coupling strategy is to reduce the atmospheric noise at the air-sea interface, allowing an assessment of how noise affects the variability, and in this case, it is also used to diagnose predictability from the perspective of signal-to-noise ratios. The climate variability is assessed from the perspective of sea surface temperature (SST) variance ratios, and it is shown that, unsurprisingly, mesoscale variability significantly increases SST variance. Perhaps surprising is the fact that the presence of mesoscale ocean features even further enhances the SST variance in the interactive ensemble simulation beyond what would be expected from simple linear arguments. Changes in the air-sea coupling between simulations are assessed using pointwise convective rainfall-SST and convective rainfall-SST tendency correlations and again emphasize how the oceanic mesoscale alters the local association between convective rainfall and SST. Understanding the possible relationships between the SST-forced signal and the weather noise is critically important in climate predictability. We use the interactive ensemble simulations to diagnose this relationship, and we find that the presence of mesoscale ocean features significantly enhances this link particularly in ocean eddy rich regions. Finally, we use signal-to-noise ratios to show that the ocean mesoscale activity increases model estimated predictability in terms of convective precipitation and atmospheric upper tropospheric circulation.

  8. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome. (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer


    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Higher order mode laser beam intensity fluctuations in strong oceanic turbulence (United States)

    Baykal, Yahya


    Intensity fluctuations of the higher order mode laser beams are evaluated when these beams propagate in a medium exhibiting strong oceanic turbulence. Our formulation involves the modified Rytov solution that extends the Rytov solution to cover strong turbulence as well, and our recently reported expression that relates the atmospheric turbulence structure constant to the oceanic turbulence parameters and oceanic wireless optical communication link parameters. The variations of the intensity fluctuations are reported against the changes of the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, viscosity and the source size of the higher order mode laser beam. Our results indicate that under any oceanic turbulence parameters, it is advantageous to employ higher order laser modes in reducing the scintillation noise in wireless optical communication links operating in a strongly turbulent ocean.

  10. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng


    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  11. Linked Ocean Data (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam


    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  12. Late Archean Surface Ocean Oxygenation (Invited) (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Reinhard, C.; Lyons, T. W.; Kaufman, A. J.; Anbar, A. D.


    , respectively. Mass independent fractionation of S isotopes (Δ33S ≠ 0‰) in the upper Campbellrand Subgroup and Mt. McRae Shale indicates an anoxic atmosphere co-existed with the mildly oxygenated surface ocean. The source of the Re and Mo was likely oxidative subaerial and/or submarine weathering of continental sulphides, which are susceptible to dissolution even if atmospheric pO2 is at 0.001 to 0.0001% present atmospheric level. Dissolved oxygen in the oceans facilitates transport of Re and Mo as conservative ReO4- and MoO42- from the site of oxidation to deeper-water, reducing marine sediments. Thus, the geochemical data are consistent with stratified oceans (with oxygenated shallow waters) developing on continental margins more than 100 M.y. prior to the GOE.

  13. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review. (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H


    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  14. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. England


    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of

  15. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  16. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  17. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  18. Upper ocean variability of the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relation to chlorophyll pigment concentration.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Hydrographic data from the upper ocean together with atmospheric data and satellite data are used to understand the variability of upper ocean and its relation to surface chlorophyll in the Equatorial Indian Ocean. The sea surface temperature showed...

  19. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  20. An ocean modelling and assimilation guide to using GOCE geoid products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haines, K.; Johannessen, J. A.; Knudsen, Per


    We review the procedures and challenges that must be considered when using geoid data derived from the Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission in order to constrain the circulation and water mass representation in an ocean general circulation model. It covers...... the compatibility of these different fields in their spatial scale content, their temporal representation, and in their error covariances. These considerations are very important when the resulting data are to be used to estimate ocean circulation and its corresponding errors. We describe the further steps needed...

  1. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike


    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  2. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas


    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  3. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.


    Oceanic anthropogenic CO 2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Oarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Oarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO 2 -related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean warming feedback was found to dominate the climate change responses in the surface ocean. Although surface pH is projected to decrease relatively uniformly by about 0.3 by the year 2100, we find pH to be insensitive to climate change feedbacks, whereas Oarag is buffered by ∼15%. Ocean carbonate chemistry creates a situation whereby the direct pH changes due to ocean warming are almost cancelled by the pH changes associated with dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations changes via a reduction in CO 2 solubility from ocean warming. We show that the small climate change feedback on future surface ocean pH is independent to the amount of ocean warming. Our analysis therefore implies that future projections of surface ocean acidification only need to consider future atmospheric CO 2 levels, not climate change induced modifications in the ocean

  4. Mid-oceanic ridge system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , leading to the creation of new ocean floor. As two tectonic plates slowly separate, molten material rises up from within the mantle to fill the opening. Thus the rugged volcanic landscape of a mid-ocean ridge is created along the plate boundary... In order to understand how magnetic stripe anomalies support plate tectonics we need to understand (1) the basics of plate tectonic theory, especially the part about sea-floor spreading; (2) how the Earth’s magnetic field behaves, and (3) how magnetic...

  5. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl


    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  6. Ocean Reanalyses in the Context of GODAE OceanView (United States)


    Sep 2015 32 level).In this context it will be important to provide analyses of the coastal zone to better understand land -ocean exchange...persistent oceanographic features such as the southern edge of the Costa Rica Dome and the highly energetic currents of the equatorial Pacific (Shillinger

  7. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    through a review of the published work so far and analysis of the latest available data sets. Various oceanic features and processes in the upper 1000 m of the TIO are described and discussed. An Oceanographic Atlas prepared for this purpose is appended...

  8. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.


    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  9. Deep Convection in the Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McWilliams, James


    ... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...

  10. Southern Ocean frontal structure and sea-ice formation rates revealed by elephant seals (United States)

    Charrassin, J.-B.; Hindell, M.; Rintoul, S. R.; Roquet, F.; Sokolov, S.; Biuw, M.; Costa, D.; Boehme, L.; Lovell, P.; Coleman, R.; Timmermann, R.; Meijers, A.; Meredith, M.; Park, Y.-H.; Bailleul, F.; Goebel, M.; Tremblay, Y.; Bost, C.-A.; McMahon, C. R.; Field, I. C.; Fedak, M. A.; Guinet, C.


    Polar regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, with the potential for significant feedbacks between ocean circulation, sea ice, and the ocean carbon cycle. However, the difficulty in obtaining in situ data means that our ability to detect and interpret change is very limited, especially in the Southern Ocean, where the ocean beneath the sea ice remains almost entirely unobserved and the rate of sea-ice formation is poorly known. Here, we show that southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) equipped with oceanographic sensors can measure ocean structure and water mass changes in regions and seasons rarely observed with traditional oceanographic platforms. In particular, seals provided a 30-fold increase in hydrographic profiles from the sea-ice zone, allowing the major fronts to be mapped south of 60°S and sea-ice formation rates to be inferred from changes in upper ocean salinity. Sea-ice production rates peaked in early winter (April–May) during the rapid northward expansion of the pack ice and declined by a factor of 2 to 3 between May and August, in agreement with a three-dimensional coupled ocean–sea-ice model. By measuring the high-latitude ocean during winter, elephant seals fill a “blind spot” in our sampling coverage, enabling the establishment of a truly global ocean-observing system. PMID:18695241

  11. Southern Ocean origin for the resumption of Atlantic thermohaline circulation during deglaciation. (United States)

    Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit


    During the two most recent deglaciations, the Southern Hemisphere warmed before Greenland. At the same time, the northern Atlantic Ocean was exposed to meltwater discharge, which is generally assumed to reduce the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water. Yet during deglaciation, the Atlantic thermohaline circulation became more vigorous, in the transition from a weak glacial to a strong interglacial mode. Here we use a three-dimensional ocean circulation model to investigate the impact of Southern Ocean warming and the associated sea-ice retreat on the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. We find that a gradual warming in the Southern Ocean during deglaciation induces an abrupt resumption of the interglacial mode of the thermohaline circulation, triggered by increased mass transport into the Atlantic Ocean via the warm (Indian Ocean) and cold (Pacific Ocean) water route. This effect prevails over the influence of meltwater discharge, which would oppose a strengthening of the thermohaline circulation. A Southern Ocean trigger for the transition into an interglacial mode of circulation provides a consistent picture of Southern and Northern hemispheric climate change at times of deglaciation, in agreement with the available proxy records.

  12. Idealised modelling of ocean circulation driven by conductive and hydrothermal fluxes at the seabed (United States)

    Barnes, Jowan M.; Morales Maqueda, Miguel A.; Polton, Jeff A.; Megann, Alex P.


    Geothermal heating is increasingly recognised as an important factor affecting ocean circulation, with modelling studies suggesting that this heat source could lead to first-order changes in the formation rate of Antarctic Bottom Water, as well as a significant warming effect in the abyssal ocean. Where it has been represented in numerical models, however, the geothermal heat flux into the ocean is generally treated as an entirely conductive flux, despite an estimated one third of the global geothermal flux being introduced to the ocean via hydrothermal sources. A modelling study is presented which investigates the sensitivity of the geothermally forced circulation to the way heat is supplied to the abyssal ocean. An analytical two-dimensional model of the circulation is described, which demonstrates the effects of a volume flux through the ocean bed. A simulation using the NEMO numerical general circulation model in an idealised domain is then used to partition a heat flux between conductive and hydrothermal sources and explicitly test the sensitivity of the circulation to the formulation of the abyssal heat flux. Our simulations suggest that representing the hydrothermal flux as a mass exchange indeed changes the heat distribution in the abyssal ocean, increasing the advective heat transport from the abyss by up to 35% compared to conductive heat sources. Consequently, we suggest that the inclusion of hydrothermal fluxes can be an important addition to course-resolution ocean models.

  13. Hydrographic and productivity characteristics along 45 degrees E longitude in the southwestern Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean during austral summer 2004

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmine, P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Madhu, N.V.; AshaDevi, C.R.; Alagarsamy, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Jayan, Z.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Sahayak, S.

    of incidence. Both atmospheric and oceanic circulations regulate the global carbon budget by exporting the surplus energy from tropical to Polar Regions. Fronts and the water masses of SO have great influence in regulating biological production at the global... are largely confined between ~40° and ~65°S, and drive eastward surface current, initiating a northward Ekman drift that is critical to the formation of Antarctic Intermediate Water mass (AIW), subducted below the subantarctic surface water. The strong...

  14. Making sense of ocean biota

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Arms race; endosymbiosis; evolutionary ecology; exosymbiosis; form and funtion; future ocean; plankton ... I argue that organism interactions, in particular co-evolution between predators and prey (the arms race), play a central role in driving evolution in the pelagic realm. Understanding the evolutionary forces ...

  15. Life in the Oceanic Realms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eutrophic,regions with high concentrations of nutrients and high chlorophyll concentrations (1–10 mg l–1 in surface waters). The microscopic phytoplankton in the ocean can be grouped under diatoms, dinoflagellates, silicoflagellates, and nano and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. Diatoms are the most dominant. Box 1.

  16. Meteorite impact in the ocean (United States)

    Strelitz, R.


    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  17. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  18. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.


    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  19. Life in the Oceanic Realms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    marine animals and plants were collected during such voyages by the researchers on board the vessels and systematically described. The HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board sailed around different oceans for nearly 4 years and this was the beginning of the science of marine biology. This was followed by another ...

  20. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    The present project work studies the characteristics of the sound speed profiles in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Since the sound speed in the ocean depends on the temperature and salinity, the vertical profiles of temperature and salinity...

  1. Probabilistic aspects of ocean waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.


    Background material for a special lecture on probabilistic aspects of ocean waves for a seminar in Trondheim. It describes long term statistics and short term statistics. Statistical distributions of waves, directional spectra and frequency spectra. Sea state parameters, response peaks, encounter

  2. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.


    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  3. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III


    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  4. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement. (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F


    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  5. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris


    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  6. Deployment, release and recovery of ocean riser pipes (United States)

    Person, Abraham; Wetmore, Sherman B.; McNary, James F.


    An ocean thermal energy conversion facility includes a long pipe assembly which is supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. Cold water flows to the facility from deep in the ocean. The pipe assembly comprises an elongate pipe construction and a weight connected to the lower end of the construction by a line of selected length. A floatation collar is connected to the construction at its upper end to cause the construction to have positive buoyancy and a center of buoyancy closer to the upper end of the construction than its center of mass. The weight renders the entire pipe assembly negatively buoyant. In the event that support of the pipe assembly should be lost, as by release of the assembly from the facility hull in an emergency, the assembly sinks to the ocean floor where it is moored by the weight. The pipe construction floats submerged above the ocean floor in a substantially vertical attitude which facilitates recovery of the assembly.

  7. Strangelove ocean at era boundaries, terrestrial or extraterrestrial cause (United States)

    Hsue, Kenneth J.


    Negative perturbations in carbon-isotope value of calcite in pelagic sediments were found at times of biotic crisis, marking horizons which are, or were proposed as era boundaries: Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T), Permian/Triassic (P/T), and Precambrian/Cambrian (PreC/C). The anomaly was also found at several other mass-extinction horizons, such as terminal Ordovician, Frasnian-Famenian, etc. Studies of K/T boundary indicate that only the planktic fraction of the sediments has the negative isotope anomaly, whereas the benthic fraction has the same value across the boundary. This geochemical signal is thus considered a record of strangelove ocean, or an ocean where isotope fractionation of dissolved carbonate ions in surface waters (by biotic function of planktic organisms) has been significantly reduced because of the drastic reduction of the biomass in the oceans. The reduction of marine biomass at each of the era boundaries was related to chemical pollution of the oceans as a consequence of a catastrophic event; a pH decrease of 0.5 could inhibit the fertility of planktons. Studies of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and meteorite-impact occurrences have indicated a linearly inverse log/log relationship between the magnitude and frequency of events. The frequency of era boundaries in geologic history supports the postulate that the rare events causing those biotic crises were large bolide-impacts.

  8. Large deficiency of polonium in the oligotrophic ocean's interior (United States)

    Kim, Guebuem


    The naturally occurring radionuclide 210Po is typically deficient relative to its parent 210Pb in the surface ocean due to preferential removal by biota, while in near equilibrium or excess below the surface mixed layer due to rapid regeneration from sinking organic matter. However, a strikingly large deficit of 210Po is observed in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea's interior. This argues against the general concept that the removal of reactive elements depends on the population of settling particles. A 210Po mass balance model suggests that rather than downward transport, polonium (proxy for S, Se, and Te) is taken up efficiently by bacteria (i.e., cyanobacteria) and transferred to higher trophic levels (i.e., nekton) in this environment. In contrast, in productive areas of the ocean, sulfur group elements seem to reside in the subsurface ocean for much longer periods as taken up by abundant free-living bacteria (non-sinking fine particles). This study sheds new light on global biogeochemical cycling of sulfur group elements in association with microbial roles, and suggests that 210Po may be useful as a tracer of nitrogen fixation in the ocean.

  9. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi


    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  10. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro


    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  11. Deep Arctic Ocean warming during the last glacial cycle (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Farmer, J.; Bauch, H.A.; Spielhagen, R.F.; Jakobsson, M.; Nilsson, J.; Briggs, W.M.; Stepanova, A.


    In the Arctic Ocean, the cold and relatively fresh water beneath the sea ice is separated from the underlying warmer and saltier Atlantic Layer by a halocline. Ongoing sea ice loss and warming in the Arctic Ocean have demonstrated the instability of the halocline, with implications for further sea ice loss. The stability of the halocline through past climate variations is unclear. Here we estimate intermediate water temperatures over the past 50,000 years from the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca values of ostracods from 31 Arctic sediment cores. From about 50 to 11 kyr ago, the central Arctic Basin from 1,000 to 2,500 m was occupied by a water mass we call Glacial Arctic Intermediate Water. This water mass was 1–2 °C warmer than modern Arctic Intermediate Water, with temperatures peaking during or just before millennial-scale Heinrich cold events and the Younger Dryas cold interval. We use numerical modelling to show that the intermediate depth warming could result from the expected decrease in the flux of fresh water to the Arctic Ocean during glacial conditions, which would cause the halocline to deepen and push the warm Atlantic Layer into intermediate depths. Although not modelled, the reduced formation of cold, deep waters due to the exposure of the Arctic continental shelf could also contribute to the intermediate depth warming.

  12. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  13. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  14. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  15. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank


    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  16. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    The structure of the warm pool (region with temperature greater than 28 degrees C) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is examined and compared with its counterpart in the Pacific Ocean using the climatology of Levitus. Though the Pacific warm pool...

  17. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  18. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  19. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  20. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  1. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  2. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  3. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  4. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NCEI Accession 0114815) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  5. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  6. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  7. 77 FR 33603 - National Oceans Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... growth, creating jobs, and supporting businesses across America. During National Oceans Month, we.... Kennedy once told us, ``We are tied to the ocean. And when we go back to the sea--whether it is to sail or...

  8. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    surface layer of the ocean surface and hence these techniques are unusable for measurement of subsurface circulation. The three methods of ocean circulation measurement using acoustic remote sensing techniques are the Lagrangian, Eulerian and single...

  9. Biological processes of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Parulekar, A.H.

    , increases in the abundances of microzooplankton may lead to higher standing stocks of mesozooplankton. Blooms of phytoplankton and swarms of zooplankton are common in the northern Indian Ocean and influence rates of particle fluxes into the ocean interiors...

  10. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  11. Pumices from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    sediments are significant not only volumetrically but also as indicators of tectonic environments. A few studies in the past concerning the volcanogenic components in the Indian Ocean are informative but these do not pertain to the Central Indian Ocean Basin...

  12. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  13. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  14. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  15. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  16. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry (United States)

    Cannara, A.


    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  17. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind (United States)

    Janssen, Peter


    Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

  18. Internal variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation


    Raa, Lianke Alinda te


    Variations in the ocean circulation can strongly influence climate due to the large heat transport by the ocean currents. Variability of the thermohaline ocean circulation, the part of the ocean circulation driven by density gradients, occurs typically on (inter)decadal and longer time scales and is an important issue in present-day climate research. Although there are many indications from observations and numerical modeling studies that internal variability of the thermohaline circulation m...

  19. Ocean (de)oxygenation from the Last Glacial Maximum to the twenty-first century: insights from Earth System models. (United States)

    Bopp, L; Resplandy, L; Untersee, A; Le Mezo, P; Kageyama, M


    All Earth System models project a consistent decrease in the oxygen content of oceans for the coming decades because of ocean warming, reduced ventilation and increased stratification. But large uncertainties for these future projections of ocean deoxygenation remain for the subsurface tropical oceans where the major oxygen minimum zones are located. Here, we combine global warming projections, model-based estimates of natural short-term variability, as well as data and model estimates of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ocean oxygenation to gain some insights into the major mechanisms of oxygenation changes across these different time scales. We show that the primary uncertainty on future ocean deoxygenation in the subsurface tropical oceans is in fact controlled by a robust compensation between decreasing oxygen saturation (O 2sat ) due to warming and decreasing apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) due to increased ventilation of the corresponding water masses. Modelled short-term natural variability in subsurface oxygen levels also reveals a compensation between O 2sat and AOU, controlled by the latter. Finally, using a model simulation of the LGM, reproducing data-based reconstructions of past ocean (de)oxygenation, we show that the deoxygenation trend of the subsurface ocean during deglaciation was controlled by a combination of warming-induced decreasing O 2sat and increasing AOU driven by a reduced ventilation of tropical subsurface waters.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.


    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a

  1. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust (United States)


    Hamano, the through marine seismological research. We also R.A. Stephen, C. Bollinger , and R. Emmermann, 179-. owe a large measure of thanks to our...If the transform faulted area of the Famous Stephen, C. Bollinger , R. Emmermann, St-idying Area is typical, a randomly placed Atlantic drill oceanic... France Yozo Hamno Geophysical Institute, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan Michael Hobart Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia

  2. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  3. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.


    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  4. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.


    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  6. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.


    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See

  7. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng


    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  8. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands? (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi


    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  9. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  10. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  11. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ...

  12. Mass occurrence of snake pipefish in the Northeast Atlantic: Result of a change in climate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Couperus, A.S.


    In 2004, a sudden mass occurrence of snake pipefish Entelurus aequoreus took place in the Northeastern Atlantic and the abundance has been increasing since. Before 2004, snake pipefish were mainly found in coastal areas and have been reported only occasionally in oceanic waters. The oceanic form

  13. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.


    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  14. IMOS: How seals are changing the way we monitor the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Harcourt, R.; McMahon, C.; Jonsen, I.; Goldsworthy, S.; Hindell, M.; Hoenner, X.; Thums, M.


    IMOS (Integrated Marine Observing System) operates a wide range of ocean observing equipment throughout Australia's coastal waters and also the open oceans. This fully integrated, national system, covers physical, chemical and biological ocean sciences forming the basis for robust and informed study of the worlds oceans. Of particular interest in understanding global climate processes is the Southern Ocean (SO), but studying this remote region is difficult and most observations are collected during the short ice-free summer when the region is accessible. Through Winter and Spring it is extremely difficult to collect biophysical ocean information in the Southern Ocean. The importance of good observations from this region, the home of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the largest current system in the world, which connects water masses from the global ocean basins cannot be over emphasised. IMOS through the Australian Animal Tracking and Monitoring System (AATAMS) has made important inroads into collecting otherwise hard to obtain observations from the SO by using CTD bio-loggers to monitor coastal and oceanic movements of marine animals from the Australian mainland as far south as the Antarctic continent. In particular seals equipped with satellite-linked CTD tags have provided unique temporal and spatial coverage of the Southern Ocean. This includes extensive data from the Antarctic continental slope and shelf regions during the winter months, which is outside the conventional areas of Argo autonomous floats and ship-based studies. Over 75,000 temperature and salinity profiles have been collected from 20-140 °E, between the Kerguelen archipelago and Prydz Bay Antarctica. These data offer invaluable new insights into the water masses, oceanographic processes and provides a vital tool for oceanographers seeking to advance our understanding of this key component of the global ocean climate. Here we present an overview of the IMOS database of hydrographic (i

  15. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.


    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  16. Poster: Ocean Literacy Principal 5. The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems


    Society, Blue; Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01, Sea for Society and the Marine Institute have developed a number of 'Your Ocean - Your Future' posters that can be used in class to raise awareness and understanding about "the ocean's influence on us and our influence on the ocean". The posters can be used to help learn about the key fundamental concepts about our ocean. Poster 5. The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems: More plants and animal life are found in the ocean than on land. Ocean life range...

  17. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification. (United States)

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto


    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide.

  18. Ocean tide models for satellite geodesy and Earth rotation (United States)

    Dickman, Steven R.


    A theory is presented which predicts tides in turbulent, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing linearized bottom friction, realistic bathymetry, and continents (at coastal boundaries no-flow conditions are imposed). The theory is phrased in terms of spherical harmonics, which allows the tide equations to be reduced to linear matrix equations. This approach also allows an ocean-wide mass conservation constraint to be applied. Solutions were obtained for 32 long and short period luni-solar tidal constituents (and the pole tide), including the tidal velocities in addition to the tide height. Calibrating the intensity of bottom friction produces reasonable phase lags for all constituents; however, tidal amplitudes compare well with those from observation and other theories only for long-period constituents. In the most recent stage of grant research, traditional theory (Liouville equations) for determining the effects of angular momentum exchange on Earth's rotation were extended to encompass high-frequency excitations (such as short-period tides).

  19. PIXE analysis of marine environmental samples from the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Shitashima, Kiminori; Tsubota, Hiroyuki.


    Aerosol samples from the western North Pacific Ocean are collected during a cruise of R/V Hakuhomaru from Japan to Hawaii and they are analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Concentrations of radon daughters are measured with CR-39 track detectors mounted on the impactor to estimate the transport time of air mass from the Asian Continent. Distributions of particulate element concentrations clearly demonstrate the influence of the westerlies. Strong correlations are observed between fine sulphur concentrations and those of heavy metals such as Fe and Zn. Vertical profiles of heavy metal elements contained in marine particulates are also investigated at a trench in the Pacific Ocean and basins in the Japan Sea. Particulate element concentrations determined by PIXE agree well with those determined by chemical analysis of filtered/total water. Remarkable changes in depth profiles of particulate manganese are observed at the trench, which suggest horizontal transport of marine particulates from the trench wall. (N.K.)

  20. On the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    KAUST Repository

    Orazov, B.


    Buoy-type ocean wave energy converters are designed to exhibit resonant responses when subject to excitation by ocean waves. A novel excitation scheme is proposed which has the potential to improve the energy harvesting capabilities of these converters. The scheme uses the incident waves to modulate the mass of the device in a manner which amplifies its resonant response. To illustrate the novel excitation scheme, a simple one-degree of freedom model is developed for the wave energy converter. This model has the form of a switched linear system. After the stability regime of this system has been established, the model is then used to show that the excitation scheme improves the power harvesting capabilities by 2565 percent even when amplitude restrictions are present. It is also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the device\\'s power harvesting capabilities to changes in damping becomes much smaller when the novel excitation scheme is used. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. All is not lost: Deriving a top-down mass budget of plastic at sea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, Bart; Kooi, Merel; Law, Kara Lavender; Sebille, van Erik


    Understanding the global mass inventory is one of the main challenges in present research on plastic marine debris. Especially the fragmentation and vertical transport processes of oceanic plastic are poorly understood. However, whereas fragmentation rates are unknown, information on plastic

  2. Global Catastrophes in Earth History: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality (United States)


    Topics addressed include: Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinctions; geologial indicators for meteorite collisions; carbon dioxide catastrophes; volcanism; climatic changes; geochemistry; mineralogy; fossil records; biospheric traumas; stratigraphy; mathematical models; and ocean dynamics.

  3. A Southern Ocean variability study using the Argo-based Model for Investigation of the Global Ocean (AMIGO) (United States)

    Lebedev, Konstantin


    depths exceeding 2000 m, in which Argo data are lacking, the temperature and salinity data were taken from the WOA-09 database. The constant temperature and salinity values from the Argo data for the corresponding month (year, season) derived using the variational technique described above were specified as the boundary conditions at the ocean surface. The constant wind stress in the corresponding month (year, season) was specified from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The mass, salt, and heat transports over several regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and at its northern boundary (35° S) were calculated, seasonal and intra-decadal variation of the transports was studied. The calculations cover the 12-year period from 2005 to 2016. The AMIGO database enjoys free public access on the Internet at: The results are represented as monthly, seasonal, and annual data and climatological mean fields. The spatial resolution of the data is one degree in latitude and longitude, and the temporal resolution is one month. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 16-17-10149).

  4. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game


    Gündüz, Şafak


    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  5. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.


    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  6. Ocean Literacy After-School (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa


    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  7. The Phenomenom of Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Weiss, S.


    The earth is 70% and is protected by its atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of several layers. The sunlight penetrates through the atmosphere and warms the earth surface. The earth's surface then in turn emits invisible infrared radiation back. As this radiation moves back up each layer absorbs some of it. Each layer then sends some of this energy back to earth again. When the layer becomes so thin the energy then escapes back into space. When we are adding more carbon dioxide to these layers we are causing the layers to absorb more of the energy and the radiation. This in turn causes the layers to become warmer since fewer radiation moves up through the layers and this energy bounces back to earth increasing the temperatures. The entire planet is taking on more of this energy and hence the temperatures are rising. The ocean plays a big rule in this change. It has prevented some of the CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere. Oceans absorb about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 causing the phenomenon of ocean acidification and this comes at a huge cost to our marine environments. The CO2 is absorbed on the surface and then transferred into the deeper waters. Which causes it to be stuck for centuries before making its way back into the atmosphere. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater it causes the PH to lower. With a lowered PH water becomes more acidic. The Hydrogen ions decrease and become less active. With this process carbonic acid is formed. The ocean now is more acidic then it has ever been in the past 650,000 years. The increase in acidic levels has caused our marine life to adjust. Acidosis caused by the increase of carbonic acid in the body fluids means a lower pH in the blood. This changes is just the start to many health issues for these organism's.

  8. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly


    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  9. Regional climate variability and ocean heat transport in the southwest Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Sprintall, Janet; Roemmich, Dean; Stanton, Basil; Bailey, Richard


    The winter of 1992 was the coldest on record in New Zealand since the 1940s. Temperatures in New Zealand were as much as 3°C below average, with heavy rain and unusual snow. The oceanic surface layer in the southwest Pacific was also anomalously cold over the same period. A World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) hydrographic section (P14C) between Auckland and Fiji during September 1992 found cold sea surface temperatures and deep mixed layers near New Zealand when compared to 8 years of high-resolution expendable bathy thermograph (XBT) temperature measurements collected along the same transect. High nutrient and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the surface layer indicated recent entrainment of thermocline waters. The Auckland to Fiji XBT section is one of three WOCE high-resolution XBT survey lines in the "Tasman Box" region, whose boundaries are Auckland-Fiji, Fiji-Brisbane and Wellington-Sydney transects plus the Australian coast. Geostrophic shear and transport were estimated from 10 realizations of the Tasman Box during the period 1991-1993. The time series of geostrophic transport shows that following a convergence in late 1991, early in 1992 there was a substantial divergence of mass in the upper waters, equivalent to a thinning of the warm water layer. The phase of this anomalous divergence is matched to an observed amplification of the seasonal oceanic heat storage cycle in 1991-1992. The top 200-m average temperature was warmer in the 1992 summer than in 1991 or 1993, but the winter of 1992 was the coldest of the 8-year record along the Auckland-Fiji line. The divergence (thinning) of the warm water layer appears to have preconditioned the region for the exceptionally cold 1992 winter. The alternative, cool conditions from anomalous air-sea heat exchange caused by variability in the wind field, is considered unlikely as large fluctuations in heat loss are not observed in the air-sea flux data during this period. The severe weather conditions

  10. Distribution of mesozooplankton biomass in the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moriarty


    Full Text Available Mesozooplankton are cosmopolitan within the sunlit layers of the global ocean. They are important in the pelagic food web, having a significant feedback to primary production through their consumption of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. In many regions of the global ocean, they are also the primary contributors to vertical particle flux in the oceans. Through both they affect the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and other nutrients in the oceans. Little, however, is known about their global distribution and biomass. While global maps of mesozooplankton biomass do exist in the literature, they are usually in the form of hand-drawn maps for which the original data associated with these maps are not readily available. The dataset presented in this synthesis has been in development since the late 1990s, is an integral part of the Coastal and Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, and Observation Database (COPEPOD, and is now also part of a wider community effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. A total of 153 163 biomass values were collected, from a variety of sources, for mesozooplankton. Of those 2% were originally recorded as dry mass, 26% as wet mass, 5% as settled volume, and 68% as displacement volume. Using a variety of non-linear biomass conversions from the literature, the data have been converted from their original units to carbon biomass. Depth-integrated values were then used to calculate an estimate of mesozooplankton global biomass. Global epipelagic mesozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 200 m, had a mean of 5.9 μg C L−1, median of 2.7 μg C L−1 and a standard deviation of 10.6 μg C L−1. The global annual average estimate of mesozooplankton in the top 200 m, based on the median value, was 0.19 Pg C. Biomass was highest in the Northern Hemisphere, and there were slight decreases from polar oceans (40

  11. Isotope composition and volume of Earth´s early oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif


    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth´s seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs, but hyd......Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of Earth´s seawater are controlled by volatile fluxes among mantle, lithospheric (oceanic and continental crust), and atmospheric reservoirs. Throughout geologic time the oxygen mass budget was likely conserved within these Earth system reservoirs......, but hydrogen´s was not, as it can escape to space. Isotopic properties of serpentine from the approximately 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt in West Greenland are used to characterize hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of ancient seawater. Archaean oceans were depleted in deuterium [expressed as Î......´D relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] by at most 25± 5‰, but oxygen isotope ratios were comparable to modern oceans. Mass balance of the global hydrogen budget constrains the contribution of continental growth and planetary hydrogen loss to the secular evolution of hydrogen isotope ratios...

  12. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.


    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  13. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.


    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  14. Arctic Ocean outflow and glacier-ocean interactions modify water over the Wandel Sea shelf (northeastern Greenland) (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Kirillov, Sergey A.; Rudels, Bert; Babb, David G.; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Rysgaard, Søren; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Barber, David G.


    The first-ever conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) observations on the Wandel Sea shelf in northeastern Greenland were collected in April-May 2015. They were complemented by CTDs taken along the continental slope during the Norwegian FRAM 2014-2015 drift. The CTD profiles are used to reveal the origin of water masses and interactions with ambient water from the continental slope and the tidewater glacier outlet. The subsurface water is associated with the Pacific water outflow from the Arctic Ocean. The underlying halocline separates the Pacific water from a deeper layer of polar water that has interacted with the warm Atlantic water outflow through the Fram Strait, recorded below 140 m. Over the outer shelf, the halocline shows numerous cold density-compensated intrusions indicating lateral interaction with an ambient polar water mass across the continental slope. At the front of the tidewater glacier outlet, colder and turbid water intrusions were observed at the base of the halocline. On the temperature-salinity plots these stations indicate a mixing line that is different from the ambient water and seems to be conditioned by the ocean-glacier interaction. Our observations of Pacific water are set within the context of upstream observations in the Beaufort Sea and downstream observations from the Northeast Water Polynya, and clearly show the modification of Pacific water during its advection across the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, ambient water over the Wandel Sea slope shows different thermohaline structures indicating the different origin and pathways of the on-shore and off-shore branches of the Arctic Ocean outflow through the western Fram Strait.

  15. Vertical Redistribution of Ocean Salt Content (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liu, C.; Ponte, R. M.; Piecuch, C. G.


    Ocean salinity is an important proxy for change and variability in the global water cycle. Multi-decadal trends have been observed in both surface and subsurface salinity in the past decades, and are usually attributed to the change in air-sea freshwater flux. Although air-sea freshwater flux, a major component of the global water cycle, certainly contributes to the change in surface and upper ocean salinity, the salt redistribution inside the ocean can affect the surface and upper ocean salinity as well. Also, the mechanisms controlling the surface and upper ocean salinity changes likely depend on timescales. Here we examined the ocean salinity changes as well as the contribution of the vertical redistribution of salt with a 20-year dynamically consistent and data-constrained ocean state estimate (ECCO: Estimating Circulation and Climate of the Ocean). A decrease in the spatial mean upper ocean salinity and an upward salt flux inside the ocean were observed. These findings indicate that over 1992-2011, surface freshwater fluxes contribute to the decrease in spatial mean upper ocean salinity and are partly compensated by the vertical redistribution of salt inside the ocean. Between advection and diffusion, the two major processes determining the vertical exchange of salt, the advective term at different depths shows a downward transport, while the diffusive term is the dominant upward transport contributor. These results suggest that the salt transport in the ocean interior should be considered in interpreting the observed surface and upper ocean salinity changes, as well as inferring information about the changes in the global water cycle.

  16. Interhemispheric controls on deep ocean circulation and carbon chemistry during the last two glacial cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilson, D.J.; Galy, A.; Piotrowski, A.M.; Banakar, V.K.

    Sample Preparation System attached to a VG SIRA or VG PRISM mass spectrometer. Each run of 30 samples was accompanied by 10 reference carbonates and 2 control samples. The results are reported with reference to the international standard Vienna Pee... of ~0.7‰ (Figure 5c), approximately twice as large as the deglacial whole-ocean change related to carbon budget reorganisation [Tagliabue et al., 2009], indicating additional controls such as from water mass sourcing or nutrient cycling. Both...

  17. Ocean contribution to co-seismic crustal deformation and geoid anomalies : Application to the 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, D.B.T.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Riva, R.E.M.; Van der Wal, W.


    Large earthquakes do not only heavily deform the crust in the vicinity of the fault, they also change the gravity field of the area affected by the earthquake due to mass redistribution in the upper layers of the Earth. Besides that, for sub-oceanic earthquakes deformation of the ocean floor causes

  18. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. (United States)


    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean...

  19. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon (United States)

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.


    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  20. Slow and Steady: Ocean Circulation. The Influence of Sea Surface Height on Ocean Currents (United States)

    Haekkinen, Sirpa


    The study of ocean circulation is vital to understanding how our climate works. The movement of the ocean is closely linked to the progression of atmospheric motion. Winds close to sea level add momentum to ocean surface currents. At the same time, heat that is stored and transported by the ocean warms the atmosphere above and alters air pressure distribution. Therefore, any attempt to model climate variation accurately must include reliable calculations of ocean circulation. Unlike movement of the atmosphere, movement of the ocean's waters takes place mostly near the surface. The major patterns of surface circulation form gigantic circular cells known as gyres. They are categorized according to their general location-equatorial, subtropical, subpolar, and polar-and may run across an entire ocean. The smaller-scale cell of ocean circulation is known' as an eddy. Eddies are much more common than gyres and much more difficult to track in computer simulations of ocean currents.

  1. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.


    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  2. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field. (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao


    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  3. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  4. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field (United States)


    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates. PMID:26808718

  5. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  6. Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) in the active upwelling zone on the west coast of South Africa 1969-12-02 to 1969-12-16 (NODC Accession 0071850) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by South African the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) during SFRI upwelling...

  7. Proving the Ocean Nourishment Concept (United States)

    Jones, I. S.


    Vast regions of the sea are barren because of a lack of essential nutrients. Ocean Nourishment is the concept of injecting nutrients into the photic zone of the ocean to store carbon and increase the base of the marine food web. It is elaborated in Jones & Young (1997). The first step in demonstrating this concept is to see if the limiting nutrients can be recognised and provided to the oligotrophic ocean. To this end water samples from three sites were collected in ultraclean polycarbonate culture bottles and enriched with various mixtures of nutrients. They were then placed in a water bath and subjected to natural sunlight for a number of days. Fluorescence levels were measured daily. Previously Thomas (1969) carried out enrichment experiments in and out of high nutrient water in the North Pacific and again Thomas (1970) cultured on the deck of his ship nutrient poor waters in the Pacific. He found nitrogen was the most important limiting nutrient in the poor waters but that micronutrients produced growth in the nutrient rich waters. Ryther and Dunstan (1971) in the Atlantic cultured coastal water with only nitrogen and phosphorus separately. The addition of nitrogen without phosphate produced growth in all cases. To increase the geographic coverage of enrichment experiments, samples were collected off Morocco twice, in the Tasman Sea and in the Sulu Sea. The samples enriched with different concentrations of urea (typically 10 microM) and phosphorous. An increase concentration of chlorophyll is the result of growth of phytoplankton exceeding death and grazing by zooplankton. At five sites an increase of chlorophyll was observed in the macronutrient enriched bottles over that in the control. At the sixth site the control grew at much the same rate as the enriched sample possibly due to contamination by the fluorometer. The maximum chlorophyll level was observed after 4 or 5 days. Replicate samples showed different levels of chlorophyll growths. It was concluded

  8. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugate, Grover J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)


    In 2010, the University of Rhode Island (URI) secured $2,000,000 from the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) to support research studies for the identification of preferred sites for offshore renewable energy development in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. This research will provide the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) with sound technical information to assist in the siting of wind turbines in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. CRMC is the state agency with jurisdiction over development, preservation and restoration of Rhode Island’s coasts out to the three-mile limit, and is the state’s authority for federal consistency. With technical support from URI, CRMC is currently leading the implementation of the Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP) with the purpose of developing policies and standards to guide the development of offshore renewable energy. The justification behind renewable energy development in Rhode Island includes diversifying the energy sources supplying electricity consumed in the state, stabilizing long-term energy prices, enhancing environmental quality – including the reduction of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions – reducing the state’s reliance on fossil fuels, and creating jobs in Rhode Island in the renewable energy sector.

  9. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.


    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (zones are created at shallow depth, just below the mixed layer, in the euphotic zone of cyclonic eddies and anticyclonic-modewater eddies. Both types of eddies are prone to high surface productivity. Net respiration rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  10. Global ocean circulation by altimetry (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl; Haidvogel, D.


    The overall objectives of this project are to determine the general circulation of the oceans and many of its climate and biochemical consequences through the optimum use of altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and related missions. Emphasis is on the global-scale circulation, as opposed to the regional scale, but some more local studies will be carried out. Because of funding limitations, the primary initial focus will be on the time-dependent global-scale circulation rather than the mean; eventually, the mean circulation must be dealt with as well.

  11. TCL2 Ocean Scenario Replay (United States)

    Mohlenbrink, Christoph P.; Omar, Faisal Gamal; Homola, Jeffrey R.


    This is a video replay of system data that was generated from the UAS Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 flight demonstration in Nevada and rendered in Google Earth. What is depicted in the replay is a particular set of flights conducted as part of what was referred to as the Ocean scenario. The test range and surrounding area are presented followed by an overview of operational volumes. System messaging is also displayed as well as a replay of all of the five test flights as they occurred.

  12. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.


    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  13. Evidence for major input of riverine organic matter into the ocean (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William M.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    The changes in the structure of XAD-8 isolated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples along a river (Penobscot River) to estuary (Penobscot Bay) to ocean (across the Gulf of Maine) transect and from the Pacific Ocean were investigated using selective and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with elemental and carbon isotope analysis. The results provide important insights into the nature of relatively stable structures in the river-to-ocean continuum and the enigma of the fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine system. First, lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), which are indistinguishable from mass spectrometry, were clearly differentiated with NMR spectroscopy. NMR unambiguously showed that CRAMs persisted along the river-to-ocean transect and in the Pacific Ocean, while lignin residues dramatically decreased in abundance from the river to the coastal ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The results challenge a previous conclusion that lignin-derived compounds are refractory and can accumulate in the coastal ocean. The loss of terrestrial plant-derived aromatic compounds such as lignin and tannin residues throughout the sequence of riverine, coastal, and open ocean DOM extracts could also partially explain the decreasing organic carbon recovery by XAD-8 isolation and the change in carbon stable isotope composition from riverine DOM (δ13C −27.6‰) to ocean DOM (δ13C −23.0‰) extracts. The observation, from advanced NMR, of similar CRAM molecules in XAD-8 isolated DOM samples from the Penobscot River to the Penobscot Bay and from the ocean refutes a previous conclusion that XAD-isolated DOM samples from seawater and river are distinctly different. The alicyclic structural features of CRAMs and their presence as the major structural units in DOM extracts from the Penobscot River to Gulf of Maine transect, together with the deduced old 14C age of CRAMs in the ocean, imply that terrestrial CRAMs may persist on

  14. Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean


    Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio


    Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the ecosystem impac...

  15. Deccan volcanism, the KT mass extinction and dinosaurs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In contrast to SO2, it is believed that CO2 emissions. (greenhouse gases) would have been small compared with the mass already in the atmosphere during the Cretaceous, and therefore would have had more limited effects. This view is countered by global oxygen isotope evidence of rapid short warming of 3–4ºC in ocean ...

  16. The deep ocean under climate change. (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine


    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1992 activities along with activities planned in 1993 is presented.

  18. Ocean Studies Board. Annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Ocean Studies Board (OSB), created in July 1985, serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on matters of ocean science and policy. It is a unit of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources of the National REsearch Council (NRC). The OSB is a multi-disciplinary body with representation from the fields of marine biology and biological oceanography, chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, engineering and marine policy. The OSB provides leadership, builds consensus, and gives timely, proactive advice to the nation on ocean science and policy issues. OSB activities fall into three broad categories: promoting the health of ocean sciences in the United States, encouraging the protection and wise use of the ocean and its resources, and applying ocean science to improve national security. A brief description of 1993 activities along with activities planned in 1994 is presented.

  19. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya


    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  20. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.


    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  1. The local mass density (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.


    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  2. General circulation and tracers: studies in the Western Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamous, Daniel


    The main question addressed in this thesis is how to best use the information obtained from hydro-biogeochemical tracer data, to study the oceanic general circulation in the Western Indian Ocean. First, a principal component analysis is performed on a historical data set. The tracers considered are temperature, salinity, density, oxygen, phosphate and silica. The method reduces the amount of data to be considered by a factor of 5. It reproduces correctly and efficiently the large-scale distributions of these oceanic properties. The analysed data are then used in a finite-difference nonlinear inverse model. The grid has a resolution of 4 deg. by 4 deg.. Dynamical as well as tracer conservation constraints are used. These constraints are well satisfied by the obtained solutions but the associated errors remain large. Additional constraints would be required in order to discuss the different solutions in more detail. Finally, a qualitative study is done on the deep distribution of helium-3. The data show several important features linked to hydrothermal input in the Gulf of Aden and on the Central Indian Ridge, and to the origin of water masses and deep circulation characteristics. However additional data are required in order to clarify the distribution of this tracer in other key areas. (author) [fr

  3. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections


    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor


    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have...

  4. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.


    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  5. Connection between Ocean Acidification and Sound Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gazioğlu


    Full Text Available Ocean Ambient Noise (OAN results from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Varied noise sources are dominant in low (LFB: 10 to 500 Hz, medium (MFB: 500 Hz to 25 kHz and high (HFB:>25 kHz frequency bands. Mostly, LFB is dominated by anthropogenic sources. MFB that cannot spread over long ranges of sound sources contribute to the OAN. Ocean is an exceptionally noisy place. Ocean acidification (OAc from rising Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels will result in decreased sound absorption and therefore, amplified levels of OAN. Carbon dioxide spewed into the atmosphere by burned fossil-fuel which dissolves in the seawater causes more acidic condition in oceans which has strong connection between chemical oceanography and sound propagation. As the ocean becomes more acidic, sound absorption at LFB decreases and acidic oceans would result in significant decreases in ocean sound absorption. In the recent years, the acoustic environment of oceans has reacted to transformations in both natural and anthropogenic impacts. Greenhouse gases concentrations, especially CO2 , rises in atmosphere due to industrial revolution. CO2 dissolved in the seawaters deposited in two major forms (carbonate and bicarbonate, which both lead to decrease pH of surface waters. Over the last 400 million years, pH of oceans has been stable around 8.2 globally. Latest investigations suggest that global pH is around 8.1 globally and various general oceanic circulation models (GOCM calculate that, emissions could reduce ocean pH by a degree between 0.4 units (according to moderate approach and 0.7 units (according to an aggressive one by the end of this century. This article discusses the CO2 considerations both in the atmosphere and hydrosphere which are directly related with seawater pH and oceans noise levels.

  6. Steering the Global Partnership for Oceans


    Joshua Abbott; James L. Anderson; Liam Campling; Rögnvaldur Hannesson; Elizabeth Havice; M. Susan Lozier; Martin D. Smith; Michael J. Wilberg


    The Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) is an alliance of governments, private firms, international organizations, and civil society groups that aims to promote ocean health while contributing to human well-being. A Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) was commissioned to develop guiding principles for GPO investments. Here we offer commentary on the BRP report from scholars in multiple disciplines that study the oceans: environmental economics, environmental politics, fisheries science, physical oceanogr...

  7. Geobiological Responses to Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Potts, D. C.


    During 240Ma of evolution, scleractinian corals survived major changes in ocean chemistry, yet recent concerns with rapid acidification after ca. 40Ma of almost constant oceanic pH have tended to distract attention from natural pH variation in coastal waters, where most corals and reefs occur. Unaltered skeletal environmental proxies reflect conditions experienced by individual organisms, with any variation on micro- habitat and micro-time scales appropriate for that individual's ecology, behavior and physiology, but proxy interpretation usually extrapolates to larger spatial (habitat, region to global) and temporal (seasonal, annual, interannual) scales. Therefore, predicting consequences of acidification for both corals and reefs requires greater understanding of: 1. Many potential indirect consequences of pH change that may affect calcification and/or carbonate accretion: e.g. an individual's developmental rates, growth, final size, general physiology and reproductive success; its population's distribution and abundance, symbionts, food availability, predators and pathogens; and its community and ecosystem services. 2. Potentially diverse responses to declining pH, ranging from non-evolutionary, rapid physiological changes (acclimation) or long term (seasonal to interannual) plasticity (acclimatization) of individuals, through genetic adaptation in local populations, and up to directional changes in species" characteristics and/or radiations/extinctions. 3. The evolutionary and environmental history of an organism's lineage, its ecological (own lifetime) exposure to environmental variation, and "pre-adaptation" via other factors acting on correlated characters.

  8. Book review: Extreme ocean waves (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.


    “Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  9. Ocean modeling on unstructured meshes (United States)

    Danilov, S.


    Unstructured meshes are common in coastal modeling, but still rarely used for modeling the large-scale ocean circulation. Existing and new projects aim at changing this situation by proposing models enabling a regional focus (multiresolution) in global setups, without nesting and open boundaries. Among them, finite-volume models using the C-grid discretization on Voronoi-centroidal meshes or cell-vertex quasi-B-grid discretization on triangular meshes work well and offer the multiresolution functionality at a price of being 2 to 4 times slower per degree of freedom than structured-mesh models. This is already sufficient for many practical tasks and will be further improved as the number of vertical layers is increased. Approaches based on the finite-element method, both used or proposed, are as a rule slower at present. Most of staggered discretizations on triangular or Voronoi meshes allow spurious modes which are difficult to filter on unstructured meshes. The ongoing research seeks how to handle them and explores new approaches where such modes are absent. Issues of numerical efficiency and accurate transport schemes are still important, and the question on parameterizations for multiresolution meshes is hardly explored at all. The review summarizes recent developments the main practical result of which is the emergence of multiresolution models for simulating large-scale ocean circulation.

  10. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.


    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  11. Addressing Geohazards Through Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Shipp


    Full Text Available Natural geohazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and volcanic collapse, are of immediate societal concern. In an oceanic setting (Fig. 1, all are capable of generating tsunami that threaten coastal zones at distances of many thousands of kilometers. This power and its effects were forcefully shown by the giant earthquake (Mw 9.2 and tsunami of 26 December 2004 off the coast of northern Sumatra. Smaller magnitude submarine earthquakes andlandslides occur with shorter recurrence intervals and the capability of tsunami generation, creating hazards for local coastal communities as well as for offshore industry and infrastructure. At the other end of the scale, the geologic record suggests that less common, large-volume volcanic collapses and extraterrestrial meteorite and comet impacts in ocean basins have the potential to initiate tsunami ofextraordinary power that can threaten huge sections of coastlines with growing populations. These events also disperse enormous volumes of ash, steam, and ejecta into the atmosphere, with short- and long-term consequences, including climate change. All of these processes, which have operated throughout the Earth’s history, are instrumental in shaping the Earth system today. However, they are characteristically difficult to predict, and viable risk assessmentand hazard mitigation depend on a clearer understanding of the causes, distributions, and consequences of such natural events.

  12. 500 kyr of Indian Ocean Walker Circulation Variability Using Foraminiferal Mg/Ca and Stable Isotopes (United States)

    Groeneveld, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Pätzold, J.


    The tropical Indian Ocean is a key location for paleoclimate research affected by different oceanographic and atmospheric processes. Annual climate variations are strongly controlled by the Indian and Asian Monsoon characterized by bi-annually reversing trade winds. Inter-annual climate variations in the Walker circulation are caused by the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulting in either heavy flooding or severe droughts like for example the famine of 2011 in eastern Africa. Oceanographically the tropical western Indian Ocean receives water masses from the Indonesian Gateway area, sub-Antarctic waters that upwell south of the equator, and the outflow waters from the highly saline Red Sea. On the other hand, the tropical western Indian Ocean is a major source for providing water masses to the Agulhas Current system. Although the eastern Indian Ocean has been studied extensively, the tropical western Indian Ocean is still lacking in high quality climate-archives that have the potential to provide important information to understand how the ocean and atmospheric zonal circulation have changed in the past, and possibly will change in the future. Until now there were no long sediment cores available covering several glacial-interglacial cycles in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Core GeoB 12613-1, recovered during RV Meteor Cruise M75/2 east of the island of Pemba off Tanzania, provides an open-ocean core with well-preserved sediments covering the last five glacial-interglacial cycles ( 500 kyr). Mg/Ca and stable isotopes on both surface- and thermocline dwelling foraminifera have been performed to test how changes in sea water temperatures and relative sea water salinity were coupled on orbital time scales. The results are compared with similar records generated for the tropical eastern Indian Ocean in core SO139-74KL off Sumatra. Water column stratification on both sides of the Indian Ocean and the cross-basin gradients in sea water

  13. Ocean impact on Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Mayer, Christoph


    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers around Greenland. The largest of three outlet glaciers draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier (also referred to as 79 North Glacier). Historic observations showed that warm waters of Atlantic origin are present in the subglacial cavity below the 80 km long floating ice tongue of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and cause strong basal melt at the grounding line, but to date it has been unknown how those warm water enter the cavity. In order to understand how Atlantic origin waters carry heat into the subglacial cavity beneath Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, we performed bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations in the vicinity of the main glacier calving front aboard RV Polarstern in summer 2016. The bathymetric multibeam data shows a 500 m deep and 2 km narrow passage downstream of a 310 m deep sill. This turned out to be the only location deep enough for an exchange of Atlantic waters between the glacier cavity and the continental shelf. Hydrographic and velocity measurements revealed a density driven plume in the vicinity of the glacier calving front causing a rapid flow of waters of Atlantic origin warmer 1°C into the subglacial cavity through the 500 m deep passage. In addition, glacially modified waters flow out of the glacier cavity below the 80 m deep ice base. In the vicinity of the glacier, the glacially modified waters form a distinct mixed layer situated above the Atlantic waters and below the ambient Polar water. At greater distances from the glacier this layer is eroded by lateral mixing with ambient water. Based on our observations we will present an estimate of the ocean heat transport into the subglacial cavity. In comparison with historic observations we find an increase in Atlantic water temperatures throughout the last 20 years. The resulting

  14. Hypoxia by degrees: Establishing definitions for a changing ocean (United States)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.


    The marked increase in occurrences of low oxygen events on continental shelves coupled with observed expansion of low oxygen regions of the ocean has drawn significant scientific and public attention. With this has come the need for the establishment of better definitions for widely used terms such as "hypoxia" and "dead zones". Ocean chemists and physicists use concentration units such as μmolO2/kg for reporting since these units are independent of temperature, salinity and pressure and are required for mass balances and for numerical models of ocean transport. Much of the reporting of dead zone occurrences is in volumetric concentration units of mlO 2/l or mgO 2/l for historical reasons. And direct measurements of the physiological state of marine animals require reporting of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2) in matm or kPa since this provides the thermodynamic driving force for molecular transfer through tissue. This necessarily incorporates temperature and salinity terms and thus accommodates changes driven by climate warming and the influence of the very large temperature range around the world where oxygen limiting values are reported. Here we examine the various definitions used and boundaries set and place them within a common framework. We examine the large scale ocean pO 2 fields required for pairing with pCO 2 data for examination of the combined impacts of ocean acidification and global warming. The term "dead zones", which recently has received considerable attention in both the scientific literature and the press, usually describes shallow, coastal regions of low oxygen caused either by coastal eutrophication and organic matter decomposition or by upwelling of low oxygen waters. While we make clear that bathyal low oxygen waters should not be confused with shallow-water "dead zones", as deep water species are well adapted, we show that those waters represent a global vast reservoir of low oxygen water which can readily be entrained in upwelling

  15. Slush Fund: Modeling the Multiphase Physics of Oceanic Ices (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.


    The prevalence of ice interacting with an ocean, both on Earth and throughout the solar system, and its crucial role as the mediator of exchange between the hydrosphere below and atmosphere above, have made quantifying the thermodynamic, chemical, and physical properties of the ice highly desirable. While direct observations of these quantities exist, their scarcity increases with the difficulty of obtainment; the basal surfaces of terrestrial ice shelves remain largely unexplored and the icy interiors of moons like Europa and Enceladus have never been directly observed. Our understanding of these entities thus relies on numerical simulation, and the efficacy of their incorporation into larger systems models is dependent on the accuracy of these initial simulations. One characteristic of seawater, likely shared by the oceans of icy moons, is that it is a solution. As such, when it is frozen a majority of the solute is rejected from the forming ice, concentrating in interstitial pockets and channels, producing a two-component reactive porous media known as a mushy layer. The multiphase nature of this layer affects the evolution and dynamics of the overlying ice mass. Additionally ice can form in the water column and accrete onto the basal surface of these ice masses via buoyancy driven sedimentation as frazil or platelet ice. Numerical models hoping to accurately represent ice-ocean interactions should include the multiphase behavior of these two phenomena. While models of sea ice have begun to incorporate multiphase physics into their capabilities, no models of ice shelves/shells explicitly account for the two-phase behavior of the ice-ocean interface. Here we present a 1D multiphase model of floating oceanic ice that includes parameterizations of both density driven advection within the `mushy layer' and buoyancy driven sedimentation. The model is validated against contemporary sea ice models and observational data. Environmental stresses such as supercooling and

  16. Toward a Sociology of Oceans. (United States)

    Hannigan, John


    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  17. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate. (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H


    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  18. Climate change impact on future ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben


    Full text: Elevated atmospheric C02 levels and associated uptake by the ocean is changing its carbon chemistry, leading to an acidification. The implications of future ocean acidification on the marine ecosystem are unclear but seemingly detrimental particularly to those organisms and phytoplankton that secrete calcium carbonate (like corals). Here we present new results from the Australian CSIRO General Circulation Model that predicts the changing nature of oceanic carbon chemistry in response to future climate change feedbacks (circulation, temperature and biological). We will discuss the implications of future ocean acidification and the potential implications on Australia's marine ecosystems

  19. Ocean images in music compositions and folksongs (United States)

    Liu, C. M.


    In general, ocean study usually ranges from physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine biology, marine geology, and other related fields. In addition to pure scientific fields, ocean phenomenon influence not only human mood but also the shaping of local cultures. In this paper, we present some ocean images and concepts appeared in music compositions and folksongs to show the mixing, influence and interaction between them. This may give a novel way not for science teachers but also music teachers to deliver the knowledge of ocean science in classes.

  20. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation. (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E


    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.