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Sample records for non-thermally activated athermal

  1. Non-thermally activated chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.

    1987-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: state-of-the art of non-thermally activated chemical processes; basic phenomena in non-thermal chemistry including mechanochemistry, photochemistry, laser chemistry, electrochemistry, photo-electro chemistry, high-field chemistry, magneto chemistry, plasma chemistry, radiation chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, and positronium and muonium chemistry; elementary processes in non-thermal chemistry including nuclear chemistry, interactions of electromagnetic radiations, electrons and heavy particles with matter, ionic elementary processes, elementary processes with excited species, radicalic elementary processes, and energy-induced elementary processes on surfaces and interfaces; and comparative considerations. An appendix with historical data and a subject index is given. 44 figs., 41 tabs., and 544 refs

  2. On the interpretation of differential scanning calorimetry results for thermoelastic martensitic transformations: Athermal versus thermally activated kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Humbeeck, J.; Planes, A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimentally, two distinct classes of martensitic transformations are considered: athermal and isothermal. In the former class, on cooling, at some well-defined start temperature (M s ), isolated small regions of the martensitic product begin to appear in the parent phase. The transformation at any temperature appears to be instantaneous in practical time scales, and the amount of transformed material (x) does not depend on time, i.e., it increases at each step of lowering temperature. The transition is not completed until the temperature is lowered below M f (martensite finish temperature). The transformation temperatures are only determined by chemical (composition and degree of order) and microstructural factors. The external controlling parameter (T or applied stress) determines the free energy difference between the high and the low temperature phases, which provides the driving force for the transition. In the development of athermal martensite activation kinetics is secondary. Athermal martensite, as observed in the well known shape memory alloys Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ni-Ti, cannot be attributed to a thermally activated mechanism for which kinetics are generally described by the Arrhenius rate equation. However, the latter has been applied by Lipe and Morris to results for the Martensitic Transformation of Cu-Al-Ni-B-Mn obtained by conventional Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It is the concern of the authors of this letter to point out the incongruences arising from the analysis of calorimetric results, corresponding to forward and reverse thermoelastic martensitic transformations, in terms of standard kinetic analysis based on the Arrhenius rate equation

  3. Improved models for the prediction of activity coefficients in nearly athermal mixtures: Part I. Empirical modifications of free-volume models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Coutsikos, Philipos; Tassios, Dimitrios

    1994-01-01

    Mixtures containing exclusively normal, branched and cyclic alkanes, as well as saturated hydrocarbon polymers (e.g. poly(ethylene) and poly(isobutylene)), are known to exhibit almost athermal behavior. Several new activity coefficient models containing both combinatorial and free-volume contribu......Mixtures containing exclusively normal, branched and cyclic alkanes, as well as saturated hydrocarbon polymers (e.g. poly(ethylene) and poly(isobutylene)), are known to exhibit almost athermal behavior. Several new activity coefficient models containing both combinatorial and free...

  4. Evaluation of the differential energy distribution of systems of non-thermally activated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A non-thermally activated molecule may undergo pressure dependent deactivation or energy dependent decomposition. It should be possible to use the pressure dependent stabilization/decomposition yields to determine the energy distribution in non-thermal systems. The numerical technique of regularization has been applied to this chemical problem to evaluate this distribution. The resulting method has been tested with a number of simulated distributions and kinetic models. Application was then made to several real chemical systems to determine the energy distribution resulting from the primary excitation process. Testing showed the method to be quite effective in reproducing input distributions from simulated data in all test cases. The effect of experimental error proved to be negligible when the error-filled data were first smoothed with a parabolic spline. This method has been applied to three different hot atom activated systems. Application to 18 F-for-F substituted CH 3 CF 3 generated a broad distribution extending from 62 to 318 kcal/mol, with a median energy of 138 kcal/mol. The shape of this distribution (and those from the other applications) indicated the involvement of two mechanisms in the excitation process. Analysis of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 F system showed a more narrow distribution (56-218 kcal/mol) with a median energy of 79.8 kcal/mol. The distribution of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 Cl system, extending from 54.5 to 199 kcal/mol was seen to be quite similar. It was concluded that this method is a valid approach to evaluating differential energy distributions in non-thermal systems, specifically those activated by hot atom substitution

  5. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  6. Comments on the interpretation of differential scanning calorimetry results for thermoelastic martensitic transformations: Athermal versus thermally activated kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.; Lipe, T.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article Van Humbeeck and Planes have made a number of criticisms of the authors' recent paper concerning the interpretation of the results obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) from the Martensitic Transformation of Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-B alloys. Although the martensitic transformation of these shape memory alloys is generally classified as athermal, it has been confirmed that the capacity of the alloys to undergo a more complete thermoelastic transformation (i.e. better reversibility of the transformation) increased with the Mn content. This behavior has been explained by interpreting the DSC results obtained during thermal cycling in terms of a thermally activated mechanism controlling the direct and reverse transformations. When the heating rate increases during the reverse transformation the DSC curves shift towards higher temperatures while they shift towards the lower temperatures when the cooling rate was increased during the direct transformation. Since the starting transformation temperatures (As, Ms) do not shift, Van Humbeeck and Planes state that there is no real peak shift and assume that the DCS experiments were carried out without taking into account the thermal lag effect between sample and cell. On the following line they deduce a time constant, τ, of 60 seconds because the peak maximum shifts. In fact the assumption made by Van Humbeeck and Planes is false

  7. Non-thermal hydrogen plasma processing effectively increases the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Yulong; Zhu, Zhongjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Graphene-based materials (GMs) are promising antibacterial agents which provide an alternative route to treat pathogenic bacteria with resistance to conventional antibiotics. To further improve their antibacterial activity, many methods have been developed to functionalize the GMs with chemicals. However, the application of additional chemicals may pose potential risks to the environment and human being. Herein, a radio-frequency-driven inductively coupled non-thermal hydrogen plasma was used to treat and reduce graphene oxide (GO) without using any other chemicals, and we found that the plasma-reduced GO (prGO) is with significantly higher bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the increased antibacterial activity of prGO is due to that plasma processing breaks down the GO sheets into smaller layers with more rough surface defects, which can thus induce more destructive membrane damages to the bacteria. This work sets another good example, showing that plasma processing is a green and low-cost alternative for GM modification for biomedical applications.

  8. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  9. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  10. Non-thermal Plasma Activates Human Keratinocytes by Stimulation of Antioxidant and Phase II Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anke; Dietrich, Stephan; Steuer, Anna; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Masur, Kai; Wende, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma provides a novel therapeutic opportunity to control redox-based processes, e.g. wound healing, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. By spatial and time-resolved delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, it allows stimulation or inhibition of cellular processes in biological systems. Our data show that both gene and protein expression is highly affected by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) and phase II enzyme pathway components were found to act as key controllers orchestrating the cellular response in keratinocytes. Additionally, glutathione metabolism, which is a marker for NRF2-related signaling events, was affected. Among the most robustly increased genes and proteins, heme oxygenase 1, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1, and growth factors were found. The roles of NRF2 targets, investigated by siRNA silencing, revealed that NRF2 acts as an important switch for sensing oxidative stress events. Moreover, the influence of non-thermal plasma on the NRF2 pathway prepares cells against exogenic noxae and increases their resilience against oxidative species. Via paracrine mechanisms, distant cells benefit from cell-cell communication. The finding that non-thermal plasma triggers hormesis-like processes in keratinocytes facilitates the understanding of plasma-tissue interaction and its clinical application. PMID:25589789

  11. Advanced Athermal Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed innovative athermal telescope design uses advanced lightweight and high-stiffness material of Beryllium-Aluminum (Be-38Al). Peregrine's expertise with...

  12. Athermal kinetics in low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Jorge A Vega; Valencia Morales, Eduardo; Villar Cociña, Ernesto; Hernández Ruiz, Jesús; Donis, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Athermic analyses for the kinetic study of the reactions in the solid state are preferred because they consume much less experimental work time than the isothermal tests, and lead to more accurate calculations of the energies of activation of reactions that have occurred. In the present work are required conditions where you can apply the equation of speed of an athermal reaction in a low alloy in solid steel. From records of steel (AISI 1050) dilatometric triples were calculated kinetics (E, Ko, n) that characterize the reactions that occurred during the tempering of samples using different methods of iso conversion, one of which is a new modification of the method of Friedman. Also, has shown that during the formation of carbide Epsilon in the first stage of the tempering has occurred a saturation of sites, which validates the use of some methods. Finally, the orders of the reactions occurred during tempering of steel studied treatment are calculated.

  13. Athermal alterations in the structure in the canalicular membrane and ATPase activity induced by thermal levels of microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, A.M.; Neubauer, C.F.; Timm, R.; Neirenberg, J.; Lange, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were exposed 30 min/day for 4 days to thermogenic levels (rectal temperature increase of 2.2 degrees C) of microwave radiation [2.45 GHz, 80 mW/cm 2 , continuous-wave mode (CW)] or to a radiant heat source resulting in an equivalent increase in body temperature of 2.2 degrees C. On the fifth day the animals were sacrificed and their livers removed. The canalicular membranes were isolated and evaluated for adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity, total fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity characteristics. Mg ++ -ATPase activity (V max ) decreased by 48.5% in the group exposed to microwave radiation, with no significant change in the group exposed to radiant heat. The decrease in Mg ++ -ATPase was partially compensated by a concomitant increase in Na + /K + -ATPase activity (170% increase in V max over control) in animals exposed to microwave radiation, while no change occurred in the group exposed to radiant heat. This alteration in ATPase activity in the group exposed to microwave radiation is associated with a large decrease in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the group exposed to radiant heat had an increase in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. The most dramatic changes were found in the levels of arachidonic acid. Finally, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin label technique used to measure the fluidity of the canalicular membranes of the animals in the three groups (sham, microwave radiation and radiant heat) indicated that the results were different in the three groups, reflecting the changes found in their fatty acid composition. The physiological response to open-quotes equivalentclose quotes thermal loads in rats is expressed differently for different types of energy sources. Possible mechanisms producing these divergent thermogenic responses are discussed. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Thermal and athermal crackling noise in ferroelastic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z; Salje, E K H; Ding, X; Sun, J

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of ferroelastic microstructures under external shear is determined by large-scale molecular dynamics simulations in two and three dimensions. Ferroelastic pattern formation was found to be almost identical in two and three dimensions, with only the ferroelastic transition temperature changing. The twin patterns generated by shear deformation depend strongly on temperature, with high wall densities nucleating under optimized temperature conditions. The dynamical tweed and mobile kink movement inside the twin walls is continuous and thermally activated at high temperatures, and becomes jerky and athermal at low temperatures. With decreasing temperature, the statistical distributions of dynamical tweed and kinks vary from a Vogel–Fulcher law P(E)   -tilde  exp−(E/(T−T VF )) to an athermal power-law distribution P(E)   -tilde  E −ϵ . During the yield event, the nucleation of needles and kinks is always jerky, and the energy of the jerks is power-law distributed. Low-temperature yield proceeds via one large avalanche. With increasing temperature, the large avalanche is thermally broken up into a multitude of small segments. The power-law exponents reflect the changes in temperature, even in the athermal regime. (fast track communications)

  15. Non-thermal AGN models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, D.L.

    1986-12-01

    The infrared, optical and x-ray continua from radio quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are explained by a compact non-thermal source surrounding a thermal ultraviolet emitter, presumably the accretion disk around a supermassive black hole. The ultraviolet source is observed as the ''big blue bump.'' The flat (..cap alpha.. approx. = .7) hard x-ray spectrum results from the scattering of thermal ultraviolet photons by the flat, low energy end of an electron distribution ''broken'' by Compton losses; the infrared through soft x-ray continuum is the synchrotron radiation of the steep, high energy end of the electron distribution. Quantitative fits to specific AGN result in models which satisfy the variability constraints but require electron (re)acceleration throughout the source. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The influence of non thermal coherent EMR with low intensity and extremely high frequency on total activity and isoenzyme composition of peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, A.V.; Shahinyan, M.A.; Khachatryan, A.V.; Vardevanyan, P.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the influence of non-thermal coherent electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with low intensity and extremely high frequency on intensity of wheat developing germ metabolism has been investigated. Particularly, total activity and isoenzymatic composition of peroxidase of germ cells have been determined during their growth. The role of water in formation of organism response reaction to the external physical field effect has also been investigated. It has been shown, that water appears to be a primary element of extremely high frequency EMR effect on bio system. Extremely high frequency EMR irradiation of germinating seeds and the cultivation of dry seeds and their germs by irradiated water stimulate peroxidase synthesis in germ cells. The redistribution of quantitative composition of peroxidase molecular forms takes place in germ cells effected by EMR with extremely high frequency and low intensity

  17. Athermal and wavelength-trimmable photonic filters based on TiO₂-cladded amorphous-SOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Timo; Moldenhauer, Lennart; Müller, Jörg; Trieu, Hoc Khiem

    2015-07-27

    Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuits suffer from two inevitable issues that boost the overall power consumption. First, fabrication imperfections even on sub-nm scale result in spectral device non-uniformity that require fine-tuning during device operation. Second, the photonic devices need to be actively corrected to compensate thermal drifts. As a result significant amount of power is wasted if no athermal and wavelength-trimmable solutions are utilized. Consequently, in order to minimize the total power requirement of photonic circuits in a passive way, trimming methods are required to correct the device inhomogeneities from manufacturing and athermal solutions are essential to oppose temperature fluctuations of the passive/active components during run-time. We present an approach to fabricate CMOS backend-compatible and athermal passive photonic filters that can be corrected for fabrication inhomogeneities by UV-trimming based on low-loss amorphous-SOI waveguides with TiO2 cladding. The trimming of highly confined 10 μm ring resonators is proven over a free spectral range retaining athermal operation. The athermal functionality of 2nd-order 5 μm add/drop microrings is demonstrated over 40°C covering a broad wavelength interval of 60 nm.

  18. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-20

    Ar/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  19. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying; Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Ar/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  20. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  1. Athermal Photonic Devices and Circuits on a Silicon Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Vivek

    In recent years, silicon based optical interconnects has been pursued as an effective solution that can offer cost, energy, distance and bandwidth density improvements over copper. Monolithic integration of optics and electronics has been enabled by silicon photonic devices that can be fabricated using CMOS technology. However, high levels of device integration result in significant local and global temperature fluctuations that prove problematic for silicon based photonic devices. In particular, high temperature dependence of Si refractive index (thermo-optic (TO) coefficient) shifts the filter response of resonant devices that limit wavelength resolution in various applications. Active thermal compensation using heaters and thermo-electric coolers are the legacy solution for low density integration. However, the required electrical power, device foot print and number of input/output (I/O) lines limit the integration density. We present a passive approach to an athermal design that involves compensation of positive TO effects from a silicon core by negative TO effects of the polymer cladding. In addition, the design rule involves engineering the waveguide core geometry depending on the resonance wavelength under consideration to ensure desired amount of light in the polymer. We develop exact design requirements for a TO peak stability of 0 pm/K and present prototype performance of 0.5 pm/K. We explore the material design space through initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of 2 polymer cladding choices. We study the effect of cross-linking on the optical properties of a polymer and establish the superior performance of the co-polymer cladding compared to the homo-polymer. Integration of polymer clad devices in an electronic-photonic architecture requires the possibility of multi-layer stacking capability. We use a low temperature, high density plasma chemical vapor deposition of SiO2/SiN x to hermetically seal the athermal. Further, we employ visible light for

  2. Design of a compact athermalized infrared seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-jia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    In order to meet the application requirement of a certain long wavelength infrared (LWIR) seeker, a small volume, light weight and passively athermalized infrared (IR) objective is designed in this paper. The two-lens telephoto structure is adopted by merely using aluminum alloy as the housing material. By balancing the thermo-optical coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of materials, an athermalized IR seeker with effective focal length of 90 mm and F number of 1.2 is achieved. The whole optical length is 75 mm, and the weight is only 234 g. The objective can remain fine imaging quality under temperature range from -40 °C to 60 °C, which is beneficial to the lightweight design of IR seekers.

  3. Sedimentation of athermal particles in clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotet, Xavier; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss sedimentation of athermal particles in dense clay suspensions which appear liquid-like to glass-like. These studies are motivated by the physics important to a diverse range of problems including remediation of oil sands after the extraction of hydrocarbons, and formation of filter cakes in bore wells. We approach this problem by first considering collective sedimentation of athermal spherical particles in a viscous liquid in quasi-two dimensional and three dimensional containers. We examine the system using optical and x-ray tomography techniques which gives particle level information besides global information on the evolution of the volume fraction. Unlike sediments in the dilute limit - which can be modeled as isolated particles that sediment with a constant velocity and slow down exponentially as they approach the bottom of the container - we find interaction between the particles through the viscous fluids leads to qualitatively differences. We find significant avalanching behavior and cooperative motion as the grains collectively settle, and non-exponential increase in settling time. We discuss the effect of stirring caused by the sedimenting particles on their viscosity and consequently the sedimentation rates as a function of particle concentration. Supported by Petroleum Research Fund Grant PRF # 54045-ND9.

  4. Strain amplitude-dependent anelasticity in Cu-Ni solid solution due to thermally activated and athermal dislocation-point obstacle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, S.; Gremaud, G.; Benoit, W.; Golyandin, S.; Sapozhnikov, K.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental investigations of the internal friction and the Young's modulus defect in single crystals of Cu-(1.3-7.6) at. % Ni have been performed for 7-300 K over a wide range of oscillatory strain amplitudes. Extensive data have been obtained at a frequency of vibrations around 100 kHz and compared with the results obtained for the same crystals at a frequency of ˜1 kHz. The strain amplitude dependence of the anelastic strain amplitude and the average friction stress acting on a dislocation due to solute atoms are also analyzed. Several stages in the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and the Young's modulus defect are revealed for all of the alloy compositions, at different temperatures and in different frequency ranges. For the 100 kHz frequency, low temperatures and low strain amplitudes (˜10-7-10-5), the amplitude-dependent internal friction and the Young's modulus defect are essentially temperature independent, and are ascribed to a purely hysteretic internal friction component. At higher strain amplitudes, a transition stage and a steep strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and the Young's modulus defect are observed, followed by saturation at the highest strain amplitudes employed. These stages are temperature and frequency dependent and are assumed to be due to thermally activated motion of dislocations. We suggest that the observed regularities in the entire strain amplitude, temperature and frequency ranges correspond to a motion of dislocations in a two-component system of obstacles: weak but long-range ones, due to the elastic interaction of dislocations with solute atoms distributed in the bulk of the crystal; and strong short-range ones, due to the interaction of dislocations with solute atoms distributed close to dislocation glide planes. Based on these assumptions, a qualitative explanation is given for the variety of experimental observations.

  5. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta

    2002-05-01

    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  6. Echoes of the Glass Transition in Athermal Soft Spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter K; Corwin, Eric I

    2017-09-15

    Recent theoretical advances have led to the creation of a unified phase diagram for the thermal glass and athermal jamming transitions. This diagram makes clear that, while related, the mode-coupling-or dynamic-glass transition is distinct from the jamming transition, occurring at a finite temperature and significantly lower density than the jamming transition. Nonetheless, we demonstrate a prejamming transition in athermal frictionless spheres which occurs at the same density as the mode-coupling transition and is marked by percolating clusters of locally rigid particles. At this density in both the thermal and athermal systems, individual motions of an extensive number of particles become constrained, such that only collective motion is possible. This transition, which is well below jamming, exactly matches the definition of collective behavior at the dynamical transition of glasses. Thus, we reveal that the genesis of rigidity in both thermal and athermal systems is governed by the same underlying topological transition in their shared configuration space.

  7. Improved models for the prediction of activity coefficients in nearly athermal mixtures .2. A theoretically-based G(E)-model based on the van der Waals partition function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Georgios, Nikolopoulos; Fredenslund, Aage

    1997-01-01

    of the generalized van der Waals partition function and attempts to account for all non-energetic effects of solutions of both short- and long-chain alkanes, including alkane polymers. Both the free-volume effects and the density-dependent rotational degrees of freedom are considered. The resulting G(E)-model which......, despite its derivation from a partition function resembles the Flory-Huggins formula, is suitable for vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium calculations for nearly athermal polymer solutions as well as for alkane systems. We show that using plausible assumptions for the free-volume and the external...

  8. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  9. Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.

    2012-05-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars induced by collisions with hot atomic oxygen from the Martian corona. To accurately describe the energy transfer in O + H2(v, j) collisions, we performed extensive quantum-mechanical calculations of state-to-state elastic, inelastic, and reactive cross sections. The escape flux of H2 molecules was evaluated using a simplified 1D column model of the Martian atmosphere with realistic densities of atmospheric gases and hot oxygen production rates for low solar activity conditions. An average intensity of the non-thermal escape flux of H2 of 1.9 × 105 cm-2s-1 was obtained considering energetic O atoms produced in dissociative recombinations of O2+ ions. Predicted ro-vibrational distribution of the escaping H2 was found to contain a significant fraction of higher rotational states. While the non-thermal escape rate was found to be lower than Jeans rate for H2 molecules, the non-thermal escape rates of HD and D2 are significantly higher than their respective Jeans rates. The accurate evaluation of the collisional escape flux of H2 and its isotopes is important for understanding non-thermal escape of molecules from Mars, as well as for the formation of hot H2 Martian corona. The described molecular ejection mechanism is general and expected to contribute to atmospheric escape of H2 and other light molecules from planets, satellites, and exoplanetary bodies.

  10. Some perspectives in nuclear astrophysics on non-thermal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author presents and comments his research activities on nuclear phenomena in stellar eruptions (solar eruptions, lithium nucleosynthesis in stellar eruptions), on particle acceleration in shock waves of stellar explosions (diffusive acceleration by shock wave, particle acceleration in symbiotic novae, particle acceleration in radio-detected supernovae), of research on low energy cosmic rays (galactic emission of nuclear gamma rays, non thermal soft X rays as new tracer of accelerated particles), and on the origin of short period radioactivities in the primitive solar system (extinguished radio-activities and formation of the solar system, origin of berylium-10 in the primitive solar system). The author concludes with some perspectives on non thermal phenomena in nuclear astrophysics, and on research and development for the future of medium-energy gamma astronomy [fr

  11. Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, V. B., E-mail: verma@nist.gov; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.

  12. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique

    2016-02-24

    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  13. Athermal design and analysis of glass-plastic hybrid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of security market, the glass-plastic hybrid lens has gradually become a choice for the special requirements like high imaging quality in a wide temperature range and low cost. The reduction of spherical aberration is achieved by using aspherical surface instead of increasing the number of lenses. Obviously, plastic aspherical lens plays a great role in the cost reduction. However, the hybrid lens has a priority issue, which is the large thermal coefficient of expansion of plastic, causing focus shift and seriously affecting the imaging quality, so the hybrid lens is highly sensitive to the change of temperature. To ensure the system operates normally in a wide temperature range, it is necessary to eliminate the influence of temperature on the hybrid lens system. A practical design method named the Athermal Material Map is summarized and verified by an athermal design example according to the design index. It includes the distribution of optical power and selection of glass or plastic. The design result shows that the optical system has excellent imaging quality at a wide temperature range from -20 ° to 70 °. The method of athermal design in this paper has generality which could apply to optical system with plastic aspherical surface.

  14. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  15. Athermal brittle-to-ductile transition in amorphous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchot, Olivier; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    Brittle materials exhibit sharp dynamical fractures when meeting Griffith's criterion, whereas ductile materials blunt a sharp crack by plastic responses. Upon continuous pulling, ductile materials exhibit a necking instability that is dominated by a plastic flow. Usually one discusses the brittle to ductile transition as a function of increasing temperature. We introduce an athermal brittle to ductile transition as a function of the cutoff length of the interparticle potential. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations of the response to pulling the material boundaries at a constant speed we offer an explanation of the onset of ductility via the increase in the density of plastic modes as a function of the potential cutoff length. Finally we can resolve an old riddle: In experiments brittle materials can be strained under grip boundary conditions and exhibit a dynamic crack when cut with a sufficiently long initial slot. Mysteriously, in molecular dynamics simulations it appeared that cracks refused to propagate dynamically under grip boundary conditions, and continuous pulling was necessary to achieve fracture. We argue that this mystery is removed when one understands the distinction between brittle and ductile athermal amorphous materials.

  16. 110 °C range athermalization of wavefront coding infrared imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Shi, Zelin; Chang, Zheng; Liu, Haizheng; Zhao, Yaohong

    2017-09-01

    110 °C range athermalization is significant but difficult for designing infrared imaging systems. Our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system adopts an optical phase mask with less manufacturing errors and a decoding method based on shrinkage function. The qualitative experiments prove that our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has three prominent merits: (1) working well over a temperature range of 110 °C; (2) extending the focal depth up to 15.2 times; (3) achieving a decoded image being approximate to its corresponding in-focus infrared image, with a mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) value greater than 0.85.

  17. Athermalization of resonant optical devices via thermo-mechanical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter; Nielson, Gregory N.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2016-01-19

    A passively athermal photonic system including a photonic circuit having a substrate and an optical cavity defined on the substrate, and passive temperature-responsive provisions for inducing strain in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit to compensate for a thermo-optic effect resulting from a temperature change in the optical cavity of the photonic circuit. Also disclosed is a method of passively compensating for a temperature dependent thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity of a photonic circuit including the step of passively inducing strain in the optical cavity as a function of a temperature change of the optical cavity thereby producing an elasto-optic effect in the optical cavity to compensate for the thermo-optic effect resulting on an optical cavity due to the temperature change.

  18. Athermal design for mid-wave infrared lens with long EFFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Tingwen

    2016-10-01

    When the environment temperature has changed, then each parameter in infrared lens has also changed, thus the image quality became bad, so athermal technology is one of key technology in designing infrared lens. The temperature influence of each parameter in infrared lens is analyzed in the paper. In the paper, an athermal mid-wave infrared optical system with long focal length by Code-v optical design software was presented. The parameters of the athermal infrared system are 4.0 f/number, 704mm effective focal length (EFL) , 1° field of view and 3.7-4.8 μm spectrum region 100% cold shield efficiency. When the spatial frequency is 16lp/mm, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of all the field of view was above 0.5 from the working temperature range -40° to 60°. From the image quality and thermal analysis result, we knew that the lens had good athermal performance.

  19. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  20. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each

  1. On the Non-Thermal Energy Content of Cosmic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Vazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: the budget of non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is not well constrained, owing to the observational and theoretical difficulties in studying these diluted plasmas on large scales; (2 Method: we use recent cosmological simulations with complex physics in order to connect the emergence of non-thermal energy to the underlying evolution of gas and dark matter; (3 Results: the impact of non-thermal energy (e.g., cosmic rays, magnetic fields and turbulent motions is found to increase in the outer region of galaxy clusters. Within numerical and theoretical uncertainties, turbulent motions dominate the budget of non-thermal energy in most of the cosmic volume; (4 Conclusion: assessing the distribution non-thermal energy in galaxy clusters is crucial to perform high-precision cosmology in the future. Constraining the level of non-thermal energy in cluster outskirts will improve our understanding of the acceleration of relativistic particles and of the origin of extragalactic magnetic fields.

  2. Study on the properties of infrared wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huai-yu; Dong, Xiao-tong; Zhu, Meng; Huang, Zhan-hua

    2018-01-01

    Wavefront coding for athermal technique can effectively ensure the stability of the optical system imaging in large temperature range, as well as the advantages of compact structure and low cost. Using simulation method to analyze the properties such as PSF and MTF of wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions has directive function to characterize the working state of non-ideal temperature environment, and can effectively realize the system design indicators as well. In this paper, we utilize the interoperability of data between Solidworks and ZEMAX to simplify the traditional process of structure/thermal/optical integrated analysis. Besides, we design and build the optical model and corresponding mechanical model of the infrared imaging wavefront coding athermal system. The axial and radial temperature gradients of different degrees are applied to the whole system by using SolidWorks software, thus the changes of curvature, refractive index and the distance between the lenses are obtained. Then, we import the deformation model to ZEMAX for ray tracing, and obtain the changes of PSF and MTF in optical system. Finally, we discuss and evaluate the consistency of the PSF (MTF) of the wavefront coding athermal system and the image restorability, which provides the basis and reference for the optimal design of the wavefront coding athermal system. The results show that the adaptability of single material infrared wavefront coding athermal system to axial temperature gradient can reach the upper limit of temperature fluctuation of 60°C, which is much higher than that of radial temperature gradient.

  3. Effective temperature and fluctuation-dissipation theorem in athermal granular systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiong; Hou Mei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The definition and the previous measurements of a dynamics-relevant temperature-like quantity in granular media are reviewed for slow and fast particle systems. Especially, the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in such an athermal system is explored. Experimental evidences for the fluctuation-dissipation theorem relevant effect temperature support the athermal statistical mechanics, which has been widely explored in recent years by physicists. Difficulties encountered in defining temperature or establishing thermodynamics or statistical mechanics in non-equilibrium situations are discussed. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  4. Monitoring non-thermal plasma processes for nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Process characterization tools have played a crucial role in the investigation of dusty plasmas. The presence of dust in certain non-thermal plasma processes was first detected by laser light scattering measurements. Techniques like laser induced particle explosive evaporation and ion mass spectrometry have provided the experimental evidence necessary for the development of the theory of particle nucleation in silane-containing non-thermal plasmas. This review provides first a summary of these early efforts, and then discusses recent investigations using in situ characterization techniques to understand the interaction between nanoparticles and plasmas. The advancement of such monitoring techniques is necessary to fully develop the potential of non-thermal plasmas as unique materials synthesis and processing platforms. At the same time, the strong coupling between materials and plasma properties suggest that it is also necessary to advance techniques for the measurement of plasma properties while in presence of dust. Recent progress in this area will be discussed.

  5. Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, E.; Bailey, N.P.; Dyre, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between the

  6. Applying chemical engineering concepts to non-thermal plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro AFFONSO, NOBREGA; Alain, GAUNAND; Vandad, ROHANI; François, CAUNEAU; Laurent, FULCHERI

    2018-06-01

    Process scale-up remains a considerable challenge for environmental applications of non-thermal plasmas. Undersanding the impact of reactor hydrodynamics in the performance of the process is a key step to overcome this challenge. In this work, we apply chemical engineering concepts to analyse the impact that different non-thermal plasma reactor configurations and regimes, such as laminar or plug flow, may have on the reactor performance. We do this in the particular context of the removal of pollutants by non-thermal plasmas, for which a simplified model is available. We generalise this model to different reactor configurations and, under certain hypotheses, we show that a reactor in the laminar regime may have a behaviour significantly different from one in the plug flow regime, often assumed in the non-thermal plasma literature. On the other hand, we show that a packed-bed reactor behaves very similarly to one in the plug flow regime. Beyond those results, the reader will find in this work a quick introduction to chemical reaction engineering concepts.

  7. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION:

  8. Ultrafast Non-Thermal Electron Dynamics in Single Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov K.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the ultrafast dynamics of non-thermal electron relaxation in graphene upon impulsive excitation. The 10-fs resolution two color pump-probe allows us to unveil the non-equilibrium electron gas decay at early times.

  9. State of the art in medical applications using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Plasma medical science is a novel interdisciplinary field that combines studies on plasma science and medical science, with the anticipation that understanding the scientific principles governing plasma medical science will lead to innovations in the field. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used for medical treatments, such as for cancer, blood coagulation, and wound healing. The interactions that occur between plasma and cells/tissues have been analyzed extensively. Direct and indirect treatment of cells with plasma has broadened the applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in medicine. Examples of indirect treatment include plasma-assisted immune-therapy and plasma-activated medium. Controlling intracellular redox balance may be key in plasma cancer treatment. Animal studies are required to test the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for future clinical applications.

  10. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  11. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  12. Non-thermal leptogenesis after Majoron hilltop inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antusch, Stefan; Marschall, Kenneth

    2018-05-01

    We analyse non-thermal leptogenesis after models of Majoron hilltop inflation, where the scalar field that provides masses for the right-handed neutrinos and sneutrinos via its vacuum expectation value acts as the inflaton. We discuss different realisations of Majoron inflation models with different hilltop shapes and couplings to the right-handed (s)neutrinos. To study the non-thermally produced baryon asymmetry in these models, we numerically solve the relevant Boltzmann equations. In contrast to previous studies, we include the effects from resonant sneutrino particle production during preheating. We find that these effects can result in an enhancement of the produced baryon asymmetry by more than an order of magnitude. This can significantly change the favoured parameter regions of these models.

  13. Non-thermal pressure in the outskirts of Abell 2142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco-Femiano, Roberto; Lapi, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Clumping and turbulence are expected to affect the matter accreted on to the outskirts of galaxy clusters. To determine their impact on the thermodynamic properties of Abell 2142, we perform an analysis of the X-ray temperature data from XMM-Newton via our SuperModel, a state-of-the-art tool for investigating the astrophysics of the intracluster medium already tested on many individual clusters (since Cavaliere, Lapi & Fusco-Femiano 2009). Using the gas density profile corrected for clumpiness derived by Tchernin et al. (2016), we find evidence for the presence of a non-thermal pressure component required to sustain gravity in the cluster outskirts of Abell 2142, that amounts to about 30 per cent of the total pressure at the virial radius. The presence of the non-thermal component implies the gas fraction to be consistent with the universal value at the virial radius and the electron thermal pressure profile to be in good agreement with that inferred from the SZ data. Our results indicate that the presence of gas clumping and of a non-thermal pressure component are both necessary to recover the observed physical properties in the cluster outskirts. Moreover, we stress that an alternative method often exploited in the literature (included Abell 2142) to determine the temperature profile kBT = Pe/ne basing on a combination of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) pressure Pe and of the X-ray electron density ne does not allow us to highlight the presence of non-thermal pressure support in the cluster outskirts.

  14. Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal eDev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

  15. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  16. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  17. Studying the non-thermal plasma jet characteristics and application on bacterial decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rawaf, Ali F.; Fuliful, Fadhil Khaddam; Khalaf, Mohammed K.; Oudah, Husham. K.

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet represents an excellent approach for the decontamination of bacteria. In this paper, we want to improve and characterize a non-thermal plasma jet to employ it in processes of sterilization. The electrical characteristics was studied to describe the discharge of the plasma jet and the development of plasma plume has been characterized as a function of helium flow rate. Optical emission spectroscopy was employed to detect the active species inside the plasma plume. The inactivation efficiency of non-thermal plasma jet was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by measuring the diameter of inhibition zone and the number of surviving cells. The results presented that the plasma plume temperature was lower than 34° C at a flow rate of 4 slm, which will not cause damage to living tissues. The diameter of inhibition zone is directly extended with increased exposure time. We confirmed that the inactivation mechanism was unaffected by UV irradiation. In addition, we concluded that the major reasons for the inactivation process of bacteria is because of the action of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species which formed from ambient air, while the charged particles played a minor role in the inactivation process.

  18. Light higgsino dark matter from non-thermal cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, Luis [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-08

    We study the scenario of higgsino dark matter in the context of a non-standard cosmology with a period of matter domination prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Matter domination changes the dark matter relic abundance if it ends via reheating to a temperature below the higgsino thermal freeze-out temperature. We perform a model independent analysis of the higgsino dark matter production in such scenario. We show that light higgsino-type dark matter is possible for reheating temperatures close to 1 GeV. We study the impact of dark matter indirect detection and collider physics in this context. We show that Fermi-LAT data rule out non-thermal higgsinos with masses below 300 GeV. Future indirect dark matter searches from Fermi-LAT and CTA will be able to cover essentially the full parameter space. Contrary to the thermal case, collider signals from a 100 TeV collider could fully test the non-thermal higgsino scenario. In the second part of the paper we discuss the motivation of such non-thermal cosmology from the perspective of string theory with late-time decaying moduli for both KKLT and LVS moduli stabilisation mechanisms. We finally describe the impact of embedding higgsino dark matter in these scenarios.

  19. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: Scanning electron microscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunov, O.; Churpita, O.; Zablotskii, V.; Jäger, A.; Dejneka, A.; Deyneka, I. G.; Meshkovskii, I. K.; Syková, E.; Kubinová, Š.

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas hold great promise for a variety of biomedical applications. To ensure safe clinical application of plasma, a rigorous analysis of plasma-induced effects on cell functions is required. Yet mechanisms of bacteria deactivation by non-thermal plasma remain largely unknown. We therefore analyzed the influence of low-temperature atmospheric plasma on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Using scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrate that both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains in a minute were completely destroyed by helium plasma. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were not affected by the same treatment. Furthermore, histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin–stained rat skin sections from plasma–treated animals did not reveal any abnormalities in comparison to control ones. We discuss possible physical mechanisms leading to the shred of bacteria under non-thermal plasma irradiation. Our findings disclose how helium plasma destroys bacteria and demonstrates the safe use of plasma treatment for MSCs and skin cells, highlighting the favorability of plasma applications for chronic wound therapy

  20. Disentangling the role of athermal walls on the Knudsen paradox in molecular and granular gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ronak; Alam, Meheboob

    2018-01-01

    The nature of particle-wall interactions is shown to have a profound impact on the well-known "Knudsen paradox" [or the "Knudsen minimum" effect, which refers to the decrease of the mass-flow rate of a gas with increasing Knudsen number Kn, reaching a minimum at Kn˜O (1 ) and increasing logarithmically with Kn as Kn→∞ ] in the acceleration-driven Poiseuille flow of rarefied gases. The nonmonotonic variation of the flow rate with Kn occurs even in a granular or dissipative gas in contact with thermal walls. The latter result is in contradiction with recent work [Alam et al., J. Fluid Mech. 782, 99 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.523] that revealed the absence of the Knudsen minimum in granular Poiseuille flow for which the flow rate was found to decrease at large values of Kn. The above conundrum is resolved by distinguishing between "thermal" and "athermal" walls, and it is shown that, for both molecular and granular gases, the momentum transfer to athermal walls is much different than that to thermal walls which is directly responsible for the anomalous flow-rate variation with Kn in the rarefied regime. In the continuum limit of Kn→0 , the athermal walls are shown to be closely related to "no-flux" ("adiabatic") walls for which the Knudsen minimum does not exist either. A possible characterization of athermal walls in terms of (1) an effective specularity coefficient for the slip velocity and (2) a flux-type boundary condition for granular temperature is suggested based on simulation results.

  1. Kovacs-Like Memory Effect in Athermal Systems: Linear Response Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Carlos; Prados, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We analyse the emergence of Kovacs-like memory effects in athermal systems within the linear response regime. This is done by starting from both the master equation for the probability distribution and the equations for the physically relevant moments. The general results are applied to a general class of models with conserved momentum and non-conserved energy. Our theoretical predictions, obtained within the first Sonine approximation, show an excellent agreement with the numerical results.

  2. Smooth hybrid inflation and non-thermal Type II leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil, Arunansu

    2013-01-01

    We consider a smooth hybrid inflation scenario based on a supersymmetricSU(2) L ⊗ SU(2) R ⊗ U(1) B-L model. The Higgs triplets involved in the model play a key role in inflation as well as in explaining the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. We show that the baryon asymmetry can originate via non-thermal triplet leptogenesis from the decay of SU(2) B-L triplets, whose tiny vacuum expectation values also provide masses for the light neutrinos. (author)

  3. Non-thermal plasma mills bacteria: scanning electron microscopy observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Churpita, Olexandr; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Deyneka, I.G.; Meshkovskii, I.K.; Jäger, Aleš; Syková, Eva; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2015), "053703-1"-"053703-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219; SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * plasma medicine * bacteria * cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  4. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, WeiDong; Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ˜120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas.

  5. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ∼120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas. (paper)

  6. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. The authors discuss in detail their work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. The results suggest that their plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kW and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1,200 liters per minute

  7. Application of non-thermal plasmas to pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Bardsley, J.N.; Vitello, P.A.; Wallman, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma techniques can be used to destroy many types of hazardous molecules. They are particularly efficient when the toxic materials are present in very small concentrations. This paper discusses three particular applications of non-thermal plasmas: (1) decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), (2) removal of trichloroethylene (TCE), and (3) removal of nitric oxides (NO x ) Emphasis is placed on the energy cost for implementing the decomposition or removal of these pollutants. Some of the factors affecting the energy cost are discussed. We discuss in detail our work at LLNL on pulsed plasma processing for the treatment of NO x in diesel engine exhaust. Our results suggest that our plasma reactor can remove up to 70% of NO x with relatively high initial concentrations (up to 500 ppM) at a power consumption cost of 2.5% for an engine with an output of 14 kill and an exhaust gas flow rate of 1200 liters per minute

  8. Paracetamol degradation in aqueous solution by non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloul, Yasmine; Aubry, Olivier; Rabat, Hervé; Colas, Cyril; Maunit, Benoît; Hong, Dunpin

    2017-08-01

    This study deals with paracetamol degradation in water using a non-thermal plasma (NTP) created by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The effects of the NTP operating conditions on the degradation were studied, showing that the treatment efficiency of the process was highly dependent on the electrical parameters and working gas composition in the reactor containing the aqueous solution. A conversion rate higher than 99% was reached with an energy yield of 12 g/kWh. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) measurements showed that the main species produced in water during the process were nitrogen compounds, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  9. Pre-treating water with non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Cho, Daniel J.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention consists of a method of pre-treatment of adulterated water for distillation, including adulterated water produced during hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") of shale rock during natural gas drilling. In particular, the invention is directed to a method of treating adulterated water, said adulterated water having an initial level of bicarbonate ion in a range of about 250 ppm to about 5000 ppm and an initial level of calcium ion in a range of about 500 ppm to about 50,000 ppm, said method comprising contacting the adulterated water with a non-thermal arc discharge plasma to produce plasma treated water having a level of bicarbonate ion of less than about 100 ppm. Optionally, the plasma treated water may be further distilled.

  10. Achromatic triplet and athermalized lens assembly for both midwave and longwave infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei

    2014-02-01

    Analytic solutions for finding the achromatic triplet in the midwave and longwave infrared spectra simultaneously are explored. The relationship between the combination of promising refractive materials and the system's optical power is also formulated. The principles for stabilizing the effective focal length of an air-spaced lens group with respect to temperature are explored, and the thermal properties of the optical component and mechanical elements mutually counterbalanced. An optical design based on these achromatic and athermal theories is demonstrated, and the image quality of the lens assembly seems to approach the diffractive limitation.

  11. Density scaling and quasiuniversality of flow-event statistics for athermal plastic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerner, Edan; Bailey, Nicholas; Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Athermal steady-state plastic flows were simulated for the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones system and its repulsive version in which the sign of the attractive terms is changed to a plus. Properties evaluated include the distributions of energy drops, stress drops, and strain intervals between...... the flow events. We show that simulations at a single density in conjunction with an equilibrium-liquid simulation at the same density allow one to predict the plastic flow-event statistics at other densities. This is done by applying the recently established “hidden scale invariance” of simple liquids...

  12. Athermalization in atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy using matched microstructure coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, H; Finkler, O; Degertekin, F L

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe a method for athermalization in atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy applications using microstructures that thermomechanically match the AFM probes. The method uses a setup where the AFM probe is coupled with the matched structure and the displacements of both structures are read out simultaneously. The matched structure displaces with the AFM probe as temperature changes, thus the force applied to the sample can be kept constant without the need for a separate feedback loop for thermal drift compensation, and the differential signal can be used to cancel the shift in zero-force level of the AFM.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Non-Thermal Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, C.; Krauss, J.; Ertunc, Ö.; Delgado, a.

    2010-09-01

    Food preservation is an important process step in food technology regarding product safety and product quality. Novel preservation techniques are currently developed, that aim at improved sensory and nutritional value but comparable safety than in conventional thermal preservation techniques. These novel non-thermal food preservation techniques are based for example on high pressures up to one GPa or pulsed electric fields. in literature studies the high potential of high pressures (HP) and of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is shown due to their high retention of valuable food components as vitamins and flavour and selective inactivation of spoiling enzymes and microorganisms. for the design of preservation processes based on the non-thermal techniques it is crucial to predict the effect of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on the food components and on the spoiling enzymes and microorganisms locally and time-dependent in the treated product. Homogenous process conditions (especially of temperature fields in HP and PEF processing and of electric fields in PEF) are aimed at to avoid the need of over-processing and the connected quality loss and to minimize safety risks due to under-processing. the present contribution presents numerical simulations of thermofluiddynamical phenomena inside of high pressure autoclaves and pulsed electric field treatment chambers. in PEF processing additionally the electric fields are considered. Implementing kinetics of occurring (bio-) chemical reactions in the numerical simulations of the temperature, flow and electric fields enables the evaluation of the process homogeneity and efficiency connected to different process parameters of the preservation techniques. Suggestions to achieve safe and high quality products are concluded out of the numerical results.

  14. Effects of ultrasound energy density on the non-thermal pasteurization of chocolate milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sara H M C; Silva, Eric Keven; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Moraes, Jeremias; Freitas, Mônica Q; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Meireles, M Angela A; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the emerging high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) processing as a non-thermal alternative to high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST). Chocolate milk beverage (CMB) was subjected to different ultrasound energy densities (0.3-3.0 kJ/cm 3 ), as compared to HTST pasteurization (72 °C/15 s) aimed to verify the effect of the HIUS processing on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the beverage. The application of HIUS at an energy density of 3.0 kJ/cm 3 was able to reduce 3.56 ± 0.02 logarithmic cycles in the total aerobic counts. In addition, the ultrasound energy density affected the physical properties of the beverage as the size distribution of fat globule and rheological behavior, as well as the chemical properties such as antioxidant activity, ACE inhibitory activity, fatty acid profile, and volatile profile. In general, the different energetic densities used as a non-thermal method of pasteurization of CMB were more effective when compared to the conventional pasteurization by HTST, since they improved the microbiological and physicochemical quality, besides preserving the bioactive compounds and the nutritional quality of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutralized solar wind ahead of the Earth's magnetopause as contribution to non-thermal exospheric hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Fahr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In a most recent paper by Qin and Waldrop (2016, it had been found that the scale height of hydrogen in the upper exosphere of the Earth, especially during solar minimum conditions, appears to be surprisingly large. This indicates that during minimum conditions when exobasic temperatures should be small, large exospheric H-scale heights predominate. They thus seem to indicate the presence of a non-thermal hydrogen component in the upper exosphere. In the following parts of the paper we shall investigate what fraction of such expected hot hydrogen atoms could have their origin from protons of the shocked solar wind ahead of the magnetopause converted into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs via charge-exchange processes with normal atmospheric, i.e., exospheric hydrogen atoms that in the first step evaporate from the exobase into the magnetosheath plasma region. We shall show that, dependent on the sunward location of the magnetopause, the density of these types of non-thermal hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs becomes progressively comparable with the density of exobasic hydrogen with increasing altitude. At low exobasic heights, however, their contribution is negligible. At the end of this paper, we finally study the question of whether the H-ENA population could even be understood as a self-consistency phenomenon of the H-ENA population, especially during solar activity minimum conditions, i.e., H-ENAs leaving the exosphere being replaced by H-ENAs injected into the exosphere.

  16. Neutralized solar wind ahead of the Earth's magnetopause as contribution to non-thermal exospheric hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Hans J.; Nass, Uwe; Dutta-Roy, Robindro; Zoennchen, Jochen H.

    2018-03-01

    In a most recent paper by Qin and Waldrop (2016), it had been found that the scale height of hydrogen in the upper exosphere of the Earth, especially during solar minimum conditions, appears to be surprisingly large. This indicates that during minimum conditions when exobasic temperatures should be small, large exospheric H-scale heights predominate. They thus seem to indicate the presence of a non-thermal hydrogen component in the upper exosphere. In the following parts of the paper we shall investigate what fraction of such expected hot hydrogen atoms could have their origin from protons of the shocked solar wind ahead of the magnetopause converted into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) via charge-exchange processes with normal atmospheric, i.e., exospheric hydrogen atoms that in the first step evaporate from the exobase into the magnetosheath plasma region. We shall show that, dependent on the sunward location of the magnetopause, the density of these types of non-thermal hydrogen atoms (H-ENAs) becomes progressively comparable with the density of exobasic hydrogen with increasing altitude. At low exobasic heights, however, their contribution is negligible. At the end of this paper, we finally study the question of whether the H-ENA population could even be understood as a self-consistency phenomenon of the H-ENA population, especially during solar activity minimum conditions, i.e., H-ENAs leaving the exosphere being replaced by H-ENAs injected into the exosphere.

  17. Athermalization of infrared dual field optical system based on wavefront coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiu-sha

    2017-02-01

    Wavefront coding is a technology which combination of the optical design and digital image processing. By inserting a phase mask closed to the pupil plane of the optical system the wavefront of the system is re-modulated. And the depth of focus is extended consequently. In reality the idea is same as the athermalization theory of infrared optical system. In this paper, an uncooled infrared dual field optical system with effective focal as 38mm/19mm, F number as 1.2 of both focal length, operating wavelength varying from 8μm to 12μm was designed. A cubic phase mask was used at the pupil plane to re-modulate the wavefront. Then the performance of the infrared system was simulated with CODEV as the environment temperature varying from -40° to 60°. MTF curve of the optical system with phase mask are compared with the outcome before using phase mask. The result show that wavefront coding technology can make the system not sensitive to thermal defocus, and then realize the athermal design of the infrared optical system.

  18. Aspects of jamming in two-dimensional athermal frictionless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2014-05-07

    In this work we provide an overview of jamming transitions in two dimensional systems focusing on the limit of frictionless particle interactions in the absence of thermal fluctuations. We first discuss jamming in systems with short range repulsive interactions, where the onset of jamming occurs at a critical packing density and where certain quantities show a divergence indicative of critical behavior. We describe how aspects of the dynamics change as the jamming density is approached and how these dynamics can be explored using externally driven probes. Different particle shapes can produce jamming densities much lower than those observed for disk-shaped particles, and we show how jamming exhibits fragility for some shapes while for other shapes this is absent. Next we describe the effects of long range interactions and jamming behavior in systems such as charged colloids, vortices in type-II superconductors, and dislocations. We consider the effect of adding obstacles to frictionless jamming systems and discuss connections between this type of jamming and systems that exhibit depinning transitions. Finally, we discuss open questions such as whether the jamming transition in all these different systems can be described by the same or a small subset of universal behaviors, as well as future directions for studies of jamming transitions in two dimensional systems, such as jamming in self-driven or active matter systems.

  19. Modelling of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission during ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.; Krivenski, V.

    1990-01-01

    The existence of suprathermal electrons during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating experiments in tokamaks is today a well established fact. At low densities the creation of large non-thermal electron tails affects the temperature profile measurements obtained by 2 nd harmonic, X-mode, low-field side, electron cyclotron emission. At higher densities suprathermal electrons can be detected by high-field side emission. In electron cyclotron current drive experiments a high energy suprathermal tail, asymmetric in v, is observed. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions are also typically observed during lower-hybrid current drive experiments. Fast electrons have been observed during ionic heating by neutral beams as well. Two distinct approaches are currently used in the interpretation of the experimental results: simple analytical models which reproduce some of the expected non-Maxwellian characteristics of the electron distribution function are employed to get a qualitative picture of the phenomena; sophisticated numerical Fokker-Planck calculations give the electron distribution function from which the emission spectra are computed. No algorithm is known to solve the inverse problem, i.e. to compute the electron distribution function from the emitted spectra. The proposed methods all relay on the basic assumption that the electron distribution function has a given functional dependence on a limited number of free parameters, which are then 'measured' by best fitting the experimental results. Here we discuss the legitimacy of this procedure. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  20. Non-thermal plasma ethanol reforming in bubbles immersed in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol reforming in non-thermal plasma generated in atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in liquid ethanol/water solution is studied using a self-consistent multi-species fluid model. The influence of the dielectric constant of the liquid on the plasma dynamics and its effect on the generation of active species is analyzed. Several modes of discharge are obtained for large liquid dielectric constant. In these modes, we obtain either an axial streamer or a combination of two simultaneous streamers propagating along the bubble axis and near the liquid wall. The influence of these modes on the production of active species is also studied. The main reactions responsible for the generation of molecular hydrogen and light hydrocarbon species are analyzed. A possible mechanism of hydrogen generation in liquid phase is discussed. (paper)

  1. Identification of near surface events using athermal phonon signals in low temperature Ge bolometers for the EDELWEISS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnieros, S.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Dumoulin, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of a 100 g low temperature Ge detector, allowing identification of surface events down to the energy threshold. The bolometer is fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Analysis of the athermal signals amplitudes allows us to identify and reject all events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes

  2. Identification of near surface events using athermal phonon signals in low temperature Ge bolometers for the EDELWEISS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnieros, S. E-mail: marniero@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Dumoulin, L

    2004-03-11

    We present a study of a 100 g low temperature Ge detector, allowing identification of surface events down to the energy threshold. The bolometer is fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Analysis of the athermal signals amplitudes allows us to identify and reject all events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes.

  3. Artificial vesicles as an animal cell model for the study of biological application of non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, S H; Park, J K; Sung, C; Lee, C B; Uhm, H; Choi, E H; Baik, K Y

    2016-01-01

    Artificial cell-like model systems can provide information which is hard to obtain with real biological cells. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) containing intra-membrane DNA or OH radical-binding molecules are used to visualize the cytolytic activity of OH radicals. Changes in the GUV membrane are observed by microscopy or flow cytometry as performed for animal cells after non-thermal plasma treatment. The experimental data shows that OH radicals can be detected inside the membrane, although the biological effects are not as significant as for H 2 O 2 . This artificial model system can provide a systemic means to elucidate the complex interactions between biological materials and non-thermal plasma. (paper)

  4. Analysis of non-thermal velocities in the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Contesse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe new ground-based spectroscopic observations made using a 40-cm aperture coronagraph over a whole range of radial distances (up to heights of 12' above the limb and along four different heliocentric directions N, E, S and W. The analysis is limited to the study of the brightest forbidden emission line of Fe XIV at 530.3nm, in order to reach the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. To make the results statistically more significant, the extracted parameters are averaged over the whole length of the slit, and measurements are repeated fives times at each position; the corresponding dispersions in the results obtained along the slit are given. Central line profile intensities and full line widths (FWHM are plotted and compared to measurements published by other authors closer to the limb. We found widths and turbulent (non-thermal velocities of significantly higher values above the polar regions, especially when a coronal hole is present along the line of sight. We do not see a definitely decreasing behaviour of widths and turbulent velocities in equatorial directions for larger radial distances, as reported in the literature, although lower values are measured compared to the values in polar regions. The variation in the high corona is rather flat and a correlation diagram indicates that it is different for different regions and different radial distances. This seems to be the first analysis of the profiles of this coronal line, up to large heights above the limb for both equatorial and polar regions.

  5. Non-thermal plasma technology for the development of antimicrobial surfaces: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Anton; Deng, Xiaolong; Xiong, Qing; Cvelbar, U.; DeGeyter, N.; Morent, R.; Leys, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial coatings are in high demand in many fields including the biomaterials and healthcare sectors. Within recent progress in nanoscience and engineering at the nanoscale, preparation of nanocomposite films containing metal nanoparticles (such as silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles) is becoming an important step in manufacturing biomaterials with high antimicrobial activity. Controlled release of antibiotic agents and eliminating free nanoparticles are of equal importance for engineering antimicrobial nanocomposite materials. Compared to traditional chemical ‘wet’ methods, plasma deposition and plasma polymerization are promising approaches for the fabrication of nanocomposite films with the advantages of gas phase dry processes, effective use of chemicals and applicability to various substrates. In this article, we present a short overview of state-of-the-art engineering of antimicrobial materials based on the use of non-thermal plasmas at low and atmospheric pressure.

  6. Removal of dimethyl sulfide by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z S; Li, H Q; He, J C; Ye, Q H; Huang, Q R; Luo, Y W

    2013-10-01

    A bench scale system integrated with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) and a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was investigated. DMS removal efficiency in the integrated system was up to 96%. Bacterial communities in the BTF were assessed by PCR-DGGE, which play the dominant role in the biological processes of metabolism, sulfur oxidation, sulfate-reducing and carbon oxidation. The addition of ozone from NTP made microbial community in BTF more complicated and active for DMS removal. The NTP oxidize DMS to simple compounds such as methanol and carbonyl sulfide; the intermediate organic products and DMS are further oxidized to sulfate, carbon dioxide, water vapors by biological degradation. These results show that NTP-BTF is achievable and open new possibilities for applying the integrated with NTP and BTF to odour gas treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulations of planar non-thermal plasma assisted ignition at atmospheric pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Casey, Tiernan A.; Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Arias, Paul G.; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Im, Hong G.; Chen, Jyh Yuan

    2016-01-01

    neutrals and ions to the non-thermal electrons. A two-temperature plasma mechanism describing gas phase combustion, excitation of neutral species, and high-energy electron kinetics is employed to account for non-thermal effects. Charged species transported

  8. Athermalization and achromatization of visible/SWIR optics using instantaneous Abbe number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    With the move to more and more lightweight and cost-effective design, a move to multiband or multi-spectral optics is required. These systems are becoming more prevalent in the market as new detector technologies have been developed. However, the lens designs are only starting to be considered with the addition of new materials in the MWIR and the LWIR. For the VIS/SWIR region the designs have been possible, but a lack of detector technology has resulted in few designs being considered for actual manufacturing. These designs are also difficult due to changes in the Abbe number in the different wavebands. Where the glass map is robust in the visible region, there exists a lack of crown glasses in the SWIR, and one is left with mostly flint glasses. This proves challenging from a chromatic perspective. The challenge becomes even more difficult if one wants to incorporate athermalization.

  9. Athermal mechanisms of size-dependent crystal flow gleaned from three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Tang, M.; Woodward, C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that micrometer-scale face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals show strong strengthening effects, even at high initial dislocation densities. We use large-scale three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) to explicitly model the deformation behavior of fcc Ni microcrystals in the size range of 0.5-20 μm. This study shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. One mechanism, source-truncation hardening, is especially potent in micrometer-scale volumes. A second mechanism, termed exhaustion hardening, results from a breakdown of the mean-field conditions for forest hardening in small volumes, thus biasing the statistics of ordinary dislocation processes

  10. Spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis in high-scale inflation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.; Takahashi, F.; Yanagida, T.T.; Tokyo Univ.

    2006-11-01

    We argue that a non-thermal leptogenesis occurs spontaneously, without direct couplings of the inflation with right-handed neutrinos, in a wide class of high-scale inflation models such as the chaotic and hybrid inflation. It is only a finite vacuum expectation value of the inflaton, of more precisely, a linear term in the Kaehler potential, that is a prerequisite for the spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis. To exemplify how it works, we show that a chaotic inflation model in supergravity naturally produces a right amount of baryon asymmetry via the spontaneous non-thermal leptogenesis. We also discuss the gravitino production from the inflation. (orig.)

  11. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  12. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  13. A new non-thermal galactic radio source with a possible binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, E.; Reich, W.; Reich, P.; Sofue, Y.; Handa, T.

    1985-01-01

    A galactic object [G18.95-1.1], detected recently in a galactic plane survey, may belong to a new class of non-thermal radio sources that originate in accreting binary systems. The data on integrated flux density spectral index and the polarization, proves the non-thermal nature of the source. The morphology defies any classification as a supernova remnant. The authors suggest that the object is a binary system containing a compact component. (U.K.)

  14. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250–1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  15. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  16. Optimization of Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in an In Vivo Model Organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lee

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma is increasingly being recognized for a wide range of medical and biological applications. However, the effect of non-thermal plasma on physiological functions is not well characterized in in vivo model systems. Here we use a genetically amenable, widely used model system, Drosophila melanogaster, to develop an in vivo system, and investigate the role of non-thermal plasma in blood cell differentiation. Although the blood system in Drosophila is primitive, it is an efficient system with three types of hemocytes, functioning during different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Blood cell differentiation in Drosophila plays an essential role in tissue modeling during embryogenesis, morphogenesis and also in innate immunity. In this study, we optimized distance and frequency for a direct non-thermal plasma application, and standardized doses to treat larvae and adult flies so that there is no effect on the viability, fertility or locomotion of the organism. We discovered that at optimal distance, time and frequency, application of plasma induced blood cell differentiation in the Drosophila larval lymph gland. We articulate that the augmented differentiation could be due to an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS upon non-thermal plasma application. Our studies open avenues to use Drosophila as a model system in plasma medicine to study various genetic disorders and biological processes where non-thermal plasma has a possible therapeutic application.

  17. On the Absence of Non-thermal X-Ray Emission around Runaway O Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that the compressed interstellar medium around runaway O stars can produce high-energy non-thermal diffuse emission, in particular, non-thermal X-ray and γ -ray emission. So far, detection of non-thermal X-ray emission was claimed for only one runaway star, AE Aur. We present a search for non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission from bow shocks using archived XMM-Newton observations for a clean sample of six well-determined runaway O stars. We find that none of these objects present diffuse X-ray emission associated with their bow shocks, similarly to previous X-ray studies toward ζ Oph and BD+43°3654. We carefully investigated multi-wavelength observations of AE Aur and could not confirm previous findings of non-thermal X-rays. We conclude that so far there is no clear evidence of non-thermal extended emission in bow shocks around runaway O stars.

  18. Shear banding, discontinuous shear thickening, and rheological phase transitions in athermally sheared frictionless disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vâgberg, Daniel; Olsson, Peter; Teitel, S.

    2017-05-01

    We report on numerical simulations of simple models of athermal, bidisperse, soft-core, massive disks in two dimensions, as a function of packing fraction ϕ , inelasticity of collisions as measured by a parameter Q , and applied uniform shear strain rate γ ˙. Our particles have contact interactions consisting of normally directed elastic repulsion and viscous dissipation, as well as tangentially directed viscous dissipation, but no interparticle Coulombic friction. Mapping the phase diagram in the (ϕ ,Q ) plane for small γ ˙, we find a sharp first-order rheological phase transition from a region with Bagnoldian rheology to a region with Newtonian rheology, and show that the system is always Newtonian at jamming. We consider the rotational motion of particles and demonstrate the crucial importance that the coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom has on the phase structure at small Q (strongly inelastic collisions). At small Q , we show that, upon increasing γ ˙, the sharp Bagnoldian-to-Newtonian transition becomes a coexistence region of finite width in the (ϕ ,γ ˙) plane, with coexisting Bagnoldian and Newtonian shear bands. Crossing this coexistence region by increasing γ ˙ at fixed ϕ , we find that discontinuous shear thickening can result if γ ˙ is varied too rapidly for the system to relax to the shear-banded steady state corresponding to the instantaneous value of γ ˙.

  19. Study of an athermal quasi static plastic deformation in a 2D granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    In crystalline materials, the plasticity has been well understood in terms of dynamics of dislocation, i.e. flow defects in the crystals where the flow defects can be directly visualized under a microscope. In a contrast, the plasticity in amorphous materials, i.e. glass, is still poorly understood due to the disordered nature of the materials. In this talk, I will discuss the recent results we have obtained in our ongoing research of the plasticity of a 2D glass in the athermal quasi static limit where the 2D glass is made of bi-disperse granular disks with very low friction. Starting from a densely packed homogeneous and isotropic initial state, we apply pure shear deformation to the system. For a sufficiently small strain, the response of the system is linear and elastic like; when the strain is large enough, the plasticity of the system gradually develops and eventually the shear bands are fully developed. In this study, we are particularly interested in how to relate the local plastic deformation to the macroscopic response of the system and also in the development of the shear bands.

  20. Changing the surface properties on naval steel as result of non-thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Sabău, A.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Crețu, M.; Astanei, D.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of corrosion, related to Biofouling formation, is an issue with very high importance in the maritime domain. According to new rules, the paints and all the technologies for the conditioning of naval materials must fulfil more restrictive environmental conditions. In order to solve this issue, different new clean technologies have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-thermal plasmas produced at atmospheric pressure plays a very important role. This study concerns the opportunity of plasma treatment for preparation or conditioning of naval steel OL36 type. The plasma reactors chosen for the experiments can operate at atmospheric pressure and are easy to use in industrial conditions. They are based on electrical discharges GlidArc and Spark, which already proved their efficiency for the surface activation or even for coatings of the surface. The non-thermal character of the plasma is ensured by a gas flow blown through the electrical discharges. One power supply has been used for reactors that provide a 5 kV voltage and a maximum current of 100 mA. The modifications of the surface properties and composition have been studied by XPS technique (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). There were taken into consideration 5 samples: 4 of them undergoing a Mini-torch plasma, a Gliding Spark, a GlidArc with dry air and a GlidArc with CO2, respectively the fifth sample which is the untreated witness. Before the plasma treatment, samples of naval steel were processed in order to obtain mechanical gloss. The time of treatment was chosen to 12 minutes. In the spectroscopic analysis, done on a ULVAC-PHI, Inc. PHI 5000 Versa Probe scanning XPS microprobe, a monocromated Al Kα X-ray source with a spot size of 100 μm2 was used to scan each sample while the photoelectrons were collected at a 45-degree take-off angle. Differences were found between atomic concentrations in each individual case, which proves that the active species produced by each type of plasma affects

  1. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Xiaolong [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China); Zhou Ming Hua [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China); Lei Lecheng [Institute of Environmental Pollution Control Technologies, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: lclei@zju.edu.cn

    2007-03-22

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst (P-25) (50 mg L{sup -1}) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO{sub 2} were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO{sub 2} had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10 x 10{sup -6} to 1.50 x 10{sup -6} M s{sup -1}, the ozone formation rate from 1.99 x 10{sup -8} to 2.35 x 10{sup -8} M s{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}. The introduction of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants.

  2. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiao Long; Zhou, Ming Hua; Lei, Le Cheng

    2007-03-22

    TiO(2) photocatalyst (P-25) (50mgL(-1)) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO(2) were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO(2) had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10x10(-6) to 1.50x10(-6)Ms(-1), the ozone formation rate from 1.99x10(-8) to 2.35x10(-8)Ms(-1), respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO(2). The introduction of TiO(2) photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants.

  3. Improved oxidation of air pollutants in a non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, U.; Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.-D.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of non-thermal plasma (NTP) for the removal of organic air pollutants (especially in low concentrations) is improved by the introduction of ferroelectric and catalytically active materials into the discharge zone of an NTP reactor. Experiments with model systems (various contaminants and packed-bed materials) have shown that such a modification of a homogeneous gas-phase plasma can overcome the most serious restrictions of the NTP technique at its present state of the art: the incomplete total oxidation (i.e. the low selectivity to CO 2 ) and the energetic inefficiency. Placing a ferroelectric packed-bed material in the discharge zone was shown to result in a lowering of the energy input required. The main effects of plasma catalysis enabled by the introduction of a catalytically active material were an enhanced conversion of pollutants and a higher CO 2 selectivity. These improvements are based on the presence of short-lived oxidising species in the inner volume of porous catalysts. Additionally, the formation of a reservoir of adsorbed oxidants in the NTP zone could be shown. The combination of both modifications (ferroelectric packed-bed materials and plasma catalysis) is a promising method to support the NTP-initiated oxidation of air pollutants

  4. Non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaolong; Zhou Ming Hua; Lei Lecheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalyst (P-25) (50 mg L -1 ) was tentatively introduced into pulsed high-voltage discharge process for non-thermal plasma-induced photocatalytic degradation of the representative mode organic pollutant parachlorophenol (4-CP), including other compounds phenol and methyl red in water. The experimental results showed that rate constant of 4-CP degradation, energy efficiency for 4-CP removal and TOC removal with TiO 2 were obviously increased. Pulsed high-voltage discharge process with TiO 2 had a promoted effect for the degradation of these pollutants under a broad range of liquid conductivity. Furthermore, the apparent formation rates of chemically active species (e.g., ozone and hydrogen peroxide) were increased, the hydrogen peroxide formation rate from 1.10 x 10 -6 to 1.50 x 10 -6 M s -1 , the ozone formation rate from 1.99 x 10 -8 to 2.35 x 10 -8 M s -1 , respectively. In addition, this process had no influence on the photocatalytic properties of TiO 2 . The introduction of TiO 2 photocatalyst into pulsed discharge plasma process in the utilizing of ultraviolet radiation and electric field in pulsed discharge plasma process enhanced the yields of chemically active species, which were available for highly efficient removal and mineralization of organic pollutants

  5. Effect of indirect non-thermal plasma on particle size distribution and composition of diesel engine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linbo, GU; Yixi, CAI; Yunxi, SHI; Jing, WANG; Xiaoyu, PU; Jing, TIAN; Runlin, FAN

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of the gas source flow rate on the actual diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM), a test bench for diesel engine exhaust purification was constructed, using indirect non-thermal plasma technology. The effects of different gas source flow rates on the quantity concentration, composition, and apparent activation energy of PM were investigated, using an engine exhaust particle sizer and a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results show that when the gas source flow rate was large, not only the maximum peak quantity concentrations of particles had a large drop, but also the peak quantity concentrations shifted to smaller particle sizes from 100 nm to 80 nm. When the gas source flow rate was 10 L min-1, the total quantity concentration greatly decreased where the removal rate of particles was 79.2%, and the variation of the different mode particle proportion was obvious. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) improved the oxidation ability of volatile matter as well as that of solid carbon. However, the NTP gas source rate had little effects on oxidation activity of volatile matter, while it strongly influenced the oxidation activity of solid carbon. Considering the quantity concentration and oxidation activity of particles, a gas source flow rate of 10 L min-1 was more appropriate for the purification of particles.

  6. IRIS , Hinode , SDO , and RHESSI Observations of a White Light Flare Produced Directly by Non-thermal Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun [Hinode Science Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Imada, Shinsuke [Institute for Space–Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Watanabe, Kyoko [National Defense Academy of Japan, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka 239-8686 (Japan); Bamba, Yumi [Hinode team, ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Brooks, David H., E-mail: ksun.lee@nao.ac.jp [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    An X1.6 flare occurred in active region AR 12192 on 2014 October 22 at 14:02 UT and was observed by Hinode , IRIS , SDO , and RHESSI . We analyze a bright kernel that produces a white light (WL) flare with continuum enhancement and a hard X-ray (HXR) peak. Taking advantage of the spectroscopic observations of IRIS and Hinode /EIS, we measure the temporal variation of the plasma properties in the bright kernel in the chromosphere and corona. We find that explosive evaporation was observed when the WL emission occurred, even though the intensity enhancement in hotter lines is quite weak. The temporal correlation of the WL emission, HXR peak, and evaporation flows indicates that the WL emission was produced by accelerated electrons. To understand the WL emission process, we calculated the energy flux deposited by non-thermal electrons (observed by RHESSI ) and compared it to the dissipated energy estimated from a chromospheric line (Mg ii triplet) observed by IRIS . The deposited energy flux from the non-thermal electrons is about (3–7.7) × 10{sup 10} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} for a given low-energy cutoff of 30–40 keV, assuming the thick-target model. The energy flux estimated from the changes in temperature in the chromosphere measured using the Mg ii subordinate line is about (4.6–6.7) × 10{sup 9} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}: ∼6%–22% of the deposited energy. This comparison of estimated energy fluxes implies that the continuum enhancement was directly produced by the non-thermal electrons.

  7. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  8. Athermal metal optics made of nickel plated AlSi40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Kinast, Jan; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Seifert, Walter; Beier, Matthias; Scheiding, Sebastian; Peschel, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Metal optics is an inherent part of space instrumentation for years. Diamond turned aluminum (Al6061) mirrors are widely used for application in the mid- and near-infrared (mid-IR and NIR, respectively) spectral range. Aluminum mirrors plated with electroless nickel (NiP) expand the field of application towards multispectral operating instruments down to the ultraviolet wavelengths. Due to the significant mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between aluminum and NiP, however, this advantage occurs at the cost of bimetallic bending. Challenging requirements can be met by using bare beryllium or aluminum beryllium composites (AlBeMet) as a CTE tailored substrate material and amorphous NiP as polishable layer. For health reasons, the use of beryllium causes complications in the process chain. Thus, the beryllium approach is subjected to specific applications only. Metal optics has proven to be advantageous in respect of using conventional CNC and ultra-precision fabrication methods to realize complex and light-weighted instrument structures. Moreover, the mirror designs can be effectively optimized for a deterministic system assembly and optimization. Limitations in terms of dimensional stability over temperature and time are mainly given by the inherent material properties (figures of merit) of the substrate material in interaction with the polishing layer. To find an optimal compromise, a thermal matched aluminum-silicon alloy (silicon contents ≍ 40 wt%) plated with NiP (AlSi40/NiP ) was investigated in a joined project of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy MPIA and the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF. The main tasks of the project were the minimization of the bimetallic bending, the development of reliable stabilizing and aging procedures, and the establishment of a proven fabrication method. This paper describes fundamental results regarding the optimization of the athermal material combination

  9. RADYN Simulations of Non-thermal and Thermal Models of Ellerman Bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-08-20

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are brightenings in the H α line wings that are believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere. To study the response and evolution of the chromospheric line profiles, we perform radiative hydrodynamic simulations of EBs using both non-thermal and thermal models. Overall, these models can generate line profiles that are similar to observations. However, in non-thermal models we find dimming in the H α line wings and continuum when the heating begins, while for the thermal models dimming occurs only in the H α line core, and with a longer lifetime. This difference in line profiles can be used to determine whether an EB is dominated by non-thermal heating or thermal heating. In our simulations, if a higher heating rate is applied, then the H α line will be unrealistically strong and there are still no clear UV burst signatures.

  10. Advanced oxidation technology for H2S odor gas using non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, ZHU; Ruonan, WANG; Wenjing, BIAN; Yang, CHEN; Weidong, JING

    2018-05-01

    Non-thermal plasma technology is a new type of odor treatment processing. We deal with H2S from waste gas emission using non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge. On the basis of two criteria, removal efficiency and absolute removal amount, we deeply investigate the changes in electrical parameters and process parameters, and the reaction process of the influence of ozone on H2S gas removal. The experimental results show that H2S removal efficiency is proportional to the voltage, frequency, power, residence time and energy efficiency, while it is inversely proportional to the initial concentration of H2S gas, and ozone concentration. This study lays the foundations of non-thermal plasma technology for further commercial application.

  11. Ion Streaming Instabilities in Pair Ion Plasma and Localized Structure with Non-Thermal Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir Khattak, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pair ion plasma with a fraction of non-thermal electrons is considered. We investigate the effects of the streaming motion of ions on linear and nonlinear properties of unmagnetized, collisionless plasma by using the fluid model. A dispersion relation is derived, and the growth rate of streaming instabilities with effect of streaming motion of ions and non-thermal electrons is calculated. A qausi-potential approach is adopted to study the characteristics of ion acoustic solitons. An energy integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived during this process. The presence of the streaming term in the energy integral equation affects the structure of the solitary waves significantly along with non-thermal electrons. Possible application of the work to the space and laboratory plasmas are highlighted.

  12. Ion streaming instabilities in pair ion plasma and localized structure with non-thermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, M. Nasir; Qamar, A., E-mail: mnnasirphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, National Center for Physics, Mardan (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Pair ion plasma with a fraction of non-thermal electrons is considered. We investigate the effects of the streaming motion of ions on linear and nonlinear properties of unmagnetized, collisionless plasma by using the fluid model. A dispersion relation is derived, and the growth rate of streaming instabilities with effect of streaming motion of ions and non-thermal electrons is calculated. A quasi-potential approach is adopted to study the characteristics of ion acoustic solitons. An energy integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived during this process. The presence of the streaming term in the energy integral equation affects the structure of the solitary waves significantly along with non-thermal electrons. Possible application of the work to the space and laboratory plasmas are highlighted. (author)

  13. RADYN Simulations of Non-thermal and Thermal Models of Ellerman Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Carlsson, Mats; Ding, M. D.

    2017-08-01

    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are brightenings in the Hα line wings that are believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection in the lower atmosphere. To study the response and evolution of the chromospheric line profiles, we perform radiative hydrodynamic simulations of EBs using both non-thermal and thermal models. Overall, these models can generate line profiles that are similar to observations. However, in non-thermal models we find dimming in the Hα line wings and continuum when the heating begins, while for the thermal models dimming occurs only in the Hα line core, and with a longer lifetime. This difference in line profiles can be used to determine whether an EB is dominated by non-thermal heating or thermal heating. In our simulations, if a higher heating rate is applied, then the Hα line will be unrealistically strong and there are still no clear UV burst signatures.

  14. Meat products: main pathogens and non-thermal control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Heredia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich nutrient matrix that allows the proper environment for diverse microorganisms’ proliferation, deteriorative and pathogen. E. coli O157 and non-O157, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are among the pathogen ones. On other hand, the growing demand for “fresh-like” products with high sanitary, organoleptic and nutritional quality had drive the development of alternative technologies to traditional or thermal, to satisfy consumers’ demand. In the last decades new food preservation techniques with no effect on nutritional or organoleptic characteristics had been developed, maintaining or improving microbiological stability and quality. This work is review of the most common pathogen microorganisms in meat and meat products, and the emerging technologies like high hydrostatic pressure, radiation, intelligent and active packages, and the use of natutal compounds for their control.

  15. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics

  16. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  17. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  18. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonporn Panngom

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance.

  19. Photobiomodulation with non-thermal lasers: Mechanisms of action and therapeutic uses in dermatology and aesthetic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Mark; Andriessen, Anneke; Berman, Brian; Katz, Bruce E; Gilbert, Dore; Goldberg, David J; Gold, Michael H; Kirsner, Robert S; Lorenc, Paul Z

    2017-08-01

    Non-thermal laser therapy in dermatology, is a growing field in medical technology by which therapeutic effects are achieved by exposing tissues to specific wavelengths of light. The purpose of this review was to gain a better understanding of the science behind non-thermal laser and the evidence supporting its use in dermatology. A group of dermatologists and surgeons recently convened to review the evidence supporting the use of non-thermal laser for body sculpting, improving the appearance of cellulite, and treating onychomycosis. The use of non-thermal laser for body sculpting is supported by three randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled studies (N = 161), one prospective open-label study (N = 54), and two retrospective studies (N = 775). Non-thermal laser application for improving the appearance of cellulite is supported by one randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study (N = 38). The use of non-thermal laser for the treatment of onychomycosis is supported by an analysis of three non-randomized, open-label studies demonstrating clinical improvement of nails (N = 292). Non-thermal laser is steadily moving into mainstream medical practice, such as dermatology. Although present studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of non-thermal laser for body sculpting, cellulite reduction and onychomycosis treatment, studies demonstrating the efficacy of non-thermal laser as a stand-alone procedure are still inadequate.

  20. Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death with Non-Thermal Plasma for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Abraham G.

    Even with the recent advancements in cancer immunotherapy, treatments are still associated with debilitating side effects and unacceptable fail rates. Induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumors is a promising approach to cancer treatment that may overcome these deficiencies. Cells undergoing ICD pathways enhance the interactions between cancerous cells and immune cells of the patient, resulting in the generation of anti-cancer immunity. The goal of this therapy relies on the engagement and reestablishment of the patient's natural immune processes to target and eliminate cancerous cells systemically. The main objective of this research was to determine if non-thermal plasma could be used to elicit immunogenic cancer cell death for cancer immunotherapy. My hypothesis was that plasma induces immunogenic cancer cell death through oxidative stress pathways, followed by development of a specific anti-tumor immune response. This was tested by investigating the interactions between plasma and multiple cancerous cells in vitro and validating anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Following plasma treatment, two surrogate ICD markers, secreted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and surface exposed calreticulin (ecto-CRT), were emitted from all three cancerous cell lines tested: A549 lung carcinoma cell line, CNE-1 radiation-resistant nasopharyngeal cell line and CT26 colorectal cancer cell line. When these cells were co-cultured with macrophages, cells of the innate immune system, the tumoricidal activity of macrophages was enhanced, thus demonstrating the immunostimulatory activity of cells undergoing ICD. The underlying mechanisms of plasma-induced ICD were also evaluated. When plasma is generated, four major components are produced: electromagnetic fields, ultraviolet radiation, and charged and neutral reactive species. Of these, we determined that plasma-generated charged and short-lived reactive oxygen species (ROS) were the major effectors of ICD. Following plasma

  1. Athermal silicon optical add-drop multiplexers based on thermo-optic coefficient tuning of sol-gel material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namnabat, Soha; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Jones, Adam; Himmelhuber, Roland; DeRose, Christopher T; Trotter, Douglas C; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew; Lentine, Anthony L; Norwood, Robert A

    2017-09-04

    Silicon photonics has gained interest for its potential to provide higher efficiency, bandwidth and reduced power consumption compared to electrical interconnects in datacenters and high performance computing environments. However, it is well known that silicon photonic devices suffer from temperature fluctuations due to silicon's high thermo-optic coefficient and therefore, temperature control in many applications is required. Here we present an athermal optical add-drop multiplexer fabricated from ring resonators. We used a sol-gel inorganic-organic hybrid material as an alternative to previously used materials such as polymers and titanium dioxide. In this work we studied the thermal curing parameters of the sol-gel and their effect on thermal wavelength shift of the rings. With this method, we were able to demonstrate a thermal shift down to -6.8 pm/°C for transverse electric (TE) polarization in ring resonators with waveguide widths of 325 nm when the sol-gel was cured at 130°C for 10.5 hours. We also achieved thermal shifts below 1 pm/°C for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization in the C band under different curing conditions. Curing time compared to curing temperature shows to be the most important factor to control sol-gel's thermo-optic value in order to obtain an athermal device in a wide temperature range.

  2. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine to ...

  3. Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna; Moeck, Jonas P.; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization

  4. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Churpita, O.; Jäger, A.; Polívka, L.; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, mar. (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bacteria * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  5. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Tsap, Yuri T., E-mail: huangj@nao.cas.cn [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 98409 Crimea, Nauchny (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  7. Towards the understanding of non-thermal airplasma action: effects on bacteria and fibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Jäger, Aleš; Polívka, Leoš; Syková, Eva; Terebova, N.; Kulikov, A.; Kubinová, Šárka; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 30 (2016), 25286-25292 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bactericidal effects * medical applications Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  8. NON-THERMAL EMISSION FROM CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES: IMPLICATIONS ON ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Šimon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the lines of evidence that some cataclysmic variables (CVs are the sources of non-thermal radiation. It was really observed in some dwarf novae in outburst, a novalike CV in the high state, an intermediate polar, polars, and classical novae (CNe during outburst. The detection of this radiation suggests the presence of highly energetic particles in these CVs. The conditions for the observability of this emission depend on the state of activity, and the system parameters. We review the processes and conditions that lead to the production of this radiation in various spectral bands, from gamma-rays including TeV emission to radio. Synchrotron and cyclotron emissions suggest the presence of strong magnetic fields in CV. In some CVs, e.g. during some dwarf nova outbursts, the magnetic field generated in the accretion disk leads to the synchrotron jets radiating in radio. The propeller effect or a shock in the case of the magnetized white dwarf (WD can lead to a strong acceleration of the particles that produce gamma-ray emission via pi0 decay; even Cherenkov radiation is possible. In addition, a gamma-ray production via pi0 decay was observed in the ejecta of an outburst of a symbiotic CN. Nuclear reactions during thermonuclear runaway in the outer layer of the WD undergoing CN outburst lead to the production of radioactive isotopes; their decay is the source of gamma-ray emission. The production of accelerated particles in CVs often has episodic character with a very small duty cycle; this makes their detection and establishing the relation of the behavior in various bands difficult.

  9. Non-thermal plasma treatment as a new biotechnology in relation to seeds, dry fruits, and grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božena, ŠERÁ; Michal, ŠERÝ

    2018-04-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology offers wide potential use in the food technology, the same as in the unconventional agriculture. Some seeds, dry fruits, grains and their sprouts gain popularity in the culinary industry as ‘raw seeds’. This review paper draws the current research and trends in NTP pre-treatment of selected seeds/fruits that are useable as ‘raw seeds’. The main applications are connected with activation of seed germination, early growth of seedlings, microbial inactivation of seed/fruit surface, and possibility of increasing quantity of biological active compounds in sprouting seeds. The paper presents a list of plant species that are able to be used as ‘raw seed’ including current information about main type of NTP treatment implemented.

  10. Calculation of momentum distribution function of a non-thermal fermionic dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Anirban; Gupta, Aritra, E-mail: anirbanbiswas@hri.res.in, E-mail: aritra@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

    2017-03-01

    The most widely studied scenario in dark matter phenomenology is the thermal WIMP scenario. Inspite of numerous efforts to detect WIMP, till now we have no direct evidence for it. A possible explanation for this non-observation of dark matter could be because of its very feeble interaction strength and hence, failing to thermalise with the rest of the cosmic soup. In other words, the dark matter might be of non-thermal origin where the relic density is obtained by the so-called freeze-in mechanism. Furthermore, if this non-thermal dark matter is itself produced substantially from the decay of another non-thermal mother particle, then their distribution functions may differ in both size and shape from the usual equilibrium distribution function. In this work, we have studied such a non-thermal (fermionic) dark matter scenario in the light of a new type of U(1){sub B−L} model. The U(1){sub B−L} model is interesting, since, besides being anomaly free, it can give rise to neutrino mass by Type II see-saw mechanism. Moreover, as we will show, it can accommodate a non-thermal fermionic dark matter as well. Starting from the collision terms, we have calculated the momentum distribution function for the dark matter by solving a coupled system of Boltzmann equations. We then used it to calculate the final relic abundance, as well as other relevant physical quantities. We have also compared our result with that obtained from solving the usual Boltzmann (or rate) equations directly in terms of comoving number density, Y . Our findings suggest that the latter approximation is valid only in cases where the system under study is close to equilibrium, and hence should be used with caution.

  11. Removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene over Mn, Ag and Ce modified HZSM-5 catalysts by periodical operation of adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Tianle; Fan, Xing

    2015-07-15

    Ag/HZSM-5, Mn/HZSM-5, Ce/HZSM-5, Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 and Ce-Mn/HZSM-5 were prepared by impregnation method. Both their adsorption capacity and catalytic activity were investigated for the removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene by periodical operation of adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration. Results show that catalysts loaded with Ag (Ag/HZSM-5 and Ag-Mn/HZSM-5) had larger adsorption capacity for toluene than the other catalysts. And Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 displayed the best catalytic performance for both toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma and byproducts suppression. On the other hand, the deactivated catalyst can be fully regenerated by calcining in air stream when its adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of the Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 catalyst was found to be decreased after 10 cycles of periodical adsorption and non-thermal regeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. THE LOCATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY IN THE EARLY PHASES OF LARGE FLARES—REVEALING PRE-ERUPTION FLUX ROPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. L.; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Hara, Hirohisa

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal velocity measurements of the solar atmosphere, particularly from UV and X-ray emission lines have demonstrated over the decades that this parameter is important in understanding the triggering of solar flares. Enhancements have often been observed before intensity enhancements are seen. However, until the launch of Hinode, it has been difficult to determine the spatial location of the enhancements to better understand the source region. The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer has the spectral and spatial resolution to allow us to probe the early stages of flares in detail. We analyze four events, all of which are GOES M- or X-classification flares, and all are located toward the limb for ease of flare geometry interpretation. Three of the flares were eruptive and one was confined. In all events, pre-flare enhancement in non-thermal velocity at the base of the active region and its surroundings has been found. These enhancements seem to be consistent with the footpoints of the dimming regions, and hence may be highlighting the activation of a coronal flux rope for the three eruptive events. In addition, pre-flare enhancements in non-thermal velocity were found above the looptops for the three eruptive events

  13. Investigation of non-thermal plasma effects on lung cancer cells within 3D collagen matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surya B.; Thapa Gupta, Tripti; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M.; Ayan, Halim

    2017-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in plasma medicine have identified a potential application for the non-thermal plasma in cancer therapy. Most studies on the effects of non-thermal plasma on cancer cells have used traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture. However, very few studies are conducted employing non-thermal plasma in animal models. Two dimensional models do not fully mimic the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment and animal models are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we used 3D collagen matrices that closely resemble the native geometry of cancer tissues and provide more physiologically relevant results than 2D models, while providing a more cost effective and efficient precursor to animal studies. We previously demonstrated a role for non-thermal plasma application in promoting apoptotic cell death and reducing the viability of A549 lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells cultured upon 2D matrices. In this study, we wished to determine the efficacy of non-thermal plasma application in driving apoptotic cell death of A549 lung cancer cells encapsulated within a 3D collagen matrix. The percentage of apoptosis increased as treatment time increased and was time dependent. In addition, the anti-viability effect of plasma was demonstrated. Twenty-four hours post-plasma treatment, 38% and 99% of cell death occurred with shortest (15 s) and longest treatment time (120 s) respectively at the plasma-treated region. We found that plasma has a greater effect on the viability of A549 lung cancer cells on the superficial surface of 3D matrices and has diminishing effects as it penetrates the 3D matrix. We also identified the nitrogen and oxygen species generated by plasma and characterized their penetration in vertical and lateral directions within the 3D matrix from the center of the plasma-treated region. Therefore, the utility of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in driving apoptosis and reducing the viability of lung cancer cells

  14. Investigation of non-thermal plasma effects on lung cancer cells within 3D collagen matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karki, Surya B; Gupta, Tripti Thapa; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Ayan, Halim; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in plasma medicine have identified a potential application for the non-thermal plasma in cancer therapy. Most studies on the effects of non-thermal plasma on cancer cells have used traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture. However, very few studies are conducted employing non-thermal plasma in animal models. Two dimensional models do not fully mimic the three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment and animal models are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, we used 3D collagen matrices that closely resemble the native geometry of cancer tissues and provide more physiologically relevant results than 2D models, while providing a more cost effective and efficient precursor to animal studies. We previously demonstrated a role for non-thermal plasma application in promoting apoptotic cell death and reducing the viability of A549 lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells cultured upon 2D matrices. In this study, we wished to determine the efficacy of non-thermal plasma application in driving apoptotic cell death of A549 lung cancer cells encapsulated within a 3D collagen matrix. The percentage of apoptosis increased as treatment time increased and was time dependent. In addition, the anti-viability effect of plasma was demonstrated. Twenty-four hours post-plasma treatment, 38% and 99% of cell death occurred with shortest (15 s) and longest treatment time (120 s) respectively at the plasma-treated region. We found that plasma has a greater effect on the viability of A549 lung cancer cells on the superficial surface of 3D matrices and has diminishing effects as it penetrates the 3D matrix. We also identified the nitrogen and oxygen species generated by plasma and characterized their penetration in vertical and lateral directions within the 3D matrix from the center of the plasma-treated region. Therefore, the utility of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in driving apoptosis and reducing the viability of lung cancer cells

  15. Investigation of atmospheric pressure capillary non-thermal plasmas and their applications to the degradation of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shu-Min

    Atmospheric pressure capillary non-thermal plasma (AP-CNTP) has been investigated as a potential technology far the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Advanced Life Support Systems (ALS). AP-CNTP is a destructive technology far the removal of VOCs from air streams by active plasma species, such as electrons, ions, and excited molecules. Complete VOC destruction ideally results in the formation of water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other by-product's may also form, including ozone (O3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and decomposed hydrocarbons. Several organic compounds, such as BTEX, ethylene, n-heptane, isooctane, methanol and NH3, were tested in an AP-CNTP system. Parametric experiments were carried out by varying plasma discharge power, flowrates, and initial concentrations. The degradation efficiency varied depending on the chemical nature of the compounds. A plasmochemical kinetic model was derived for toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and n-heptane.

  16. Field induced decrystallization of silicon: Evidence of a microwave non-thermal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozariasbmarz, Amin; Dsouza, Kelvin; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2018-02-01

    It is rather strange and not fully understood that some materials decrystallize when exposed to microwave radiation, and it is still debatable if such a transformation is a thermal or non-thermal effect. We hereby report experimental evidences that weight the latter effect. First, a single crystal silicon wafer exposed to microwaves showed strong decrystallization at high temperature. Second, when some areas of the wafer were masked with metal coating, only the exposed areas underwent decrystallization. Transmission electron microscopy analysis, x-ray diffraction data, and thermal conductivity measurements all indicated strong decrystallization, which occurred in the bulk of the material and was not a surface effect. These observations favor the existence of a non-thermal microwave effect.

  17. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  18. Statistical physics of non-thermal phase transitions from foundations to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abaimov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    Statistical physics can be used to better understand non-thermal complex systems—phenomena such as stock-market crashes, revolutions in society and in science, fractures in engineered materials and in the Earth’s crust, catastrophes, traffic jams, petroleum clusters, polymerization, self-organized criticality and many others exhibit behaviors resembling those of thermodynamic systems. In particular, many of these systems possess phase transitions identical to critical or spinodal phenomena in statistical physics. The application of the well-developed formalism of statistical physics to non-thermal complex systems may help to predict and prevent such catastrophes as earthquakes, snow-avalanches and landslides, failure of engineering structures, or economical crises. This book addresses the issue step-by-step, from phenomenological analogies between complex systems and statistical physics to more complex aspects, such as correlations, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, susceptibility, the concept of free ener...

  19. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  20. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Cell death induced by ozone and various non-thermal plasmas: therapeutic perspectives and limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Chánová, Eliška; Syková, Eva; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV (2014), "7129-1"-"7129-11" ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1309 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101219 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : cell death * non-thermal plasma * therapeutic perspectives Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; FH - Neurology (UEM-P); CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  2. The Swift BAT Perspective on Non-Thermal Emission in HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Until recently, comprehensive surveys of hard X-ray emission from clusters were not possible; instead, individually proposed-for. long observations would be collated from the archive. With the advent of the Swift BAT all sky survey, any c1u,;ter's emission above 14 keV can be probed with nearly uniform sensitivity. which is comparable to that of RXTE, Beppo-SAX, and Suzaku with the 58-month version of the survey. In this work. we search for non-thermal excess emission above the exponentially decreasing, high energy thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. The BAT emission from many of the detected clusters is marginally extended; we are able to extract the total flux for these clusters using fiducial models for their spatial extent. To account for thermal emission at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both the thermal and non-thermal spectral components can be determined simultaneou,;ly in joint fits. We find marginally significant IC components in 6 clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative non-thermal signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single temperature

  3. Investigation of non thermal effects from the Dα line wings in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R.; Capes, H.; Guirlet, R.

    2002-01-01

    The far wings of intense Dα lines measured at the edge of the Tore Supra Tokamak are found to exhibit a power-law behavior. The characteristic exponent is not far from two. Since the low density rules out thermal Stark broadening, we discuss non thermal effects which may arise from the edge plasma drift-wave turbulence. We suggest that both the Stark and the Doppler profile could be affected by the turbulence

  4. Simulations of planar non-thermal plasma assisted ignition at atmospheric pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Casey, Tiernan A.

    2016-10-21

    The opportunity for ignition assistance by a pulsed applied voltage is investigated in a canonical one-dimensional configuration. An incipient ignition kernel, formed by localized energy deposition into a lean mixture of methane and air at atmospheric pressure, is subjected to sub-breakdown electric fields (E/N ≈ 100 Td) by a DC potential applied across the domain, resulting in non-thermal behavior of the plasma formed during the discharge. A two-fluid approach is employed to couple thermal neutrals and ions to the non-thermal electrons. A two-temperature plasma mechanism describing gas phase combustion, excitation of neutral species, and high-energy electron kinetics is employed to account for non-thermal effects. Charged species transported from the ignition zone drift rapidly through the domain, augmenting the magnitude of the electric field in the fresh gas during the pulse through a dynamic-electrode effect, which results in an increase in the energy of the electrons in the fresh mixture with increasing time. Enhanced fuel and oxidizer decomposition due to electron impact dissociation and interaction with excited neutrals generate a pool of radicals, mostly O and H, in the fresh gas ahead of the flame\\'s preheat zone. In the configuration considered, the effect of the nanosecond pulse is to increase the mass of fuel burned at equivalent times relative to the unsupported ignition through enhanced radical generation, resulting in an increased heat release rate in the immediate aftermath of the pulse.

  5. Hadronic model for the non-thermal radiation from the binary system AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, W.

    2018-05-01

    AR Scorpii is a close binary system containing a rotation powered white dwarf and a low-mass M type companion star. This system shows non-thermal emission extending up to the X-ray energy range. We consider hybrid (lepto-hadronic) and pure hadronic models for the high energy non-thermal processes in this binary system. Relativistic electrons and hadrons are assumed to be accelerated in a strongly magnetised, turbulent region formed in collision of a rotating white dwarf magnetosphere and a magnetosphere/dense atmosphere of the M-dwarf star. We propose that the non-thermal X-ray emission is produced either by the primary electrons or the secondary e± pairs from decay of charged pions created in collisions of hadrons with the companion star atmosphere. We show that the accompanying γ-ray emission from decay of neutral pions, which are produced by these same protons, is expected to be on the detectability level of the present and/or the future satellite and Cherenkov telescopes. The γ-ray observations of the binary system AR Sco should allow us to constrain the efficiency of hadron and electron acceleration and also the details of the radiation processes.

  6. Probing the non-thermal emission in Abell 2146 and the Perseus cluster with the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; van Weeren, Reinout; Clarke, Tracy; Intema, Huib; Russell, Helen; Edge, Alastair; Fabian, Andy; Olamaie, Malak; Rumsey, Clare; King, Lindsay; McNamara, Brian; Fecteau-Beaucage, David; Hogan, Michael; Mezcua, Mar; Taylor, Gregory; Blundell, Katherine; Sanders, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Jets created from accretion onto supermassive black holes release relativistic particles on large distances. These strongly affect the intracluster medium when located in the center of a brightest cluster galaxy. The hierarchical merging of subclusters and groups, from which cluster originate, also generates perturbations into the intracluster medium through shocks and turbulence, constituting a potential source of reacceleration for these particles. I will present deep multi-configuration low radio frequency observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of two unique clusters, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows.Recently awarded of 550 hours of Chandra observations, Abell 2146 is one of the rare clusters undergoing a spectacular merger in the plane of the sky. Our recent deep multi-configuration JVLA 1.4 GHz observations have revealed the presence of a structure extending to 850 kpc in size, consisting of one component associated with the upstream shock and classified as a radio relic, and one associated with the subcluster core, consistent with a radio halo bounded by the bow shock. Theses structures have some of the lowest radio powers detected thus far in any cluster. The flux measurements of the halo, its morphology and measurements of the dynamical state of the cluster suggest that the halo was recently created (~ 0.3 Gyr after core passage). This makes A2146 extremely interesting to study, allowing us to probe the complete evolutionary stages of halos.I will also present results on 230-470 MHz JVLA observations of the Perseus cluster. Our observations of this nearby relaxed cool core cluster have revealed a multitude of new structures associated with the mini-halo, extending to hundreds of kpc in size. Its irregular morphology seems to be have been influenced both by the AGN activity and by the sloshing motion of the cluster’ gas. In addition, it has a filamentary structure similar to that seen in

  7. High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE for non-thermal ablation without muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Christopher B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic irreversible electroporation (IRE is an emerging technology for the non-thermal ablation of tumors. The technique involves delivering a series of unipolar electric pulses to permanently destabilize the plasma membrane of cancer cells through an increase in transmembrane potential, which leads to the development of a tissue lesion. Clinically, IRE requires the administration of paralytic agents to prevent muscle contractions during treatment that are associated with the delivery of electric pulses. This study shows that by applying high-frequency, bipolar bursts, muscle contractions can be eliminated during IRE without compromising the non-thermal mechanism of cell death. Methods A combination of analytical, numerical, and experimental techniques were performed to investigate high-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE. A theoretical model for determining transmembrane potential in response to arbitrary electric fields was used to identify optimal burst frequencies and amplitudes for in vivo treatments. A finite element model for predicting thermal damage based on the electric field distribution was used to design non-thermal protocols for in vivo experiments. H-FIRE was applied to the brain of rats, and muscle contractions were quantified via accelerometers placed at the cervicothoracic junction. MRI and histological evaluation was performed post-operatively to assess ablation. Results No visual or tactile evidence of muscle contraction was seen during H-FIRE at 250 kHz or 500 kHz, while all IRE protocols resulted in detectable muscle contractions at the cervicothoracic junction. H-FIRE produced ablative lesions in brain tissue that were characteristic in cellular morphology of non-thermal IRE treatments. Specifically, there was complete uniformity of tissue death within targeted areas, and a sharp transition zone was present between lesioned and normal brain. Conclusions H-FIRE is a feasible technique for

  8. Shock tube experiments on nitromethane and Promotion of chemical reactions by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljeskog, Morten

    2002-06-01

    -constant activation energy was found from the correlations, to be 64.574 kJ/mol and 113.544 kJ/mole, respectively. The correlations for the ignition delay for time signals with and without emission were deduced as {tau}{sub emission} 0.3669x10{sup -2}*[NM]{sup -1.02}[O{sub 2}]{sup -1.08}*[Ar]{sup 1.42}*exp(7767/T) and {tau}{sub n} 0.3005*10{sup -2}*[NM]{sup -0.28}[O{sub 2}]{sup 0.12}*[Ar]-{sup 0.59}*exp(13657/T), respective second approach to molecular decomposition concerned the application of non-thermal plasma to initiate reactions and decompose/oxidize selected hydrocarbons, methane and propane, in air. Experiments with a gliding arc discharge device were performed at the university of Orleans on the decomposition/reforming of low-to-stoichiometric concentration air/CH{sub 4} mixtures. The presented results show that complete reduction of methane could be obtained if the residence time in the reactor was sufficiently long. The products of the methane decomposition were mainly CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}O. The CH{sub 4} conversion rate showed to increase with increasing residence time, temperature of the operating gas, and initial concentration of methane. To achieve complete decomposition of CH{sub 4} in 1 m{sup 3} of a 2 vol% mixture, the energy cost was about 1.5 kWh. However, the formation of both CO and NO{sub x} in the present gliding discharge system was found to be significant. The produced amount of both Co (0.4-1 vol%) and NO{sub x} (2000-3500 ppm) were in such high quantities that they would constitute an important pollution threat if this process as of today was to be used in large scale CH{sub 4} decomposition. Further experimental investigations were performed on self-built laboratory scale, single- and double dielectric-barrier discharge devices as a means of removing CH{sub 4} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} from simulated reactive inlet mixtures. The different discharge reactors were all powered by an arrangement of commercially available Tesla coil units capable of high

  9. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, K N; Ma, Jie; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Fangjian; Cai, Zhiming; Han, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP selectively induces apoptosis in some types of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we further investigated possible molecular mechanisms for NTP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The results showed that NTP exposure significantly inhibited the growth and viability of HeLa cells. Morphological observation and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NTP exposure induced HeLa cell apoptosis. NTP exposure also activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, NTP exposure suppressed Bcl-2 expression, enhanced Bax expression and translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c. Further studies showed that NTP treatment led to ROS generation, whereas blockade of ROS generation by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavengers) significantly prevented NTP-induced mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptosis of HeLa cells via suppressing Bax translocation, cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our results indicated that NTP exposure induced mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis of HeLa cells was activated by ROS generation. These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  11. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-07

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), has recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications including blood coagulation, sterilization and malignant cell apoptosis. Liquids and porcine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in vitro. Plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a higher concentration observed in serum-free medium compared with PBS. Species concentration inside cells peaked 1 h after treatment, followed by a decrease 3 h post treatment. Endothelial cells treated with a plasma dose of 4.2 J cm(-2) had 1.7 times more cells than untreated samples 5 days after plasma treatment. The 4.2 J cm(-2) plasma dose increased two-dimensional migration distance by 40 per cent compared with untreated control, while the number of cells that migrated through a three-dimensional collagen gel increased by 15 per cent. Tube formation was also enhanced by plasma treatment, with tube lengths in plasma-treated samples measuring 2.6 times longer than control samples. A fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) neutralizing antibody and ROS scavengers abrogated these angiogenic effects. These data indicate that plasma enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation is due to FGF-2 release induced by plasma-produced ROS. Non-thermal plasma may be used as a potential tool for applying ROS in precise doses to enhance vascularization.

  12. ICRF Wave Propagation and Absorption in Plasmas with Non-thermal Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    Some results obtained with the one dimensional, all orders, full wave code METS, which has been successfully employed in the past to describe a number of experiments, are reported. By using massively parallel computers, this code has been extended to handle non-thermal populations. Various physical situations, in which non-Maxwellian species are expected to be encountered, are studied, such as simultaneous neutral beam injection and high harmonic fast wave electron heating or ion cyclotron resonance heating in the presence of fusion products

  13. The interplay between biological and physical scenarios of bacterial death induced by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Jäger, Aleš; Polívka, Leoš; Syková, E.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, Mar (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0142-9612 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568; AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * bacteria * cytotoxicity * apoptosis * bacterial inactivation * reactive oxygen species (ROS) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  14. Study of non-thermal effects from laser radiation on live tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, M.A.

    1987-02-01

    The functional biological effects related to the irradiation of live tissues with low power lasers, called non-thermal effects were theoretical and experimentally studied. For the experimental part, a device which allows to: irradiation lesions artificially created on the back of rats by a He-Ne laser, or put a moving ground glass in front of the laser beam, by irradiation of this same laser with its coherence degree decreased. The relevance of the radiation coherence in the lesion cicatrization process was shown. The electrical field distribution and the intensity distribution on a surface with micro-roughness when irradiated by coherent light are theoretically studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susc...

  16. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  17. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  18. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visscher, A de; Dewulf, J; Durme, J van; Leys, C; Morent, R; Langenhove, H Van

    2008-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation

  19. Non-thermal escape rates of atmospheric H and D from Mars using MAVEN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that an ocean of liquid water existed on Mars until at least middle to late Noachian era (4.1 to 3.8 Ga) and possibly, at least episodically, as late as Hesperian. Between 67% and 87% of the total primordial amount of water, equal to about 70 to 110 meters equivalent (spread over the entire Mars' surface), is believed to have escape to space, while about 35 meters remains on or beneath the surface as water ice. Establishing better constraints on these numbers and identifying the responsible atmospheric loss processes remains the major objective of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The ratio of atmospheric Deuterium and Hydrogen (D/H) on Mars is one of the best indicators of water loss to space. While majority of H and D escape through thermal Jeans escape, up to 10% of D can escape to space via non-thermal mechanisms, such as collisions with superthermal neutral atoms. In this study, we present new estimates of non-thermal escape rates of light molecules of interest to the water evolution, including H2, HD, OH, and OD, based on recent measurements of atmospheric density and temperature profiles by MAVEN. The escape mechanisms considered include photochemical sources of hot O, as well as collisions with energetic neutral atoms produced in charge-exchange of solar wind ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Energy transport and escape rates are modeled using quantum reactive scattering formalism3 and seasonal variations are illustrated. Finally, a simple estimate of the role of the non-thermal escape mechanisms in previous eras is given. We conclude that D escape rates can be affected by the non-thermal processes with consequences on the estimates of primordial water inventory based on the D/H ratio. [1] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) [2] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, V. Kharchenko, Icarus 284, 90 (2017) [3] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012)

  20. Effects of background fluid on the efficiency of inactivating yeast with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hyo Ryu

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH· produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media.

  1. Toluene degradation by non-thermal plasma combined with a ferroelectric catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Jun; Ma, Lin; Liu, Huan; Li, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Degradation of toluene in a gas by non-thermal plasma with a ferroelectric catalyst was studied at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure. Spontaneous polarization material (BaTiO3) and photocatalyst (TiO2) were added into plasma system simultively. Toluene degradation efficiency and specific energy density during the discharge process were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts and degradation mechanisms of toluene were also investigated. The toluene degradation efficiency increased when non-thermal plasma technology was combined with the catalyst. The toluene degradation efficiencies of the different catalysts tested were in the following order: BaTiO3/TiO2>BaTiO3>TiO2>no catalyst. A mass ratio of 2.38:1 was optimum for the BaTiO3 and TiO2 catalyst. The outlet gas was analyzed by gas chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the main compounds detected were CO2, H2O, O3 and benzene ring derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Toma, Takashi; Vicente, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2) L quintuplet and a scalar SU(2) L septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations

  3. Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex deformations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.

  4. Atmospheric non-thermal argon-oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar-O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar-O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar-O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  5. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Mayumi [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS - UMR 8627, Université de Paris-Sud 11,F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vicente, Avelino [IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège,Bat B5, Sart-Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de València,Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-09-29

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2){sub L} quintuplet and a scalar SU(2){sub L} septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations.

  6. Non-thermal production of minimal dark matter via right-handed neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Mayumi [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS - UMR 8627, Université de Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vicente, Avelino, E-mail: mayumi@hep.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takashi.toma@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: Avelino.Vicente@ulg.ac.be [IFPA, Dep. AGO, Université de Liège, Bat B5, Sart-Tilman B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-09-01

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) stands as one of the simplest dark matter scenarios. In MDM models, annihilation and co-annihilation processes among the members of the MDM multiplet are usually very efficient, pushing the dark matter mass above O(10) TeV in order to reproduce the observed dark matter relic density. Motivated by this little drawback, in this paper we consider an extension of the MDM scenario by three right-handed neutrinos. Two specific choices for the MDM multiplet are studied: a fermionic SU(2){sub L} quintuplet and a scalar SU(2){sub L} septuplet. The lightest right-handed neutrino, with tiny Yukawa couplings, never reaches thermal equilibrium in the early universe and is produced by freeze-in. This creates a link between dark matter and neutrino physics: dark matter can be non-thermally produced by the decay of the lightest right-handed neutrino after freeze-out, allowing to lower significantly the dark matter mass. We discuss the phenomenology of the non-thermally produced MDM and, taking into account significant Sommerfeld corrections, we find that the dark matter mass must have some specific values in order not to be in conflict with the current bounds from gamma-ray observations.

  7. Galaxy Cluster Outskirts from the Thermal SZ and Non-Thermal Synchrotron Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuv Basu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy cluster merger shocks are the main agent for the thermalization of the intracluster medium and the energization of cosmic ray particles in it. Shock propagation changes the state of the tenuous intracluster plasma, and the corresponding signal variations are measurable with the current generation of X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ effect instruments. Additionally, non-thermal electrons (re-energized by the shocks sometimes give rise to extended and luminous synchrotron sources known as radio relics, which are prominent indicators of shocks propagating roughly in the plane of the sky. In this short review, we discuss how the joint modeling of the non-thermal and thermal signal variations across radio relic shock fronts is helping to advance our knowledge of the gas thermodynamical properties and magnetic field strengths in the cluster outskirts. We describe the first use of the SZ effect to measure the Mach numbers of relic shocks, for both the nearest (Coma and the farthest (El Gordo clusters with known radio relics.

  8. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Jiang, Yuze [Shandong Electric Power Research Institute, Jinan 250002 (China); Wang, Tiecheng [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: lijie@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Yan [Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The use of non-thermal plasma injection approach to oxidize Hg{sup 0} in simulated flue gas at 110 °C was studied. • A high Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO and HCl. • Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N{sub 2} metastable states and UV-light) contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. • Mercury species mainly existed in the form of HgO(s) adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase. - Abstract: The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in simulated flue gas at 110 °C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg{sup 0} was oxidized and 20.5 μg kJ{sup −1} of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9 J L{sup −1}. A maximal Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N{sub 2} metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg{sup 0} oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase.

  9. Shape effects on time-scale divergence at athermal jamming transition of frictionless non-spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Jin, Weiwei; Liu, Lufeng; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-10-01

    The critical behaviors of a granular system at the jamming transition have been extensively studied from both mechanical and thermodynamic perspectives. In this work, we numerically investigate the jamming behaviors of a variety of frictionless non-spherical particles, including spherocylinder, ellipsoid, spherotetrahedron and spherocube. In particular, for a given particle shape, a series of random configurations at different fixed densities are generated and relaxed to minimize interparticle overlaps using the relaxation algorithm. We find that as the jamming point (i.e., point J) is approached, the number of iteration steps (defined as the "time-scale" for our systems) required to completely relax the interparticle overlaps exhibits a clear power-law divergence. The dependence of the detailed mathematical form of the power-law divergence on particle shapes is systematically investigated and elucidated, which suggests that the shape effects can be generally categorized as elongation and roundness. Importantly, we show the jamming transition density can be accurately determined from the analysis of time-scale divergence for different non-spherical shapes, and the obtained values agree very well with corresponding ones reported in literature. Moreover, we study the plastic behaviors of over-jammed packings of different particles under a compression-expansion procedure and find that the jamming of ellipsoid is much more robust than other non-spherical particles. This work offers an alternative approximate procedure besides conventional packing algorithms for studying athermal jamming transition in granular system of frictionless non-spherical particles.

  10. Application of pulsed power and power modulation to the non-thermal plasma treatment of hazardous gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1992-10-01

    Acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, and smog are preeminent environmental problems facing the world today. Non-thermal plasma techniques offer an innovative approach to the cost-effective solution of these problems. Many potential applications of non-thermal plasmas to air pollution control have already been demonstrated. The use of pulsed power and power modulation is essential to the successful implementation of non-thermal plasma techniques. This paper provides an overview of the most recent developments in non-thermal plasma systems that have been applied to gaseous waste treatment. In the non-thermal plasma approach, the nonequilibrium properties of the plasma are fully exploited. These plasmas are characterized by high electron temperatures, while the gas remains at near ambient temperature and pressure. The energy is directed preferentially to the undesirable components, which are often present in very small concentrations. These techniques utilize the dissociation and ionization of the background gas to produce radicals which, in turn, decompose the toxic compounds. The key to success in the non-thermal plasma approach is to produce a discharge in which the majority of the electrical energy goes into the production of energetic electrons, rather than into gas heating. For example, in a typical application to flue gas cleanup, these electrons produce radicals, such as O and OH, through the dissociation or ionization of molecules such as H 2 O or O 2 . The radicals diffuse through the gas and preferentially oxidize the nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides to form acids that can then be easily neutralized to form non-toxic, easily-collectible (and commercially salable) compounds. Non-thermal plasmas can be created in essentially two different ways: by electron-beam irradiation, and by electrical discharges

  11. Inactivation of Candida biofilms by non-thermal plasma and its enhancement for fungistatic effect of antifungal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Sun

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal effect of non-thermal plasma, as well as its combination with common antifungal drugs, against Candida biofilms. A direct current atmospheric pressure He/O(2 (2% plasma microjet (PMJ was used to treat Candida biofilms in a 96-well plate. Inactivation efficacies of the biofilms were evaluated by XTT assay and counting colony forming units (CFUs. Morphological properties of the biofilms were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin for the biofilms were also tested. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR spectroscopy was used to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated directly and indirectly by PMJ. The Candida biofilms were completely inactivated after 1 min PMJ treatment, where severely deformed fungal elements were observed in SEM images. The SMICs of the tested antifungal drugs for the plasma-treated biofilms were decreased by 2-6 folds of dilution, compared to those of the untreated controls. ROS such as hydroxyl radical ((•OH, superoxide anion radical ((•O(2 (- and singlet molecular oxygen ((1O(2 were detected by ESR. We hence conclude that He/O(2 (2% plasma alone, as well as in combination with common antifungal drugs, is able to inactivate Candida biofilms rapidly. The generation of ROS is believed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for the fungicidal activity of plasma.

  12. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S.; Fahmy, Heba M.; Radwan, Nasr M.; Elsayed, Anwar A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested. PMID:25685416

  13. Cyclotron radiation from thermal and non-thermal electrons in the WEGA-stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekaar, H.W.; Rutgers, W.R.

    1980-11-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation measurements on the WEGA-stellarator are reported. Emission spectra around 2ωsub(ce) and 3ωsub(ce) were measured with a far-infra-red spectrometer and InSb detectors. When the plasma loop voltage is high, runaway electrons give rise to intense broad-band emission. Runaway particles can be removed by increasing the plasma density. For low loop voltage discharges the electron temperature profile was deduced from thermal emission around 2ωsub(ce). In spite of the low E-field, runaway particles are still created and pitch-angle scattered because ωsub(pe)/ωsub(ce) approximately 1. From non-thermal emission below 2ωsub(ce) and 3ωsub(ce) the energy and number of particles could be calculated, and was found to be in agreement with existing theories

  14. Non-thermal transitions in a model inspired by moral decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces a model in which agents of a network act upon one another according to three different kinds of moral decisions. These decisions are based on an increasing level of sophistication in the empathy capacity of the agent, a hierarchy which we name Piaget ’ s ladder . The decision strategy of the agents is non-rational, in the sense they are arbitrarily fixed, and the model presents quenched disorder given by the distribution of its defining parameters. An analytical solution for this model is obtained in the large system limit as well as a leading order correction for finite-size systems which shows that typical realisations of the model develop a phase structure with both continuous and discontinuous non-thermal transitions. (paper)

  15. Non-thermal fixed points and solitons in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Maximilian; Erne, Sebastian; Nowak, Boris; Sexty, Dénes; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Single-particle momentum spectra for a dynamically evolving one-dimensional Bose gas are analysed in the semi-classical wave limit. Representing one of the simplest correlation functions, these provide information on a possible universal scaling behaviour. Motivated by the previously discovered connection between (quasi-) topological field configurations, strong wave turbulence and non-thermal fixed points of quantum field dynamics, soliton formation is studied with respect to the appearance of transient power-law spectra. A random-soliton model is developed for describing the spectra analytically, and the analogies and differences between the emerging power laws and those found in a field theory approach to strong wave turbulence are discussed. The results open a new perspective on solitary wave dynamics from the point of view of critical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium and the possibility of studying this dynamics by experiment without the need for detecting solitons in situ. (paper)

  16. Probing non-thermal density fluctuations in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo De Nardis, Miłosz Panfil, Andrea Gambassi, Leticia F. Cugliandolo, Robert Konik, Laura Foini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum integrable models display a rich variety of non-thermal excited states with unusual properties. The most common way to probe them is by performing a quantum quench, i.e., by letting a many-body initial state unitarily evolve with an integrable Hamiltonian. At late times, these systems are locally described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble with as many effective temperatures as their local conserved quantities. The experimental measurement of this macroscopic number of temperatures remains elusive. Here we show that they can be obtained by probing the dynamical structure factor of the system after the quench and by employing a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that we provide. Our procedure allows us to completely reconstruct the stationary state of a quantum integrable system from state-of-the-art experimental observations.

  17. Non-thermal effects of 94 GHz radiation on bacterial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitt, Brittany J.

    Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to investigate the non-thermal effects of terahertz (THz) radiation exposure on bacterial cells. The THz source used was a 94 GHz (0.94 THz) Millitech Gunn Diode Oscillator with a power density of 1.3 mW/cm2. The cultures were placed in the middle sixty wells of two 96-well microplates, one serving as the experimental plate and one serving as a control. The experimental plate was placed on the radiation source for either two, eighteen, or twenty-four hours and the metabolism of the cells was measured in a spectrophotometer using the tetrazolium dye XTT. The results showed no consistent significant differences in either the growth rates or the metabolism of any of the bacterial species at this frequency and power density.

  18. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  19. Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure for ozone generation and volatile organic compounds decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarek, S.; Khun, J.

    2006-01-01

    The non-thermal plasma technologies based on electrical discharges play an important role in ecological applications. The classical corona discharge is however relatively low power discharge. With the aim to extend its current-voltage range we studied hollow needle-to-plate DC corona discharge enhanced by the flow of a gas through the needle electrode. With this type of the discharge we performed an extensive study of ozone generation and volatile organic compounds decomposition. We found that supply of air through the needle substantially increases current-voltage range of the discharge in comparison with classical pin-to-plate corona discharge. Consequently the ozone generation as well as toluene decomposition efficiency was increased (Authors)

  20. Measurement of the non-thermal properties in a low-pressure spraying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Ho; Chung, Kyu Sun

    2002-01-01

    The non-thermal properties of a low-pressure spraying plasma have been characterized by using optical emission spectroscopy and single probes installed in a fast scanning probe system. A two-temperature model of the electrons is introduced to explain their non-isothermal properties, which are measured using single probes. The excitation temperatures of the atomic and the ionic lines are calculated from measurements of the emission intensities of Ar (I) and Ar (II), and those temperatures can be explained by using a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) or a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) model. In order to deduce more reasonable values (excitation temperatures), we introduce a multi-thermodynamic equilibrium (MTE) model, which gives different temperatures, depending upon the atomic excitation states

  1. Ignition phase and steady-state structures of a non-thermal air plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lu Xin Pei

    2003-01-01

    An AC-driven, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure air plasma is generated within the gap separating a disc-shaped metal electrode and a water electrode. The ignition phase and the steady-state are studied by a high-speed CCD camera. It is found that the plasma always initiates at the surface of the water electrode. The plasma exhibits different structures depending on the polarity of the water electrode: when the water electrode plays the role of cathode, a relatively wide but visibly dim plasma column is generated. At the maximum driving voltage, the gas temperature is between 800 and 900 K, and the peak current is 67 mA; when the water electrode is anode, the plasma column narrows but increases its light emission. The gas temperature in this case is measured to be in the 1400-1500 K range, and the peak current is 81 mA.

  2. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA - II. Non-thermal diffuse emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Profumo, Stefano; de Blok, W. J. G.; Massardi, Marcella

    2015-04-01

    Our closest neighbours, the Local Group dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, are extremely quiescent and dim objects, where thermal and non-thermal diffuse emissions lack, so far, of detection. In order to possibly study the dSph interstellar medium, deep observations are required. They could reveal non-thermal emissions associated with the very low level of star formation, or to particle dark matter annihilating or decaying in the dSph halo. In this work, we employ radio observations of six dSphs, conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array in the frequency band 1.1-3.1 GHz, to test the presence of a diffuse component over typical scales of few arcmin and at an rms sensitivity below 0.05 mJy beam-1. We observed the dSph fields with both a compact array and long baselines. Short spacings led to a synthesized beam of about 1 arcmin and were used for the extended emission search. The high-resolution data mapped background sources, which in turn were subtracted in the short-baseline maps, to reduce their confusion limit. We found no significant detection of a diffuse radio continuum component. After a detailed discussion on the modelling of the cosmic ray (CR) electron distribution and on the dSph magnetic properties, we present bounds on several physical quantities related to the dSphs, such that the total radio flux, the angular shape of the radio emissivity, the equipartition magnetic field, and the injection and equilibrium distributions of CR electrons. Finally, we discuss the connection to far-infrared and X-ray observations.

  3. Integrated CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization Using Non-Thermal Plasmolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Matthew, E-mail: mmoss1@sheffield.ac.uk; Reed, Daniel G.; Allen, Ray W. K.; Styring, Peter [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-02

    In this work, two simple processes for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) such as capture and utilization have been combined to form a whole systems approach to carbon capture and utilization (CCU). The first stage utilizes a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system, which offers many benefits over current amine technologies. It was found that high selectivity can be achieved with rapid adsorption/desorption times while employing a cheap, durable sorbent that exhibits no sorbent losses and is easily regenerated by simple pressure drops. The PSA system is capable of capturing and upgrading the CO{sub 2} concentration of a waste gas stream from 12.5% to a range of higher purities. As many CCU end processes have some tolerance toward impurities in the feed, in the form of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), for example, this is highly advantageous for this PSA system since CO{sub 2} purities in excess of 80% can be achieved with only a few steps and minimal energy input. Non-thermal plasma is one such technology that can tolerate, and even benefit from, small N{sub 2} impurities in the feed, therefore a 100% pure CO{sub 2} stream is not required. The second stage of this process deploys a nanosecond pulsed corona discharge reactor to split the captured CO{sub 2} into carbon monoxide (CO), which can then be used as a chemical feedstock for other syntheses. Corona discharge has proven industrial applications for gas cleaning and the benefit of pulsed power reduces the energy consumption of the system. The wire-in-cylinder geometry concentrates the volume of gas treated into the area of high electric field. Previous work has suggested that moderate conversions can be achieved (9%), compared to other non-thermal plasma methods, but with higher energy efficiencies (>60%).

  4. Non-thermal desorption from interstellar dust grains via exothermic surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, R. T.; Wakelam, V.; Herbst, E.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The gas-phase abundance of methanol in dark quiescent cores in the interstellar medium cannot be explained by gas-phase chemistry. In fact, the only possible synthesis of this species appears to be production on the surfaces of dust grains followed by desorption into the gas. Yet, evaporation is inefficient for heavy molecules such as methanol at the typical temperature of 10 K. It is necessary then to consider non-thermal mechanisms for desorption. But, if such mechanisms are considered for the production of methanol, they must be considered for all surface species. Methods: Our gas-grain network of reactions has been altered by the inclusion of a non-thermal desorption mechanism in which the exothermicity of surface addition reactions is utilized to break the bond between the product species and the surface. Our estimated rate for this process derives from a simple version of classical unimolecular rate theory with a variable parameter only loosely constrained by theoretical work. Results: Our results show that the chemistry of dark clouds is altered slightly at times up to 106 yr, mainly by the enhancement in the gas-phase abundances of hydrogen-rich species such as methanol that are formed on grain surfaces. At later times, however, there is a rather strong change. Instead of the continuing accretion of most gas-phase species onto dust particles, a steady-state is reached for both gas-phase and grain-surface species, with significant abundances for the former. Nevertheless, most of the carbon is contained in an undetermined assortment of heavy surface hydrocarbons. Conclusions: The desorption mechanism discussed here will be better constrained by observational data on pre-stellar cores, where a significant accretion of species such as CO has already occurred.

  5. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetoli, Luis Otavio de Brito, E-mail: luskywalcker@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Geremias, Reginaldo [Departamento de Ciencias Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Goncalvez de Souza, Ivan [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, Nito Angelo, E-mail: debacher@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use O{sub 2} as the feed gas and pyrite was added to the non-thermal plasma reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methylene blue removal by NTP increased in the presence of pyrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The total organic carbon content decreased substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acute toxicity test showed that the treated solution is not toxic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dye degradation occurs via electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation. - Abstract: In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2}. The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N{sub 2} < Ar < O{sub 2}). Using O{sub 2} as the feed gas, pyrite was added to the reactor in acid medium resulting in an accentuated increase in the dye removal, which suggests that pyrite acts as a Fenton-like catalyst. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the dye solution decreased slightly as the plasma treatment time increased, but in the presence of the pyrite catalyst the TOC removal increased substantially. The acute toxicity test using Artemia sp. microcrustaceans showed that the treated solution is not toxic when Ar, O{sub 2} or O{sub 2}-pyrite is employed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of the treated samples indicated that the dye degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  6. First hard X-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the Arches cluster: morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-01-01

    The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe Ku line emission at 6.4 keV from material that is n......The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe Ku line emission at 6.4 keV from material...... and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity...... of the possible illuminating hard X-ray source. The properties of the observed emission are also in broad agreement with the low-energy cosmic-ray proton excitation scenario....

  7. Non Thermal Emission from Clusters of Galaxies: the Importance of a Joint LOFAR/Simbol-X View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C.

    2009-05-01

    Deep radio observations of galaxy clusters have revealed the existence of diffuse radio sources (``halos'' and ``relics'') related to the presence of relativistic electrons and weak magnetic fields in the intracluster volume. I will outline our current knowledge about the presence and properties of this non-thermal cluster component. Despite the recent progress made in observational and theoretical studies of the non-thermal emission in galaxy clusters, a number of open questions about its origin and its effects on the thermo-dynamical evolution of galaxy clusters need to be answered. I will show the importance of combining galaxy cluster observations by new-generation instruments such as LOFAR and Simbol-X. A deeper knowledge of the non-thermal cluster component, together with statistical studies of radio halos and relics, will allow to test the current cluster formation scenario and to better constrain the physics of large scale structure evolution.

  8. Non Thermal Emission from Clusters of Galaxies: the Importance of a Joint LOFAR/Simbol-X View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Deep radio observations of galaxy clusters have revealed the existence of diffuse radio sources ('halos' and 'relics') related to the presence of relativistic electrons and weak magnetic fields in the intracluster volume. I will outline our current knowledge about the presence and properties of this non-thermal cluster component. Despite the recent progress made in observational and theoretical studies of the non-thermal emission in galaxy clusters, a number of open questions about its origin and its effects on the thermo-dynamical evolution of galaxy clusters need to be answered. I will show the importance of combining galaxy cluster observations by new-generation instruments such as LOFAR and Simbol-X. A deeper knowledge of the non-thermal cluster component, together with statistical studies of radio halos and relics, will allow to test the current cluster formation scenario and to better constrain the physics of large scale structure evolution.

  9. Phenomena of non-thermal electrons from the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, W. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jin, W. [Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu 610200, Sichuan (China); Huang, D.W. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Lee, S.G.; Shi, Y.J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Tong, R.H.; Wang, S.Y.; Wei, Y.N.; Ma, T.K.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Some lines from X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) can be enhanced by non-thermal electrons, such as q, r satellite lines and z lines. • Analyze the non-thermal phenomena can reduce the error of electron temperature deduced from the intensity ratio of different lines of the He-like argon spectra from XICS. • XICS can be a tool to measure the non-thermal phenomena from these enhanced lines. - Abstract: A high spectra resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been implemented on J-TEXT Tokamak for the measurements of K{sub α} spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. The wavelength range of K{sub α} spectra of helium-like argon is from 3.9494 Å to 3.9944 Å that includes the resonance line w, intercombination lines x and y, forbidden line z and numerous satellite lines, referenced using standard Gabriel notation. In low-density discharge, the intensity of q, r satellite lines and z lines can be significantly enhanced by non-thermal electrons. Non-thermal electrons are produced due to the low plasma density. The high hard X-ray flux from NaI detector and significant downshift electron cyclotron emissions from energetic runaway electrons also indicated that there is a large population of runaway electrons in the low-density discharge. The non-thermal part of electrons can affect the excitation/transition equilibrium or ionization/recombination equilibrium. The q line is mainly produced by inner-shell excitation of lithium-like argon, and the r line is partially produced by inner-shell excitation of lithium-like argon and dielectronic recombination of helium-like argon.

  10. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  11. Phenomena of non-thermal electrons from the X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z.Y.; Jin, W.; Huang, D.W.; Lee, S.G.; Shi, Y.J.; Tong, R.H.; Wang, S.Y.; Wei, Y.N.; Ma, T.K.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some lines from X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) can be enhanced by non-thermal electrons, such as q, r satellite lines and z lines. • Analyze the non-thermal phenomena can reduce the error of electron temperature deduced from the intensity ratio of different lines of the He-like argon spectra from XICS. • XICS can be a tool to measure the non-thermal phenomena from these enhanced lines. - Abstract: A high spectra resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been implemented on J-TEXT Tokamak for the measurements of K_α spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. The wavelength range of K_α spectra of helium-like argon is from 3.9494 Å to 3.9944 Å that includes the resonance line w, intercombination lines x and y, forbidden line z and numerous satellite lines, referenced using standard Gabriel notation. In low-density discharge, the intensity of q, r satellite lines and z lines can be significantly enhanced by non-thermal electrons. Non-thermal electrons are produced due to the low plasma density. The high hard X-ray flux from NaI detector and significant downshift electron cyclotron emissions from energetic runaway electrons also indicated that there is a large population of runaway electrons in the low-density discharge. The non-thermal part of electrons can affect the excitation/transition equilibrium or ionization/recombination equilibrium. The q line is mainly produced by inner-shell excitation of lithium-like argon, and the r line is partially produced by inner-shell excitation of lithium-like argon and dielectronic recombination of helium-like argon.

  12. Nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves in electron-beam plasma system with non-thermal hot electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwakil, S. A.; El-hanbaly, A. M.; Elgarayh, A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Kassem, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    The properties of nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves have been investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless four-component plasma system consisting of a cold electron fluid, non-thermal hot electrons obeying a non-thermal distribution, an electron beam and stationary ions. It is found that the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The dependence of rogue wave profiles on the electron beam and energetic population parameter are discussed. The results of the present investigation may be applicable in auroral zone plasma.

  13. Geometry of the non-thermal emission in SN 1006. Azimuthal variations of cosmic-ray acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenflug, R.; Ballet, J.; Dubner, Gloria Mabel; Giacani, Elsa Beatriz; Decourchelle, A.; Ferrando, P.

    2017-01-01

    SN 1006 is the prototype of shell supernova remnants, in which non-thermal synchrotron emission dominates the X-ray spectrum. The non-thermal emission is due to the cosmic-ray electrons accelerated behind the blast wave. The X-ray synchrotron emission is due to the highest energy electrons, and is thus a tracer of the maximum energy electrons may reach behind a shock. We have put together all XMM-Newton observations to build a full map of SN 1006. The very low brightness a...

  14. Non-thermal emission from young supernova remnants: Implications on cosmic ray acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Arguedas, Miguel A.

    For a long time, supernova remnants have been thought to constitute the main source of galactic cosmic rays. Plausible mechanisms have been proposed through which these objects would be able to transfer some of their energy to charged particles. Detailed studies of SNRs, particularly allowed by the spectral and spatial resolution obtained with telescopes such as the Chandra X-Ray Observatory , have permitted us to understand some of the properties of high-energy particles within these objects and their interactions with their environment. In the first part of this work, the basic concepts of particle acceleration in SNRs are outlined, and the main observational tools available today for studying high-energy phenomena in astrophysics are mentioned briefly. In the second part, a study of non-thermal emission from the young SNR Cassiopeia A is presented. Through the use of a very deep one million-second Chandra observation of this remnant, the spectral evolution across non-thermal filaments near the forward shock was studied. A consistent hardening of the spectrum towards the exterior of the remnant was found and explained via a model developed that takes into account particle diffusion, plasma advection and radiation losses. The role of particle diffusion was studied and its effect on the photon spectral index quantified. In the model, the diffusion is included as a fraction of Bohm-type diffusion, which is consistent with the data. The model also allowed an estimation of the electron distribution, the magnetic field and its orientation, as well as the level of magnetic turbulence. In the third part, a multi-wavelength study of two young SNRs is presented. Multi-wavelength modeling of spectral energy distributions (SED) may hold the key to disentangle the nature and content of cosmic rays within these objects. The first model shown presents state of the art measurements gathered for Cassiopeia A, and the modeling is based partly on the results presented in the second

  15. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  16. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  17. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  18. Effect of Non Thermal Plasma on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Forage Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.; El-Aragi, G.M.; Tarrad, M.M.; Zayed, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Farm, at Inshas, Egypt during 2011–2012 on alfalfa. The aim of this investigation to caused mutation in alfalfa to obtain new variation. Seeds of the alfalfa were subjected to six doses of non-thermal plasma pulse. The plasma (consisting of ozone, UV and visible light) was injected into the seed samples for different durations or number of pulses. The doses used treatments were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 pulses (P) and non-treated control. The results showed difference seeds in both level field performances from cut 1st to cut 10th in the forage production. The results showed differences between the Control and treatment (number of pulses (P)) in each of all cuts for the productivity. The results showed the impact of plant height, Number of leaves/plant and number of branches/leaf and stem diameter as well as fresh weight of plant, fresh/weight (t/fed), dry yield (t/fed) in some cuts for Pulses 2, 4 and 10, and the ten pulses were the best for the majority of the qualities and cuts.

  19. Analysis of the biological effects of a non-thermal plasma on saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gyung S.; Baik, Ku Y.; Kim, Jung G.; Kim, Yun J.; Lee, Kyung A.; Jung, Ran J.; Cho, Guang S.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular and the molecular responses of eukaryotic yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to a non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure are analyzed. A plasma device with a dielectric barrier discharge is used in order to understand the mechanisms of the plasma action on eukaryotic microbes. When the yeast cells are exposed to a plasma (at a 2-mm distance) and then cultured on a YPD (yeast extract, peptone, and dextrose) - agar plate, the number of surviving cells is reduced over exposure time. More than a 50% reduction in number is observed after two exposures of 5 minutes' duration. In addition, very small whitish colonies appear after the two exposures. The microscopic analysis indicates that the yeast cells treated with this plasma exposure have rough and shrunken shapes in comparison to the oval shapes with smooth surfaces of the control cells. The profile of proteins analyzed by using 2-dimentional electrophoresis demonstrates that the level of proteins with high molecular weights is increased in plasma-treated cells.

  20. Effects of gap and elevated pressure on ethanol reforming in a non-thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Trung Q; Zhu Xinli; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles, mobile power generators and for hydrogen-enhanced combustion from ethanol is demonstrated using energy-efficient non-thermal plasma reforming. A tubular reactor with a multipoint electrode system operated in pulsed mode was used. Complete conversion can be achieved with high selectivity (based on ethanol) of H 2 and CO of 111% and 78%, respectively, at atmospheric pressure. An elevated pressure of 15 psig shows improvement of selectivity of H 2 and CO to 120% and 87%, with a significant reduction of C 2 H x side products. H 2 selectivity increased to 127% when a high ratio (29.2) of water-to-ethanol feed was used. Increasing CO 2 selectivity is observed at higher water-to-ethanol ratios indicating that the water gas shift reaction occurs. A higher productivity and lower C 2 H x products were observed at larger gas gaps. The highest overall energy efficiency achieved, including electrical power consumption, was 82% for all products or 66% for H 2 only.

  1. Non-thermal Power-Law Distributions in Solar and Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Battaglia, M.; Birn, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Effenberger, F.; Eriksson, E.; Fletcher, L.; Hatch, S.; Imada, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Kuhar, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Miyoshi, Y.; Retino, A.

    2017-12-01

    Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies in solar and space plasma environments. While energy spectra of accelerated particles often exhibit a power-law and are characterized by the power-law index δ, it remains unclear how particles are accelerated to high energies and how δ is determined. Here, we review previous observations of the power-law index δ in a variety of different plasma environments with a particular focus on sub-relativistic electrons. It appears that in regions more closely related to magnetic reconnection (such as the "above-the-looptop" solar hard X-ray source and the plasma sheet in Earth's magnetotail), the spectra are typically soft (δ> 4). This is in contrast to the typically hard spectra (δuniform in the plasma sheet, while power-law distributions still exist even in quiet times. The role of magnetotail reconnection in the electron power-law formation could therefore be confounded with these background conditions. Because different regions have been studied with different instrumentations and methodologies, we point out a need for more systematic and coordinated studies of power-law distributions for a better understanding of possible scaling laws in particle acceleration as well as their universality.

  2. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  3. Interpretation of the microwave non-thermal radiation of the Moon during impact events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grimalsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent observations of the non-thermal electromagnetic (EM emission at wavelengths of 2.5cm, 13cm, and 21cm are summarized. After strong impacts of meteorites or spacecrafts (Lunar Prospector with the Moon's surface, the radio emissions in various frequency ranges were recorded. The most distinctive phenomenon is the appearance of quasi-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of 3–10K during several hours. The mechanism concerning the EM emission from a propagating crack within a piezoactive dielectric medium is considered. The impact may cause the global acoustic oscillations of the Moon. These oscillations lead to the crackening of the Moon's surface. The propagation of a crack within a piezoactive medium is accompanied by the excitation of an alternative current source. It is revealed that the source of the EM emission is the effective transient magnetization that appears in the case of a moving crack in piezoelectrics. The moving crack creates additional non-stationary local mechanical stresses around the apex of the crack, which generate the non-stationary electromagnetic field. For the cracks with a length of 0.1–1µm, the maximum of the EM emission may be in the 1–10GHz range.

  4. Disinfection effect of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for foodborne bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Mohammad Rasel; Inomata, Takanori; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Kakikawa, Makiko; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Yasunori; Yano, Toshihiro; Miwa, Shoji; Noguchi, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NAPP) exposure can be a suitable alternative for bacteria inactivation in food processing industry. Specimen placed in the enclosure are exposed to various reactive radicals produced within the discharge chamber. It is also exposed to the periodic variation of the electric field strength in the chamber. Dielectric barrier discharge is produced by high voltage pulse (Vpp = 18 kV, pulse width 20 μs, repetition frequency 10 kHz) in a polypropylene box (volume = 350 cm3) using helium as main feed gas. Inactivation efficiency of NAPP depends on the duration of NAPP exposure, applied voltage pulse strength and type, pulse duration, electrode separation and feed gas composition. In this study we have investigated inactivation of Bacillus lichenformis spore as an example of food borne bacteria. Keeping applied voltage, electrode configuration and total gas flow rate constant, spores are exposed to direct NAPP for different time duration while O2 concentration in the feed gas composition is varied. 10 minutes NAPP exposure resulted in ~ 3 log reduction of Bacillus lichenformis spores for 1% O2concentration (initial concentration ~ 106 / specimen). This work is supported by research and development promotion grant provided by the Hokuriku Industrial Advancement Center.

  5. Non-thermal plasmas for non-catalytic and catalytic VOC abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, Arne M.; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We review the current status of catalytic and non-catalytic VOC abatement based on a vast number of research papers. → The underlying mechanisms of plasma-catalysis for VOC abatement are discussed. → Critical process parameters that determine the influent are discussed and compared. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent achievements and the current status of non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology for the abatement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many reactor configurations have been developed to generate a NTP at atmospheric pressure. Therefore in this review article, the principles of generating NTPs are outlined. Further on, this paper is divided in two equally important parts: plasma-alone and plasma-catalytic systems. Combination of NTP with heterogeneous catalysis has attracted increased attention in order to overcome the weaknesses of plasma-alone systems. An overview is given of the present understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-catalytic processes. In both parts (plasma-alone systems and plasma-catalysis), literature on the abatement of VOCs is reviewed in close detail. Special attention is given to the influence of critical process parameters on the removal process.

  6. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for Muscle Regeneration and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Kang, Sung Un; Kim, Yang Eun; Park, Ju Kyeong; Yang, Sang Sik; Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yun Sang; Lee, Yuijina; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can repair muscle tissue damage, but significant loss of muscle tissue or its long-lasting chronic degeneration makes injured skeletal muscle tissue difficult to restore. It has been demonstrated that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) can be used in many biological areas including regenerative medicine. Therefore, we determined whether NTP, as a non-contact biological external stimulator that generates biological catalyzers, can induce regeneration of injured muscle without biomaterials. Treatment with NTP in the defected muscle of a Sprague Dawley (SD) rat increased the number of proliferating muscle cells 7 days after plasma treatment (dapt) and rapidly induced formation of muscle tissue and muscle cell differentiation at 14 dapt. In addition, in vitro experiments also showed that NTP could induce muscle cell proliferation and differentiation of human muscle cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that NTP promotes restoration of muscle defects through control of cell proliferation and differentiation without biological or structural supporters, suggesting that NTP has the potential for use in muscle tissue engineering and regenerative therapies. PMID:27349181

  7. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golberg, A; Laufer, S; Rabinowitch, H D; Rubinsky, B

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 deg. C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  8. Experimental studies of thermal and non-thermal electron cyclotron phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, F.S.

    1984-12-01

    A direct measurement of wave absorption in the ISX-B tokamak at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency is reported. Measurements of the absorption of a wave polarized in the extraordinary mode and propagating perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field are in agreement with the absorption predicted by the linearized Vlasov equation for a thermal plasma. Agreement is found both for an analytic approximation to the wave absorption and for a numerical simulation of ray propagation in toroidal geometry. Observations are also reported on a non-linear, three-wave interaction process occurring during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating in the Versator II tokamak. The measured spectra and the threshold power are consistent with a model in which the incident power in the extraordinary mode of polarization decays at the upper hybrid resonance layer into a lower hybrid wave and an electron Bernstein wave. Finally, measurements of non-thermal emission at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency and below the electron plasma frequency are reported from low density, non-Maxwellian plasma in the Versator II tokamak. The emission spectra are in agreement with a model in which waves are driven unstable at the anomalous Doppler resonance, while only weakly damped at the Cerenkov resonance

  9. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  10. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golberg, A; Laufer, S [Center for Bioengineering in the Service of Humanity and Society, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rabinowitch, H D [Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Robert H Smith Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76 100 (Israel); Rubinsky, B, E-mail: Rabin@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 84720 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 deg. C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  11. Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2016-07-16

    The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization of the flame in a V-shape or an M-shape geometry, over a central stainless steel rod. The plasma is produced by short pulses of 10-ns duration, 8-kV maximum voltage amplitude, applied at 10 kHz. The central rod is used as a cathode, while the anode is a stainless steel ring, fixed on the outer surface of the quartz tube. Plasma forcing is produced by positive or negative steps of plasma. The step response of the flame is investigated through heat release rate (HRR) fluctuations, to facilitate comparisons with flame response to acoustic perturbations. The chemiluminescence of CH* between two consecutive pulses was recorded using an intensified camera equipped with an optical filter to estimate the HRR fluctuations. First, the results show that the flame does not respond to each single plasma pulse, but is affected only by the average plasma power, confirming the step nature of the forcing. The temporal evolutions of HRR are analyzed and the flame transfer functions are determined. A forcing mechanism, as a local increase in the reactivity of the fluid close to the rod, is proposed and compared with numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement. © 2016.

  12. Growth and male reproduction improvement of non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Zhang, Jiao; Luong Huynh, Do; Chandimali, Nisansala; Kang, Tae Yoon; Kim, Nameun; Mok, Young Sun; Kwon, Taeho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2018-05-01

    This study investigated whether plasma treatment of fertilized eggs before hatching could affect the growth and reproduction of chickens. Three point five-day-incubated fertilized eggs exposed to non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma at 2.81 W of power for 2 min resulted in the highest growth in chickens. Plasma growth-promoting effect was regulated by the reactive oxygen species homeostasis and the improvement of energy metabolism via increasing serum hormones and adenosine triphosphate levels which were resulted from the regulation of genes involved in antioxidant defense, hormone biosynthesis and energetic metabolism. Interestingly, plasma-treated male chickens conspicuously grew faster than females. Further, aspects of male reproductive system (testosterone level and sperm quality) were improved by the plasma treatment but female reproduction (estradiol and progesterone levels, egg-laying rate and egg weight) had no significant changes. Unfortunately, offspring whose parents were the optimal plasma-treated chickens did not show any difference on growth characteristics and failed to inherit excellent growth features from their parents. Our results suggest a new method to improve the growth rate and male reproductive capacity in poultry but it is only effective in the plasma direct-treated generation.

  13. Functionalization of polymer surfaces by medium frequency non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T.; Trigueiro, J. S.; Bundaleski, N.; Teodoro, O. M. N. D.; Sério, S.; Debacher, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    This work addresses the surface modification of different polymers by argon dielectric barrier discharge, using bromoform vapours. Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed that plasma etching occurs in stages and may be related to the reach of the species generated and obviously the gap between the electrodes. In addition, the stages of flatten surface or homogeneity may be the result of the transient crosslinking promoted by the intense UV radiation generated by the non- thermal plasma. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis showed that bromine was inserted on the polymer surface as Csbnd Br bonds and as adsorbed HBr. The obtained results demonstrate that the highest degree of bromofunctionalization was achieved on polypropylene surface, which contains about 8,5% of Br. After its derivatization in ammonia, Br disappeared and about 6% of nitrogen in the form of amine group was incorporated at the surface. This result can be considered as a clear fingerprint of the Br substitution by the amine group, thus illustrating the efficiency of the proposed method for functionalization of polymer surfaces.

  14. Improvement of Polytetrafluoroethylene Surface Energy by Repetitive Pulse Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment in Atmospheric Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guoqing; Zhang Guanjun; Zhang Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy by non-thermal plasma treatment is presented, using a nanosecond-positive-edge repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharge generator in atmospheric air. The electrical parameters including discharging power, peak and density of micro-discharge current were calculated, and the electron energy was estimated. Surface treatment experiments of polytetrafluoroethylene films were conducted for both different applied voltages and different treating durations. Results show that the surface energy of polytetrafluoroethylene film could be improved to 40 mJ/m 2 or more by plasma treatment. Surface roughness measurement and surface X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are chemical etching and implantation of polar oxygen groups in the sample surface treating process, resulting in the improvement of the sample surface energy. Compared with an AC source of 50 Hz, the dielectric barrier discharges generated by a repetitive pulsed source could provide higher peak power, lower mean power, larger micro-discharge current density and higher electron energy. Therefore, with the same applied peak voltage and treating duration, the improvement of polytetrafluoroethylene surface energy using repetitive pulsed plasma is more effective, and the plasma treatment process based on repetitive pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in air is thus feasible and applicable.

  15. Detection of non-thermal X-ray emission in the lobes and jets of Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M. N.; Wise, M. W.; Huppenkothen, D.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Snios, B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Duffy, R. T.; McNamara, B. R.

    2018-06-01

    We present a spectral analysis of the lobes and X-ray jets of Cygnus A, using more than 2 Ms of Chandra observations. The X-ray jets are misaligned with the radio jets and significantly wider. We detect non-thermal emission components in both lobes and jets. For the eastern lobe and jet, we find 1 keV flux densities of 71_{-10}^{+10} nJy and 24_{-4}^{+4} nJy, and photon indices of 1.72_{-0.03}^{+0.03} and 1.64_{-0.04}^{+0.04} respectively. For the western lobe and jet, we find flux densities of 50_{-13}^{+12} nJy and 13_{-5}^{+5} nJy, and photon indices of 1.97_{-0.10}^{+0.23} and 1.86_{-0.12}^{+0.18} respectively. Using these results, we modeled the electron energy distributions of the lobes as broken power laws with age breaks. We find that a significant population of non-radiating particles is required to account for the total pressure of the eastern lobe. In the western lobe, no such population is required and the low energy cutoff to the electron distribution there needs to be raised to obtain pressures consistent with observations. This discrepancy is a consequence of the differing X-ray photon indices, which may indicate that the turnover in the inverse-Compton spectrum of the western lobe is at lower energies than in the eastern lobe. We modeled the emission from both jets as inverse-Compton emission. There is a narrow region of parameter space for which the X-ray jet can be a relic of an earlier active phase, although lack of knowledge about the jet's electron distribution and particle content makes the modelling uncertain.

  16. Cellular attachment and differentiation on titania nanotubes exposed to air- or nitrogen-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yeon Seo

    Full Text Available The surface topography and chemistry of titanium implants are important factors for successful osseointegration. However, chemical modification of an implant surface using currently available methods often results in the disruption of topographical features and the loss of beneficial effects during the shelf life of the implant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the recently highlighted portable non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ, elicited from one of two different gas sources (nitrogen and air, to TiO2 nanotube surfaces to further improve their osteogenic properties while preserving the topographical morphology. The surface treatment was performed before implantation to avoid age-related decay. The surface chemistry and morphology of the TiO2 nanotube surfaces before and after the NTAPPJ treatment were determined using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profiler, a contact angle goniometer, and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability, attachment and morphology were confirmed using calcein AM and ethidium homodimer-1 staining, and analysis of gene expression using rat mesenchymal stem cells was performed using a real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that both portable nitrogen- and air-based NTAPPJ could be used on TiO2 nanotube surfaces easily and without topographical disruption. NTAPPJ resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of the surfaces as well as changes in the surface chemistry, which consequently increased the cell viability, attachment and differentiation compared with the control samples. The nitrogen-based NTAPPJ treatment group exhibited a higher osteogenic gene expression level than the air-based NTAPPJ treatment group due to the lower atomic percentage of carbon on the surface that resulted from treatment. It was concluded that NTAPPJ treatment of TiO2 nanotube surfaces results in an increase in

  17. Thermal treatment and non-thermal technologies for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, T.F.; Greer, B.A.; Lawless, M.

    1996-01-01

    More than 1,500 manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites exist throughout the US. Many are contaminated with coal tar from coal-fueled gas works which produced town gas from the mid-1800s through the 1950s. Virtually all old US cities have such sites. Most are in downtown areas as they were installed for central distribution of manufactured gas. While a few sites are CERCLA/Superfund, most are not. However, the contaminants and methods used for remediation are similar to those used for Superfund clean-ups of coal tar contamination from wood-treating and coke oven facilities. Clean-up of sites is triggered by regulatory pressure, property transfers and re-development as well as releases to the environment--in particular, via groundwater migration. Due to utility de-regulation, site clean-ups may also be triggered by sale of a utility or of a specific utility site to other utilities. Utilities have used two approaches in dealing with their MGP sites. The first is do nothing and hope for the best. History suggests that, sooner or later, these sites become a bigger problem via a release, citizen lawsuit or regulatory/public service commission intervention. The second, far better approach is to define the problem now and make plans /for waste treatment or immobilization. This paper describes recent experience with a high capacity/low cost thermal desorption process for this waste and reviews non-thermal technology, such as bio-treatment, capping, recycling, and dig and haul. Cost data are provided for all technologies, and a case study for thermal treatment is also presented

  18. A Non-thermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Pal, P. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report the analysis result of UV/X-ray emission from AR Scorpii, which is an intermediate polar (IP) composed of a magnetic white dwarf and an M-type star, with the XMM-Newton data. The X-ray/UV emission clearly shows a large variation over the orbit, and their intensity maximum (or minimum) is located at the superior conjunction (or inferior conjunction) of the M star orbit. The hardness ratio of the X-ray emission shows a small variation over the orbital phase and shows no indication of the absorption by an accretion column. These properties are naturally explained by the emission from the M star surface rather than that from the accretion column on the white dwarf’s (WD) star, which is similar to usual IPs. Additionally, the observed X-ray emission also modulates with the WD’s spin with a pulse fraction of ∼14%. The peak position is aligned in the optical/UV/X-ray band. This supports the hypothesis that the electrons in AR Scorpii are accelerated to a relativistic speed and emit non-thermal photons via the synchrotron radiation. In the X-ray bands, evidence of the power-law spectrum is found in the pulsed component, although the observed emission is dominated by the optically thin thermal plasma emissions with several different temperatures. It is considered that the magnetic dissipation/reconnection process on the M star surface heats up the plasma to a temperature of several keV and also accelerates the electrons to the relativistic speed. The relativistic electrons are trapped in the WD’s closed magnetic field lines by the magnetic mirror effect. In this model, the observed pulsed component is explained by the emissions from the first magnetic mirror point.

  19. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marković, Marijana [Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jović, Milica; Stanković, Dalibor [Innovation Center, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia); Kovačević, Vesna [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 44, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Roglić, Goran [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia); Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana [Center of Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Manojlović, Dragan, E-mail: manojlo@chem.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 51, 11058 Belgrade 118 (Serbia)

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe{sup 2+}). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC–MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15 min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. - Highlights: • Twelve ibuprofen degradation products were identified in total. • The degradation percentage differed between treatments (DBD/Fe{sup 2+} was 99%). • In DBD/Fe{sup 2+} only aliphatic degradation products were identified. • V. fischeri was sensitive to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment. • A. salina showed no toxic effect when exposed to all post treatment solutions.

  20. Temperature diagnostics of a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan

    2013-09-01

    The study reflects the concept of the temperature as a physical quantity resulting from the second thermodynamic law. The reliability of different approaches of the temperature diagnostics of open non-equilibrium systems is discussed using examples of low temperature atmospheric pressure discharges. The focus of this work is a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for local surface treatment at ambient atmosphere. The micro-discharge is driven with a capacitively coupled radio frequency electric field at 27.12 MHz and fed with argon at rates of about 1 slm through the capillary with an inner diameter of 4 mm. The discharge consists of several contracted filaments with diameter around 300 μm which are rotating azimuthally in the capillary in a self-organized manner. While the measured temperatures of the filament core exceed 700 K, the heat impact on a target below the plasma jet remains limited leading to target temperatures below 400 K. Different kinds of temperatures and energy transport processes are proposed and experimentally investigated. Nevertheless, a reliable and detailed temperature diagnostics is a challenge. We report on a novel diagnostics approach for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the gas temperature based on the optical properties of the plasma. Laser Schlieren Deflectometry is adapted to explore temperature profiles of filaments and their behaviour. In parallel, the method demonstrates a fundamental Fermat's principle of minimal energy. Information acquired with this method plays an important role for the optimization of local thin film deposition and surface functionalization by means of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The work was supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB-TR 24.

  1. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor and Fenton reaction for degradation of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marković, Marijana; Jović, Milica; Stanković, Dalibor; Kovačević, Vesna; Roglić, Goran; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Manojlović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds have been detected frequently in surface and ground water. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were reported as very efficient for removal of various organic compounds. Nevertheless, due to incomplete degradation, toxic intermediates can induce more severe effects than the parent compound. Therefore, toxicity studies are necessary for the evaluation of possible uses of AOPs. In this study the effectiveness and capacity for environmental application of three different AOPs were estimated. They were applied and evaluated for removal of ibuprofen from water solutions. Therefore, two treatments were performed in a non-thermal plasma reactor with dielectric barrier discharge with and without a homogenous catalyst (Fe 2+ ). The third treatment was the Fenton reaction. The degradation rate of ibuprofen was measured by HPLC-DAD and the main degradation products were identified using LC–MS TOF. Twelve degradation products were identified, and there were differences according to the various treatments applied. Toxicity effects were determined with two bioassays: Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina. The efficiency of AOPs was demonstrated for all treatments, where after 15 min degradation percentage was over 80% accompanied by opening of the aromatic ring. In the treatment with homogenous catalyst degradation reached 99%. V. fischeri toxicity test has shown greater sensitivity to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment in comparison to A. salina. - Highlights: • Twelve ibuprofen degradation products were identified in total. • The degradation percentage differed between treatments (DBD/Fe 2+ was 99%). • In DBD/Fe 2+ only aliphatic degradation products were identified. • V. fischeri was sensitive to ibuprofen solution after the Fenton treatment. • A. salina showed no toxic effect when exposed to all post treatment solutions

  2. Surface modification of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds by non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatment for improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Song, Doo-Hoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-01-01

    Surface modifications induced by non-thermal plasma have been used extensively in biomedical applications. The attachment and proliferation of osteoblast cells are important in bone tissue engineering using scaffolds. Hence the effect of non-thermal plasma on hydroxyapatite/β-tri-calcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffolds in terms of improving osteoblast attachment and proliferation was investigated. Experimental groups were treated with non-thermal plasma for 10 min and 20 min and a control group was not treated with non-thermal plasma. For surface chemistry analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurement on the surface. Atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM) was used to test the change in surface roughness and cell attachment and proliferation were evaluated using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. XPS spectra revealed a decreased amount of carbon on the surface of the plasma-treated sample. The contact angle was also decreased following plasma treatment, indicating improved hydrophilicity of plasma-treated surfaces compared to the untreated disc. A significant increase in MC3T3E-1 cell attachment and proliferation was noted on plasma-treated samples as compared to untreated specimens. The results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air plasma treatments provide beneficial surface characteristics on HA/β-TCP scaffolds. - Highlights: ► Non-thermal plasma increased OH- and decreased C on biphasic scaffold. ► Non-thermal plasma had no effect on surface roughness. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in hydrophilic surface. ► Non-thermal plasma resulted in better cell attachment and proliferation. ► Non-thermal plasma treatment on biphasic scaffold is useful for tissue engineering

  3. Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, J; Foest, R; Reuter, S; Kewitz, T; Šperka, J; Weltmann, K-D

    2012-10-01

    The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 ± 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 ± 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable

  4. Signatures of Hot Molecular Hydrogen Absorption from Protoplanetary Disks. I. Non-thermal Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Arulanantham, Nicole; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Kruczek, Nicholas, E-mail: keri.hoadley@colorado.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), University of Colorado Space Science Building (SPSC), 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The environment around protoplanetary disks (PPDs) regulates processes that drive the chemical and structural evolution of circumstellar material. We perform a detailed empirical survey of warm molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption observed against H i-Ly α (Ly α : λ 1215.67) emission profiles for 22 PPDs, using archival Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet (UV) spectra to identify H{sub 2} absorption signatures and quantify the column densities of H{sub 2} ground states in each sightline. We compare thermal equilibrium models of H{sub 2} to the observed H{sub 2} rovibrational level distributions. We find that, for the majority of targets, there is a clear deviation in high-energy states ( T {sub exc} ≳ 20,000 K) away from thermal equilibrium populations ( T (H{sub 2}) ≳ 3500 K). We create a metric to estimate the total column density of non-thermal H{sub 2} ( N (H{sub 2}){sub nLTE}) and find that the total column densities of thermal ( N (H{sub 2})) and N (H{sub 2}){sub nLTE} correlate for transition disks and targets with detectable C iv-pumped H{sub 2} fluorescence. We compare N (H{sub 2}) and N (H{sub 2}){sub nLTE} to circumstellar observables and find that N (H{sub 2}){sub nLTE} correlates with X-ray and far-UV luminosities, but no correlations are observed with the luminosities of discrete emission features (e.g., Ly α , C iv). Additionally, N (H{sub 2}) and N (H{sub 2}){sub nLTE} are too low to account for the H{sub 2} fluorescence observed in PPDs, so we speculate that this H{sub 2} may instead be associated with a diffuse, hot, atomic halo surrounding the planet-forming disk. We create a simple photon-pumping model for each target to test this hypothesis and find that Ly α efficiently pumps H{sub 2} levels with T {sub exc} ≥ 10,000 K out of thermal equilibrium.

  5. Laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature analysis of filamentary non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, J.; Foest, R.; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K.-D. [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Kewitz, T. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Sperka, J. [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet in Ar is characterized by employing laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD). It is demonstrated as a proof of principle, that the spatial and temporal changes of the refractive index n in the optical beam path related to the neutral gas temperature of the plasma jet can be monitored and evaluated simultaneously. The refraction of a laser beam in a high gradient field of n(r) with cylindrical symmetry is given for a general real refraction index profile. However, the usually applied Abel approach represents an ill-posed problem and in particular for this plasma configuration. A simple analytical model is proposed in order to minimize the statistical error. Based on that, the temperature profile, specifically the absolute temperature in the filament core, the FWHM, and the frequencies of the collective filament dynamics are obtained for non-stationary conditions. For a gas temperature of 700 K inside the filament, the presented model predicts maximum deflection angles of the laser beam of 0.3 mrad which is in accordance to the experimental results obtained with LSD. Furthermore, the experimentally obtained FWHM of the temperature profile produced by the filament at the end of capillary is (1.5 {+-} 0.2) mm, which is about 10 times wider than the visual radius of the filament. The obtained maximum temperature in the effluent is (450 {+-} 30) K and is in consistence with results of other techniques. The study demonstrates that LSD represents a useful low-cost method for monitoring the spatiotemporal behaviour of microdischarges and allows to uncover their dynamic characteristics, e.g., the temperature profile even for challenging diagnostic conditions such as moving thin discharge filaments. The method is not restricted to the miniaturized and self-organized plasma studied here. Instead, it can be readily applied to other configurations that produce measurable

  6. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis Spores in a Sealed Package Using a Non-thermal Plasma System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Kevin M.; Jensen, J. L.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Connolly, J.; Mosnier, J. P.; Cullen, P. J.

    The safety of packaged food and medical devices is a major concern to consumers and government officials. Recent inventions (PK-1 and PK-2) based on the principles of non-thermal, atmospheric plasma has shown significant reduction in bacterial contamination inside a sealed package. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK-1 and PK-2 systems in the reduction of Bacillus subtilis spores using packages containing air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). The experimental design consisted of the following parameters: (1) two voltage conditions: 13.5 kV with 1.0 cm electrode gap (PK-1) and 80 kV with 4.5 cm electrode gap (PK-2), (2) two treatment conditions: inside and outside the field of ionization, (3) PK-1 and PK-2 optimized treatment times: 300 and 120 s, respectively, and (4) two package gas types: air and modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). Measurements included: (1) bacterial reductions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. atrophaeus), (2) ozone, nitrous oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide concentrations, and (3) relative humidity. Bacillus subtilis (1.7 × 106/strip) were loaded into sterile uncovered petri dishes and treated with ionization generated in packages using air or MA gas blend. Samples were treated for 300 s (PK-1) or 120 s (PK-2) and stored at room ­temperature for 24 h. Results documented relative humidity (RH) ranged from 20% to 30%. After 300 s of PK-1 treatment (13.5 kV/44 W/1.0 cm gap), ozone concentrations were 6,000 ppm (air) and 7,500 ppm (MA). After 120 s of PK-2 treatment (80 kV/150 W/4.5 cm), ozone concentrations were 7,500 ppm (air) and 12,000 ppm (MA). Ozone and NOx concentrations were non-detect (ND) after 24 h. PK-1 carbon monoxide levels were package ionization process.

  7. THE NON-THERMAL, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO EMISSION FROM Cyg OB2 no. 5: A WIND-COLLISION REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The radio emission from the well-studied massive stellar system Cyg OB2 no. 5 is known to fluctuate with a period of 6.7 years between a low-flux state, when the emission is entirely of free-free origin, and a high-flux state, when an additional non-thermal component (of hitherto unknown nature) appears. In this paper, we demonstrate that the radio flux of that non-thermal component is steady on timescales of hours and that its morphology is arc-like. This shows that the non-thermal emission results from the collision between the strong wind driven by the known contact binary in the system and that of an unseen companion on a somewhat eccentric orbit with a 6.7 year period and a 5-10 mas semimajor axis. Together with the previously reported wind-collision region located about 0.''8 to the northeast of the contact binary, so far Cyg OB2 no. 5 appears to be the only multiple system known to harbor two radio-imaged wind-collision regions.

  8. Non-thermal emission in the core of Perseus: results from a long XMM-Newton observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a long XMM-Newton observation of the core of the Perseus cluster to validate claims of a non-thermal component discovered with Chandra. From a meticulous analysis of our dataset, which includes a detailed treatment of systematic errors, we find the 2-10 keV surface brightness of the non-thermal component to be less than about 5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy between the XMM-Newton and Chandra estimates is a problem in the effective area calibration of the latter. Our EPIC-based magnetic field lower limits do not disagree with Faraday rotation measure estimates on a few cool cores and with a minimum energy estimate on Perseus. In the not too distant future Simbol-X may allow detection of non-thermal components with intensities more than 10 times lower than those that can be measured with EPIC; nonetheless even the exquisite sensitivity within reach for Simbol-X might be insufficient to detect the IC emission from Perseus.

  9. Relationship between carbohydrate composition and fungal deterioration of functional strawberry juices preserved using non-thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Lucía; Quintana, Gabriel; Moreira, María R; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2017-12-12

    The quantification of the main carbohydrates present in strawberry juices enriched with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and preserved by non-thermal techniques (vanillin and ultrasound) was conducted, in addition to an investigation of the evolution of these compounds and their relationship with fungal deterioration over 14 days of refrigerated storage. A simple and environmentally friendly analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with a reflection index detector was developed for simultaneous determination of inulin, FOS and mono- and disaccharides present in the juices. When analyzing the evolution of carbohydrates during storage, a direct relationship between the consumption of sucrose and the growth of yeasts and molds (main spoilage flora in strawberry) was observed, especially in untreated samples (control). By contrast, no sucrose consumption was observed during storage of the treated sample, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the non-thermal treatments for controlling yeasts and mold growth. In turn, inulin and FOS added to juices were not degraded during storage. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that non-thermal treatments are adequate for preventing the growth of deteriorative flora in strawberry juices and that the addition of inulin and FOS can be a good strategy for functionalizing them, as well as improving their nutritional properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Time-resolved investigations of the non-thermal ablation process of graphite induced by femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalupka, C., E-mail: christian.kalupka@llt.rwth-aachen.de; Finger, J. [Chair for Laser Technology LLT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074 (Germany); Reininghaus, M. [Chair for Laser Technology LLT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52074 (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstraße 15, Aachen 52074 (Germany)

    2016-04-21

    We report on the in-situ analysis of the ablation dynamics of the, so-called, laser induced non-thermal ablation process of graphite. A highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is excited by femtosecond laser pulses with fluences below the classic thermal ablation threshold. The ablation dynamics are investigated by axial pump-probe reflection measurements, transversal pump-probe shadowgraphy, and time-resolved transversal emission photography. The combination of the applied analysis methods allows for a continuous and detailed time-resolved observation of the non-thermal ablation dynamics from several picoseconds up to 180 ns. Formation of large, μm-sized particles takes place within the first 3.5 ns after irradiation. The following propagation of ablation products and the shock wave front are tracked by transversal shadowgraphy up to 16 ns. The comparison of ablation dynamics of different fluences by emission photography reveals thermal ablation products even for non-thermal fluences.

  11. Treatment of methyl orange by nitrogen non-thermal plasma in a corona reactor: The role of reactive nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadorin, Bruno Mena, E-mail: brunomenacadorin@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Tralli, Vitor Douglas [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Ceriani, Elisa [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy); Benetoli, Luís Otávio de Brito [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Marotta, Ester, E-mail: ester.marotta@unipd.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy); Ceretta, Claudio [Department of Industrial Engineering, Università di Padova (Italy); Debacher, Nito Angelo [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Paradisi, Cristina [Department of Chemical Sciences, Università di Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Nitration of methyl orange is one of the main processes in treatment with N{sub 2}-plasma. • MS/MS analysis shows preferred nitration of methyl orange in ortho position. • N{sub 2} plasma, N{sub 2}-PAW, reaction with NO{sub 2}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 2 give the same products. - Abstract: Methyl orange (MO) azo dye served as model organic pollutant to investigate the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced water treatments. The results of experiments in which MO aqueous solutions were directly exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP are compared with those of control experiments in which MO was allowed to react with nitrite, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide, which are species formed in water exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP. Treatment of MO was also performed in PAW, Plasma Activated Water, that is water previously exposed to N{sub 2}-NTP. Both direct N{sub 2}-NTP and N{sub 2}-PAW treatments induced the rapid decay of MO. No appreciable reaction was instead observed when MO was treated with NO{sub 3}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} either under acidic or neutral pH. In contrast, in acidic solutions MO decayed rapidly when treated with NO{sub 2}{sup −} and with a combination of NO{sub 2}{sup −} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Thorough product analysis was carried out by HPLC coupled with UV–vis and ESI–MS/MS detectors. In all experiments in which MO reaction was observed, the major primary product was a derivative nitro-substituted at the ortho position with respect to the N,N-dimethylamino group of MO. The reactions of RNS are discussed and a mechanism for the observed nitration products is proposed.

  12. The efficacy of a combination non-thermal focused ultrasound and radiofrequency device for noninvasive body contouring in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Samantha Y N; Yeung, Chi K; Chan, Johnny C Y; Chan, Henry H L

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have been published on the first generation non-thermal focused ultrasound with an average improvement of 0-3.95 cm reported. We aim to investigate the efficacy of the second-generation non-thermal focused ultrasound device with a combined radiofrequency hand piece. With the addition of radiofrequency energy, the temperature of the adipose tissue is raised before focused ultrasound is applied. This facilitates the mechanical disruption of fat cells by focused ultrasound. Twenty subjects were recruited and underwent three treatments biweekly. Caliper reading, abdominal circumference, and standardized photographs were taken with the Vectra(®) system at all visits. We aim to have the subjects stand and hold the same position and the photograph taken after exhalation. Caliper and circumference measurements carry uncertainty. It is impossible to eliminate all uncertainties but can be improved by having the same trained physician assistant perform the measurement at the same site and taking an average of three readings. Pain score and satisfaction were recorded by means of the visual analogue scale. The efficacy is defined by a statistically significant improvement in circumferential improvement based on intention-to-treat analysis. Seventeen subjects completed the treatment schedule. Abdominal circumference showed statistically significant improvement at 2 weeks post-second treatment (P = 0.023) and almost all subsequent follow-ups. Caliper readings were statistically significant at 2 weeks post-second treatment (P = 0.013) and almost all follow-ups. The mean pain score reported was 2.3 on the visual analog scale and 6% were unsatisfied with the overall treatments. Six incidents of wheal formation appeared immediately after treatment all of which subsided spontaneously within several hours. The combination non-thermal focused ultrasound and radiofrequency device is effective for improving body contour in Asians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A wide low-mass binary model for the origin of axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, M. de; Heuvel, E.P.J. van den

    1985-01-01

    An accreting binary model has been proposed by recent workers to account for the origin of the axially symmetric non-thermal radio sources. The authors show that the only type of binary system that can produce the observed structural properties, is a relatively wide neutron star binary, in which the companion of the neutron star is a low-mass giant. Binaries of this type are expected to resemble closely the eight brightest galactic bulge X-ray sources as well as the progenitors of the two wide radio pulsar binaries. (U.K.)

  14. Theoretical-experimental study of the non-thermal effects of the polarized laser radiation in living tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In the present research we had as a fundamental objective to analyse the non-thermal effects of the laser polarized light in biological tissues. These effects were performed with low power laser output. The theoretical procedure consisted in looking for a simple model which connects the effect of light polarized with microscopically rough tissues using well established physical concepts. Experimentally, we created artificial wounds on the back of animals using liquid nitrogen (this method was chosen because it does not interfere in the biochemistry of the animal tissue). For the wound irradiation we have utilized a He-Ne attached to an optical system. (author)

  15. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation among yellow monkeyflower populations from thermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, Ylva; Roskilly, Beth; Hendrick, Margaret F; Zabinski, Catherine A; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2012-09-01

    In flowering plants, soil heterogeneity can generate divergent natural selection over fine spatial scales, and thus promote local adaptation in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow. Here, we investigate phenotypic and genetic differentiation in one of the few flowering plants that thrives in both geothermal and non-thermal soils in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus) growing at two geothermal ("thermal") sites in YNP were distinct in growth form and phenology from paired populations growing nearby ( 0.34), which were only weakly differentiated from each other (all F (ST) geothermal gradient in Yellowstone.

  16. Proceedings of the second workshop on thermal-non-thermal interactions in solar flares [TNT-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-09-01

    The Second Workshop on the theme of Thermal-Non-thermal Interactions in Solar Flares (TNT-II) was held at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the week of April 10-14, 1989. The keynote address, gave a view of the problems still outstanding with regard to soft and hard X-ray observations of flares. The gathering broke up into four subgroups. The subjects under discussion were: large-scale magnetic field phenomena, flare dynamics, energy release and deposition, and global energy balance. (author)

  17. Amended Results for Hard X-Ray Emission by Non-thermal Thick Target Recombination in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, J. W.; Brown, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    Brown & Mallik and the corresponding corrigendum Brown et al. presented expressions for non-thermal recombination (NTR) in the collisionally thin- and thick-target regimes, claiming that the process could account for a substantial part of the hard X-ray continuum in solar flares usually attributed entirely to thermal and non-thermal bremsstrahlung (NTB). However, we have found the thick-target expression to become unphysical for low cut-offs in the injected electron energy spectrum. We trace this to an error in the derivation, derive a corrected version that is real-valued and continuous for all photon energies and cut-offs, and show that, for thick targets, Brown et al. overestimated NTR emission at small photon energies. The regime of small cut-offs and large spectral indices involve large (reducing) correction factors but in some other thick-target parameter regimes NTR/NTB can still be of the order of unity. We comment on the importance of these results to flare and microflare modeling and spectral fitting. An empirical fit to our results shows that the peak NTR contribution comprises over half of the hard X-ray signal if δ ≳ 6{≤ft(\\tfrac{{E}0c}{4{keV}}\\right)}0.4.

  18. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  19. COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON–ION SHOCKS IN RELATIVISTIC UNMAGNETIZED JET–AMBIENT INTERACTIONS: NON-THERMAL ELECTRON INJECTION BY DOUBLE LAYER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Cai, Dongsheng; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    The course of non-thermal electron ejection in relativistic unmagnetized electron–ion shocks is investigated by performing self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The shocks are excited through the injection of a relativistic jet into ambient plasma, leading to two distinct shocks (referred to as the trailing shock and leading shock) and a contact discontinuity. The Weibel-like instabilities heat the electrons up to approximately half of the ion kinetic energy. The double layers formed in the trailing and leading edges then accelerate the electrons up to the ion kinetic energy. The electron distribution function in the leading edge shows a clear, non-thermal power-law tail which contains ∼1% of electrons and ∼8% of the electron energy. Its power-law index is −2.6. The acceleration efficiency is ∼23% by number and ∼50% by energy, and the power-law index is −1.8 for the electron distribution function in the trailing edge. The effect of the dimensionality is examined by comparing the results of three-dimensional simulations with those of two-dimensional simulations. The comparison demonstrates that electron acceleration is more efficient in two dimensions.

  20. Effects of vortex-like and non-thermal ion distributions on non-linear dust-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.; Cairns, R.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vortex-like and non-thermal ion distributions are incorporated in the study of nonlinear dust-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. It is found that owing to the departure from the Boltzmann ion distribution to a vortex-like phase space distribution, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic waves is governed by a modified Kortweg endash de Vries equation. The latter admits a stationary dust-acoustic solitary wave solution, which has larger amplitude, smaller width, and higher propagation velocity than that involving adiabatic ions. On the other hand, consideration of a non-thermal ion distribution provides the possibility of coexistence of large amplitude rarefactive as well as compressive dust-acoustic solitary waves, whereas these structures appear independently when the wave amplitudes become infinitely small. The present investigation should help us to understand the salient features of the non-linear dust-acoustic waves that have been observed in a recent numerical simulation study. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Dentin surface treatment using a non-thermal argon plasma brush for interfacial bonding improvement in composite restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritts, Andy Charles; Li, Hao; Yu, Qingsong; Xu, Changqi; Yao, Xiaomei; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the treatment effects of non-thermal atmospheric gas plasmas on dentin surfaces for composite restoration. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns and etching the exposed dentin surfaces with 35% phosphoric acid gel. The dentin surfaces were treated by using a non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush for various durations. The molecular changes of the dentin surfaces were analyzed using FTIR/ATR and an increase in carbonyl groups on dentin surfaces was detected with plasma treated dentin. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were applied as directed. To evaluate the dentin/composite interfacial bonding, the teeth thus prepared were sectioned into micro-bars as the specimens for tensile test. Student Newman Keuls tests showed that the bonding strength of the composite restoration to peripheral dentin was significantly increased (by 64%) after 30 s plasma treatment. However, the bonding strength to plasma treated inner dentin did not show any improvement. It was found that plasma treatment of peripheral dentin surface up to 100 s gave an increase in interfacial bonding strength, while a prolong plasma treatment of dentin surfaces, e.g., 5 min treatments, showed a decrease in interfacial bonding strength. PMID:20831586

  2. Solar off-limb line widths with SUMER: revised value of the non-thermal velocity and new results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dolla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfvén waves and ion-cyclotron absorption of high-frequency waves are frequently brought into models devoted to coronal heating and fast solar-wind acceleration. Signatures of ion-cyclotron resonance have already been observed in situ in the solar wind and in the upper corona. In the lower corona, one can use the line profiles to infer the ion temperatures. But the value of the so-called "non-thermal" (or "unresolved" velocity, potentially related to the amplitude of Alfvén waves propagating in the corona, is critical in firmly identifying ion-cyclotron preferential heating. In a previous paper, we proposed a method to constrain both the Alfvén wave amplitude and the preferential heating, above a polar coronal hole observed with the SUMER/SOHO spectrometer. Taking into account the effect of instrumental stray light before analysing the line profiles, we ruled out any direct evidence of damping of the Alfvén waves and showed that ions with the lowest charge-to-mass ratios were preferentially heated. We re-analyse these data here to correct the derived non-thermal velocity, and we discuss the consequences on the main results. We also include a measure of the Fe VIII 1442.56 Å line width (second order, thus extending the charge-to-mass ratio domain towards ions more likely to experience cyclotron resonance.

  3. Formation of hydrophobic coating on glass surface using atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z; Qiu, Y; Kuffel, E

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in material surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of a glass surface for improving hydrophobicity using a non-thermal plasma generated by a dielectric barrier corona discharge (DBCD) with a needle array-to-plane electrode arrangement in atmospheric air is conducted, and the surface properties of the glass before and after the DBCD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, surface resistance measurement and the wet flashover voltage test. The effects of the plasma dose (the product of average discharge power and treatment time) of DBCD on the surface modification are studied, and the mechanism of interaction between the plasma and glass surface is discussed. It is found that a layer of hydrophobic coating is formed on the glass surface through DBCD treatment, and the improvement of hydrophobicity depends on the plasma dose of the DBCD. It seems that there is an optimum plasma dose for the surface treatment. The test results of thermal ageing and chemical ageing show that the hydrophobic layer has quite stable characteristics

  4. Absence of synergistic enhancement of non-thermal effects of ultrasound on cell killing induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, T.; Kano, E.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the role of non-thermal effects (cavitation and direct effects) of ultrasound, in simultaneous combination with X-irradiation on the cytotoxicity of mouse L cells. Firstly, mouse L cells were exposed to X-rays and ultrasound (1 MHz continous wave, spatial peak temporal average intensity; 3.7 W/cm 2 ) simultaneously at 37 0 C under O 2 or Ar saturated conditions to examine the cavitational effect of ultrasound. Secondly, cells were exposed to X-rays and ultrasound at 37 0 C under N 2 O saturated conditions, which suppresses the cavitation, to examine the direct effects of ultrasound. The cavitational effect under O 2 and Ar saturated conditions induced an exponential decrease in cell survival, and resulted in an additive effect on cell killing with the combination of X-rays and ultrasound. The direct effect in the N 2 O conditions induced no cell killing and did not modify the cell killing induced by X-rays. These results suggested that the non-thermal effects of ultrasound did not interact synergistically with X-rays for cell killing. (author)

  5. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Among the catalytic study, MnOx/SMF (manganese oxide on sintered metal fibres electrode) shows better performance, probably due to the formation of active oxygen species by in situ decomposition of ozone on the catalyst surface. Water vapour further enhanced the performance due to the in situ ...

  6. Non-thermal effects on femtosecond laser ablation of polymers extracted from the oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Takayuki, E-mail: kumada.takayuki@jaea.go.jp; Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Nishikino, Masaharu; Yokoyama, Atsushi [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser ablation of transparent polymers were examined using time-resolved reflectivity. When these polymers were irradiated by a pump pulse with fluence above the ablation threshold of 0.8–2.0 J/cm{sup 2}, we observed the oscillation of the reflectivity caused by the interference between the reflected probe pulses from the sample surface and the thin layer due to the non-thermal photomechanical effects of spallation. As the fluence of the pump pulse increased, the separation velocity of the thin layer increased from 6 km/s to the asymptotic value of 11 km/s. It is suggested that the velocities are determined by shock-wave velocities of the photo-excited layer.

  7. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) session overview: Second International Symposium on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Technologies (used in pollution control and treating hazardous wastes) has expanded from using hydroxyl radicals to treat organic compounds in water, to using reductive free radicals as well, and to application to pollutants in both gases and aqueous media. Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) is created in a gas by an electrical discharge or energetic electron injection. Highly reactive species (O atoms, OH, N radicals, plasma electrons) react with entrained hazardous organic chemicals in the gas, converting them to CO2, H2O, etc. NTP can be used to simultaneously remove different kinds of pollutants (eg, VOCs, SOx, NOx in flue gases). This paper presents an overview of NTP technology for pollution control and hazardous waste treatment; it is intended as an introduction to the NTP session of the symposium

  8. Non-thermal Processes in Colliding-wind Massive Binaries: the Contribution of Simbol-X to a Multiwavelength Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, Michaël; Blomme, Ronny; Micela, Giusi; Pittard, Julian M.; Rauw, Gregor; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sana, Hugues; Stevens, Ian R.

    2009-05-01

    Several colliding-wind massive binaries are known to be non-thermal emitters in the radio domain. This constitutes strong evidence for the fact that an efficient particle acceleration process is at work in these objects. The acceleration mechanism is most probably the Diffusive Shock Acceleration (DSA) process in the presence of strong hydrodynamic shocks due to the colliding-winds. In order to investigate the physics of this particle acceleration, we initiated a multiwavelength campaign covering a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this context, the detailed study of the hard X-ray emission from these sources in the SIMBOL-X bandpass constitutes a crucial element in order to probe this still poorly known topic of astrophysics. It should be noted that colliding-wind massive binaries should be considered as very valuable targets for the investigation of particle acceleration in a similar way as supernova remnants, but in a different region of the parameter space.

  9. The Coupling of Treeline Elevation and Temperature is Mediated by Non-Thermal Factors on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between treeline elevation and climate at regional and local scales. It is compelling to fill this research gap with data from the Tibetan Plateau where some of the highest alpine treelines in the world are found. This research question partially results from the lack of in situ temperature data at treeline sites. Herein, treeline variables (e.g., elevation, topography, tree species and temperature data were collected from published investigations performed during this decade on the Tibetan Plateau. Temperature conditions near treeline sites were estimated using global databases and these estimates were corrected by using in situ air temperature measurements. Correlation analyses and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effects of different variables on treeline elevation including thermal (growing-season air temperatures and non-thermal (latitude, longitude, elevation, tree species, precipitation, radiation factors. The commonality analysis model was applied to explore how several variables (July mean temperature, elevation of mountain peak, latitude were related to treeline elevation. July mean temperature was the most significant predictor of treeline elevation, explaining 55% of the variance in treeline elevation across the Tibetan Plateau, whereas latitude, tree species, and mountain elevation (mass-elevation effect explained 30% of the variance in treeline elevation. After considering the multicollinearity among predictors, July mean temperature (largely due to the influence of minimum temperature still showed the strongest association with treeline elevation. We conclude that the coupling of treeline elevation and July temperature at a regional scale is modulated by non-thermal factors probably acting at local scales. Our results contribute towards explaining the decoupling between climate warming and treeline dynamics.

  10. Cosmic Rays and Non-thermal Emission Induced by Accretion of Cool Gas onto the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Susumu; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Arakawa, Masanori; Renaud, Matthieu; Wada, Keiichi

    2017-11-01

    On both observational and theoretical grounds, the disk of our Galaxy should be accreting cool gas with temperature ≲ {10}5 K via the halo at a rate ˜1 {{M}⊙ {yr}}-1. At least some of this accretion is mediated by high-velocity clouds (HVCs), observed to be traveling in the halo with velocities of a few 100 km s-1 and occasionally impacting the disk at such velocities, especially in the outer regions of the Galaxy. We address the possibility of particle acceleration in shocks triggered by such HVC accretion events, and the detectability of consequent non-thermal emission in the radio to gamma-ray bands and high-energy neutrinos. For plausible shock velocities ˜ 300 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and magnetic field strengths ˜ 0.3{--}10 μ {{G}}, electrons and protons may be accelerated up to ˜1-10 TeV and ˜ 30{--}{10}3 TeV, respectively, in sufficiently strong adiabatic shocks during their lifetime of ˜ {10}6 {{yr}}. The resultant pion decay and inverse Compton gamma-rays may be the origin of some unidentified Galactic GeV-TeV sources, particularly the “dark” source HESS J1503-582 that is spatially coincident with the anomalous H I structure known as “forbidden-velocity wings.” Correlation of their locations with star-forming regions may be weak, absent, or even opposite. Non-thermal radio and X-ray emission from primary and/or secondary electrons may be detectable with deeper observations. The contribution of HVC accretion to Galactic cosmic rays is subdominant, but could be non-negligible in the outer Galaxy. As the thermal emission induced by HVC accretion is likely difficult to detect, observations of such phenomena may offer a unique perspective on probing gas accretion onto the Milky Way and other galaxies.

  11. Photon-induced Processing of Interstellar Ices in the Laboratory. Focus on Their Non-thermal Desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Domenech, Rafael; Munoz Caro, Guillermo; Cruz-Diaz, Gustavo A.; Oberg, Karin I.

    2018-06-01

    Some of the processes that take place in the interstellar medium (ISM)can be simulated in laboratories on Earth under astrophysically relevant conditions. For example, the energetic processing of the ice mantles that accrete on top of dust grains in the coldest regions of the ISM, leading to the production of new species and their desorption to the gas phase. In particular, observation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in cold interstellar environments stress the need for not only a solid state formation but also for non-thermal desorption mechanisms that can account for the observed abundances in regions where thermal desorption is inhibited. Laboratory Astrophysics can be used to test different non-thermal desorption processes and extract yields than can be extrapolated to the astrophysical scenario with theoretical models. 0th generation COMs like CH3OH and H2CO can be formed at very low temperatures. In this talk, we present laboratory simulations of the UV photoprocessing of a binary ice mixture composed by water (the main component of astrophysical ices) and methane. Formation of CO, CO2, CH3OH and H2CO was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and subsequent TPD. At the same time, photodesorption of CO and H2CO was detected by means of a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, with yields on the order of 10-4 and 10-5 molecules per incident photon, respectively. In general, photodesorption can take place through a direct mechanism, where the absorbing molecule (or its photofragments) are desorbed; or through an indirect mechanism where the absorbed energy is transferred to a surface molecule which is the one finally desorbing. In the case of photoproducts, the evolution of the photodesorption yield gives information on the photodesorption mechanism: a constant photodesorption yield is observed when the photoproducts are desorbed right after their formation; while an increasing yield is measured when the photoproducts are desorbed later after energy transfer from another

  12. Effects of non-thermal plasmas and electric field on hydrocarbon/air flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Biswa

    2009-10-01

    Need to improve fuel efficiency, and reduce emission from hydrocarbon combustor in automotive and gas turbine engines have reinvigorated interest in reducing combustion instability of a lean flame. The heat generation rate in a binary reaction is HQ =N^2 c1c2 Q exp(-E/RT), where N is the density, c1 and c2 are mol fractions of the reactants, Q is the reaction heat release, E is the activation energy, R is the gas constant and T is the average temperature. For hydrocarbon-air reactions, the typical value of E/R ˜20, so most heat release reactions are confined to a thin reaction sheet at T >=1400 K. The lean flame burning condition is susceptible to combustion instability due to a critical balance between heat generation and heat loss rates, especially at high gas flow rate. Radical injection can increase flame speed by reducing the hydrocarbon oxidation reaction activation barrier and it can improve flame stability. Advances in nonequilibrium plasma generation at high pressure have prompted its application for energy efficient radical production to enhance hydrocarbon-air combustion. Dielectric barrier discharges and short pulse excited corona discharges have been used to enhance combustion stability. Direct electron impact dissociation of hydrocarbon and O2 produces radicals with lower fuel oxidation reaction activation barriers, initiating heat release reaction CnHm+O CnHm-1+ OH (and other similar sets of reactions with partially dissociated fuel) below the typical cross-over temperature. Also, N2 (A) produced in air discharge at a moderate E/n can dissociate O2 leading to oxidation of fuel at lower gas temperature. Low activation energy reactions are also possible by dissociation of hydrocarbon CnHm+e -> CnHm-2+H2+e, where a chain propagation reaction H2+ O OH+H can be initiated at lower gas temperature than possible under thermal equilibrium kinetics. Most of heat release comes from the reaction CO+OH-> CO2 +H, nonthermal OH production seem to improve

  13. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  14. SU-F-J-215: Non-Thermal Pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Combined with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid: An in Vivo Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B; He, W; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: It has recently been shown that non-thermal pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (pHIFU) has a cell-killing effect. The purpose of the study is to investigate the sonosensitizing effect of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) in non-thermal pHIFU cancer therapy. Methods: FaDu human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously in the flanks of nude mice. After one to two weeks, the tumors reached the volume of 112 ± 8 mm3 and were assigned randomly into a non-thermal pHIFU group (n=9) and a non-thermal sonodynamic therapy (pHIFU after 5-ALA administration) group (n=7). The pHIFU treatments (parameters: 1 MHz frequency; 25 W acoustic power; 0.1 duty cycle; 60 seconds duration) were delivered using an InSightec ExAblate 2000 system with a GE Signa 1.5T MR scanner. The mice in the non-thermal sonodynamic group received 5-ALA tail-vein injection 4 hours prior to the pHIFU treatment. The tumor growth was monitored using the CT scanner on a Sofie-Biosciences G8 PET/CT system. Results: The tumors in this study grew very aggressively and about 60% of the tumors in this study developed ulcerations at various stages. Tumor growth delay after treatments was observed by comparing the treated (n=9 in pHIFU group; n=7 in sonodynamic group) and untreated tumors (n=17). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the non-thermal pHIFU and non-thermal sonodynamic group. The mean normalized tumor volume of the untreated tumors on Day 7 after their first CT scans was 7.05 ± 0.54, while the normalized volume of the treated tumors on Day 7 after treatment was 5.89 ± 0.79 and 6.27 ± 0.47 for the sonodynamic group and pHIFU group, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, no significant sonosensitizing effects of 5-ALA were obtained on aggressive FaDu tumors despite apparent tumor growth delay in some mice treated with non-thermal sonodynamic therapy.

  15. Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, S; Joisa, Y S; Raval, J V; Ghosh, J; Tanna, R; Shukla, B K; Bhatt, S B

    2014-11-01

    Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

  16. The role of Dark Matter sub-halos in the non-thermal emission of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchegiani, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio, E-mail: Paolo.Marchegiani@wits.ac.za, E-mail: Sergio.Colafrancesco@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS-2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-11-01

    Annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles has been recognized as one of the possible mechanisms for the production of non-thermal particles and radiation in galaxy clusters. Previous studies have shown that, while DM models can reproduce the spectral properties of the radio halo in the Coma cluster, they fail in reproducing the shape of the radio halo surface brightness because they produce a shape that is too concentrated towards the center of the cluster with respect to the observed one. However, in previous studies the DM distribution was modeled as a single spherically symmetric halo, while the DM distribution in Coma is found to have a complex and elongated shape. In this work we calculate a range of non-thermal emissions in the Coma cluster by using the observed distribution of DM sub-halos. We find that, by including the observed sub-halos in the DM model, we obtain a radio surface brightness with a shape similar to the observed one, and that the sub-halos boost the radio emission by a factor between 5 and 20%, thus allowing to reduce the gap between the annihilation cross section required to reproduce the radio halo flux and the upper limits derived from other observations, and that this gap can be explained by realistic values of the boosting factor due to smaller substructures. Models with neutralino mass of 9 GeV and composition τ{sup +} τ{sup −}, and mass of 43 GeV and composition b b-bar can fit the radio halo spectrum using the observed properties of the magnetic field in Coma, and do not predict a gamma-ray emission in excess compared to the recent Fermi-LAT upper limits. These findings make these DM models viable candidate to explain the origin of radio halos in galaxy clusters, avoiding the problems connected to the excessive gamma-ray emission expected from proton acceleration in most of the currently proposed models, where the acceleration of particles is directly or indirectly connected to events related to clusters merging. Therefore, DM

  17. Non-thermal recombination - a neglected source of flare hard X-rays and fast electron diagnostics (Corrigendum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. C.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Badnell, N. R.

    2010-06-01

    Brown and Mallik (BM) recently claimed that non-thermal recombination (NTR) can be a dominant source of flare hard X-rays (HXRs) from hot coronal and chromospheric sources. However, major discrepancies between the thermal continua predicted by BM and by the Chianti database as well as RHESSI flare data, led us to discover substantial errors in the heuristic expression used by BM to extend the Kramers expressions beyond the hydrogenic case. Here we present the relevant corrected expressions and show the key modified results. We conclude that, in most cases, NTR emission was overestimated by a factor of 1-8 by BM but is typically still large enough (as much as 20-30% of the total emission) to be very important for electron spectral inference and detection of electron spectral features such as low energy cut-offs since the recombination spectra contain sharp edges. For extreme temperature regimes and/or if the Fe abundance were as high as some values claimed, NTR could even be the dominant source of flare HXRs, reducing the electron number and energy budget, problems such as in the extreme coronal HXR source cases reported by e.g. Krucker et al.

  18. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K. [McMaster Univ., McIARS and Dept. Eng. Phys., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C{sub 2}F{sub 6} (2000ppm)/ CF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 54% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 32% of CF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} and 98% of CF{sub 4} were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF{sub 3} (2000ppm)/ SiF{sub 4}(1000ppm)/ N{sub 2}O(200ppm)/ N{sub 2}/ Air mixture, 92% of NF{sub 3} and 32% of SiF{sub 4} were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  19. Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment. (paper)

  20. Oxidation of clofibric acid in aqueous solution using a non-thermal plasma discharge or gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Joana; Ceriani, Elisa; Pinhão, Nuno; Marotta, Ester; Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Paradisi, Cristina; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we study degradation of clofibric acid (CFA) in aqueous solution using either ionizing radiation from a $^{60}$Co source or a non-thermal plasma produced by discharges in the air above the solution. The results obtained with the two technologies are compared in terms of effectiveness of CFA degradation and its by-products. In both cases the CFA degradation follows a quasi-exponential decay in time well modelled by a kinetic scheme which considers the competition between CFA and all reaction intermediates for the reactive species generated in solution as well as the amount of the end product formed. A new degradation law is deduced to explain the results. Although the end-product CO$_2$ was detected and the CFA conversion found to be very high under the studied conditions, HPLC analysis reveals several degradation intermediates still bearing the aromatic ring with the chlorine substituent. The extent of mineralization is rather limited. The energy yield is found to be higher in the gamma radiation experiments.

  1. Low temperature synthesis of silicon quantum dots with plasma chemistry control in dual frequency non-thermal plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon Geon; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-06-21

    The advanced materials process by non-thermal plasmas with a high plasma density allows the synthesis of small-to-big sized Si quantum dots by combining low-temperature deposition with superior crystalline quality in the background of an amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride matrix. Here, we make quantum dot thin films in a reactive mixture of ammonia/silane/hydrogen utilizing dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas with high atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radical densities. Systematic data analysis using different film and plasma characterization tools reveals that the quantum dots with different sizes exhibit size dependent film properties, which are sensitively dependent on plasma characteristics. These films exhibit intense photoluminescence in the visible range with violet to orange colors and with narrow to broad widths (∼0.3-0.9 eV). The observed luminescence behavior can come from the quantum confinement effect, quasi-direct band-to-band recombination, and variation of atomic hydrogen and nitrogen radicals in the film growth network. The high luminescence yields in the visible range of the spectrum and size-tunable low-temperature synthesis with plasma and radical control make these quantum dot films good candidates for light emitting applications.

  2. Development of non-thermal plasma jet and its potential application for color degradation of organic pollutant in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdo Kasih, Tota; Kharisma, Angel; Perdana, Muhammad Kevin; Murphiyanto, Richard Dimas Julian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the development of non-thermal plasma-based AOPs for color degradation in wastewater treatment. The plasma itself was generated by an in-house high voltage power supply (HVPS). Instead of gas-phase plasma system, we applied plasma jet system underwater during wastewater treatment without additional any chemicals (chemical-free processing). The method is thought to maximize the energy transfer and increase the efficient interaction between plasma and solution during the process. Our plasma jet system could proceed either by using helium (He), argon (Ar) and air as the medium in an open air atmosphere. Exploring the developed plasma to be applied in organic wastewater treatment, we demonstrated that the plasma jet could be generated underwater and yields in color degradation of methylene blue (MB) wastewater model. When using Ar gas as a medium, the color degradation of MB could be achieved within 90 minutes. Whereas, by using Ar with an admixing of oxygen (O2) gas, the similar result could be accomplished within 60 minutes. Additional O2 gas in the latter might produce more hydroxyl radicals and oxygen-based species which speed up the oxidative reaction with organic pollutants, and hence accelerate the process of color degradation.

  3. Abatement of global warming gas emissions from semiconductor manufacturing processes by non-thermal plasma-catalyst systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J-S.; Urashima, K.

    2009-01-01

    Emission of various hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and greenhouse gases including perfluoro-compounds (PFCs) from semiconductor industries may cause significant impact on human health and the global environment, has attracted much public attention. In this paper, an application of nonthermal plasma-adsorbent system for a removal of PFCs emission from semiconductor process flue gases is experimentally investigated. The non-thermal plasma reactor used is the ferro-electric packed-bed type barrier discharge plasma and adsorbent reactor used is Zeolite bed reactor. The results show that for a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with C 2 F 6 (2000ppm)/ CF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(1000ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 54% of C 2 F 6 and 32% of CF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and 100% of C 2 F 6 and 98% of CF 4 were removed by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. For a simulated semiconductor process flue gas with NF 3 (2000ppm)/ SiF 4 (1000ppm)/ N 2 O(200ppm)/ N 2 / Air mixture, 92% of NF 3 and 32% of SiF 4 were decomposed by the plasma reactor and total (100%) removal of the pollutant gases was achieved by plasma reactor/Zeolite adsorbent hybrid system. (author)

  4. Position- and time-resolved Stark broadening diagnostics of a non-thermal laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Stark-broadened line shapes of silicon ions in a laser-induced plasma using a model constructed, without assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), using a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The method is applied to temporally and spatially resolved measurements of Si 2+ and Si 3+ emissions from a transient plasma expanding into vacuum, produced by 1064 nm, nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a Si (1 0 0) target. The best-fitting simulated line shapes and the corresponding electron number densities and temperatures (or equivalently, Druyvesteyn average energies) are compared with those returned assuming LTE (i.e. for a Maxwellian EEDF). Non-thermal behavior is found to dominate at all but the very earliest stages of expansion close to the target surface, consistent with McWhirter’s criterion for the establishment of LTE. The Druyvesteyn EEDF always yields an equivalent or better model of the experimental measurements, and the observed increasingly strong departure from the Maxwellian case with time and distance from the ablation event highlights the essential invalidity of the LTE assumption for moderate-power, nanosecond laser-induced plasma expanding in vacuo. (paper)

  5. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Dan; Gao Dengshan; Yu Gang; Shen Xianglin; Gu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions

  6. Cyclic AMP-dependent signaling system is a primary metabolic target for non-thermal effect of microwaves on heart muscle hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinyan, Lilia; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we have suggested that cell hydration is a universal and extra-sensitive sensor for the structural changes of cell aqua medium caused by the impact of weak chemical and physical factors. The aim of present work is to elucidate the nature of the metabolic messenger through which physiological solution (PS) treated by non-thermal (NT) microwaves (MW) could modulate heart muscle hydration of rats. For this purpose, the effects of NT MW-treated PS on heart muscle hydration, [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with cell membrane, 45 Ca 2+ uptake and intracellular cyclic nucleotides contents in vivo and in vitro experiments were studied. It is shown that intraperitoneal injections of both Sham-treated PS and NT MW-treated PS elevate heart muscle hydration. However, the effect of NT MW-treated PS on muscle hydration is more pronounced than the effect of Sham-treated PS. In vitro experiments NT MW-treated PS has dehydration effect on muscle, which is not changed by decreasing Na + gradients on membrane. Intraperitoneal injection of Sham- and NT MW-treated PS containing 45 Ca 2+ have similar dehydration effect on muscle, while NT MW-treated PS has activation effect on Na + /Ca 2+ exchange in reverse mode. The intraperitoneal injection of NT MW-treated PS depresses [ 3 H]-ouabain binding with its high-affinity membrane receptors, elevates intracellular cAMP and decreases cGMP contents. Based on the obtained data, it is suggested that cAMP-dependent signaling system serves as a primary metabolic target for NT MW effect on heart muscle hydration.

  7. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  8. WHY IS NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING OF SPECTRAL LINES IN THE LOWER TRANSITION REGION OF THE SUN INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; McIntosh, S.; Peter, H.; Pereira, T. M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral observations of the solar transition region (TR) and corona show broadening of spectral lines beyond what is expected from thermal and instrumental broadening. The remaining non-thermal broadening is significant (5–30 km s −1 ) and correlated with intensity. Here we study spectra of the TR Si iv 1403 Å line obtained at high resolution with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the large improvement in spatial resolution (0.″33) of IRIS compared to previous spectrographs (2″) does not resolve the non-thermal line broadening which, in most regions, remains at pre-IRIS levels of about 20 km s −1 . This invariance to spatial resolution indicates that the processes behind the broadening occur along the line-of-sight (LOS) and/or on spatial scales (perpendicular to the LOS) smaller than 250 km. Both effects appear to play a role. Comparison with IRIS chromospheric observations shows that, in regions where the LOS is more parallel to the field, magneto-acoustic shocks driven from below impact the TR and can lead to significant non-thermal line broadening. This scenario is supported by MHD simulations. While these do not show enough non-thermal line broadening, they do reproduce the long-known puzzling correlation between non-thermal line broadening and intensity. This correlation is caused by the shocks, but only if non-equilibrium ionization is taken into account. In regions where the LOS is more perpendicular to the field, the prevalence of small-scale twist is likely to play a significant role in explaining the invariance and correlation with intensity. (letters)

  9. Non-thermal near-infrared exposure photobiomodulates cellular responses to ionizing radiation in human full thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Anke; Zöller, Nadja; Kippenberger, Stefan; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Layer, Paul G; Heselich, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing and near-infrared radiation are both part of the therapeutic spectrum in cancer treatment. During cancer therapy ionizing radiation is typically used for non-invasive reduction of malignant tissue, while near-infrared photobiomodulation is utilized in palliative medical approaches, e.g. for pain reduction or impairment of wound healing. Furthermore, near-infrared is part of the solar wavelength spectrum. A combined exposure of these two irradiation qualities - either intentionally during medical treatment or unintentionally due to solar exposure - is therefore presumable for cancer patients. Several studies in different model organisms and cell cultures show a strong impact of near-infrared pretreatment on ionizing radiation-induced stress response. To investigate the risks of non-thermal near-infrared (NIR) pretreatment in patients, a human in vitro full thickness skin models (FTSM) was evaluated for radiation research. FTSM were pretreated with therapy-relevant doses of NIR followed by X-radiation, and then examined for DNA-double-strand break (DSB) repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Double-treated FTSM revealed a clear influence of NIR on X-radiation-induced stress responses in cells in their typical tissue environment. Furthermore, over a 24h time period, double-treated FTSM presented a significant persistence of DSBs, as compared to samples exclusively irradiated by X-rays. In addition, NIR pretreatment inhibited apoptosis induction of integrated fibroblasts, and counteracted the radiation-induced proliferation inhibition of basal keratinocytes. Our work suggests that cancer patients treated with X-rays should be prevented from uncontrolled NIR irradiation. On the other hand, controlled double-treatment could provide an alternative therapy approach, exposing the patient to less radiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Ida V; Rodilla, Helena; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Duelli, Annette; Bourenkov, Gleb; Vukusic, Josip; Friedman, Ran; Stake, Jan; Schneider, Thomas; Katona, Gergely

    2015-09-01

    Whether long-range quantum coherent states could exist in biological systems, and beyond low-temperature regimes where quantum physics is known to be applicable, has been the subject to debate for decades. It was proposed by Fröhlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Fröhlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been lacking. Here, we present the first experimental observation of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), we combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. We found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long α-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Our analyses show that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation, a phenomenon predicted almost half a century ago, yet never experimentally confirmed.

  11. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiloucas, S.; Chahal, M. S.; Bowen, J. W.

    2002-11-01

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  12. Preliminary results on the non-thermal effects of 200-350 GHz radiation on the growth rate of S. cerevisiae cells in microcolonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Chahal, M S; Bowen, J W [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AY, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-07

    We report preliminary results from studies of biological effects induced by non-thermal levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Exponentially growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells grown on dry media were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the 200-350 GHz frequency range at low power density to observe possible non-thermal effects on the microcolony growth. Exposure to the electromagnetic field was conducted over 2.5 h. The data from exposure and control experiments were grouped into either large-, medium- or small-sized microcolonies to assist in the accurate assessment of growth. The three groups showed significant differences in growth between exposed and control microcolonies. A statistically significant enhanced growth rate was observed at 341 GHz. Growth rate was assessed every 30 min via time-lapse photography. Possible interaction mechanisms are discussed, taking into account Frohlich's hypothesis.

  13. Thermal and non-thermal preservation techniques of tiger nuts' beverage "horchata de chufa". Implications for food safety, nutritional and quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló-Soto, Elena; Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lorenzo, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi; Moltó, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    "Horchata de chufa" is a traditional Spanish beverage produced from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus L.). Due to its richness in nutritional compounds, it is highly perishable and its conservation by pasteurization and/or adding preservatives is required. Although efficient, conventional thermal treatment for pasteurization induces changes in the nutritional and sensory properties. Replacing conventional pasteurization by non-thermal technologies such as pulsed electric fields, ultraviolet, and high pressure, combined with moderate temperatures (preservation of the most thermo-sensitive molecules. Accordingly, this review deals with the description of the most relevant non-thermal technologies applied to preserve "horchata" beverage in order to extend the shelf life and inactivate pathogenic microorganisms as well as to preserve the nutritional and quality properties of this food beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proposed Use of Zero Bias Diode Arrays as Thermal Electric Noise Rectifiers and Non-Thermal Energy Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2009-03-01

    cells are also considered for possible higher frequency ZPE transduction. Diode arrays of self-assembled molecular rectifiers or preferably, nano-sized cylindrical diodes are shown to reasonably provide for rectification of electron fluctuations from thermal and non-thermal ZPE sources to create an alternative energy DC electrical generator in the picowatt per diode range.

  15. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  16. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  17. Influence of non-thermal plasma on structural and electrical properties of globular and nanostructured conductive polymer polypyrrole in water suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galář, Pavel; Khun, Josef; Kopecký, Dušan; Scholtz, Vladimír; Trchová, Miroslava; Fučíková, Anna; Jirešová, Jana; Fišer, Ladislav

    2017-11-08

    Non-thermal plasma has proved its benefits in medicine, plasma assisted polymerization, food industry and many other fields. Even though, the ability of non-thermal plasma to modify surface properties of various materials is generally known, only limited attention has been given to exploitations of this treatment on conductive polymers. Here, we show study of non-thermal plasma treatment on properties of globular and nanostructured polypyrrole in the distilled water. We observe that plasma presence over the suspension level doesn't change morphology of the polymer (shape), but significantly influences its elemental composition and physical properties. After 60 min of treatment, the relative concentration of chloride counter ions decreased approximately 3 and 4 times for nanostructured and globular form, respectively and concentration of oxygen increased approximately 3 times for both forms. Simultaneously, conductivity decrease (14 times for globular and 2 times for nanostructured one) and changes in zeta potential characteristics of both samples were observed. The modification evolution was dominated by multi-exponential function with time constants having values approximately 1 and 10 min for both samples. It is expected that these time constants are related to two modification processes connected to direct presence of the spark and to long-lived species generated by the plasma.

  18. The role of non-thermal atmospheric pressure biocompatible plasma in the differentiation of osteoblastic precursor cells, MC3T3-E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ihn; Choi, Eun Ha

    2017-05-30

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is ionized matter, composed of highly reactive species that include positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, neutral atoms, and molecules. Recent reports have suggested that non-thermal biocompatible plasma (NBP) can selectively kill a variety of cancer cells, and promote stem cell differentiation. However as of yet, the regulation of proliferation and differentiation potential of NBP has been poorly understood.Here, we investigated the effects of NBP on the osteogenic differentiation of precursor cell lines of osteoblasts, MC3T3 E1 and SaOS-2. For in vitro osteogenic differentiation, precursor cell lines were treated with NBP, and cultured with osteogenic induction medium. After 10 days of treatment, the NBP was shown to be effective in osteogenic differentiation in MC3T3 E1 cells by von Kossa and Alizarin Red S staining assay. Real-time PCR was then performed to investigate the expression of osteogenic specific genes, Runx2, OCN, COL1, ALP and osterix in MC3T3 E1 cells after treatment with NBP for 4 days. Furthermore, analysis of the protein expression showed that NBP treatment significantly reduced PI3K/AKT signaling and MAPK family signaling. However, p38 controlled phosphorylation of transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) that related to cell differentiation with increased phosphorylated p38. These results suggest that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma can induce osteogenic differentiation, and enhance bone formation.

  19. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, T., E-mail: tsfelix81@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dotto, M.E.R. [Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, N.A. [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R{sub RMS} (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91{sub (PET)} and 0.88{sub (PEEK)}, β = 0.25{sub (PET)} and z = 3,64{sub (PET)}.

  20. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO{sub 2} selectivity and byproducts reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health and Research Center for Health Science, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Hossein, E-mail: hossein.ebrahimi@yahoo.com [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and ZnO Nano particles were coated on the surface of expanded graphite. • Expanded graphite-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano composite under UV light was placed downstream non-thermal plasma reactor. • Chlorobenzene removal and selectivity of CO{sub 2} were enhanced in combined system. • Produced harmful byproducts from plasma reactor were reduced dramatically in combined system. - Abstract: The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO{sub 2} and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts.

  2. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  3. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, T.; Cassini, F.A.; Benetoli, L.O.B.; Dotto, M.E.R.; Debacher, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymeric surfaces were etched using non-thermal plasma at different intensities. • Polymers of low mechanical hardness reached the saturation level faster. • A mathematical model based on scaling laws was proposed. - Abstract: The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, R_R_M_S (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91_(_P_E_T_) and 0.88_(_P_E_E_K_), β = 0.25_(_P_E_T_) and z = 3,64_(_P_E_T_).

  4. Development of Scaling Algorithms and Economic Evaluation for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors - Adsorbant/Catalyzer Hybrid System for Control of NOx Released During Army and Related U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urashima, K

    1998-01-01

    Computer code (SUENTP-J) to predict scale-up and economic evaluation of several eligible non-thermal plasma processes for air pollution control - electron beam process, pulsed corona process, and corona radical shower...

  5. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, J H; Brindle, C; Axon, D J; Bailey, J; Sparks, W B

    1987-02-15

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10/sup 41/ erg s/sup -1/. This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear.

  6. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Ballazs G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput

  7. Infrared and optical polarimetry of the radio elliptical IC 5063 (PKS2048-57): discovery of a highly polarized non-thermal nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Brindle, C.; Axon, D.J.; Bailey, J.; Sparks, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two-aperture optical and near-infrared polarization and flux measurements of the radio elliptical galaxy IC 5063 are presented. Analysis of the polarized flux shows that the large infrared excess in the nucleus most likely arises from a steep-spectrum non-thermal source with a polarization of 17 per cent and near-infrared luminosity 6x10 41 erg s -1 . This result suggests that IC5063 is closely related to the more luminous blazars. The origin of the polarization in the optical is, however, not clear. (author)

  8. Very High Energy astronomy from H.E.S.S. to CTA. Opening of a new astronomical window on the non-thermal Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naurois, Mathieu de

    2012-01-01

    The last ten years saw the emergence of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes as a mature and efficient technique for the study of the Very High Energy Universe, leading to the successful opening, mainly by the HESS experiment, of our understanding of the non-thermal Universe. This Habilitation thesis summaries ten years of research in Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with HESS and CTA. In the first part, instrumental aspects such as the experiment conception, its calibration, the reconstruction of the events and the data analysis are presented. The second parts draws a panorama of the main discoveries in the domain. (author)

  9. Using the Pairs of Lines Broadened by Collisions with Neutral and Charged Particles for Gas Temperature Determination of Argon Non-Thermal Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yubero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spectroscopic method for gas temperature determination in argon non-thermal plasmas sustained at atmospheric pressure proposed recently by Spectrochimica Acta Part B 129 14 (2017—based on collisional broadening measurements of selected pairs of argon atomic lines, has been applied to other pairs of argon atomic lines, and the discrepancies found in some of these results have been analyzed. For validation purposes, the values of the gas temperature obtained using the different pairs of lines have been compared with the rotational temperatures derived from the OH ro-vibrational bands, using the Boltzmann-plot technique.

  10. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  11. Polarization of hard X-rays, a contribution to the measurement of the non-thermal electron distribution function (L.H.C.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray spectrum emitted by a plasma containing non-thermal electrons generated during Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments has already been measured on several tokamaks, but the properties of the bremsstrahlung have not yet been studied. The present study starts with the comparison of tractable analytical expressions of cross-sections with more precise computer-calculated values; then an evaluation of the polarization is carried out under real tokamak current drive situations and finally a proposal of a new diagnostic for the Tore Supra LHCD experiment is presented. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs

  12. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  13. Morphological study of polymer surfaces exposed to non-thermal plasma based on contact angle and the use of scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T.; Cassini, F. A.; Benetoli, L. O. B.; Dotto, M. E. R.; Debacher, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The experiments presented in this communication have the purpose to elaborate an explanation for the morphological evolution of the growth of polymeric surfaces provided by the treatment of non-thermal plasma. According to the roughness analysis and the model proposed by scaling laws it is possible relate to a predictable or merely random effect. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and poly(etherether)ketone (PEEK) samples were exposed to a non-thermal plasma discharge and the resulting surfaces roughness were analyzed based on the measurements from contact angle, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy coupled with scaling laws analysis which can help to describe and understand the dynamic of formation of a wide variety of rough surfaces. The roughness, RRMS (RMS- Root Mean Square) values for polymer surface range between 19.8 nm and 110.9 nm. The contact angle and the AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements as a function of the plasma exposure time were in agreement with both polar and dispersive components according to the surface roughness and also with the morphology evaluated described by Wolf-Villain model, with proximate values of α between 0.91(PET) and 0.88(PEEK), β = 0.25(PET) and z = 3,64(PET).

  14. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO2/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO2 selectivity and byproducts reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol; Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal

    2017-02-15

    The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO 2 and H 2 O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO 2 and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Search for Non-thermal Dark Matter in Monojet Events in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undleeb, Sonaina [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents a search for dark matter in events with one or more jets and large missing transverse energy using proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data was collected in 2016 by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 $fb^{-1}$. The results are interpreted in terms of Light Non-thermal dark matter model which explains presence of dark matter as well as baryon asymmetry in the universe. Model independent limit on narrow resonance is also obtained for monojet dominant coupling parameter space. There is no evidence for an excess of events above the background processes in the signal region, therefore cross section limits are set for different mediator masses.

  16. Application of Response Surface Methodology for characterization of ozone production from Multi-Cylinder Reactor in non-thermal plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian See, Tan; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Mook Tzeng, Lim

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a reactant which can be applied for various environmental treatment processes. It can be generated via atmospheric air non-thermal plasmas when sufficient voltages are applied through a combination of electrodes and dielectric materials. In this study, the concentration of ozone generated via two different configurations of multi-cylinder dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor (3 x 40 mm and 10 x 10 mm) was investigated. The influence of the voltage and the duty cycle to the concentration of ozone generated by each configuration was analysed using response surface methodology. Voltage was identified as significant factor to the ozone production process. However, the regressed model was biased towards one of the configuration, leaving the predicted results of another configuration to be out of range.

  17. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: yangwei861212@126.com; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  18. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n E-18008 Granada (Spain); Megeath, S. Thomas [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Toledo 2801 West Bancroft Street Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Stutz, Amelia M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Concepción Concepción (Chile); Furlan, Elise [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Caltech 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland [European Space Astronomy Center, ESA P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Stanke, Thomas [European Southern Observatory Garching bei München (Germany); Watson, Dan M., E-mail: osorio@iaa.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s{sup −1}. The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s{sup −1}, similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  19. Star Formation Under the Outflow: The Discovery of a Non-thermal Jet from OMC-2 FIR 3 and Its Relationship to the Deeply Embedded FIR 4 Protostar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Mayra; Díaz-Rodríguez, Ana K.; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Furlan, Elise; Fischer, William J.; Manoj, P.; González-García, Beatriz; Vavrek, Roland; Stanke, Thomas; Watson, Dan M.

    2017-01-01

    We carried out multiwavelength (0.7–5 cm), multi-epoch (1994–2015) Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward the region enclosing the bright far-IR sources FIR 3 (HOPS 370) and FIR 4 (HOPS 108) in OMC-2. We report the detection of 10 radio sources, 7 of them identified as young stellar objects. We image a well-collimated radio jet with a thermal free–free core (VLA 11) associated with the Class I intermediate-mass protostar HOPS 370. The jet features several knots (VLA 12N, 12C, 12S) of non-thermal radio emission (likely synchrotron from shock-accelerated relativistic electrons) at distances of ∼7500–12,500 au from the protostar, in a region where other shock tracers have been previously identified. These knots are moving away from the HOPS 370 protostar at ∼100 km s −1 . The Class 0 protostar HOPS 108, which itself is detected as an independent, kinematically decoupled radio source, falls in the path of these non-thermal radio knots. These results favor the previously proposed scenario in which the formation of HOPS 108 is triggered by the impact of the HOPS 370 outflow with a dense clump. However, HOPS 108 has a large proper motion velocity of ∼30 km s −1 , similar to that of other runaway stars in Orion, whose origin would be puzzling within this scenario. Alternatively, an apparent proper motion could result because of changes in the position of the centroid of the source due to blending with nearby extended emission, variations in the source shape, and/or opacity effects.

  20. Non-thermal Production of Natural betalain Colorant Concentrate from Red Beet Extract by Using the Osmotic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Amirasgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Red beet extract concentrate can be used as a natural colorant in food products; however, destructive effects of thermal methods to produce juice concentrate decrease nutritional value in the final product. Materials and Methods: In this study, red beet extract was concentrated using osmotic distillation method, and the best pretreatment was evaluated to increase the efficiency of the concentration process. Also changes in some physicochemical properties such as betacyanins and betaxanthins contents, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red beet juice were evaluated by both the membrane and thermal concentration methods. Results: The results showed that the best concentration efficiency was obtained after pretreatment of the fresh juice with centrifugation at 1699 G for 17 min. Evaluation of the effect of both the membrane and thermal concentration processes on the physicochemical properties of juice showed that the membrane method did not change betacyanin and betaxanthin contents, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the red beet extract. However, these properties decreased with the thermal concentration method by 26, 15, 11 and 13%, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results, osmotic distillation can produce red beet concentrate with more nutritional value than the concentrate produced with thermal method. Keywords: Membrane, Natural betalain colorant, Osmotic distillation, Red beet

  1. BEPU-FSAR: establishing a background for extension of nuclear thermal hydraulic principles to non thermal-hydraulic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: franmenzel@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); D’Auria, Francesco, E-mail: f.dauria@ing.unipi.it [University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear thermal hydraulic and accident analysis are based in three pillar activities, which consists in: Scaling, Coupling and V and V. Each of them are established technology, with key documents to describe and widely used. The final goal of this work is to apply the BEPU methodology in all parts of FSAR where analytical techniques are needed (BEPU-FSAR) and for that the crucial step is the transfer of the BEPU concepts into the other areas. In this sense, the issue is how to adapt to other disciplines the pillar activities presented in the thermal hydraulic area. For that we need to identify which elements can be applied in the other areas, to show that the proposed methodology is feasible. This work aims to discuss the first steps towards a BEPU-FSAR methodology and to show that the Scaling, Coupling and V and V elements, currently done for thermal-hydraulic codes, can be also done for different codes, which are used to perform different analysis included on a FSAR of a generic plant. (author)

  2. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure HF plasma source: generation of nitric oxide and ozone for bio-medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, S.; Bibinov, N.; Gesche, R.; Awakowicz, P.

    2010-01-01

    A new miniature high-frequency (HF) plasma source intended for bio-medical applications is studied using nitrogen/oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. This plasma source can be used as an element of a plasma source array for applications in dermatology and surgery. Nitric oxide and ozone which are produced in this plasma source are well-known agents for proliferation of the cells, inhalation therapy for newborn infants, disinfection of wounds and blood ozonation. Using optical emission spectroscopy, microphotography and numerical simulation, the gas temperature in the active plasma region and plasma parameters (electron density and electron distribution function) are determined for varied nitrogen/oxygen flows. The influence of the gas flows on the plasma conditions is studied. Ozone and nitric oxide concentrations in the effluent of the plasma source are measured using absorption spectroscopy and electro-chemical NO-detector at variable gas flows. Correlations between plasma parameters and concentrations of the particles in the effluent of the plasma source are discussed. By varying the gas flows, the HF plasma source can be optimized for nitric oxide or ozone production. Maximum concentrations of 2750 ppm and 400 ppm of NO and O3, correspondingly, are generated.

  3. Remotely controlled cutting techniques in the field of nuclear decommissioning. Overview of effectively applied thermal and non thermal cutting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienia, H.

    2008-01-01

    Remote disassembly of radiologically burdened large components is among the most sophisticated and complex activities in the dismantling of nuclear installations. The required space for the technical equipment during the dismantling operations, especially for the removal of larger components is often an additional problem. Conventional cutting technologies like sawing with a disk saw or band saw require large and heavy frameworks as well as guiding systems with high rigidity. These solutions are expensive and sometimes not applicable. The essential question of all cutting and dismantling tasks is the physiological constitution of the component which will be dismantled. That means size, material and structure of the component. All these points are primarily technological questions. The last question is about the estimated costs of the used dismantling technology. Therefore following questions must be answered. How much are the investments for the cutting equipment itself and how much are the investments for the supporting equipment (e.g. necessary handling equipment)? Can I use this cutting equipment only for one special task or is it applicable for many tasks and therefore saves money because other cutting or dismantling technologies are dispensable? How long is the cutting time and what is the to control this technique required personnel? Four different cutting and dismantling technologies will be introduced and described. These four technologies differ in their principle of operation but all of them are used by cutting and dismantling tasks in nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Understanding thermally activated plastic deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Alomari, A.; Murty, K. L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding micromechanics of plastic deformation of existing materials is essential for improving their properties further and/or developing advanced materials for much more severe load bearing applications. The objective of the present work was to understand micromechanics of plastic deformation of Zircaloy-4, a zirconium-based alloy used as fuel cladding and channel (in BWRs) material in nuclear reactors. The Zircaloy-4 in recrystallized (at 973 K for 4 h) condition was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a constant cross-head velocity at temperatures in the range 293 K-1073 K and repeated stress relaxation tests at 293 K, 573 K, and 773 K. The minimum in the total elongation was indicative of dynamic strain aging phenomenon in this alloy in the intermediate temperature regime. The yield stress of the alloy was separated into effective and athermal components and the transition from thermally activated dislocation glide to athermal regime took place at around 673 K with the athermal stress estimated to be 115 MPa. The activation volume was found to be in the range of 40 b3 to 160 b3. The activation volume values and the data analyses using the solid-solution models in literature indicated dislocation-solute interaction to be a potential deformation mechanism in thermally activated regime. The activation energy calculated at 573 K was very close to that found for diffusivity of oxygen in α-Zr that was suggestive of dislocations-oxygen interaction during plastic deformation. This type of information may be helpful in alloy design in selecting different elements to control the deformation behavior of the material and impart desired mechanical properties in those materials for specific applications.

  5. Effects of a non thermal plasma treatment alone or in combination with gemcitabine in a MIA PaCa2-luc orthotopic pancreatic carcinoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brullé

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are the gastrointestinal cancer with the worst prognosis in humans and with a survival rate of 5% at 5 years. Nowadays, no chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in terms of survival for this cancer. Previous study focused on the development of a new therapy by non thermal plasma showed significant effects on tumor growth for colorectal carcinoma and glioblastoma. To allow targeted treatment, a fibered plasma (Plasma Gun was developed and its evaluation was performed on an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic carcinoma using a MIA PaCa2-luc bioluminescent cell line. The aim of this study was to characterize this pancreatic carcinoma model and to determine the effects of Plasma Gun alone or in combination with gemcitabine. During a 36 days period, quantitative BLI could be used to follow the tumor progression and we demonstrated that plasma gun induced an inhibition of MIA PaCa2-luc cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo and that this effect could be improved by association with gemcitabine possibly thanks to its radiosensitizing properties.

  6. Effects of a non thermal plasma treatment alone or in combination with gemcitabine in a MIA PaCa2-luc orthotopic pancreatic carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brullé, Laura; Vandamme, Marc; Riès, Delphine; Martel, Eric; Robert, Eric; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Trichet, Valérie; Richard, Serge; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Le Pape, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are the gastrointestinal cancer with the worst prognosis in humans and with a survival rate of 5% at 5 years. Nowadays, no chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in terms of survival for this cancer. Previous study focused on the development of a new therapy by non thermal plasma showed significant effects on tumor growth for colorectal carcinoma and glioblastoma. To allow targeted treatment, a fibered plasma (Plasma Gun) was developed and its evaluation was performed on an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic carcinoma using a MIA PaCa2-luc bioluminescent cell line. The aim of this study was to characterize this pancreatic carcinoma model and to determine the effects of Plasma Gun alone or in combination with gemcitabine. During a 36 days period, quantitative BLI could be used to follow the tumor progression and we demonstrated that plasma gun induced an inhibition of MIA PaCa2-luc cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo and that this effect could be improved by association with gemcitabine possibly thanks to its radiosensitizing properties.

  7. Optimization of non-thermal plasma efficiency in the simultaneous elimination of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene from polluted airstreams using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpoor, Ali Asghar; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Ahmad; Khani Jazani, Reza; Bargozin, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Treatment with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a new and effective technology applied recently for conversion of gases for air pollution control. This research was initiated to optimize the efficient application of the NTP process in benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX) removal. The effects of four variables including temperature, initial BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate on the BTEX elimination efficiency were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The constructed model was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The model goodness-of-fit and statistical significance was assessed using determination coefficients (R 2 and R 2 adj ) and the F-test. The results revealed that the R 2 proportion was greater than 0.96 for BTEX removal efficiency. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the BTEX removal efficiency was significantly correlated with the temperature, BTEX concentration, voltage, and flow rate. Voltage was the most influential variable affecting the dependent variable as it exerted a significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the response variable. According to the achieved results, NTP can be applied as a progressive, cost-effective, and practical process for treatment of airstreams polluted with BTEX in conditions of low residence time and high concentrations of pollutants.

  8. Development of ultra-hydrophilic and non-cytotoxic dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2013-05-01

    Dental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials are widely used for the replication of intraoral tissue where hydrophilicity is important as the oral tissues are surrounded by wet saliva. Recent attempts to improve the wettability of VPS using a ‘surfactant’, however, have resulted in a high level of cytotoxicity. Hence, in this study, application of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) on VPS and its effects in terms of both hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The results showed that the application of the plasma jet resulted in significant improvement of hydrophilicity of VPS that had no surfactant, whereby the results were similar to commercially available products with the surfactant. The surface chemical analysis results indicated that this was due to the oxidation and decreased amount of hydrocarbon on the surface following NTAPPJ exposure. Meanwhile, an NTAPPJ-treated sample was shown to be non-cytotoxic. Therefore, the use of dental VPS impression materials without any surfactant, in conjunction with an NTAPPJ treatment, is a promising method for ultra-hydrophilic but yet non-cytotoxic materials.

  9. Frequency Dependent Non- Thermal Effects of Oscillating Electric Fields in the Microwave Region on the Properties of a Solvated Lysozyme System: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Floros

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves in every day's applications raises issues regarding the non thermal biological effects of microwaves. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations to advance further the dielectric studies of protein solutions in the case of lysozyme, taking into consideration possible frequency dependent changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the system upon application of electric field in the microwave region. The obtained dielectric spectra are identical with those derived in our previous work using the Fröhlich-Kirkwood approach in the framework of the linear response theory. Noticeable structural changes in the protein have been observed only at frequencies near its absorption maximum. Concerning Cα position fluctuations, different frequencies affected different regions of the protein sequence. Furthermore, the influence of the field on the kinetics of protein-water as well as on the water-water hydrogen bonds in the first hydration shell has been studied; an extension of the Luzar-Chandler kinetic model was deemed necessary for a better fit of the applied field results and for the estimation of more accurate hydrogen bond lifetime values.

  10. A DETAILED STUDY OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY PROPERTIES AND INTERSTELLAR GAS TOWARD THE γ-RAY SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7–3946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Inoue, T.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka 181-8588 (Japan); Yamazaki, R. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Onishi, T. [Department of Astrophysics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: sano@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); and others

    2015-02-01

    We have carried out a spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-ray data in the 0.4-12 keV range toward the shell-type very high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7–3946. The aims of this analysis are to estimate detailed X-rays spectral properties at a high angular resolution up to 2 arcmin and to compare them with the interstellar gas. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal and used to calculate absorbing column density, photon index, and absorption-corrected X-ray flux. The photon index varies significantly from 2.1 to 2.9. It is shown that the X-ray intensity is well correlated with the photon index, especially in the west region, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The X-ray intensity tends to increase with the averaged interstellar gas density while the dispersion is relatively large. The hardest spectra, with photon indexes of less than 2.4, are found outside of the central 10 arcmin of the SNR, from the north to the southeast (∼430 arcmin{sup 2}) and from the southwest to the northwest (∼150 arcmin{sup 2}). The former region shows low interstellar gas density, while the latter shows high interstellar gas density. We present a discussion of possible scenarios that explain the distribution of the photon index and its relationship with the interstellar gas.

  11. Development of ultra-hydrophilic and non-cytotoxic dental vinyl polysiloxane impression materials using a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong Hee; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Dental vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression materials are widely used for the replication of intraoral tissue where hydrophilicity is important as the oral tissues are surrounded by wet saliva. Recent attempts to improve the wettability of VPS using a ‘surfactant’, however, have resulted in a high level of cytotoxicity. Hence, in this study, application of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) on VPS and its effects in terms of both hydrophilicity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The results showed that the application of the plasma jet resulted in significant improvement of hydrophilicity of VPS that had no surfactant, whereby the results were similar to commercially available products with the surfactant. The surface chemical analysis results indicated that this was due to the oxidation and decreased amount of hydrocarbon on the surface following NTAPPJ exposure. Meanwhile, an NTAPPJ-treated sample was shown to be non-cytotoxic. Therefore, the use of dental VPS impression materials without any surfactant, in conjunction with an NTAPPJ treatment, is a promising method for ultra-hydrophilic but yet non-cytotoxic materials. (paper)

  12. Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) and adjuvant fractionated radiotherapeutic multimodal therapy for intracranial malignant glioma in a canine patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P A; Pancotto, T; Rossmeisl, J H; Henao-Guerrero, N; Gustafson, N R; Daniel, G B; Robertson, J L; Ellis, T L; Davalos, R V

    2011-02-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (N-TIRE) has shown promise as an ablative therapy for a variety of soft-tissue neoplasms. Here we describe the therapeutic planning aspects and first clinical application of N-TIRE for the treatment of an inoperable, spontaneous malignant intracranial glioma in a canine patient. The N-TIRE ablation was performed safely, effectively reduced the tumor volume and associated intracranial hypertension, and provided sufficient improvement in neurological function of the patient to safely undergo adjunctive fractionated radiotherapy (RT) according to current standards of care. Complete remission was achieved based on serial magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the brain, although progressive radiation encephalopathy resulted in the death of the dog 149 days after N-TIRE therapy. The length of survival of this patient was comparable to dogs with intracranial tumors treated via standard excisional surgery and adjunctive fractionated external beam RT. Our results illustrate the potential benefits of N-TIRE for in vivo ablation of undesirable brain tissue, especially when traditional methods of cytoreductive surgery are not possible or ideal, and highlight the potential radiosensitizing effects of N-TIRE on the brain.

  13. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sironi, Lorenzo [NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow. (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  14. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  15. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor for degradation and detoxification of high concentrations of dye Reactive Black 5 in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation and detoxification efficiency of high concentrations of commercially available reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 solution (40, 80, 200, 500, 1000 mg L-1, were studied. Advanced oxidation processes in water falling film based dielectric barrier discharge as a non-thermal plasma reactor were used. For the first time, this reactor was used for the treatment of high concentrations of organic pollutants such as reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 in water. Solution of the dye is treated by plasma as thin water solution film that is constantly regenerated. Basically, the reactor works as a continuous flow reactor and the electrical discharge itself takes place at the gas-liquid interphase. The dye solution was recirculated through the reactor with an applied energy density of 0-374 kJ L-1. Decolorization efficiency (% was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometric technique. Samples were taken after every recirculation (~ 22 kJ L-1 and decolorization percent was measured after 5 min and 24 h of plasma treatment. The efficiency of degradation (i.e. mineralization and possible degradation products were also tracked by determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and by ion chromatography (IC. Initial toxicity and toxicity of solutions after the treatment were studied with Artemia salina test organisms. Efficiency of decolorization decreased with the increase of the dye concentration. Complete decolorization, high mineralization and non-toxicity of the solution (<10 % were acomplished after plasma treatment using energy density of 242 kJ L-1, while the initial concentrations of Reactive Black 5 were 40 and 80 mg L-1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 171034

  16. Efficient models for photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on radiative transfer and the Helmholtz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, A; Pasko, V P; Liu, N Y; Celestin, S; Segur, P; Marode, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents formulation of computationally efficient models of photoionization produced by non-thermal gas discharges in air based on three-group Eddington and improved Eddington (SP 3 ) approximations to the radiative transfer equation, and on effective representation of the classic integral model for photoionization in air developed by Zheleznyak et al (1982) by a set of three Helmholtz differential equations. The reported formulations represent extensions of ideas advanced recently by Segur et al (2006) and Luque et al (2007), and allow fast and accurate solution of photoionization problems at different air pressures for the range 0.1 O 2 O 2 is the partial pressure of molecular oxygen in air in units of Torr ( p O 2 = 150 Torr) at atmospheric pressure) and R in cm is an effective geometrical size of the physical system of interest. The presented formulations can be extended to other gases and gas mixtures subject to availability of related emission, absorption and photoionization coefficients. The validity of the developed models is demonstrated by performing direct comparisons of the results from these models and results obtained from the classic integral model. Specific validation comparisons are presented for a set of artificial sources of photoionizing radiation with different Gaussian dimensions, and for a realistic problem involving development of a double-headed streamer at ground pressure. The reported results demonstrate the importance of accurate definition of the boundary conditions for the photoionization production rate for the solution of second order partial differential equations involved in the Eddington, SP 3 and the Helmholtz formulations. The specific algorithms derived from the classic photoionization model of Zheleznyak et al (1982), allowing accurate calculations of boundary conditions for differential equations involved in all three new models described in this paper, are presented. It is noted that the accurate formulation of

  17. Evaluation of mechanism of non-thermal plasma effect on the surface of polypropylene films for enhancement of adhesive and hemo compatible properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore-641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400 019 (India); Arunkumar, A.; Ramkumar, M.C. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore-641062 (India); Ruzybayev, I.; Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, A.S. [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Investigated the mechanism of effect of various gaseous plasma treatments on the surface properties of Polypropylene (PP) films. • The improvement in surface energy is basically due to the incorporation of polar functional groups onto the PP films. • The extent of surface modification and hydrophobic recovery depends upon the type of plasma forming gas. • Due to the significant morphological and chemical changes induced by the gaseous plasma treatment, improved the blood compatibility as well as adhesive strength of the PP films. - Abstract: The hydro-carbon based polymers have attracted attention of scientists for its use in bio-medical field as various implants due to inherent flexibility. However, they have poor surface properties; particularly they have low surface energy (SE). Hence, blood components (platelets, blood proteins, etc.)-polymer surface interaction is the major concern when it comes in contact with blood. Thus, surface modification is required to develop the perfect antithrombogenic property without affecting the materials bulk. The present study describes the improvement in adhesive and blood compatible properties of polypropylene (PP) by low temperature (non-thermal) plasma of various gases such as Ar, O{sub 2}, air and Ar + O{sub 2} for biomedical applications. The changes in surface morphological, chemical and hydrophilic modification induced by the gaseous plasma treatment were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively. Moreover, the stability of plasma effect was also studied for the different storage conditions. Variation in adhesive strength of the plasma treated PP film was studied by T-Peel and Lap-Shear strength tests. The blood compatibility of the surface modified PP films was investigated by in vitro analysis. It was found that gaseous plasma treatment improved the blood compatibility

  18. Evaluation of mechanism of non-thermal plasma effect on the surface of polypropylene films for enhancement of adhesive and hemo compatible properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaneetha Pandiyaraj, K.; Deshmukh, R.R.; Arunkumar, A.; Ramkumar, M.C.; Ruzybayev, I.; Ismat Shah, S.; Su, Pi-Guey; Periayah, Mercy Halleluyah; Halim, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigated the mechanism of effect of various gaseous plasma treatments on the surface properties of Polypropylene (PP) films. • The improvement in surface energy is basically due to the incorporation of polar functional groups onto the PP films. • The extent of surface modification and hydrophobic recovery depends upon the type of plasma forming gas. • Due to the significant morphological and chemical changes induced by the gaseous plasma treatment, improved the blood compatibility as well as adhesive strength of the PP films. - Abstract: The hydro-carbon based polymers have attracted attention of scientists for its use in bio-medical field as various implants due to inherent flexibility. However, they have poor surface properties; particularly they have low surface energy (SE). Hence, blood components (platelets, blood proteins, etc.)-polymer surface interaction is the major concern when it comes in contact with blood. Thus, surface modification is required to develop the perfect antithrombogenic property without affecting the materials bulk. The present study describes the improvement in adhesive and blood compatible properties of polypropylene (PP) by low temperature (non-thermal) plasma of various gases such as Ar, O 2 , air and Ar + O 2 for biomedical applications. The changes in surface morphological, chemical and hydrophilic modification induced by the gaseous plasma treatment were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively. Moreover, the stability of plasma effect was also studied for the different storage conditions. Variation in adhesive strength of the plasma treated PP film was studied by T-Peel and Lap-Shear strength tests. The blood compatibility of the surface modified PP films was investigated by in vitro analysis. It was found that gaseous plasma treatment improved the blood compatibility as well

  19. Evaluation of thermal and non-thermal processing effect on non-prebiotic and prebiotic acerola juices using 1H qNMR and GC-MS coupled to chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Silva, Lorena Mara A; de Brito, Edy S; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fonteles, Thatyane V; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2018-11-01

    The effects of thermal (pasteurization and sterilization) and non-thermal (ultrasound and plasma) processing on the composition of prebiotic and non-prebiotic acerola juices were evaluated using NMR and GC-MS coupled to chemometrics. The increase in the amount of Vitamin C was the main feature observed after thermal processing, followed by malic acid, choline, trigonelline, and acetaldehyde. On the other hand, thermal processing increased the amount of 2-furoic acid, a degradation product from ascorbic acid, as well as influenced the decrease in the amount of esters and alcohols. In general, the non-thermal processing did not present relevant effect on juices composition. The addition of prebiotics (inulin and gluco-oligosaccharides) decreased the effect of processing on juices composition, which suggested a protective effect by microencapsulation. Therefore, chemometric evaluation of the 1 H qNMR and GC-MS dataset was suitable to follow changes in acerola juice under different processing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Millimeter observations of radio-loud active galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, IM; Bertoldi, F

    In order to study the nature of the far-infrared emission observed in radio-loud active galaxies, we have obtained 1.2 mill observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope for a sample of eight radio-loud active galaxies. In all objects we find that the 1.2 mm emission is dominated by non-thermal

  1. Spectroscopic studies of non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure formed in low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Demkin, O. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, 6211 LK Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    The optical and electrophysical characteristics of the nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma formed by a low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron are experimentally investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that experimental data on the optical diagnostics of the plasma jet can provide a basis for the construction of a self-consistent physical and mathematical plasma model and for the creation of plasma sources with controllable electrophysical parameters intended for the generation of the required concentration of active particles. Results of spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma of the low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron confirm that the given source is efficient for the generation of charged particles and short-wavelength radiation—important plasma components for biomedical problems of an increase in the efficiency of treatment of biological tissues by charged particles. Measurement of the spatial distribution of the plasma jet potential by the probe method has demonstrated that a negative space charge is formed in the plasma jet possibly due to the formation of electronegative oxygen ions.

  2. Thermal and non-thermal lattice gas models for a dimer-trimer surface catalytic reaction: a Monte-Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, K.; Khand, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of an irreversible dimer-trimer reaction of the type 2 A/sub 3/ +3 B/sub 2/ -- 6 AB by considering the precursor motion of the dimer (B/sub 2) on a square, as well as on a hexagonal surface, by using a Monte Carlo simulation have been studied. When the movement of precursors is limited to the first nearest neighborhood, the model gives reactive window widths of the order of 0.22 and 0.29 for the square and the hexagonal lattices, respectively, which are quite large compared to those predicted by the LH model. In our model, the reactive window width for a square lattice increases significantly as compared to that for the LH models of the same system on square and hexagonal lattices. The width of the reactive region increases when the precursor motion is extended to the second and the third nearest neighborhood. The continuous transition disappears when the precursor motion is extended to the third nearest neighborhood. The diffusion of B atoms does not change the situation qualitatively for both the precursor and the LH models. However, desorption of the dimer changes the situation significantly; i.e., the width of the reactive window shows an exponential growth with respect to the desorption probability of the dimer for both the precursor and the LH models. In our opinion, the inclusion of precursors in the LH model of the dimer-trimer reactions leads to a better and more realistic description of the heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Consequently, further numerical and theoretical activity in this field will be very useful for understanding complex heterogeneous reactions. (orig./A.B.)

  3. Active processes in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerel, Thibaut; Maes, Christian

    2018-03-01

    We consider the thermal and athermal overdamped motion of particles in one-dimensional geometries where discrete internal degrees of freedom (spin) are coupled with the translational motion. Adding a driving velocity that depends on the time-dependent spin constitutes the simplest model of active particles (run-and-tumble processes) where the violation of the equipartition principle and of the Sutherland-Einstein relation can be studied in detail even when there is generalized reversibility. We give an example (with four spin values) where the irreversibility of the translational motion manifests itself only in higher-order (than two) time correlations. We derive a generalized telegraph equation as the Smoluchowski equation for the spatial density for an arbitrary number of spin values. We also investigate the Arrhenius exponential law for run-and-tumble particles; due to their activity the slope of the potential becomes important in contrast to the passive diffusion case and activity enhances the escape from a potential well (if that slope is high enough). Finally, in the absence of a driving velocity, the presence of internal currents such as in the chemistry of molecular motors may be transmitted to the translational motion and the internal activity is crucial for the direction of the emerging spatial current.

  4. Nonequilibrium phase transitions, fluctuations and correlations in an active contractile polar fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Kripa; Rao, Madan

    2016-02-21

    We study the patterning, fluctuations and correlations of an active polar fluid consisting of contractile polar filaments on a two-dimensional substrate, using a hydrodynamic description. The steady states generically consist of arrays of inward pointing asters and show a continuous transition from a moving lamellar phase, a moving aster street, to a stationary aster lattice with no net polar order. We next study the effect of spatio-temporal athermal noise, parametrized by an active temperature TA, on the stability of the ordered phases. In contrast to its equilibrium counterpart, we find that the active crystal shows true long range order at low TA. On increasing TA, the asters dynamically remodel, concomitantly we find novel phase transitions characterized by bond-orientational and polar order upon "heating".

  5. Continuum of active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, C.; Durret, F.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the luminosity of active galactic nuclei (NAG) is radiated in the form of a continuum extending from radio to X-ray energies. It is important to understand the origin of this continuum in order to explain the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal processes in the different classes of NAG. We present here the observational aspect. A detailed study of the mechanisms will be presented by J.L. Masnou [fr

  6. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products; Süt ve Süt Ürünlerinde Bazı Isıl Olmayan Mikrobiyal İnaktivasyon Yöntemleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E. [Ardahan Univ., Ardahan (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [Turkish] Süt ve süt ürünlerinin üretimleri sırasında mikroorganizmaların inaktivasyonu amacıyla pastörizasyon ve sterilizasyon gibi ısıl işlemler yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Ancak ısıl işlem sonucu oluşan besin ve aroma kayıpları, enzimatik olmayan esmerleşme ve özellikle süt ürünlerindeki organoleptik değişiklikler nedeniyle mikrobiyal inaktivasyonu sağlamak için, alternatif metotlara ihtiyaç duyulmuştur. Başlıca problemler yüksek sıcaklıklardan kaynaklandığı için ısıl olmayan prosesler üzerine dikkat çekilmiştir. Bu maksatla gıdalarda; yüksek basınç (HP), atımlı ışık (PL), ultraviyole ışınlama (UV), süper kritik karbon dioksit (SC-CO2) ve vurgulu elektrik alan (PEF) gibi yöntemler kullanılmaktadır. Bu yöntemlerle ürünler ortam sıcaklığında işlem görmekte ve böylece hem bahsedilen kayıplar minimum düzeye inmekte hem de taze ve doğallıkları korunabilmektedir. Bu derlemede, süt ve ürünlerinde ısıl olmayan mikrobiyal

  7. Thermally activated growth of lath martensite in Fe–Cr–Ni–Al stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Pantleon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The austenite to martensite transformation in a semi-austenitic stainless steel containing 17 wt-%Cr, 7 wt-%Ni and 1 wt-%Al was investigated with vibrating sample magnetometry and electron backscatter diffraction. Magnetometry demonstrated that, within experimental accuracy, martensite formation...... can be suppressed on fast cooling to 77 K as well as on subsequent fast heating to 373 K. Surprisingly, martensite formation was observed during moderate heating from 77 K, instead. Electron backscatter diffraction demonstrated that the morphology of martensite is lath type. The kinetics...... of the transformation is interpreted in terms of athermal nucleation of lath martensite followed by thermally activated growth. It is anticipated that substantial autocatalytic martensite formation occurs during thermally activated growth. The observation of a retardation of the transformation followed by a new...

  8. Thermal activation of dislocations in large scale obstacle bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Cameron; Capolungo, Laurent; McDowell, David L.; Martinez, Enrique

    2017-08-01

    Dislocation dynamics simulations have been used extensively to predict hardening caused by dislocation-obstacle interactions, including irradiation defect hardening in the athermal case. Incorporating the role of thermal energy on these interactions is possible with a framework provided by harmonic transition state theory (HTST) enabling direct access to thermally activated reaction rates using the Arrhenius equation, including rates of dislocation-obstacle bypass processes. Moving beyond unit dislocation-defect reactions to a representative environment containing a large number of defects requires coarse-graining the activation energy barriers of a population of obstacles into an effective energy barrier that accurately represents the large scale collective process. The work presented here investigates the relationship between unit dislocation-defect bypass processes and the distribution of activation energy barriers calculated for ensemble bypass processes. A significant difference between these cases is observed, which is attributed to the inherent cooperative nature of dislocation bypass processes. In addition to the dislocation-defect interaction, the morphology of the dislocation segments pinned to the defects play an important role on the activation energies for bypass. A phenomenological model for activation energy stress dependence is shown to describe well the effect of a distribution of activation energies, and a probabilistic activation energy model incorporating the stress distribution in a material is presented.

  9. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  10. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  11. COMPACT ATHERMAL OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE USING THERMAL EXPANSION AMPLIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method of temperature stabilising optical waveguides having positive thermal optical path length expansion, in particular fiber Bragg gratings or optical fiber DFB lasers or optical fiber DBR lasers, comprising affixing the optical waveguide to at least two points of a negative expanding fixture...

  12. Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.M. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates

  13. Influence of non-thermal TiCl{sub 4}/Ar + O{sub 2} plasma-assisted TiOx based coatings on the surface of polypropylene (PP) films for the tailoring of surface properties and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K.N., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Kumar, A. Arun; Ramkumar, M.C. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Sachdev, A.; Gopinath, P. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Hegde, P. [William Mason High School, Mason 45040 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Nadagouda, M.N. [Center for Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The superior bulk properties (corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, relatively low cost and easy processing) of hydrocarbon based polymers such as polypropylene (PP) have contributed significantly to the development of new biomedical applications such as artificial organs and cell scaffolds. However, low cell affinity is one of the main draw backs for PP due to its poor surface properties. In tissue engineering, physico-chemical surface properties such as hydrophilicity, polar functional groups, surface charge and morphology play a crucial role to enrich the cell proliferation and adhesion. In this present investigation TiOx based biocompatible coatings were developed on the surface of PP films via DC excited glow discharge plasma, using TiCl{sub 4}/Ar + O{sub 2} gas mixture as a precursor. Various TiOx-based coatings are deposited on the surface of PP films as a function of discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub x}/PP film surfaces were studied using contact angle analysis and surface energy calculations by Fowke's approximation. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface chemical composition of TiOx/PP films. The surface morphology of the obtained TiO{sub x}/PP films was investigated by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy (SEM &TEM). Moreover, the surface topography of the material was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytocompatibility of the TiO{sub x}/PP films was investigated via in vitro analysis (cell viability, adhesion and cytotoxicity) using NIH3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast) cells. Furthermore the antibacterial activities of TiO{sub x}/PP films were also evaluated against two distinct bacterial models namely Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Gram negative Escherichia coli DH5α. (E.coli) bacteria. XPS results clearly indicate the successful incorporation of TiO{sub x} and oxygen containing polar functional groups on the surface

  14. Thermal-nonthermal relationships in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, G.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation reports on optical and radio observations of active galactic nuclei, selected on the basis of the presence of dominant narrow (narrow line radio galaxies, Seyfert II galaxies, QSOs) and/or broad (broad line radio galaxies, Seyfert I galaxies, QSOs) optical emission lines in their spectra. Special attention is drawn to possible relationships and physical links between the two regimes responsible for the optical (thermal) and radio (non-thermal) emission. Several projects, each studying such relationships on different angular (and thus linear) scales and at different observational frequencies were conceived with a variety of detection devices. (Auth.)

  15. Atmospheric activity in red dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Active and inactive stars of similar mass and luminosity have similar physical conditions in their photospheres, outside of magnetically disturbed regions. Such field structures give rise to stellar activity, which manifests itself at all heights of the atmosphere. Observations of uneven distributions of flux across the stellar disc have led to the disovery of photospheric starspots, chromospheric plage areas, and coronal holes. Localized transient behavior has been identified in both thermal and non-thermal sources, such as flares, shock waves and particle acceleration. The common element to all active regions is the presence of strong magnetic field structures connecting the violently turbulent deep layers in the convection zones of stars with the tenuous outer atmospheres. Transport and dissipation of energy into the chromospheric and coronal regions are still much debated topics

  16. Non-thermalization in trapped atomic ion spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, P. W.; Becker, P.; Kaplan, H. B.; Kyprianidis, A.; Lee, A. C.; Neyenhuis, B.; Pagano, G.; Richerme, P.; Senko, C.; Smith, J.; Tan, W. L.; Zhang, J.; Monroe, C.

    2017-10-01

    Linear arrays of trapped and laser-cooled atomic ions are a versatile platform for studying strongly interacting many-body quantum systems. Effective spins are encoded in long-lived electronic levels of each ion and made to interact through laser-mediated optical dipole forces. The advantages of experiments with cold trapped ions, including high spatio-temporal resolution, decoupling from the external environment and control over the system Hamiltonian, are used to measure quantum effects not always accessible in natural condensed matter samples. In this review, we highlight recent work using trapped ions to explore a variety of non-ergodic phenomena in long-range interacting spin models, effects that are heralded by the memory of out-of-equilibrium initial conditions. We observe long-lived memory in static magnetizations for quenched many-body localization and prethermalization, while memory is preserved in the periodic oscillations of a driven discrete time crystal state. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.

  17. Non-thermal effects in a hot dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.A.; Kania, D.R.; Hammel, B.A.; Kallne, E.; Maestas, M.D.; McGurn, J.; Shepherd, R.

    1985-01-01

    A hollow gas shell Z-pinch device is described, and some initial observations are shown to lead to the conclusion that there is an energetic electron beam produced along the axis of the collapsing gas shell. An experiment is summarized that directly measured some of the characteristics of this runaway electron beam. Finally, the results of an experiment which observed a new affect are presented along with a model that uses a runaway electron beam to explain this new effect. 9 refs., 17 figs

  18. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-09-14

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  19. Non-thermal axion dark radiation and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2016-07-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism presents a neat solution to the strong CP problem. As a by-product, it provides an ideal dark matter candidate, ''the axion'', albeit with a tiny mass. Axions therefore can act as dark radiation if excited with large momenta after the end of inflation. Nevertheless, the recent measurement of relativistic degrees of freedom from cosmic microwave background radiation strictly constrains the abundance of such extra relativistic species. We show that ultra-relativistic axions can be abundantly produced if the Peccei-Quinn field was initially displaced from the minimum of the potential. This in lieu places an interesting constraint on the axion dark matter window with large decay constant which is expected to be probed by future experiments. Moreover, an upper bound on the reheating temperature can be placed, which further constrains the thermal history of our Universe.

  20. Non thermal plasma surface cleaner and method of use

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios; Lacoste, Deanna A.; Kirkus, Mindaugas

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are plasma generation devices and methods of use of the devices. The devices can be used for the cleaning of various surfaces and/or for inhibiting or preventing the accumulation of particulates, such as dust, or moisture on various surfaces. The devices can be used to remove dust and other particulate contaminants from solar panels and windows, or to avoid or minimize condensation on various surfaces. In an embodiment a plasma generation device is provided. The plasma generation device can comprise: a pair of electrodes (1,2) positioned in association with a surface of a dielectric substrate (3). The pair of electrodes (1,2) can comprise a first electrode (1) and a second electrode (2). The first electrode and second electrode can be of different sizes, one of the electrodes being smaller than the other of the electrodes. The first electrode and second electrode can be separated by a distance and electrically connected to a voltage source (4,5).

  1. Plasma needle : non-thermal atmospheric plasmas in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sladek, R.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Who is not afraid of the dentist? Or to be more specific. . . who is not afraid of the dental drill? Caries is a common ailment, that is caused by bacteria in dental plaque. Cavities will form when you do not properly remove the plaque on your teeth. The improvement of caries prevention and

  2. Non-thermal inactivation of Noroviruses in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Bošković, T.

    2017-09-01

    An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses caused by Norovirus and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative antiviral processing technologies. Chlorine dioxide, UV treatment and thermal processing are standard antinoroviral technologies that have been employed for a while; however, they tend to be non-effective in modern processing due to residue concerns (ClO2), shadowing effects (UV) and low-energy efficiency (heat treatment). Alternative technologies have been validated such as ozone treatment, high pressure processing and pulse electric fields. Although these techniques are promising, none of them individually can deem food free of Norovirus. Further research on the effects on Norovirus in various food matrices is required. Good manufacturing practices and proper sanitation procedures remain the “gold” safety tools in food business.

  3. Non thermal preparation of photoactive titanium (IV) oxide thin layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, P.; Lusková, H.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Šolcová, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 495, - (2006), s. 18-23 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/0963; GA ČR GD203/03/H140; GA MPO FT-TA/023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : titanium dioxide * nanostructures * photocatalysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  4. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholtz, V.; Soušková, H.; Hubka, Vít; Švarcová, M.; Julák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, DEC 2015 (2015), s. 53-58 ISSN 0167-7012 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Corona discharge * Cometary discharge * Decontamination of surfaces Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2015

  5. Room-Temperature Activation of InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistors via He+ Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Michael G; Noh, Joo Hyon; Mahady, Kyle; Ievlev, Anton V; Maksymovych, Peter; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Rack, Philip D

    2017-10-11

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is a transparent semiconductor which has demonstrated excellent electrical performance as thin-film transistors (TFTs). However, a high-temperature activation process is generally required which is incompatible for next-generation flexible electronic applications. In this work, He + irradiation is demonstrated as an athermal activation process for a-IGZO TFTs. Controlling the He + dose enables the tuning of charge density, and a dose of 1 × 10 14 He + /cm 2 induces a change in charge density of 2.3 × 10 12 cm -2 . Time-dependent transport measurements and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) indicate that the He + -induced trapped charge is introduced because of preferential oxygen-vacancy generation. Scanning microwave impedance microscopy confirms that He + irradiation improves the conductivity of the a-IGZO. For realization of a permanent activation, IGZO was exposed with a He + dose of 5 × 10 14 He + /cm 2 and then aged 24 h to allow decay of the trapped oxide charge originating for electron-hole pair generation. The resultant shift in the charge density is primarily attributed to oxygen vacancies generated by He + sputtering in the near-surface region.

  6. Thermal and active fluctuations of a compressible bilayer vesicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachin Krishnan, T. V.; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2018-05-01

    We discuss thermal and active fluctuations of a compressible bilayer vesicle by using the results of hydrodynamic theory for vesicles. Coupled Langevin equations for the membrane deformation and the density fields are employed to calculate the power spectral density matrix of membrane fluctuations. Thermal contribution is obtained by means of the fluctuation dissipation theorem, whereas active contribution is calculated from exponentially decaying time correlation functions of active random forces. We obtain the total power spectral density as a sum of thermal and active contributions. An apparent response function is further calculated in order to compare with the recent microrheology experiment on red blood cells. An enhanced response is predicted in the low-frequency regime for non-thermal active fluctuations.

  7. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high-temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally...... resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...

  8. THE CONFINED X-CLASS FLARES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 2192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M., E-mail: julia.thalmann@uni-graz.at [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2015-03-10

    The unusually large active region (AR) NOAA 2192, observed in 2014 October, was outstanding in its productivity of major two-ribbon flares without coronal mass ejections. On a large scale, a predominantly north–south oriented magnetic system of arcade fields served as a strong top and lateral confinement for a series of large two-ribbon flares originating from the core of the AR. The large initial separation of the flare ribbons, together with an almost absent growth in ribbon separation, suggests a confined reconnection site high up in the corona. Based on a detailed analysis of the confined X1.6 flare on October 22, we show how exceptional the flaring of this AR was. We provide evidence for repeated energy release, indicating that the same magnetic field structures were repeatedly involved in magnetic reconnection. We find that a large number of electrons was accelerated to non-thermal energies, revealing a steep power-law spectrum, but that only a small fraction was accelerated to high energies. The total non-thermal energy in electrons derived (on the order of 10{sup 25} J) is considerably higher than that in eruptive flares of class X1, and corresponds to about 10% of the excess magnetic energy present in the active-region corona.

  9. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  10. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ''lock-in'' amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design

  11. Two-photon cooperative emission in the presence of athermal electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaki, N.A.; Mihalache, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of cooperative spontaneous two-photon emission of an extended radiators system and the influence of the external thermal electromagnetic field on the spontaneous emission rate, in such a system, are investigated. It is concluded that, in an external electromagnetic field, the two-photon cooperative emission rate increases significantly. The importance of this effect on the emission of gamma rays from inverted long-lived isomers triggered by X-ray thermal fields, is emphasized

  12. Athermal electron distribution probed by femtosecond multiphoton photoemission from image potential states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrini, Gabriele; Giannetti, Claudio; Pagliara, Stefania; Banfi, Francesco; Galimberti, Gianluca; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2005-01-01

    Image potential states are populated through indirect, scattering-mediated multiphoton absorption induced by femtosecond laser pulses and revealed by single-photon photoemission. The measured effective mass is significantly different from that obtained with direct, resonant population. These features reveal a strong coupling of the electrons residing in the image potential state, outside the solid, with the underlying hot electron population created by the laser pulse. The coupling is mediated by a many-body scattering interaction between the image potential state electrons and bulk electrons in highly excited states

  13. Quantum Dot Laser for a Light Source of an Athermal Silicon Optical Interposer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Hatori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a hybrid integrated light source fabricated on a silicon platform using a 1.3 μm wavelength quantum dot array laser. Temperature insensitive characteristics up to 120 °C were achieved by the optimum quantum dot structure and laser structure. Light output power was obtained that was high enough to achieve an optical error-free link of a silicon optical interposer. Furthermore, we investigated a novel spot size convertor in a silicon waveguide suitable for a quantum dot laser for lower energy cost operation of the optical interposer.

  14. Mean-Field Scenario for the Athermal Creep Dynamics of Yield-Stress Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Martens, Kirsten; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theoretical description based on an existent mean-field model for the transient dynamics prior to the steady flow of yielding materials. The mean-field model not only reproduces the experimentally observed nonlinear time dependence of the shear-rate response to an external stress, but also allows for the determination of the different physical processes involved in the onset of the reacceleration phase after the initial slowing down and a distinct fluidization phase. The fluidization time displays a power-law dependence on the distance of the applied stress to an age-dependent yield stress, which is not universal but strongly dependent on initial conditions.

  15. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions

  16. A Spectroscopic Search for AGN Activity in the Reionization Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Nicolas; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi; Stark, Daniel P.; Mainali, Ramesh; Roberts-Borsani, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquity of Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission in a sample of four bright [O III]-strong star-forming galaxies with redshifts above seven has led to the suggestion that such luminous sources represent a distinct population compared with their fainter, more numerous counterparts. The presence of Lyα emission within the reionization era could indicate that these sources created early ionized bubbles due to their unusually strong radiation, possibly because of the presence of active galactic nuclei. To test this hypothesis, we secured long integration spectra with XSHOOTER on the VLT for three z≃ 7 sources selected to have similar luminosities and prominent excess fluxes in the IRAC 3.6 or 4.5 μm band, usually attributed to strong [O III] emission. We secured additional spectroscopy for one of these galaxies at z = 7.15 using MOSFIRE at the Keck telescope. For the most well-studied source in our sample with the strongest IRAC excess, we detect significant nebular emission from He II and N V indicative of a non-thermal source. For the other two sources at z = 6.81 and z = 6.85, for which no previous optical/near-infrared spectroscopy was available, Lyα is seen in one and C III] emission in the other. Although based on a modest sample, our results further support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of intense [O III] emission is associated preferentially with sources lying in early ionized bubbles. However, even though one of our sources at z = 7.15 suggests the presence of non-thermal radiation, such ionized bubbles may not uniquely arise in this manner. We discuss the unique advantages of extending such challenging diagnostic studies with JWST.

  17. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  18. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  19. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior

  20. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  1. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  2. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  3. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant and oxygen as life support consumables from the atmospheric CO2 and water on Mars is a key enabling technology required...

  4. Acid gas degradation by non-thermal plasma and energy estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia-Barrientos, R; Pacheco-Sotelo, J; Pacheco-Pacheco, M; Rivera-Rodríguez, C; Ibañez-Olvera, M; Estrada-Martinez, N; Silva-Rosas, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate the energy efficiency in the system performed to treat acid gases by plasma discharges. The electrical energy consumed by the plasma is evaluated by an electrical diagnosis, taking into account the experimental voltage and current applied to the power source. The estimation of the electrical energy generated by solid oxide fuel cells is based on the method of modeling the energy produced by the species generated by the plasma discharge and taking also into account the temperature of the gases.

  5. Variations in non-thermal NO formation pathways in alcohol flames

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles

    2016-07-04

    This work investigates the formation of NO in a range of laminar, premixed, burner-stabilized C1 to C3 alcohol and alkane flames, in the equivalence ratio between 0.8 and 1.2. Measurements of temperature and NO concentration were conducted, and simulations utilizing the measured temperature profile allowed for the comparison of predicted NO with experiment, as well as a detailed investigation of the contributions from a number of NO formation pathways. In the alcohol flames, reduced contributions to Prompt NO were observed along with reduced consumption of NO through the NO-HCN Reburn mechanism, demonstrating the importance of hydrocarbon radicals (CH, CH2, CH3, and HCCO) to NO formation. Additionally, significant contributions to NO through the combined NNH and N2O mechanism were observed, representing a greater proportion of the NO produced in the alcohol flames. © 2016.

  6. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be exploited in order to design combined processes. Further work would be required in order to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these technologies and to exhaustively characterize the influence of all the factors acting before, during, and after treatment. This would be very useful in the areas of process optimization and combined process design.

  7. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be exploited in order to design combined processes. Further work would be required in order to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these technologies and to exhaustively characterize the influence of all the factors acting before, during, and after treatment. This would be very useful in the areas of process optimization and combined process design. PMID:27242749

  8. Variations in non-thermal NO formation pathways in alcohol flames

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles; Guiberti, Thibault F.; Sarathy, Mani; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of NO in a range of laminar, premixed, burner-stabilized C1 to C3 alcohol and alkane flames, in the equivalence ratio between 0.8 and 1.2. Measurements of temperature and NO concentration were conducted

  9. Ultrafast Non-thermal Response of Plasmonic Resonance in Gold Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Biagioni, Paolo; Cattoni, Andrea; Longhi, Stefano; Cerullo, Giulio; Brida, Daniele

    Ultrafast thermalization of electrons in metal nanostructures is studied by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. We track in real-time the plasmon resonance evolution, providing a tool for understanding and controlling gold nanoantennas non-linear optical response.

  10. Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthi Chidambaram

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol isolated from dried rhizome of turmeric. Clinical usefulness of curcumin in the treatment of cancer is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, hydrolytic degradation, metabolism, and poor oral bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, we proposed to fabricate curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin and curcumin-silibinin loaded polymeric nanoformulation. However, unfavourable combinations of drug-drug and drug-excipient may result in interaction and rises the safety concern. Hence, the present study was aimed to assess the interaction of curcumin with excipients used in nanoformulations. Methods: Isothermal stress testing method was used to assess the compatibility of drug-drug/drug-excipient. Results: The combination of curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin, curcumin-silibinin and the combination of other excipients with curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin have not shown any significant physical and chemical instability. Conclusion: The study concludes that the curcumin, piperine, quercetin and silibinin is compatible with each other and with other excipients.

  11. A novel approach to the pacemaker infection with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Li, Yu; Li, Yinglong; Yu, Shuang; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jue

    2017-08-01

    Although the pacemaker (PM) is a key cardiac implantable electrical device for life-threatening arrhythmias treatment, the related infection is a challenge. Thus, the aim of this study is to validate cold plasma as a potential technology for the disinfection of infected pacemakers. Fifty donated PMs were cleaned and sterilized before use and then infected with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus). Then, each experimental group was treated with cold plasma treatment for 1 min, 3 min, 5 min and 7 min, while the control group was immersed with sterilized water. Effectiveness of disinfection was evaluated by using CFU counting method and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The physicochemical properties of water treated with cold plasma at different time were evaluated, including water temperature change and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). The major reactive species generated by the cold plasma equipment during cold plasma were analyzed with optical emission spectroscopy (OES). No live bacteria were detected with CFU counting method after 7 min of cold plasma treatment, which matches with the CLSM results. The ORP value of water and H2O2 concentration changed significantly after treating with cold plasma. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), especially NO, O (777 nm) and O (844 nm) were probably key inactivation agents in cold plasma treatment. These results indicate that cold plasma could be an effective technology for the disinfection of implantable devices.

  12. Quantum Corrected Non-Thermal Radiation Spectrum from the Tunnelling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subenoy Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tunnelling mechanism is today considered a popular and widely used method in describing Hawking radiation. However, in relation to black hole (BH emission, this mechanism is mostly used to obtain the Hawking temperature by comparing the probability of emission of an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. On the other hand, Banerjee and Majhi reformulated the tunnelling framework deriving a black body spectrum through the density matrix for the outgoing modes for both the Bose-Einstein distribution and the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In contrast, Parikh and Wilczek introduced a correction term performing an exact calculation of the action for a tunnelling spherically symmetric particle and, as a result, the probability of emission of an outgoing particle corresponds to a non-strictly thermal radiation spectrum. Recently, one of us (C. Corda introduced a BH effective state and was able to obtain a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism corresponding to the probability of emission of an outgoing particle found by Parikh and Wilczek. The present work introduces the quantum corrected effective temperature and the corresponding quantum corrected effective metric is written using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Thus, we obtain further corrections to the non-strictly thermal BH radiation spectrum as the final distributions take into account both the BH dynamical geometry during the emission of the particle and the quantum corrections to the semiclassical Hawking temperature.

  13. Polarization and spectral features of the hard x-ray continuum from non-thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from the cross-sections for the free-free radiation obtained within the relativistic Born-Elwert theory, we calculate the spectral and polarization properties of the hard X-ray continuum (hν > 50 KeV) for plasmas containing fast electrons with an anisotropic velocity distribution. The physical and geometrical quantities of our model are oriented towards the future lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on Tore-Supra. Our parameter space covers parallel and perpendicular temperatures, the nuclear charge of the ions (mainly Z = 14 and 28), the cut-off energy of the electrons, the radial current profile and the viewing angle. Extensive calculations open on the optimum conditions for polarization measurements and also give guide-lines for the quantitative interpretation of data under real plasma conditions. A second part of this report will treat with the operational principles and expected performances of hard X-ray polarimeters

  14. Non-thermal Processes in the Formation of Mercury's Tenuous Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, M. J.; Bennett, C.; Jones, B. M.; Orlando, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury have established that a quasi-trapped population of ions and electrons with 1-10 keV energy exists at a distance of about 1.5 RM (RM is Mercury's radius) around much of the planet. Recent observations from the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS), taken groups). The sources of these ions are not clear. A newly developed global kinetic transport model suggests that electron-stimulated desorption (ESD), and possibly light ion stimulated desorption (ISD), can directly yield ions that can be transported and dynamically accelerated to the plasma cusp regions observed by FIPS. Neutrals desorbed from the surface by ESD, ISD, photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and meteorite impact may also be photoionized and transported/injected into the cusp region. Though the relative importance of these mechanisms in the formation of Mercury's tenuous atmosphere and the subsequent effects on the exosphere/magnetosphere dynamics are not known, it is likely that all of these contribute significantly. The goals of this work are to measure desorption cross-sections and ejection velocities for Na+, O+, and water group ions under relevant electron and ion bombardment energies. This program utilizes state-of-the art surface science capabilities to probe the role of ESD and ISD as a source of ions and neutrals present in the exosphere of Mercury. The experimental chamber is equipped with a dosing system, a cryogenic cooled temperature controlled sample holder, as well as pulsed ion and electron sources. The ESD and ISD ion yields and velocity measurements are obtained directly by sampling with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The measured ESD ion yields from adsorbate covered Mercury surface analogs such as the sulfur bearing minerals MgS, Na2S and K2S are low. Additionally, ISD experiments using incident protons also yielded low ion signals. These results implicate PSD and neutral desorption as dominant processes. The information obtained from these experiments can be directly incorporated into model simulations for comparison with data recently obtained by the FIPS instrument.

  15. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  16. Non-thermal DT yield with (D)T ICRH heating in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrell, G.A.; Bhatnagar, V.B.; Bures, M.; Hellsten, T.; Jacquinot, J.; Start, D.F.H.

    1989-01-01

    We present projections of the (D)T fusion yield expected during fundamental ICRH heating of D in JET plasmas. To obtain high Q, one needs to use a relatively high plasma density (n e > 5x10 19 m -3 ) and dipole antenna (k≅ 10%-30%), we have used ray-tracing and global wave ICRH codes to estimate cyclotron damping on deuterium (∼80%) and the rf power coupled directly to electrons (∼17%) via TTMP and Landau damping. With launched rf power P rf =12 MW deposited ∼0.3 m off-axis, we predict fusion powers P fus up to ∼8 MW for a range of JET plasmas with achieved plasma pressure n e o T e o = 6x10 20 keV m -3 and Z eff = 2. Projecting to P c = 20 MW, P fus increases to 17 MW with Z eff = 2. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs

  17. Non-thermal DT yield with (D)T ICRH heating in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Bures, M.; Hellsten, T.; Jacquinot, J.; Start, D.F.H.

    1989-01-01

    Projections of the (D)T fusion yield expected during fundamental ICRH heating of D in JET tritium plasmas are presented. The highest fusion multiplication factor, Q (≡P fus /P r.f. ), is achieved for a relatively high plasma density (n e0 > 5 x 10 19 m -3 ) and minority concentration ratio n D /n T ≅ 20-40% with dipole antenna (k || ∼ 7 m -1 ). The latter reduces mode conversion and maximizes the r.f. power coupled to the minority ions. We have used ray-tracing and global wave ICRH codes to calculate power deposition profiles; 80% is cyclotron damped by deuterium and 17% is coupled directly to electrons via TTMP and Landau damping. With launched r.f. power P r.f. = 12 MW deposited ∼ 0.3 m off-axis, we predict fusion powers P fus up to ∼ 8 MW for a range of JET plasmas with achieved plasma pressure N e0 T e0 - 6 x 10 20 keV m -3 and Z eff = 2. Projecting to P r.f. = 25 MW, P fus increases to 17 MW with Z eff = 2. (author)

  18. Reheating, thermalization and non-thermal gravitino production in MSSM inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrantelli, Andrea [Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of MSSM inflation, matter and gravitino production are here investigated through the decay of the fields which are coupled to the udd inflaton, a gauge-invariant combination of squarks. After the end of inflation, the flat direction oscillates about the minimum of its potential, losing at each oscillation about 56% of its energy into bursts of gauge/gaugino and scalar quanta when crossing the origin. These particles then acquire a large inflaton VEV-induced mass and decay perturbatively into the MSSM quanta and gravitinos, transferring the inflaton energy very efficiently via instant preheating. Regarding thermalization, we show that the MSSM degrees of freedom thermalize very quickly, yet not immediately by virtue of the large vacuum expectation value of the inflaton, which breaks the SU(3){sub C} x U(1){sub Y} symmetry into a residual U(1). The energy transfer to the MSSM quanta is very efficient, since full thermalization is achieved after only O(40) complete oscillations. The udd inflaton thus provides an extremely efficient reheating of the Universe, with a temperature T{sub reh} = O(10{sup 8} GeV), which allows for instance several mechanisms of baryogenesis. We also compute the gravitino number density from the perturbative decay of the flat direction and of the SUSY multiplet. We find that the gravitinos are produced in negligible amount and satisfy cosmological bounds such as the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and dark matter (DM) constraints. (orig.)

  19. Synergistic effects of non-thermal plasma-assisted catalyst and ultrasound on toluene removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongli; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Luhong; Sui, Hong

    2012-01-01

    A wire-mesh catalyst coated by La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 was combined with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor for toluene removal at atmospheric pressure. It was found that toluene removal efficiency and carbon dioxide selectivity were enhanced in the catalytic packed-bed reactor. In addition, ozone and nitrogen monoxide from the gas effluent byproducts decreased. This is the first time that ultrasound combined with plasma has been used for toluene removal. A synergistic effect on toluene removal was observed in the plasma-assisted ultrasound system. At the same time, the system increased toluene conversion and reduced ozone emission.

  20. Non-Thermal, On-Site Decontamination and Destruction of Practice Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-12

    Decision Diagram for Stings from Flying Insects Honey bee sting? Stinger embedded? Other types of stinging insects: wasp, hornet, yellow jacket...potential for injury , so this is to be avoided. A mobile process unit allows for processing of the BDU’s at each location where needed followed by...continue as described under step 7.4. Refer to the caution statement in section 7.1 for the proper protocol in reducing the excess permanganate solution and

  1. Drug-Drug/Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies on Curcumin using Non-Thermal Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moorthi Chidambaram; Kathiresan Krishnasamy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol isolated from dried rhizome of turmeric. Clinical usefulness of curcumin in the treatment of cancer is limited due to poor aqueous solubility, hydrolytic degradation, metabolism, and poor oral bioavailability. To overcome these limitations, we proposed to fabricate curcumin-piperine, curcumin-quercetin and curcumin-silibinin loaded polymeric nanoformulation. However, unfavourable combinations of drug-drug and drug-excipient may result in interacti...

  2. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  3. Non-thermal air plasma promotes the healing of acute skin wounds in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Závišková, Kristýna; Uherková, Lenka; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, mar (2017), s. 45183 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04010449 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : randomized controlled-trial * atmospheric argon plasma * nitric-oxide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods; Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Surface modification of gutta-percha cones by non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Maíra; Menezes, Marilia Santana de Oliveira; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Barbosa, Carlos Augusto de Melo; Athias, Leonardo; Simão, Renata Antoun

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Oxygen and Argon plasma on gutta-percha surfaces. A total of 185 flat smooth gutta-percha surfaces were used. Samples were divided into groups: control: no plasma treatment; Oxygen: treatment with Oxygen plasma for 1 min; Argon: treatment with Argon plasma for 1 min. Samples were evaluated topographically by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy; and chemically by Fourier Transform-infrared Spectroscopy. A goniometer was used to determine the surface free energy and the wettability of the endodontic sealers. Additionally 60 bovine teeth were filled using pellets of gutta-percha (control, oxygen and argon plasma) and the sealers. Teeth were evaluated by push-out and microleakage tests. Data were statistically analyzed using specific tests. Argon plasma did not change the surface topography, while Oxygen plasma led to changes. Both treatments chemically modified the gutta-percha surface. Argon and Oxygen plasma increased the surface free energy and favored the wettability of AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT. Regarding bond strength analysis, for AH Plus sealer, both plasma treatments on gutta-percha favored the bond strength to dentin. However, for Pulp Canal Sealer, there is no statistically significant influence. For leakage test, dye penetration occurred between sealer and dentin in all groups. In conclusion, Oxygen plasma led to both topographic and chemical changes in the gutta-percha surface, while Argon plasma caused only chemical changes. Both treatments increased the surface free energy, favoring the wettability of AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT sealers and influenced positively in the adhesion and leakage. - Highlights: • Argon plasma did not change the gutta-percha surface. • Oxygen plasma led to topographic changes. • Both treatments chemically modified the gutta-percha surface. • Treatments increased the surface free energy and favored the wettability of sealers. • Plasma treatments influenced positively in the adhesion and leakage.

  5. Non-thermal electron populations in microwave heated plasmas investigated with X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belapure, Jaydeep Sanjay

    2013-04-15

    An investigation of the generation and dynamics of superthermal electrons in fusion plasma is carried out. A SDD+CsI(Tl) based X-ray diagnostic is constructed, characterized and installed at ASDEX Upgrade. In various plasma heating power and densities, the fraction and the energy distribution of the superthermal electrons is obtained by a bi-Maxwellian model and compared with Fokker-Planck simulations.

  6. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1983-02-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized

  7. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for the decomposition of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases), hence has a negative impact on the environ- ment.1–4 Some of the well-established technologies for. VOC abatement are thermal and catalytic ... motor driven syringe pump and mixed with ambient air. (300 ml/min at STP) in a mixing chamber. Air flow was regulated by pre-calibrated mass flow controllers.

  8. Disinfection of Streptococcus mutans biofilm by a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qing; Dong, Xiaoqing; Chen, Meng; Xu, Yuanxi; Sun, Hongmin; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the argon plasma treatment effect on disinfecting dental biofilm by using an atmospheric pressure plasma brush. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were developed for 3 days on the surfaces of hydroxyapatite (HA) discs, which were used to simulate human tooth enamel. After plasma treatment, cell viability in the S. mutans biofilms was characterized by using 3-(4,5-dimethylazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Compared with the untreated control group, about 90% bacterial reduction in the biofilms was observed after 1 min plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination indicated severe cell damages occurred on the top surface of the plasma treated biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that plasma treatment was effective as deep as 20 µm into the biofilms. When combined with antibiotic treatment using 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution, the plasma treatment became more effective and over 96% bacterial reduction was observed with 1 min plasma treatment.

  9. HIGH-ENERGY NON-THERMAL AND THERMAL EMISSION FROM GRB 141207A DETECTED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Makoto [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Asano, Katsuaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Ohno, Masanori [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Veres, Péter [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Axelsson, Magnus [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bissaldi, Elisabetta [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Tachibana, Yutaro; Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: m.arimoto@aoni.waseda.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    A bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index ( α  = +0.2 to +0.4) is detected, which suggests a photospheric origin. In a finely time-resolved analysis, the spectra are also well fitted by the modified blackbody combined with a power-law function. We discuss the physical parameters of the photosphere such as the bulk Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow and the radius. We also discuss the physical origin of the extra power-law component observed during the prompt phase in the context of different models such as leptonic and hadronic scenarios in the internal shock regime and synchrotron emission in the external forward shock. In the afterglow phase, the temporal and spectral behaviors of the temporally extended high-energy emission and the fading X-ray emission detected by the X-Ray Telescope on-board Swift are consistent with synchrotron emission in a radiative external forward shock.

  10. The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velizarov, S; Raskmark, P; Kwee, S

    1999-02-01

    The number of reports on the effects induced by radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields and microwave (MW) radiation in various cellular systems is still increasing. Until now no satisfactory mechanism has been proposed to explain the biological effects of these fields. One of the current theories is that heat generation by RF/MW is the cause, in spite of the fact that a great number of studies under isothermal conditions have reported significant cellular changes after exposure to RF/MW. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate which effect MW radiation from these fields in combination with a significant change of temperature could have on cell proliferation. The experiments were performed on the same cell line, and with the same exposure system as in a previous work [S. Kwee, P. Raskmark, Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation: 2. Microwave radiation, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 44 (1998), pp. 251-255]. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 MHz. Cell cultures, growing in microtiter plates, were exposed in a specially constructed chamber, a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) value for each cell well was calculated for this exposure system. However, in this study the cells were exposed to the field at a higher or lower temperature than the temperature in the field-free incubator i.e., the temperature in the TEM cell was either 39 or 35 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The corresponding sham experiments were performed under exactly the same experimental conditions. The results showed that there was a significant change in cell proliferation in the exposed cells in comparison to the non-exposed (control) cells at both temperatures. On the other hand, no significant change in proliferation rate was found in the sham-exposed cells at both temperatures. This shows that biological effects due to RF/MW cannot be attributed only to a change of temperature. Since the RF/MW induced changes were of the same order of magnitude at both temperatures and also comparable to our previous results under isothermal conditions at 37 degrees C, cellular stress caused by electromagnetic fields could initiate the changes in cell cycle reaction rates. It is widely accepted that certain classes of heat-shock proteins are involved in these stress reactions.

  11. Is the polarization of NGC1068 evidence for a non-thermal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, I.S.; Aspin, C.; Heathcote, S.R.; McCaughrean, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    NGC1068 is one of the brightest galaxies included by Seyfert in his list of extragalactic objects having compact, luminous nuclei within which broad, high-excitation emission lines occur. It has been the subject of intensive studies at UV, optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Unresolved questions concern the nature and relationship of the sources of the excess flux seen in the UV and IR, their connection with the collimated jets apparent in high-resolution radio maps and their association with the extended region responsible for the broad emission lines. A further question is the location of any dust and its role in modifying the optical and UV spectrum. Observations are reported with two high-resolution optical spectro-polarimeters which throw new light on these questions. From detailed structure found in the linear polarization spectrum of the nucleus it is concluded that dilution by starlight modifies the polarization to an extent not previously appreciated. In fact the polarization of the non-stellar flux in the optical and near IR is approximately independent of wavelength (as expected for synchrotron emission or electron scattering) with a direction orthogonal to that of the radio jets; such an arrangement is reminiscent of certain quasars and radio galaxies. (author)

  12. Thermal and non-thermal particle interaction with the LHCD launchers in Tore Supra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Balorin, C.; Basiuk, V.; Bibet, Ph.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian, F.; Lowry, C.; Moreau, Ph.; Petržílka, Václav; Portafaix, C.; Prou, M.; Roche, H.

    363-365, č. 8 (2007), s. 1329-1333 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH grill * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma Jet for biomedical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, J; Mora, J; Vargas, A; Brenes, L; Montiel, R; Arrieta, J; Vargas, VI

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the development and evaluation of a low-cost DBD Plasma- JET reactor using Argon as carrier gas, this device is capable of generating a cold plasma plume several centimeters in length making it suitable for use directly in contact with objects and delicate materials, including living tissue. (paper)

  14. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, L.; Verhagen, R.; Van Hal, R.; Liu, Y.; Varghese, B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create

  15. Non-thermal distribution of O(1D) atoms in the night-time thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Jeng-Hwa

    1988-01-01

    The 6300 A O(1D-3P) emission has been used for many years to remotely monitor the thermospheric temperature from the Doppler width of its line profile. The O(1D) atoms in the nighttime thermosphere are initially produced by the dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions with kinetic energy much greater than the thermal energy of the ambient neutrals. The validity of the technique to monitor neutral ambient temperature by measuring O(1D) 6300 A emission depends on the degree of thermalization of the O(1D) atoms. The object of this study is to calculate the velocity distribution of the O(1D) atoms and to examine the effect of nonthermal distribution on the nighttime thermospheric neutral temperature determined.

  16. Bacteria response to non-thermal physical factors: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Staphylococcus aureus germ to the action of ionizing radiation and cold plasma jet was studied in the frame of a comparative experimental research. The inactivation effect of electromagnetic ionizing radiations provided by medical X-ray device has resulted in up to 75% diminution of bacterial cell density, ...

  17. Surface modification of gutta-percha cones by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Maíra, E-mail: maira@metalmat.ufrj.br [Department of Metallurgic and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Menezes, Marilia Santana de Oliveira [Department of Metallurgic and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Endodontics Division, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Barbosa, Carlos Augusto de Melo [Department of Clinical Dentistry, Endodontic Division, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Athias, Leonardo [Social Indicators Division, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simão, Renata Antoun [Department of Metallurgic and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Oxygen and Argon plasma on gutta-percha surfaces. A total of 185 flat smooth gutta-percha surfaces were used. Samples were divided into groups: control: no plasma treatment; Oxygen: treatment with Oxygen plasma for 1 min; Argon: treatment with Argon plasma for 1 min. Samples were evaluated topographically by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy; and chemically by Fourier Transform-infrared Spectroscopy. A goniometer was used to determine the surface free energy and the wettability of the endodontic sealers. Additionally 60 bovine teeth were filled using pellets of gutta-percha (control, oxygen and argon plasma) and the sealers. Teeth were evaluated by push-out and microleakage tests. Data were statistically analyzed using specific tests. Argon plasma did not change the surface topography, while Oxygen plasma led to changes. Both treatments chemically modified the gutta-percha surface. Argon and Oxygen plasma increased the surface free energy and favored the wettability of AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT. Regarding bond strength analysis, for AH Plus sealer, both plasma treatments on gutta-percha favored the bond strength to dentin. However, for Pulp Canal Sealer, there is no statistically significant influence. For leakage test, dye penetration occurred between sealer and dentin in all groups. In conclusion, Oxygen plasma led to both topographic and chemical changes in the gutta-percha surface, while Argon plasma caused only chemical changes. Both treatments increased the surface free energy, favoring the wettability of AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT sealers and influenced positively in the adhesion and leakage. - Highlights: • Argon plasma did not change the gutta-percha surface. • Oxygen plasma led to topographic changes. • Both treatments chemically modified the gutta-percha surface. • Treatments increased the surface free energy and favored the wettability of sealers. • Plasma treatments influenced positively in the adhesion and leakage.

  18. Thermal and non-thermal particle interaction with the LHCD launchers in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Balorin, C.; Basiuk, V.; Bibet, Ph.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian, F.; Lowry, C.; Moreau, Ph.; Petrzilka, V.; Portafaix, C.; Prou, M.; Roche, H.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launchers and the plasma has been studied during long pulse, high power operation in the Tore Supra tokamak. The main diagnostics used for characterising the plasma-launcher interaction are calorimetry of the energy extracted by the launchers and infrared (IR) imaging of the launchers and their side limiters. The calorimetry has allowed to identify three different heat sources on the LHCD launchers, namely the RF losses in the waveguides, a fraction (∼0.8%) of the total injected energy and, finally, fast ion losses during ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), accounting for ∼1% of the injected ICRH energy. The interaction by fast ions is identified by infrared imaging of the LHCD launchers as a localised hotspot on the ion drift side, below or at the mid-plane

  19. Application to cleaning of waste plastic surfaces using atmospheric non-thermal plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, Masayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Yuji, Toshifumi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: t-yuji@hiroshima-cmt.ac.jp; Watanabe, Takayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kashihara, Junzou [SHARP corporation, 1-9-2 Nakase, Mihama-Ku, Chiba 261-8520 (Japan); Sumida, Yoshitake [SHARP corporation, 2613-1 Ichinomoto-cho, Tenri 632-8567 (Japan)

    2007-03-12

    The removal of paint on the surface of waste plastics is difficult by the conventional process; in this research, a new cleaning mechanism using atmospheric plasmas was examined through optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that an increase of pulse frequency enables for a short processing time for the removal of the paint film, signifying that the production of radicals in plasma, especially oxygen radicals, can be controlled by pulse frequency. Plasma jets were generated under the experimental conditions of an input power of 250 W to 400 W, a pulse frequency of 2 kHz to 12 kHz, and a plasma gas flow rate of 30 L/min. Examination of the intensity ratio of the reactive species, as measured by emission spectroscopy, showed that the O/N value increased with an increase in pulse frequency. Results of analysis with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis show that nitrogen atoms and molybdenum in only the paint film decreased through plasma processing.

  20. Application to cleaning of waste plastic surfaces using atmospheric non-thermal plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Masayuki; Yuji, Toshifumi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kashihara, Junzou; Sumida, Yoshitake

    2007-01-01

    The removal of paint on the surface of waste plastics is difficult by the conventional process; in this research, a new cleaning mechanism using atmospheric plasmas was examined through optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that an increase of pulse frequency enables for a short processing time for the removal of the paint film, signifying that the production of radicals in plasma, especially oxygen radicals, can be controlled by pulse frequency. Plasma jets were generated under the experimental conditions of an input power of 250 W to 400 W, a pulse frequency of 2 kHz to 12 kHz, and a plasma gas flow rate of 30 L/min. Examination of the intensity ratio of the reactive species, as measured by emission spectroscopy, showed that the O/N value increased with an increase in pulse frequency. Results of analysis with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis show that nitrogen atoms and molybdenum in only the paint film decreased through plasma processing

  1. Non-thermal production of neutralino cold dark matter from cosmic string decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeannerot, R.; Zhang, X.; Brandenberger, R.

    1998-12-01

    We propose a mechanism of nonthermal production of a neutralino cold dark matter particle, χ, from the decay of cosmic strings which form from the spontaneous breaking of a U(1) gauge symmetry, such as U B-L (1), in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). By explicit calculation, we point out that with a symmetry breaking scale η of around 10 8 GeV, the decay of cosmic strings can give rise to Ω χ ≅ 1. This gives a new constraint on supersymmetric models. For example, the dark matter produced from strings will over close the universe if η is near the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. To be consistent with Ω χ ≤ 1, the mass of the new U(1) gauge boson must be much larger than the Fermi scale which makes it unobservable in upcoming accelerator experiments. In a supersymmetric model with an extra U B-L (1) symmetry, the requirement of Ω χ ≤ 1 puts an upper bound on the neutrino mass of about 30eV provided neutrino masses are generated by the see-saw mechanisms. (author)

  2. Non-thermal plasma exhaust aftertreatment: Are all plasmas the same?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, J.H.; Hanson, G.R.; Storey, J.M.; Raridon, R.J.; Armfield, J.S.; Bigelow, T.S.; Graves, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors describe initial experiments employing 5.5 GHz pulsed microwave power, which should result in enhanced chemistry compared to present state-of-the-art plasma aftertreatments by; reducing plasma electric field shielding, increasing availability of atomic nitrogen, exploiting surface charging of dielectrics, avoiding (low field) threshold initiated discharges, and achieving a higher high energy tail on the electron distribution function. As an example, the authors decided to test for NO reduction in N{sub 2}. While this reaction is not a complete description of the exhaust issues by any means, they thought it would demonstrate the technology proposed.

  3. Targeting doxorubicin encapsulated in stealth liposomes to solid tumors by non thermal diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, Magdy M; El Gebaly, Reem; Fadel, Maha

    2016-04-05

    The use of liposomes as drug delivery systems is the most promising technique for targeting drug especially for anticancer therapy. In this study sterically stabilized liposomes was prepared from DPPC/Cholesterol/PEG-PE encapsulated doxorubicin. The effect of lyophilization on liposomal stability and hence expiration date were studied. Moreover, the effect of diode laser on the drug released from liposomesin vitro and in vivo in mice carrying implanted solid tumor were also studied. The results indicated that lyophilization of the prepared liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin led to marked stability when stored at 5 °C and it is possible to use the re-hydrated lyophilized liposomes within 12 days post reconstitution. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells is a promising method in cancer therapy. We can conclude that lyophilization of the liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin lead to marked stability for the liposomes when stored at 5 °C. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells through the use of photosensitive sterically stabilized liposomes loaded with doxorubicin is a promising method. It proved to be applicable and successful for treatment of Ehrlich solid tumors implanted in mice and eliminated toxic side effects of doxorubicin.

  4. Thermal and non-thermal emission from NGC 1275(3C84)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, W.K.; Robson, E.I.; Gee, G.; Nolt, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    Millimetre, submillimetre, far- and near-infrared observations of the unusual galaxy NGC 1275 are presented. After subtraction of the near-infrared stellar contamination of the surrounding galaxy the non-stellar emission at these wavelengths is investigated. It is concluded that the millimetre-wave and near-infrared emission is synchrotron radiation from a very compact component. It is shown that the emission at wavelengths from 10-400 μm is dominated by thermal emission with a spectrum very similar to NGC 1068. It is shown that the material for star formation in NGC 1275 is almost certainly being provided by accretion in a cooling flow from the Perseus intracluster gas with only approx. 2 per cent of the accreting mass forming OBA stars. (author)

  5. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL FOODBORNE PATHOGENS TO NON-THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eCebrián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS, pulsed electric fields (PEF, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP and UV-light (UV is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be exploited in order to design combined processes. Further work would be required in order to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these technologies and to exhaustively characterize the influence of all the factors acting before, during and after treatment. This would be very useful in the areas of process optimization and combined process design.

  6. The energy partitioning of non-thermal particles in a plasma: the Coulomb logarithm revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, Robert L Jr; Brown, Lowell S

    2008-01-01

    The charged particle stopping power in a highly ionized and weakly to moderately coupled plasma has been calculated exactly to leading and next-to-leading accuracy in the plasma density by Brown, Preston and Singleton (BPS). Since the calculational techniques of BPS might be unfamiliar to some, and since the same methodology can also be used for other energy transport phenomena, we will review the main ideas behind the calculation. BPS used their stopping power calculation to derive a Fokker-Planck equation, also accurate to leading and next-to-leading orders, and we will also review this. We use this Fokker-Planck equation to compute the electron-ion energy partitioning of a charged particle traversing a plasma. The motivation for this application is ignition for inertial confinement fusion-more energy delivered to the ions means a better chance of ignition, and conversely. It is therefore important to calculate the fractional energy loss to electrons and ions as accurately as possible. One method by which one calculates the electron-ion energy splitting of a charged particle traversing a plasma involves integrating the stopping power dE/dx. However, as the charged particle slows down and becomes thermalized into the background plasma, this method of calculating the electron-ion energy splitting breaks down. As a result, it suffers a systematic error that may be as large as T/E 0 , where T is the plasma temperature and E 0 is the initial energy of the charged particle. The formalism presented here is designed to account for the thermalization process and it provides results that are near-exact.

  7. Young supernova remnants and INTEGRAL: "4"4Ti lines and non-thermal emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, M.

    2006-10-01

    This thesis deals with the search for and the study of young galactic supernova remnants using the observations performed by IBIS/ISGRI, one of the two main coded-mask instruments onboard the european gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL. This research is based on i) the study of gamma-ray lines coming from the radioactive decay of "4"4Ti, a short-lived nucleus (τ∼ 86 y) exclusively produced during the first stages of stellar explosions, and ii) the study of the nonthermal continuum mechanisms which take place inside the young supernova remnants. I separate the manuscript in four main parts. The first one presents an overview of supernovae from an observational and theoretical point of view. The second part describes the INTEGRAL satellite with its instruments, the techniques used for analyzing the data collected by IBIS/ISGRI, and my personal investigations concerning different developments such as: the spectral calibration of the IBIS/ISGRI instrument, the correction of noisy pixels on the camera, the creation of background maps, and the development of an alternative pipeline useful for dealing with a large amount of data. I also present a method for imaging extended sources with a coded-mask instrument such as IBIS/ISGRI, and its first application on the Coma Cluster. The results obtained on historical supernova remnants like Cas A, Tycho, RXJ0852-4622 (Vela Junior) are presented in the third part. The first chapter of the last part is devoted to the study of the detectability of supernovae in the optical domain with a model of the interstellar extinction. The second chapter reports on the search for missing and hidden young supernova remnants in the Milky Way with the IBIS/ISGRI galactic plane survey through the "4"4Sc gamma-ray lines as well as with a multi-wavelength approach, from the radio domain (VLA) to the new observational window at TeV energies (HESS). I also discuss the constraints on the supernova rate and the "4"4Ti production in core-collapse supernovae, based on these IBIS/ISGRI observations and the "4"4Ca solar abundance. (author)

  8. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  9. Non-Thermal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Comet assay reveals DNA strand breaks induced by ultrasonic cavitation in vitro, Ultrasound in medicine & biology 1995; 21: 841-8. 3. Dalecki D...doxorubicin, focused ultrasound , HIFU, prostate cancer I. INTRODUCTION Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (pFUS) is able to create acoustic cavitation ... ultrasound for breast cancer therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chang Ming (Charlie) Ma, Ph.D

  10. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant by methanation of CO2, also called Sabatier reaction, is a key enabling technology required for sustainable and...

  11. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure rapidly selects for increased RpoS activity and general stress-resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlint, Dietrich; Rutten, Nele; Govers, Sander K; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is increasingly being used in food preservation as a non-thermal pasteurization process, and its further implementation necessitates a more thorough understanding of bacterial resistance development and intraspecies variability with regard to inactivation by HHP. In this report, we discovered that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure stress can rapidly select for strongly increased RpoS activity in a hypersensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain (ATCC 43888), leading to a simultaneous increase in HHP and heat resistance. Moreover, the level of RpoS activity correlated well with the original hypersensitivity and the extent of acquired HHP resistance, and extremely HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 clearly incurred a number of additional RpoS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest that implementation of novel processing techniques in the food production chain can readily affect the physiology of food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SUB-THz AND H{alpha} ACTIVITY DURING THE PREFLARE AND MAIN PHASES OF A GOES CLASS M2 EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Gimenez de Castro, C. Guillermo; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Emilia; Fernandes, Luis Olavo; De Souza, Rodney V. [CRAAM, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marcon, Rogerio [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); White, Stephen M. [AFRL, Space Vehicles Directorate, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Godoy, Rodolfo; Marun, Adolfo; Pereyra, Pablo [Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2011-12-01

    Radio and optical observations of the evolution of flare-associated phenomena have shown an initial and rapid burst at 0.4 THz only followed subsequently by a localized chromospheric heating producing an H{alpha} brightening with later heating of the whole active region. A major instability occurred several minutes later producing one impulsive burst at microwaves only, associated with an M2.0 GOES X-ray flare that exhibited the main H{alpha} brightening at the same site as the first flash.The possible association between long-enduring time profiles at soft X-rays, microwaves, H{alpha}, and sub-THz wavelengths is discussed. In the decay phase, the H{alpha} movie shows a disrupting magnetic arch structure ejecting dark, presumably chromospheric, material upward. The time sequence of events suggests genuine interdependent and possibly non-thermal instabilities triggering phenomena, with concurrent active region plasma heating and material ejection.

  14. The effect of athermal and isothermal omega phase particles on elasticity of beta-Ti single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejezchlebová, J.; Janovská, Michaela; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal; Šmilauerová, J.; Stráský, J.; Harcuba, P.; Janeček, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 110, May (2016), s. 185-191 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : titanium alloys * omega phase * elastic constants * single crystals * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1359645416301860/1-s2.0-S1359645416301860-main.pdf?_tid=dca8c8e6-017d-11e6-8121-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1460555256_4439abe9d4826c07f29d02804351d7be

  15. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an initiative from the Polytechnic in Nantes, France and the University the Los Andes in Bogota, Colombia. The objective was to start a world wide collaboration allowing teachers in engineering to learn from each other about their experiences with active learning. In this thirteenth edition, ALE joins forces...... with the International Research Symposium on Problem Based Learning (IRSPB) and the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE) to organise the first International Joint Conference on the Learner in Engineering Education (IJCLEE 2015) hosted by Mondragon University, in San Sebastian...

  16. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  17. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  19. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  1. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) kills human cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sakakita, Hajime; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hori, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Medical non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatments for various types of cancers have been reported. Cells with tumorigenic potential (cancer-initiating cells; CICs) are few in number in many types of tumors. CICs efficiently eliminate anti-cancer chemicals and exhibit high-level aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We previously examined the effects of direct irradiation via NTP on cancer cells; even though we targeted CICs expressing high levels of ALDH, such treatment affected both non-CICs and CICs. Recent studies have shown that plasma-activated medium (PAM) (culture medium irradiated by NTP) selectively induces apoptotic death of cancer but not normal cells. Therefore, we explored the anti-cancer effects of PAM on CICs among endometrioid carcinoma and gastric cancer cells. PAM reduced the viability of cells expressing both low and high levels of ALDH. Combined PAM/cisplatin appeared to kill cancer cells more efficiently than did PAM or cisplatin alone. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, PAM exerted an anti-cancer effect on CICs. Thus, our results suggest that PAM effectively kills both non-CICs and CICs, as does NTP. Therefore, PAM may be a useful new anti-cancer therapy, targeting various cancer cells including CICs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  3. Effects of high pressure homogenization on the activity, stability, kinetics and three-dimensional conformation of a glucose oxidase produced by Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst

    Full Text Available High pressure homogenization (HPH is a non-thermal method, which has been employed to change the activity and stability of biotechnologically relevant enzymes. This work investigated how HPH affects the structural and functional characteristics of a glucose oxidase (GO from Aspergillus niger. The enzyme was homogenized at 75 and 150 MPa and the effects were evaluated with respect to the enzyme activity, stability, kinetic parameters and molecular structure. The enzyme showed a pH-dependent response to the HPH treatment, with reduction or maintenance of activity at pH 4.5-6.0 and a remarkable activity increase (30-300% at pH 6.5 in all tested temperatures (15, 50 and 75°C. The enzyme thermal tolerance was reduced due to HPH treatment and the storage for 24 h at high temperatures (50 and 75°C also caused a reduction of activity. Interestingly, at lower temperatures (15°C the activity levels were slightly higher than that observed for native enzyme or at least maintained. These effects of HPH treatment on function and stability of GO were further investigated by spectroscopic methods. Both fluorescence and circular dichroism revealed conformational changes in the molecular structure of the enzyme that might be associated with the distinct functional and stability behavior of GO.

  4. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  5. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  6. Report on the benchmark of products & processes and ranking of cruciality and criticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The objective of this deliverables is to present the results of benchmarking activities for each COTECH demonstrator and their planned production process. Each section is dedicated to a demonstrator mentioned below: Section 1 Innovative accommodable intra-ocular lens (BI) Section 2 Cheap substrat...... Micro socket for signal carriage of a hearing aid instruments (SONION) Section 8 Micro-cooling of electronic components (ATHERM)...

  7. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  8. 8-12 GHz Radio Observations of Flare Activity On M dwarf CN Leo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Alia; Villadsen, Jackie; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Thackeray, Beverly

    2018-01-01

    Red dwarfs are cool stars that make up 70% of all stars. Red dwarfs can be utilized to detect potentially habitable planets but they have particularly strong magnetic activity that can be detrimental to orbiting planets’ atmospheres and habitability. A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an eruption of magnetized plasma from the star that is ejected into the interplanetary medium which can erode a planet’s atmosphere daily. Based on the sun CMEs are expected to produce very bright radio bursts along with optical flares. We are using M dwarf CN Leo, a well studied flare star that was in the K2 campaign field in summer 2017, as a template to understand the relationship between radio and optical flares and the space weather conditions impacting M dwarf planets. Using radio frequencies ranging from 0.22 GHz-12 GHz we search for simultaneous radio bursts and optical flares to infer if CMEs, flares or aurorae are occurring on the star. I will present the 8-12 GHz radio data from eight 1.5-hour observations with simultaneous optical data. CN Leo produced a bright non-thermal radio flare that lasted approximately for a day during two consecutive observations, with a gyrosynchrotron emission mechanism.

  9. OUTFLOWS AND DARK BANDS AT ARCADE-LIKE ACTIVE REGION CORE BOUNDARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode have revealed outflows and non-thermal line broadening in low intensity regions at the edges of active regions (ARs). We use data from Hinode's EIS, Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer instrument to investigate the boundaries of arcade-like AR cores for NOAA ARs 11112, 10978, and 9077. A narrow, low intensity region that is observed at the core's periphery as a dark band shows outflows and increased spectral line broadening. This dark band is found to exist for days and appears between the bright coronal loop structures of different coronal topologies. We find a case where the dark band region is formed between the magnetic field from emerging flux and the field of the pre-existing flux. A magnetic field extrapolation indicates that this dark band is coincident with the spine lines or magnetic separatrices in the extrapolated field. This occurs over unipolar regions where the brightened coronal field is separated in connectivity and topology. This separation does not appear to be infinitesimal and an initial estimate of the minimum distance of separation is found to be Almost-Equal-To 1.5-3.5 Mm.

  10. Reduction of protease activity in milk by continuous flow high-intensity pulsed electric field treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, S; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Martín, O

    2003-03-01

    High-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) is a non-thermal food processing technology that is currently being investigated to inactivate microorganisms and certain enzymes, involving a limited increase of food temperature. Promising results have been obtained on the inactivation of microbial enzymes in milk when suspended in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous HIPEF equipment on inactivating a protease from Bacillus subtilis inoculated in milk. Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 866 micros of squared wave pulses at field strengths from 19.7 to 35.5 kV/cm, using a treatment chamber that consisted of eight colinear chambers connected in series. Moreover, the effects of different parameters such as pulse width (4 and 7 micros), pulse repetition rates (67, 89, and 111 Hz), and milk composition (skim and whole milk) were tested. Protease activity decreased with increased treatment time or field strength and pulse repetition rate. Regarding pulse width, no differences were observed between 4 and 7 micros pulses when total treatment time was considered. On the other hand, it was observed that milk composition affected the results since higher inactivation levels were reached in skim than in whole milk. The maximum inactivation (81%) was attained in skim milk after an 866-micros treatment at 35.5 kV/cm and 111 Hz.

  11. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  12. Radio Wavelength Studies of the Galactic Center Source N3, Spectroscopic Instrumentation For Robotic Telescope Systems, and Developing Active Learning Activities for Astronomy Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic Alesio

    2017-08-01

    The mysterious radio source N3 appears to be located within the vicinity of the Radio Arc region of the Galactic Center. To investigate the nature of this source, we have conducted radio observations with the VLA and the VLBA. Continuum observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is an extremely compact and bright source with a non-thermal spectrum. Molecular line observations with the VLA reveal a compact molecular cloud adjacent to N3 in projection. The properties of this cloud are consistent with other galactic center clouds. We are able to rule out several hypotheses for the nature of N3, though a micro-blazar origin cannot be ruled out. Robotic Telescope systems are now seeing widespread deployment as both teaching and research instruments. While these systems have traditionally been able to produce high quality images, these systems have lacked the capability to conduct spectroscopic observations. To enable spectroscopic observations on the Iowa Robotic Observatory, we have developed a low cost (˜ 500), low resolution (R ˜ 300) spectrometer which mounts inside a modified filter wheel and a moderate cost (˜ 5000), medium resolution (R ˜ 8000) fiber-fed spectrometer. Software has been developed to operate both instruments robotically and calibration pipelines are being developed to automate calibration of the data. The University of Iowa offers several introductory astronomy laboratory courses taken by many hundreds of students each semester. To improve student learning in these laboratory courses, we have worked to integrate active learning into laboratory activities. We present the pedagogical approaches used to develop and update the laboratory activities and present an inventory of the current laboratory exercises. Using the inventory, we make observations of the strengths and weaknesses of the current exercises and provide suggestions for future refinement of the astronomy laboratory curriculum.

  13. EUV and Magnetic Activities Associated with Type-I Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Ruan, G. P.; Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Kong, X. L.

    2017-06-01

    Type-I bursts ( i.e. noise storms) are the earliest-known type of solar radio emission at the meter wavelength. They are believed to be excited by non-thermal energetic electrons accelerated in the corona. The underlying dynamic process and exact emission mechanism still remain unresolved. Here, with a combined analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV), radio and photospheric magnetic field data of unprecedented quality recorded during a type-I storm on 30 July 2011, we identify a good correlation between the radio bursts and the co-spatial EUV and magnetic activities. The EUV activities manifest themselves as three major brightening stripes above a region adjacent to a compact sunspot, while the magnetic field there presents multiple moving magnetic features (MMFs) with persistent coalescence or cancelation and a morphologically similar three-part distribution. We find that the type-I intensities are correlated with those of the EUV emissions at various wavelengths with a correlation coefficient of 0.7 - 0.8. In addition, in the region between the brightening EUV stripes and the radio sources there appear consistent dynamic motions with a series of bi-directional flows, suggesting ongoing small-scale reconnection there. Mainly based on the induced connection between the magnetic motion at the photosphere and the EUV and radio activities in the corona, we suggest that the observed type-I noise storms and the EUV brightening activities are the consequence of small-scale magnetic reconnection driven by MMFs. This is in support of the original proposal made by Bentley et al. ( Solar Phys. 193, 227, 2000).

  14. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  15. Ultrafast laser writing of optical waveguides in ceramic Yb:YAG: a study of thermal and non-thermal regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayas, A.; Jaque, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Madrid (Spain); Silva, W.F.; Jacinto, C. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Grupo de Fotonica e Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, Alagoas (Brazil); Rodenas, A.; Thomsom, R.R.; Psaila, N.D.; Reid, D.T.; Kar, A.K. [Heriot-Watt University, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Vazquez de Aldana, J. [Universidad de Salamanca, Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Salamanca (Spain); Chen, F.; Tan, Y. [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Torchia, G.A. [CONICET-CIC, Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    We report the improvement of ultrafast laser written optical waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by tailoring the presence of heat accumulation effects. From a combination of ytterbium micro-luminescence and micro-Raman structural analysis, maps of lattice defects and stress fields have been obtained. We show how laser annealing can strongly reduce the concentration of defects and also reduce compressive stress, leading to an effective 50% reduction in the propagation losses and to more extended and symmetric propagation modes. (orig.)

  16. Decomposition of atrazine traces in water by combination of non-thermal electrical discharge and adsorption on nanofiber membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanraes, Patrick; Willems, Gert; Daels, Nele; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; De Clerck, Karen; Surmont, Pieter; Lynen, Frederic; Vandamme, Jeroen; Van Durme, Jim; Nikiforov, Anton; Leys, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, several types of persistent substances are detected in the aquatic environment at very low concentrations. Unfortunately, conventional water treatment processes are not able to remove these micropollutants. As such, advanced treatment methods are required to meet both current and anticipated maximally allowed concentrations. Plasma discharge in contact with water is a promising new technology, since it produces a wide spectrum of oxidizing species. In this study, a new type of reactor is tested, in which decomposition by atmospheric pulsed direct barrier discharge (pDBD) plasma is combined with micropollutant adsorption on a nanofiber polyamide membrane. Atrazine is chosen as model micropollutant with an initial concentration of 30 μg/L. While the H2O2 and O3 production in the reactor is not influenced by the presence of the membrane, there is a significant increase in atrazine decomposition when the membrane is added. With membrane, 85% atrazine removal can be obtained in comparison to only 61% removal without membrane, at the same experimental parameters. The by-products of atrazine decomposition identified by HPLC-MS are deethylatrazine and ammelide. Formation of these by-products is more pronounced when the membrane is added. These results indicate the synergetic effect of plasma discharge and pollutant adsorption, which is attractive for future applications of water treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of non-thermal plasma forming gases on improvement of surface properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Ruzybayev, Inci; Shah, S. Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark, NJ (United States); Su, Pi-Guey [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Halleluyah, Jr. mercy; Halim, Ahmad Sukari [School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2014-07-01

    Owing to the superior physico-chemical properties, the low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been widely used in the various industrial applications; especially in biomedical field for artificial organs, medical devices and disposable clinical apparatus. However, the poor anticoagulation property is one of the main drawbacks of the LDPE due to its poor surface properties. Therefore, in this paper we present the effect of plasma forming gases such as argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), air and argon-oxygen (Ar + O{sub 2}) mixture on improvement of the surfaces properties of LDPE film using direct current (dc) excited glow discharge plasma. Contact angle with evaluation of surface energy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to examine the change in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition and surface topography, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic recovery of the plasma treated LDPE was analyzed using ageing effect under different storage condition i.e. in air and water. The adhesive strength of the LDPE films was determined using T-peel test. In vitro tests were used to examine the blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films. It has been found that the hydrophilicity of the various plasma treated LDPE films was improved significantly due to the formation of oxygen containing polar groups such as OH, COO, C-O, C=O as confirmed by contact angle and XPS analysis. AFM revealed the changes in surface topography of plasma processed films. The gas mixture Ar + O{sub 2} plasma influenced the remarkable improvement on the surface properties of a LDPE film compared with other gaseous plasmas. These physiochemical changes induced by the plasma on the surface facilitate to improve the adhesive strength and blood compatibility.

  18. Liquid assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition with a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, J.; Fricke, K.; Mika, Filip; Pokorná, Zuzana; Zajíčková, L.; Foest, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 630, MAY 30 (2017), s. 71-78 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : plasma jet * liquid assisted plasma enhanced chemical * vapour deposition * silicon oxide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  19. From chemicals to cold plasma: Non-thermal food processing technologies research at the USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens cause millions of illnesses every year. At the US Department of Agriculture’s Eastern Regional Research Center, scientists and engineers have focused on developing new ways to improve food safety and shelf life while retaining quality and nutritional value. A variety of technolog...

  20. Development of a non-thermal accelerated pulsed UV photolysis assisted digestion method for fresh and dried food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.; Pina, C.; Aguilar, L.F.; Flocchini, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple, fast digestion procedure for fresh and dried foods, using high-power pulsed UV photolysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, is being developed. The homogenized food samples were mixed with H 2 O 2 or with a mixture of H 2 O 2 and HNO 3 , and irradiated for short times with a 248-nm UV excimer laser. After centrifugation, a clear, colorless solution was obtained and aliquots were deposited on Teflon filters for XRF and/or PIXE analyses. Standard reference materials (NIST Peach Leaves; Typical Diet) were also analyzed to compare recoveries and detection limits. Improvements in detection limits were observed, but a few trace elements (<1 ppm) were not reproducibly detected (Fe, Sr). This method proved to be practical for the accelerated digestion of food samples and preparing analytes in short-time intervals. In combination with PIXE and XRF, it allows high-sensitivity multi-elemental analyses for screening the nutritional elements and for food safety purposes regarding the potential presence of toxic elements. Further development to optimize and validate this procedure for a broader range of analytes is in progress

  1. HYDRO2GEN: Non-thermal hydrogen Balmer and Paschen emission in solar flares generated by electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. Sharp rises of hard X-ray (HXR) emission accompanied by Hα line profiles with strong red-shifts up to 4 Å from the central wavelength, often observed at the onset of flares with the Specola Solare Ticinese Telescope (STT) and the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST), are not fully explained by existing radiative models. Moreover, observations of white light (WL) and Balmer continuum emission with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRISH) reveal strong co-temporal enhancements and are often nearly co-spatial with HXR emission. These effects indicate a fast effective source of excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms in flaring atmospheres associated with HXR emission. In this paper, we investigate electron beams as the agents accounting for the observed hydrogen line and continuum emission. Methods: Flaring atmospheres are considered to be produced by a 1D hydrodynamic response to the injection of an electron beam defining their kinetic temperatures, densities, and macro velocities. We simulated a radiative response in these atmospheres using a fully non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) approach for a 5-level plus continuum hydrogen atom model, considering its excitation and ionisation by spontaneous, external, and internal diffusive radiation and by inelastic collisions with thermal and beam electrons. Simultaneous steady-state and integral radiative transfer equations in all optically thick transitions (Lyman and Balmer series) were solved iteratively for all the transitions to define their source functions with the relative accuracy of 10-5. The solutions of the radiative transfer equations were found using the L2 approximation. Resulting intensities of hydrogen line and continuum emission were also calculated for Balmer and Paschen series. Results: We find that inelastic collisions with beam electrons strongly increase excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms from the chromosphere to photosphere. This leads to an increase in Lyman continuum radiation, which has high optical thickness, and after the beam is off it governs hydrogen ionisation and leads to the long lasting orders of magnitude enhancement of emission in Balmer and Paschen continua. The ratio of Balmer-to-other-continuum head intensities are found to be correlated with the initial flux of the beam. The height distribution of contribution functions for Paschen continuum emission indicate a close correlation with the observations of heights of WL and HXR emission reported for limb flares. This process also leads to a strong increase of wing emission (Stark's wings) in Balmer and Paschen lines, which is superimposed on large red-shifted enhancements of Hα-Hγ line emission resulting from a downward motion by hydrodynamic shocks. The simulated line profiles are shown to fit closely the observations for various flaring events.

  2. Electron beam non-thermal plasma hybrid system for reduction of NOx and SOx emissions from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gh.; Zissulescu, E.; Sandu, M.; Roscia, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an installation containing a negative corona discharge (DC) reactor, a pulse corona discharge reactor and a combined electron beam (EB) and microwave induced plasma reactor is presented. SO 2 is removed up to 42% through spontaneous reaction with ammonia without EB or microwave irradiation at the temperature below 70 o C. Considering the values of the removal efficiencies of 98% for SO 2 and 80% for NO x applying separate EB irradiation with a dose of 40 kGy, when the simultaneous EB and microwave irradiation is applied, the required absorbed dose is about two times smaller. The SO 2 removal efficiency of simultaneous DC or positive discharge and microwave discharge is higher than separate corona discharge, pulse and microwave discharge. Also, the applied voltage level at which the removal efficiency reaches the maximum value is less than that for the separate application of corona discharge or pulse discharge. The NO x removal efficiency of DC or pulse discharge suffers little change by additional use of the microwave energy. Based on this research and the results obtained by a pilot project built in collaboration with Electrostatica Bucharest, a project for an installation involving simultaneous SO 2 and NO x removal by irradiation with accelerated EBs and microwaves, has been proposed for Thermo-Power Plant CET-West-Bucharest of 550 MW. (author)

  3. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muehsam

    Full Text Available The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF, applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur.

  4. Diagnostics of an AC driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet and its use for radially directed jet array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, R.

    2017-08-01

    An alternating current atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated with noble gas or noble gas/oxygen admixture as working gas. A "core plasma filament" is observed at the center of the dielectric tube and extends to the plasma jet at higher peak-to-peak voltages. This type of plasma jet is believed to be of the same nature with the reported plasma bullet driven by pulsed DC power sources. Double current probes are used to assess the speed of the plasma bullet and show that the speed is around 104-105 m/s. The time dependence of the downstream bullet speed is attributed to the gas heating and in turn the increase of the reduced electric field E/N. Optical emission spectra show the dependence of helium and oxygen emission intensities on the concentration of oxygen additive in the carrier gas, with peak values found at 0.5% O2. Multiple radial jets are realized on dielectric tubes of different sizes. As a case study, one of these multi-jet devices is used to treat B. aureus on the inner surface of a plastic beaker and is shown to be more effective than a single jet.

  5. Influence of non-thermal plasma forming gases on improvement of surface properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha; Deshmukh, R.R.; Ruzybayev, Inci; Shah, S. Ismat; Su, Pi-Guey; Halleluyah, Jr. mercy; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the superior physico-chemical properties, the low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been widely used in the various industrial applications; especially in biomedical field for artificial organs, medical devices and disposable clinical apparatus. However, the poor anticoagulation property is one of the main drawbacks of the LDPE due to its poor surface properties. Therefore, in this paper we present the effect of plasma forming gases such as argon (Ar), oxygen (O 2 ), air and argon-oxygen (Ar + O 2 ) mixture on improvement of the surfaces properties of LDPE film using direct current (dc) excited glow discharge plasma. Contact angle with evaluation of surface energy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to examine the change in surface properties such as hydrophilicity, chemical composition and surface topography, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrophobic recovery of the plasma treated LDPE was analyzed using ageing effect under different storage condition i.e. in air and water. The adhesive strength of the LDPE films was determined using T-peel test. In vitro tests were used to examine the blood compatibility of the surface modified LDPE films. It has been found that the hydrophilicity of the various plasma treated LDPE films was improved significantly due to the formation of oxygen containing polar groups such as OH, COO, C-O, C=O as confirmed by contact angle and XPS analysis. AFM revealed the changes in surface topography of plasma processed films. The gas mixture Ar + O 2 plasma influenced the remarkable improvement on the surface properties of a LDPE film compared with other gaseous plasmas. These physiochemical changes induced by the plasma on the surface facilitate to improve the adhesive strength and blood compatibility.

  6. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma—a numerical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Been Chang, Moo

    2010-10-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O2/Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O3 → e + O + O2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O2 + M → O3 + M and an increase in that of O3 + O → 2O2. The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  7. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a non-thermal plasma-a numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Chang, Moo Been

    2010-01-01

    A numerical model based on a dielectric barrier discharge is developed in this study to investigate the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, confirming the validity of the numerical model. The mechanisms regarding how the Ar addition affects ozone generation are investigated with the assistance of a numerical simulation by probing into the following two questions, (1) why the ozone concentration just slightly decreases in the low specific input energy (SIE, the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate) region even if the inlet O 2 concentration is substantially decreased and (2) why the variation of the increased rate of ozone concentration with SIE (i.e. the variation in the slope of ozone concentration versus SIE) is more significant for an O 2 /Ar mixture plasma. As SIE is relatively low, ozone decomposition through electron-impact and radical attack reactions is less significant because of low ozone concentration and gas temperature. Therefore, the ozone concentration depends mainly on the amount of oxygen atoms generated. The simulation results indicate that the amount of oxygen atoms generated per electronvolt for Ar concentrations of 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 80% are 0.178, 0.174, 0.169, 0.165 and 0.166, respectively, explaining why the ozone concentration does not decrease linearly with the inlet O 2 concentration in the low SIE region. On the other hand, the simulation results show that increasing Ar concentration would lead to a lower reduced field and a higher gas temperature. The former would lead to an increase in the rate constant of e + O 3 → e + O + O 2 while the latter would result in a decrease in the rate constant of O + O 2 + M → O 3 + M and an increase in that of O 3 + O → 2O 2 . The changes in the rate constants of these reactions would have a negative effect on ozone generation, which is the rationale for the second question.

  8. Enhancing the lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato juice synergistically applying thermal and non-thermal processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Cregenzán-Albertia, Oliver; Grant, Irene R; Lyng, James; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-04-15

    The influence of moderate intensity pulsed electric field pre-processing on increasing the lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato fruit, and the combined effect of blanching, ultrasonic and high intensity pulsed electric field processing on further enhancement of the lycopene bioaccessibility after juicing were investigated. Maximum total lycopene bioaccessibility (9.6%) of the tomato fruit was achieved by a 4μs pre-processed treatment after 24h holding period and further processing results revealed that all treatments were effective to increase the total lycopene. Most of juice processing treatments decreased the release of lycopene from the tomato matrix during digestion. Only the treatment of blanching followed by high intensity pulsed electric field showed a significant release of trans-(4.01±0.48) and cis-(5.04±0.26μg/g) lycopene, achieving 15.6% total lycopene bioaccessibility. Thus, processing of pre-blanched juice using high intensity pulsed electric field, derived from pre-processed tomato was the best overall process to achieve the highest nutritive value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-thermal plasma modified growth and differentiation process of Capsicum annuum PP805 Godiva in in vitro conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Nasrin; Iranbakhsh, Alireza; Ardebili, Zahra Oraghi

    2017-05-01

    With the aim of evaluating the possible impacts of cold plasma on the structure and growth pattern of Capsicum annuum, the current study was carried out. The seeds were exposed to an argon-derived plasma (0.84 W cm-2 surface power densities) for 0, 1 or 2 minutes. Plasma-treated seeds were grown in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or MS medium supplemented with BA and IAA. The presence of purple stems was recorded in plasma-treated plants grown in the medium supplemented with hormones. The recorded morphological differences were dependent on the exposure time of plasma treatments and/or the presence of hormones in the culture media. Plasma treatment of 1 minute had an improving effect on the shoot and root lengths as well as total leaf area, whereas plasma treatment of 2 minutes had an adverse effect. In contrast to the 1 minute treatment, plasma treatment of 2 minutes significantly impaired growth and hence reduced the total biomass. Alterations in stem diameter and differences in tissue patterns (especially in the vascular system) occurred, and were mainly dependent on the plasma exposure time and/or the presence of hormones. This is a first report on the effects of cold plasma on plant growth in in vitro conditions.

  10. Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE: non-thermal component detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Mendez, M.; Ubertini, P.

    We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting

  11. Non-thermal gamma-ray emission from delayed pair breakdown in a magnetized and photon-rich outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: rgill@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    We consider delayed, volumetric heating in a magnetized outflow that has broken out of a confining medium and expanded to a high Lorentz factor (Γ ∼ 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) and low optical depth to scattering (τ {sub T} ∼ 10{sup –3}-10{sup –2}). The energy flux at breakout is dominated by the magnetic field, with a modest contribution from quasi-thermal gamma rays whose spectrum was calculated in Paper I. We focus on the case of extreme baryon depletion in the magnetized material, but allow for a separate baryonic component that is entrained from a confining medium. Dissipation is driven by relativistic motion between these two components, which develops once the photon compactness drops below 4 × 10{sup 3}(Y{sub e} /0.5){sup –1}. We first calculate the acceleration of the magnetized component following breakout, showing that embedded MHD turbulence provides significant inertia, the neglect of which leads to unrealistically high estimates of flow Lorentz factor. After reheating begins, the pair and photon distributions are evolved self-consistently using a one-zone kinetic code that incorporates an exact treatment of Compton scattering, pair production and annihilation, and Coulomb scattering. Heating leads to a surge in pair creation, and the scattering depth saturates at τ {sub T} ∼ 1-4. The plasma maintains a very low ratio of particle to magnetic pressure, and can support strong anisotropy in the charged particle distribution, with cooling dominated by Compton scattering. High-energy power-law spectra with photon indices in the range observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; –3 < β < –3/2) are obtained by varying the ratio of heat input to the seed energy in quasi-thermal photons. We contrast our results with those for continuous heating across an expanding photosphere, and show that the latter model produces soft-to-hard evolution that is inconsistent with observations of GRBs.

  12. Water-cooled non-thermal gliding arc for adhesion improvement of glass-fibre-reinforced polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Sørensen, Bent F.; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A non-equilibrium quenched plasma is prepared using a gliding-arc discharge generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a gas flow. It can be operated at atmospheric pressure and applied to plasma surface treatment to improve adhesion properties of material surfaces. In this work, glass......-fibre-reinforced polyester plates were treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding-arc discharge with air flow to improve adhesion with a vinylester adhesive. The electrodes were water-cooled so as to operate the gliding arc continually. The treatment improved wettability and increased the density of oxygen...

  13. The NuSTAR view of the non-thermal emission from PSR J0437-4715

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, S.; Kaspi, V M; Archibald, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hard X-ray Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of PSR J0437-4715, the nearest millisecond pulsar. The known pulsations at the apparent pulse period similar to 5.76 ms are observed with a significance of 3.7 sigma, at energies up to 20 keV above which the Nu...... by combining model fits to the pulsar's phase-folded light curve with the pulsar's well-defined mass and distance from radio timing observations....

  14. Measurement of the non-thermal properties of a low pressure spraying plasma by electric and spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Ho

    2003-02-01

    For the case of an atmospheric plasma, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model can be applied to plasmas at a nozzle entrance and to those on the axis of the plasma flame, but it is not easy to justify applying the LTE model to off-center plasma and to a low-pressure spraying plasma. Although the energy distribution of the electrons is assumed to be Maxwellian for the most of spraying plasmas, the non-Maxwellian distribution is possible for the case of low-pressure spaying plasma and edge plasma of atmospheric spraying plasma. In this work, the non-Maxwellian distribution of electrons was measured by using an electric probe installed on the fast scanning probe system, and non-LTE effects were measured by using the optical emission spectroscopy system. Distribution of the electrons of a low-pressure spraying plasma is observed not as Maxwellian but as bi-Maxwellian by the measurement of the single probe. Bi-Maxwellian distribution appears in the edge of a low pressure spraying plasma and seems to be due to the reduction of the collisonality by the drastic variation of the plasma density. Non-LTE characteristics of a low-pressure spraying plasma can be deuced from the measured results of the optical emission spectroscopy and is analyzed by the collisional radiative equilibrium (CRE) model, where the Maxwellian and the non-Maxwellian distributions are assumed for comparison. For the electron temperature, the results from optical emission spectroscopy were similar to the results from the single probe (3∼5 % in error)

  15. Non-thermal desorption/ablation of molecular solids induced by ultra-short soft x-ray pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Hájková, Věra; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Vyšín, Luděk; Gautier, J.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Jurek, M.; Krzywinski, J.; London, R.A.; Papalazarou, E.; Pelka, J. B.; Rey, G.; Sebban, S.; Sobierajski, R.; Stojanovic, N.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Valentin, C.; Wabnitz, H.; Zeitoun, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2009), s. 208-217 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA AV ČR IAA400100701 Grant - others:EU FP6 NEST-Adventure(XE) 012843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : x-ray laser * high-order harmonics * free-electron laser * desorption * ablation * organic polymer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.278, year: 2009

  16. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  17. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  18. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  19. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2...

  20. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  1. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  2. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  3. Effective tension and fluctuations in active membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Loubet, Bastien; Seifert, Udo; Lomholt, Michael Andersen

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the fluctuation spectrum of the shape of a lipid vesicle or cell exposed to a nonthermal source of noise. In particular we take into account constraints on the membrane area and the volume of fluid that it encapsulates when obtaining expressions for the dependency of the membrane tension on the noise. We then investigate three possible origins of the non-thermal noise taken from the literature: A direct force, which models an external medium pushing on the membrane. A curvature f...

  4. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  5. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  6. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  7. Particle Acceleration in a Statistically Modeled Solar Active-Region Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounzi, A.; Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.; Dimitropoulou, M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgoulis, M.

    2013-09-01

    Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field's strength and configuration with test particle simulations. Our objective is to complement previous work done on the subject. As in previous efforts, a set of three probability distribution functions describes our ad-hoc electromagnetic field configurations. In addition, we work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations. A collisional relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle's guiding center within these configurations. We also find that an interplay between different electron populations (thermal/non-thermal, ambient/injected) in our simulations may also address, via a re-acceleration mechanism, the so called `number problem'. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions at different heights of the cylinder we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission. The above work is supported by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  8. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  9. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  10. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  11. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  12. Implementation of Active Thermal Control (ATC) for the Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Kwack, Eug; French, Richard; Dawson, Douglas; Hoffman, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    affords to operate the radiometer component away from the problematic temperature zone. A simple ThermXL model (10 nodes) was developed to exercise quick trade studies among various proposed control algorithms: Modified P control vs. PI control. The ThermXL results were then compared with the detailed Thermal Desktop (TD) model for corroboration. Once done, the simple ThermXL model was used to evaluate parameter effects such as temperature digitization, heater size and gain margin, time step, and voltage variation of power supply on the ATC performance. A Modified P control algorithm was implemented into the instrument flight electronics based on the ThermXL results. The thermal short-term stability margin decreased by 10 percent with ATC and a wide temperature error band (plus or minus 0.1 degrees Centigrade) compared to the original passive thermal design. However, a tighter temperature error band (plus or minus 0.1 degrees Centigrade) increased the thermal short-term stability margin by a factor of three over the passive thermal design. The current ATC design provides robust thermal control, tighter stability, and greater in-flight flexibility even though its implementation was prompted by non-thermal performance concerns.

  13. Effect of Prior Athermal Martensite on the Isothermal Transformation Kinetics Below M s in a Low-C High-Si Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro-Lopez, A.; Sietsma, J.; Santofimia, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing of Advanced Multiphase High Strength Steels often includes isothermal treatments around the martensite start temperature (M s). It has been reported that the presence of martensite formed prior to these isothermal treatments accelerates the kinetics of the subsequent

  14. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Burnett, T. H.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  15. From Radio with Love: An Overview of the Role of Radio Observations in Understanding High-Energy Emission from Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Roopesh

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray satellite Fermi and the ground based TeV facilities MAGIC, VERITAS and HESS have ushered in a new era in the observation of high-energy emission from active galaxies. The energy budgets of these objects have a major contribution from gamma-rays and it is simply not possible to understand their physics without high-energy observations. Though the exact mechanisms for high-energy production in galaxies remains an open question, gamma-rays typically result from interactions between high-energy particles. Via different interactions these same particles can produce radio emission. Thus the non-thermal nature of gamma-ray emission practically guarantees that high-energy emitters are also radio loud. Aside from their obvious role as a component of multiwavelength analysis, radio observations provide two crucial elements essential to understanding the source structure and physical processes of high-energy emitters: very high timing resolution and very high spatial resolution. A brief overview of the unique role played by radio observations in unraveling the mysteries of the high energy Universe as presented here.

  16. Studying The Spectral Shape And The X-ray/uv Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei With Data From Swift And Xmm Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts have been made in understanding the underlying origin of variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), but at present they could give still no conclusive answers. Since a deeper knowledge of variability will enable to understand better the accretion process onto supermassive black holes, I built the first ensemble struction function analysis of the X-ray variability of samples of quasars with data from Swift and XMM-Newton archives in order to study the average properties of their variability. Moreover, it is known that UV and X-ray luminosities of quasars are correlated and recent studies quantified this relation across 5 orders of magnitude. In this context, I presents results on the X-ray/UV ratio from simultaneous observations in UV and X-ray bands of a sample of quasars with data from XMM-Newton archive. Lastly, I will present a complete sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars and other non-thermal dominated AGNs. I used this sample to calculate the general statistical properties of faint blazars and radio galaxies and in particular their Radio LogN-LogS with fluxes down to 10 mJy, in order to gain knowledge on the contribution to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and gamma-ray background radiation from the faint tail of the radio population. I acknowledge financial support through Grant ASI I/088/06/0.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  4. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  5. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  6. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  7. Multidisciplinary approaches to radiation-balanced lasers (MARBLE): a MURI program by AFOSR (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    An overview of the diverse research activities under the newly funded MURI project by AFOSR will be presented. The main goal is to advance the science of radiation-balanced lasers, also known as athermal lasers, in order to mitigate the thermal degradation of the high-power laser beams. The MARBLE project involves researchers from four universities and spans research activities in rare-earth doped crystals and fibers to semiconductor disc lasers.

  8. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  9. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  10. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  11. Dislocation mechanisms for plastic flow of nickel in the temperature range 4.2-1200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.H.; Tangri, K.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature ranges of thermal and athermal deformation behaviour of nickel are identified by employing the temperature-dependence of flow-stress and strain-rate cycling data. The results are used to present a unified view of dislocation mechanisms of glide encompassing the two thermally activated and the intermediate athermal regimes of plastic flow. In the low-temperature thermally activated region (<250K) the strain rate is found to be controlled by the repulsive intersection of glide and forest dislocations, in accordance with current ideas. The athermal stress in this region can be attributed mainly to the presence of strong attractive junctions which are overcome by means of Orowan bowing, a small contribution also coming from the elastic interactions between dislocations. The values of activation area and activation energy obtained in the high-temperature region (<750K) negate the operation of a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Instead, the data support a thermal activation model involving unzipping of the attractive junctions. The internal (long-range) stress contribution here results solely from the elastic interactions between dislocations. This view concerning the high-temperature plastic flow is further supported by the observation that the Cottrell-Stokes law is obeyed over large strains in the range 750-1200K. (author)

  12. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

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    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

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    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

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