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Sample records for non-stop single-tube semi-nested

  1. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Faveri Pitz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Results The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  2. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Amanda de Faveri; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Tavares, Eliandro Reis; Andrade, Fábio Goulart de; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Venancio, Emerson José

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR) assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  3. A semi-nested PCR assay for molecular detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples Semi-nested PCR para a detecção molecular de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em amostras de tecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristine Koishi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. METHODS: In this study, a semi-nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis was developed. The primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used in the first reaction, while the primers MJ03 and ITS1 primer were used in the second reaction. The semi-nested PCR was used to investigate biopsies of five patients with oral lesions that resembled paracoccidioidomycosis. RESULTS: The semi-nested PCR was positive for four samples and negative for a sample from a patient later diagnosed with leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS: The new semi-nested PCR describe is useful for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis.INTRODUÇÃO: A paracoccidioidomicose é uma infecção sistêmica causada pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, uma semi-nested PCR foi desenvolvida para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose. Os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores ITS1 e ITS4 foram usados na primeira reação, enquanto os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores MJ03 e ITS1 foram usados na segunda reação. A semi-nested PCR foi usada para investigar biopsias de cinco pacientes com lesões orais que se assemelhavam a paracoccidioidomicose. RESULTADOS: A semi-nested PCR foi positiva para quatro amostras e negativa para a amostra de um paciente, posteriormente diagnosticado com leishmaniose. CONCLUSÕES: A semi-nested PCR descrita aqui é útil para o diagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.

  4. Detection of fungi by conventional methods and semi-nested PCR in patients with presumed fungal keratitis.

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    Haghani, I; Amirinia, F; Nowroozpoor-Dailami, K; Shokohi, T

    2015-06-01

    Fungal keratitis is a suppurative, ulcerative, and sight-threatening infection of the cornea that sometimes leads to blindness. The aims of this study were: recuperating facilities for laboratory diagnosis, determining the causative microorganisms, and comparing conventional laboratory diagnostic tools and semi-nested PCR. Sampling was conducted in patients with suspected fungal keratitis. Two corneal scrapings specimens, one for direct smear and culture and the other for semi- nested PCR were obtained. Of the 40 expected cases of mycotic keratitis, calcofluor white staining showed positivity in 25%, culture in 17.5%, KOH in 10%, and semi-nested PCR in 27.5%. The sensitivities of semi-nested PCR, KOH, and CFW were 57.1%, 28.5%, and 42% while the specificities were 78.7%, 94%, and 78.7%, respectively. The time taken for PCR assay was 4 to 8 hours, whereas positive fungal cultures took at least 5 to 7 days. Due to the increasing incidence of fungal infections in people with weakened immune systems, uninformed using of topical corticosteroids and improper use of contact lens, fast diagnosis and accurate treatment of keratomycosis seems to be essential . Therefore, according to the current study, molecular methods can detect mycotic keratitis early and correctly leading to appropriate treatment.

  5. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in soils in northwestern China using a new semi-nested PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Meng, Peng; Ye, Qiang; Pu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Luo, Jian-Xun; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhang, De-Lin

    2014-09-28

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic pathogen that can infect a range of animals and humans. Ingestion of T. gondii oocysts in soil is a significant transmission route for humans and animals acquiring toxoplasmosis. In the present study, we developed a new semi-nested PCR method to determine T. gondii oocysts distribution in soils in northwestern China. The one tube semi-nested PCR assay was developed to detect the oocysts of T. gondii in soil, targeting the repetitive 529 bp fragment of T. gondii genomic DNA. Then a total of 268 soil samples, including 148 samples from Gansu Province and 120 samples from Qinghai Province, northwestern China, were examined by the semi-nested PCR method. One third of the positive samples were sequenced. The sensitivity of the semi-nested PCR assay was 10(2)  T. gondii oocysts in 5 g soil sample. Investigation of soil samples from northwestern China showed that 34 out of 268 soil samples (12.69%) were T. gondii positive. Sequences of the partial 529 bp fragments varied from 0-1.2% among the sequenced samples. The prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soil from cities (24/163) was slightly higher than that in soils from pasturing areas (10/105) (P = 0.21). Among the different regions in cities, the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soils from parks was 14.15%, whereas that in soils from schools was 19.05%. The present study firstly reported the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in soils in northwest China using a novel semi-nested PCR assay, which provided baseline data for the effective prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this region.

  6. City Under Siege: Narrating Mumbai Through NonStop Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    When Mumbai became the target of terror in the 26/11 attack in 2008, the events in that city, like other tragic global events in recent years, were narrated through new media platforms. The increasing convergence of technologies and mobile telephony enabled new forms of gaze and the ability to bear witness through these new media technologies. The non-stop capture of events through recording equipment embedded in mobile phones and their connectivity to the World Wide Web constructed Mumbai th...

  7. Equipment for a 'non-stop' water infusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, J C

    1978-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of the non-stop infusion system (technique employed during the winning operation to prevent the emission of coal-dust). The system works at low-output and reduced pressure level; delivery and control is continuous. Explains the principles behind the MECANELEC flow regulator and the SCHLUMBERGER device to monitor correct operation. Describes a SCHLUMBERGER unit used in the Houilleres de Blanzy as well as a combined MECANELEC-SCHLUMBERGER installation in service at HBNPC. This combination allows water infusion to be carried out as required by the conditions. Possibility of introducing necessary improvements (such as a device to prevent leakage) is discussed.

  8. City Under Siege: Narrating Mumbai Through NonStop Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Ibrahim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When Mumbai became the target of terror in the 26/11 attack in 2008, the events in that city, like other tragic global events in recent years, were narrated through new media platforms. The increasing convergence of technologies and mobile telephony enabled new forms of gaze and the ability to bear witness through these new media technologies. The non-stop capture of events through recording equipment embedded in mobile phones and their connectivity to the World Wide Web constructed Mumbai through civilian narratives and images, and this phe-nomenon was described as the "coming of age of Twitter". Conversely the event raised fundamental questions about the role of broadcasting and protocols in live telecasts of terrorist attacks which have consequences for national security. In narrating the city through the civilian gaze and traditional media the spectacle of suffering in postmodernity becomes an open-ended exercise where the city is both a canvas for showcasing the risks of modernity and new forms of visibilities which emerge from social media and the "act of sharing" content on global plat-forms.

  9. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  10. Improved assay to detect Plasmodium falciparum using an uninterrupted, semi-nested PCR and quantitative lateral flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid, non-invasive, and inexpensive point-of-care (POC) diagnostic for malaria followed by therapeutic intervention would improve the ability to control infection in endemic areas. Methods A semi-nested PCR amplification protocol is described for quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum and is compared to a traditional nested PCR. The approach uses primers that target the P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase gene. Results This study demonstrates that it is possible to perform an uninterrupted, asymmetric, semi-nested PCR assay with reduced assay time to detect P. falciparum without compromising the sensitivity and specificity of the assay using saliva as a testing matrix. Conclusions The development of this PCR allows nucleic acid amplification without the need to transfer amplicon from the first PCR step to a second reaction tube with nested primers, thus reducing both the chance of contamination and the time for analysis to PCR amplicon yield was adapted to lateral flow detection using the quantitative up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology. This approach provides a basis for migration of the assay to a POC microfluidic format. In addition the assay was successfully evaluated with oral samples. Oral fluid collection provides a simple non-invasive method to collect clinical samples. PMID:23433252

  11. Alternative polymerase chain reaction method to identify Plasmodium species in human blood samples: the semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR (SnM-PCR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio, J.M.; Post, R.J.; Docters van Leeuwen, W.M.; Henry, M.C.; Lindergard, G.; Hommel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simplified protocol for the identification of Plasmodium species by semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) in human blood samples is compared with microscopical examination of thin and thick blood films in 2 field trials in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. Also, dried blood spots or

  12. Characterization of Leishmania Parasites Isolated From Kala- azar Patients in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad, Using Semi-Nested PCR

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    B Sarkari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a disease commonly known as Kala-azar caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania including L. donovani, L. infantum and L. chagasi. VL is sporadic in many areas of Iran and is endemic in a few provinces such as Fars, Azarbayjan, Bushehr, Ardabil and Qom. VL has been reported from some areas of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad and this study aimed to characterize the causative agent of VL in this region. Materials & Methods: Bone marrow sample was obtained from 6 VL patients from children department in Imam Sajad hospital in Yasuj. DNA was extracted from the obtained samples and was checked by semi-nested PCR to determine the species of the parasite. To do that, a segment of minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified, using LINR4 and LIN17 primers. Products of PCR were evaluated by electrophoresis, using 1.5% agarose and stained with ethidium bromide. Results: Parasitologically examination of bone marrow smears demonstrated amastigotes form of the parasite in the samples. For mass cultivation, isolated parasites were cultured in diphasic NNN followed by RPMI 1640 media. All the samples produced a 720 bp band in PCR assay. The isolates were compared with referent strains and it was revealed that all the isolates were L. infantum. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that the causative agent of VL in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad was L. infantum. Further study is needed to explore other aspects of VL in this region.

  13. Airborne rhinovirus detection and effect of ultraviolet irradiation on detection by a semi-nested RT-PCR assay

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    Rudnick Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinovirus, the most common cause of upper respiratory tract infections, has been implicated in asthma exacerbations and possibly asthma deaths. Although the method of transmission of rhinoviruses is disputed, several studies have demonstrated that aerosol transmission is a likely method of transmission among adults. As a first step in studies of possible airborne rhinovirus transmission, we developed methods to detect aerosolized rhinovirus by extending existing technology for detecting infectious agents in nasal specimens. Methods We aerosolized rhinovirus in a small aerosol chamber. Experiments were conducted with decreasing concentrations of rhinovirus. To determine the effect of UV irradiation on detection of rhinoviral aerosols, we also conducted experiments in which we exposed aerosols to a UV dose of 684 mJ/m2. Aerosols were collected on Teflon filters and rhinovirus recovered in Qiagen AVL buffer using the Qiagen QIAamp Viral RNA Kit (Qiagen Corp., Valencia, California followed by semi-nested RT-PCR and detection by gel electrophoresis. Results We obtained positive results from filter samples that had collected at least 1.3 TCID50 of aerosolized rhinovirus. Ultraviolet irradiation of airborne virus at doses much greater than those used in upper-room UV germicidal irradiation applications did not inhibit subsequent detection with the RT-PCR assay. Conclusion The air sampling and extraction methodology developed in this study should be applicable to the detection of rhinovirus and other airborne viruses in the indoor air of offices and schools. This method, however, cannot distinguish UV inactivated virus from infectious viral particles.

  14. A single-tube screen for Salmonella and Shigella.

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    Procop, Gary W; Wallace, Jacqueline D; Tuohy, Marion J; Lasalvia, Margret M; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth

    2008-08-01

    Salmonella and Shigella species are routinely sought in stool specimens submitted for culture. It is a common practice to screen lactose-negative colonies by using triple sugar iron agar, lysine iron agar, and Christensen urea agar to determine if further identification is necessary. We designed and evaluated a novel combination of media, which are layered in a single tube, for screening isolates suspected to possibly represent Salmonella or Shigella. We tested this media combination with 106 Salmonella, 56 Shigella, and 56 other gram-negative bacilli. All Salmonella and Shigella isolates tested were appropriately characterized as possible Salmonella or Shigella by using an algorithm developed for use with this media combination. Similarly, 53 (95%) of 56 other gram-negative bacilli were appropriately screened as non -Salmonella and non -Shigella isolates. This unique media combination provides the most important biochemical reactions needed to screen for Salmonella and Shigella in a single-tube format, which decreases labor by two thirds (ie, 1 tube is inoculated vs 3).

  15. Single-tube library preparation for degraded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Christian; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Vinner, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    these obstacles and enable higher throughput are therefore of interest to researchers working with degraded DNA. 2.In this study, we compare four Illumina library preparation protocols, including two “single-tube” methods developed for this study with the explicit aim of improving data quality and reducing...... of chemically damaged and highly fragmented DNA molecules. In particular, the enzymatic reactions and DNA purification steps during library preparation can result in DNA template loss and sequencing biases, affecting downstream analyses. The development of library preparation methods that circumvent...... preparation time and expenses. The methods are tested on grey wolf (Canis lupus) museum specimens. 3.We found single-tube protocols increase library complexity, yield more reads that map uniquely to the reference genome, reduce processing time, and may decrease laboratory costs by 90%. 4.Given the advantages...

  16. Non-Stop Lab Week: A Real Laboratory Experience for Life Sciences Postgraduate Courses

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    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular…

  17. Do migratory birds need a nap after a long non-stop flight?

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    Schwilch, R; Piersma, T; Holmgren, NMA; Jenni, L

    2002-01-01

    After a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, the urge to sleep overrules all other activities. Despite this well-known fact, the occurrence of sleep after naturally occurring sleep deprivation during long non-stop migratory flight in birds has hardly been investigated. The aim of this

  18. Improved clonality detection in Hodgkin lymphoma using a semi-nested modification of the BIOMED-2 PCR assay for IGH and IGK rearrangements: A paraffin-embedded tissue study.

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    Han, Shusen; Masaki, Ayako; Sakamoto, Yuma; Takino, Hisashi; Murase, Takayuki; Iida, Shinsuke; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    The BIOMED-2 PCR protocols targeting IGH and IGK genes may be useful for detecting clonality in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The clonality detection rates, however, have not been very high with these methods using paraffin-embedded tumor sections. We previously described the usefulness of the semi-nested BIOMED-2 IGH assay in B-cell malignancies. In this study, we devised a novel semi-nested BIOMED-2 IGK assay. Employing 58 cases of classical HL, we carried out the standard BIOMED-2, BIOMED-2 followed by BIOMED-2 re-amplification, and BIOMED-2 followed by semi-nested BIOMED-2, all targeting IGH and IGK, using paraffin-embedded tissues. In both IGH and IGK assays, semi-nested assays yielded significantly higher clonality detection rates than the standard assays and re-amplification assays. Clonality was detected in 13/58 (22.4%) classical HL cases using the standard IGH/IGK assays while it was detected in 38/58 (65.5%) cases using semi-nested IGH/IGK assays. The detection rates were not associated with the HL subtypes, CD30-positive cell density, CD20-positive cell density, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity. In conclusion, tumor clonality was detected in nearly two-thirds of classical HL cases using semi-nested BIOMED-2 IGH/IGK assays using paraffin tumor sections. These semi-nested assays may be useful when the standard IGH/IGK assays fail to detect clonality in histopathologically suspected HLs. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Identification of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in children from a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP tool.

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    George, Santosh; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Kattula, Deepthi; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Kang, Gagandeep; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    It is generally assumed that hookworm infections in humans are caused by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. However, previous studies have also reported the presence of the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum in human stools. We determined hookworm infections in children in a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India, using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP approach. The results indicate that human species account for a majority of the hookworm infections (N. americanus 39/41 [95%]; A. duodenale 6/41 [15%]), whereas the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum only accounts for a minority of the infections (5%; 2/41). The results emphasize the need to consider zoonotic ancylostomiasis while developing strategies to control hookworm infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The dynamic single-tube concept; Le mono-tube dynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivet, P. [Ste MC International (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of greenhouse gas emission reduction and the utilization of cooling intermediate fluids with indirect refrigerating systems, a new concept of dynamical single-tube has been developed, which allows for the simultaneous cold distribution from a centralized plant towards various required temperature systems (as for example in a supermarket refrigerating system) with optimized efficiency, fluid flow and defrosting conditions; moreover, the dynamic single-tube concept is very well adapted to two-phase flows

  1. Improved clonality detection in B-cell lymphoma using a semi-nested modification of the BIOMED-2 PCR assay for IGH rearrangement: A paraffin-embedded tissue study.

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    Sakamoto, Yuma; Masaki, Ayako; Aoyama, Satsuki; Han, Shusen; Saida, Kosuke; Fujii, Kana; Takino, Hisashi; Murase, Takayuki; Iida, Shinsuke; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The BIOMED-2 PCR protocol for targeting the IGH gene is widely employed for detecting clonality in B-cell malignancies. Unfortunately, the detection of clonality with this method is not very sensitive when paraffin sections are used as a DNA source. To increase the sensitivity, we devised a semi-nested modification of a JH consensus primer. The clonality detection rates of three assays were compared: the standard BIOMED-2, BIOMED-2 assay followed by BIOMED-2 re-amplification, and BIOMED-2 assay followed by semi-nested BIOMED-2. We tested more than 100 cases using paraffin-embedded tissues of various B-cell lymphomas, and found that the clonality detection rates with the above three assays were 63.9%, 79.6%, and 88.0%, respectively. While BIOMED-2 re-amplification was significantly more sensitive than the standard BIOMED-2, the semi-nested BIOMED-2 was significantly more sensitive than both the standard BIOMED-2 and BIOMED-2 re-amplification. An increase in sensitivity was observed in all lymphoma subtypes examined. In conclusion, tumor clonality may be detected in nearly 90% of B-cell lymphoma cases with semi-nested BIOMED-2. This ancillary assay may be useful when the standard BIOMED-2 fails to detect clonality in histopathologically suspected B-cell lymphomas. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. A semi-nested real-time PCR method to detect low chimerism percentage in small quantity of hematopoietic stem cell transplant DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Michelangelo; Bortot, Barbara; Gandin, Ilaria; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Athanasakis, Emmanouil

    2017-02-01

    Chimerism status evaluation of post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation samples is essential to predict post-transplant relapse. The most commonly used technique capable of detecting small increments of chimerism is quantitative real-time PCR. Although this method is already used in several laboratories, previously described protocols often lack sensitivity and the amount of the DNA required for each chimerism analysis is too high. In the present study, we compared a novel semi-nested allele-specific real-time PCR (sNAS-qPCR) protocol with our in-house standard allele-specific real-time PCR (gAS-qPCR) protocol. We selected two genetic markers and analyzed technical parameters (slope, y-intercept, R2, and standard deviation) useful to determine the performances of the two protocols. The sNAS-qPCR protocol showed better sensitivity and precision. Moreover, the sNAS-qPCR protocol requires, as input, only 10 ng of DNA, which is at least 10-fold less than the gAS-qPCR protocols described in the literature. Finally, the proposed sNAS-qPCR protocol could prove very useful for performing chimerism analysis with a small amount of DNA, as in the case of blood cell subsets.

  3. FIRST MOLECULAR DETECTION AND VP7 (G GENOTYPING OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUS BY SEMI-NESTED RT-PCR FROM SEWAGE IN NIGERIA

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    Babatunde Olanrewaju MOTAYO

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Rotavirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, and sewage is a major source of the virus dissemination in the environment. Our aim was to detect and genotype rotaviruses from sewages in Nigeria. One hundred and ninety sewage samples were collected between June 2014 and January 2015. The two phase concentration method using PEG 6000 and dextran was used to concentrate sewage samples following WHO protocols. Molecular detection was performed by RT-PCR, and VP7 genotyping by semi-nested multiplex PCR. A total of 14.2% (n = 27 samples tested positive. Monthly distribution showed that June to September had a lower rate (3.7% to 7.4%, while October to January recorded 11% to 26%. Genotype G1 predominated followed by G8, G9, G4 and lastly G2, 7.4% (n = 2 of isolates were nontypeable. This is the first report of rotavirus detection in sewages from Nigeria. Genotype G1 remains the most prevalent genotype. This observation calls for an effort by the governmental authorities to implement a molecular surveillance, both clinical and environmental, in order to provide vital information for the control and the vaccine efficacy not only in Nigeria, but globally.

  4. Rapid detection of bovine coronavirus by a semi-nested RT-PCR Detecção rápida do Coronavírus Bovino (BCoV por meio de uma semi-nested RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Asano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a member of the group 2 of the Coronavirus (Nidovirales: Coronaviridae and the causative agent of enteritis in both calves and adult bovine, as well as respiratory disease in calves. The present study aimed to develop a semi-nested RT-PCR for the detection of BCoV based on representative up-to-date sequences of the nucleocapsid gene, a conserved region of coronavirus genome. Three primers were designed, the first round with a 463bp and the second (semi-nested with a 306bp predicted fragment. The analytical sensitivity was determined by 10-fold serial dilutions of the BCoV Kakegawa strain (HA titre: 256 in DEPC treated ultra-pure water, in fetal bovine serum (FBS and in a BCoV-free fecal suspension, when positive results were found up to the 10-2, 10-3 and 10-7 dilutions, respectively, which suggests that the total amount of RNA in the sample influence the precipitation of pellets by the method of extraction used. When fecal samples was used, a large quantity of total RNA serves as carrier of BCoV RNA, demonstrating a high analytical sensitivity and lack of possible substances inhibiting the PCR. The final semi-nested RT-PCR protocol was applied to 25 fecal samples from adult cows, previously tested by a nested RT-PCR RdRp used as a reference test, resulting in 20 and 17 positives for the first and second tests, respectively, and a substantial agreement was found by kappa statistics (0.694. The high sensitivity and specificity of the new proposed method and the fact that primers were designed based on current BCoV sequences give basis to a more accurate diagnosis of BCoV-caused diseases, as well as to further insights on protocols for the detection of other Coronavirus representatives of both Animal and Public Health importance.O Coronavírus bovino (BCoV pertence ao grupo 2 do gênero Coronavirus (Nidovirales: Coronaviridae e é agente causador de enterites tanto em bezerros como em bovinos adultos, bem como de doen

  5. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  6. Comparative evaluation of uniplex, nested, semi-nested, multiplex and nested multiplex PCR methods in the identification of microbial etiology of clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, Madasamy Jayahar; Murugan, Nandagopal; Rameshkumar, Gunasekaran; Ramakrishnan, Rengappa; Venugopal Reddy, Yerahaia Chinna; Shivkumar, Chandrasekar; Ramesh, Srinivasan

    2013-05-01

    This study is aimed to determine the utility of various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in vitreous fluids (VFs) for detecting the infectious genomes in the diagnosis of infectious endophthalmitis in terms of sensitivity and specificity. This prospective and consecutive analysis included a total of 66 VFs that were submitted for the microbiological evaluation, which were obtained from 66 clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis patients presented between November 2010 and October 2011 at the tertiary eye care referral centre in South India. Part of the collected VFs were subjected to cultures and smears, and the remaining parts were utilized for five PCR methods: uniplex, nested, semi-nested, multiplex and nested multiplex after extracting DNA, using universal eubacterial and Propionibacterium acnes species-specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene in all bacteria and P. acnes, and panfungal primers, targeting 28S rRNA gene in all fungi. Of the 66 VFs, five (7.5%) showed positive results in smears, 16 (24%) in cultures and 43 (65%) showed positive results in PCRs. Among the 43 positively amplified VFs, 10 (15%) were positive for P. acnes genome, one for panfungal genome and 42 (62%) for eubacterial genome (including 10 P. acnes positives). Among 42 eubacterial-positive VFs, 36 were positive by both uniplex (first round) and multiplex (first round) PCRs, while nested (second round) and nested multiplex (second round) PCRs produced positive results in 42 and 41 VFs, respectively. Of the 43 PCR-positive specimens, 16 (37%) had positive growth (15 bacterial and one fungal) in culture. Of 50 culture-negative specimens, 27 (54%) were showed positive amplification, of which 10 were amplified for both P. acnes and eubacterial genomes and the remaining 17 were for eubacterial genome alone. Nested PCRs are superior than uniplex and multiplex PCR. PCRs proved to be a powerful tool in the diagnosis of endophthalmitis, especially for detecting uncultured microbes.

  7. Single-tube tetradecaplex panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M; Chen, M; Tan, A S C; Cheah, F S H; Mathew, J; Wong, P C; Chong, S S

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of severe hemophilia A relies on linkage analysis. Simultaneous multi-marker screening can simplify selection of informative markers in a couple. We developed a single-tube tetradecaplex panel of polymorphic markers for hemophilia A PGD use. Informative markers can be used for linkage analysis alone or combined with mutation detection. Background It is currently not possible to perform single-cell preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to directly detect the common inversion mutations of the factor VIII (F8) gene responsible for severe hemophilia A (HEMA). As such, PGD for such inversion carriers relies on indirect analysis of linked polymorphic markers. Objectives To simplify linkage-based PGD of HEMA, we aimed to develop a panel of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located near the F8 gene that could be simultaneously genotyped in a multiplex-PCR reaction. Methods We assessed the polymorphism of various microsatellite markers located ≤ 1 Mb from F8 in 177 female subjects. Highly polymorphic markers were selected for co-amplification with the AMELX/Y indel dimorphism in a single-tube reaction. Results Thirteen microsatellite markers located within 0.6 Mb of F8 were successfully co-amplified with AMELX/Y in a single-tube reaction. Observed heterozygosities of component markers ranged from 0.43 to 0.84, and ∼70-80% of individuals were heterozygous for ≥ 5 markers. The tetradecaplex panel successfully identified fully informative markers in a couple interested in PGD for HEMA because of an intragenic F8 point mutation, with haplotype phasing established through a carrier daughter. In-vitro fertilization (IVF)-PGD involved single-tube co-amplification of fully informative markers with AMELX/Y and the mutation-containing F8 amplicon, followed by microsatellite analysis and amplicon mutation-site minisequencing analysis. Conclusions The single-tube multiplex-PCR format of this highly polymorphic

  8. Single tube genotyping of sickle cell anaemia using PCR-based SNP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, C M; Cobb, B D

    2001-12-01

    Allele-specific amplification (ASA) is a generally applicable technique for the detection of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletions, insertions and other sequence variations. Conventionally, two reactions are required to determine the zygosity of DNA in a two-allele system, along with significant upstream optimisation to define the specific test conditions. Here, we combine single tube bi-directional ASA with a 'matrix-based' optimisation strategy, speeding up the whole process in a reduced reaction set. We use sickle cell anaemia as our model SNP system, a genetic disease that is currently screened using ASA methods. Discriminatory conditions were rapidly optimised enabling the unambiguous identification of DNA from homozygous sickle cell patients (HbS/S), heterozygous carriers (HbA/S) or normal DNA in a single tube. Simple downstream mathematical analyses based on product yield across the optimisation set allow an insight into the important aspects of priming competition and component interactions in this competitive PCR. This strategy can be applied to any polymorphism, defining specific conditions using a multifactorial approach. The inherent simplicity and low cost of this PCR-based method validates bi-directional ASA as an effective tool in future clinical screening and pharmacogenomic research where more expensive fluorescence-based approaches may not be desirable.

  9. Single-tube condensation experiment in Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System of APR1400+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Wook; No, Hee Cheon; Yun, Bong Yo; Jeon, Byong Guk [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Conventional Korean nuclear power plants, Advanced Power Reactors (APR), are characterized by an active cooling system. However, Active cooling system may not prevent significant damage without any AC power source available for its operation as vividly illustrated through the recent Fukushima incident. In the APR1400+ to be designed, an independent passive cooling system was added in order to overcome the aforementioned shortcomings. In the Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), gravity force and density difference between steam and water are used. The system comprises of 240 condensation tubes to efficiently remove decay heat. Before applying the PAFS to APR1400+, the system's safety and heat removal performance must be verified. The present study experimentally evaluates the heat removal performance of a single tube in the PAFS. The objectives of SCOP (Single-tube Condensation experiment facility of PAFS) are the evaluation of the heat removal performance in the tube of the PAFS and database construction under various tube designs and test conditions. Reaching these objectives, we developed advanced measurement techniques for the amount of moisture, heat flux, and water film thickness.

  10. Performance model and thermal comparison of different alternatives for the Fresnel single-tube receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, María J.; Barbero, Rubén; Abbas, Rubén; Rovira, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermal model for a single-tube Fresnel receiver has been developed. • A comparative analysis based on different design parameters, has been carried out. • A comparative analysis based on different working fluids, has been carried out. • The receiver thermal performance is characterized by energy and exergy efficiencies. - Abstract: Although most of recent commercial Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) installed worldwide are parabolic trough plants, it seems that Linear Fresnel Collectors (LFC) are becoming an attractive option to generate electricity from solar radiation. Contrary to parabolic trough collectors, the design of LFC receivers has many degrees of freedom, and two basic designs can be found in the literature: single-tube and multi-tube design. This article studies the single-tube design, for which a thermal model has been developed. This model has been thought to be accurate enough to characterize the heat transfer in a non-elementary geometry and flexible enough to support changes of the characteristic parameters in the receiver design. The thermal model proposed is based on a two-dimensional, steady-state energy balance, in the receiver cross section and along its length. One of the features of the model is the characterization of the convective and radiative heat transfer in the receiver cavity, as it is not an elementary geometry. Another feature is the possibility of studying the receiver performance with different working fluids, both single-phase or two-phase. At last, the receiver performance has been characterized by means of the energy and exergy efficiency. Both variables are important for a complete receiver thermal analysis, as will be shown in the paper. The model has been first applied to the comparative study of the thermal performance of LFC receivers based on the value of some parameters: selective coating emissivity in the tube and inlet fluid thermal properties, for the case of using water/steam. As a second

  11. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  12. Practical acoustic thermometry with twin-tube and single-tube sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Podesta, M.; Sutton, G.; Edwards, G.; Stanger, L.; Preece, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Accurate measurement of high temperatures in a nuclear environment presents unique challenges. All secondary techniques inevitably drift because the thermometric materials in thermocouples and resistance sensors are sensitive not just to temperature, but also their own chemical and physical composition. The solution is to use primary methods that rely on fundamental links between measurable physical properties and temperature. In the nuclear field the best known technique is the measurement of Johnson Noise in a resistor (See Paper 80 at this conference). In this paper we describe the measurement of temperature in terms of the speed of sound in a gas confined in a tube - an acoustic waveguide. Acoustic thermometry is the most accurate technique of primary thermometry ever devised with the best uncertainty of measurement below 0.001 C. In contrast, the acoustic technique described in this work has a much larger uncertainty, approximately 1 deg. C. But the cost and ease of use are improved by several orders of magnitude, making implementation eminently practical. We first describe the basic construction and method of operation of thermometers using twin-tubes and single tubes. We then present results using a twin-tube design showing that showing long term stability (i.e. no detectable drift) at 700 deg. C over periods of several weeks. We then outline how the technique may be developed for different nuclear applications. (authors)

  13. Metallikunstnike "Non-Stop"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    19. augustini Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis Eesti Metallikunstnike Liidu iga kahe nädala tagant muutuv näitus, kus on eksponeeritud eesti metallikunstnike viimase kolme aasta looming ning osaleb kunstnikke välismaalt

  14. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Parida Manmohan; Shrivastava Ambuj; Santhosh SR; Dash Paban; Saxena Parag; Rao PV

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Jap...

  15. Development of a novel single tube nested PCR for enhanced detection of cytomegalovirus DNA from dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C; Emery, V C; Griffiths, P D

    2014-02-01

    Newborn screening for congenital cytomegalovirus (CCMV) using dried blood spots (DBS) has been proposed because many developed countries have DBS screening programmes in place for other diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, single tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for enhanced detection of CMV from DBS compared to existing (single target) real time PCRs. The new method was compared with existing real time PCRs for sensitivity and specificity. Overall sensitivity of the single target PCR assays in both asymptomatic and symptomatic infants with laboratory confirmed congenital CMV was 69% (CMV PCR or culture positive before day 21 of life). In contrast, the single tube nested assay had an increased sensitivity of 81% with100% specificity. Overall the assay detected CMV from a DBS equivalent to an original blood sample which contained 500IU/ml. In conclusion this single tube nested methodology allows simultaneous amplification and detection of CMV DNA in 1.5h removing the associated contamination risk of a two step nested PCR. Owing to its increased sensitivity, it has the potential to be used as a screening assay and ultimately allow early identification and intervention for children with congenital CMV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a duplex semi-nested PCR assay for detection of classical goose parvovirus and novel goose parvovirus-related virus in sick or dead ducks with short beak and dwarfism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Ruihua; Chen, Junhao; Sun, Dapeng; Lan, Jingjing; Lin, Shaoli; Song, Shasha; Xie, Zhijing; Jiang, Shijin

    2017-11-01

    Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China. A total of 87 (91.58%) Cherry Valley ducks aged from 5 to 18days and 35 (92.11%) mule ducks aged from 17 to 25days were detected positive for NGPV. In the NGPV-positive ducks, the virus detection rates were 81.97% to 8.20% in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, pancreas, bile, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, and brain. The results indicated that NGPV was prevalent in the duck flocks of East China, whereas classical GPV was not detected in Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS. NGPV has extensive tissue tropism in Cherry Valley duck and mule duck, which could invade both the central and peripheral immune organs and break through the blood-brain barrier of ducks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal and structural performance of a single tube support post for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-07-01

    The reentrant support post currently incorporated in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole cryostat has been shown to meet the structural and thermal requirements of the cryostat, both in prototype magnet assemblies and through component testing. However, the reentrant post design has two major drawbacks: tight dimensional control on all components, and cost driven by these tolerance constraints and a complex assembly procedure. A single tube support post has been developed as an alternative to the reentrant post design. Several prototype assemblies have been fabricated and subjected to structural testing. Compressive, tensile, and bending forces were applied to each assembly with deflection measured at several locations. A prototype support post has also been thermally evaluated in a heat leak measurement facility. Heat load to 4.2 K was measured with the intermediate post intercept operating at various temperatures while thermometers positioned along the conductive path of the post mapped thermal gradients. Results from these measurements indicate the single tube support post meets the design criteria for the SSC dipole magnet cryostat support system

  18. Single tube multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankuntaw, Nipaporn; Sukprasert, Saovaluk; Engchanil, Chulapan; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Chantratita, Wasun; Pairoj, Vantanit; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus infection of immunocompromised hosts may lead to central nervous system (CNS) infection and diseases. In this study, a single tube multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the detection of five herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Two primer pairs specific for the herpesvirus polymerase gene and five hybridization probe pairs for the specific identification of the herpesvirus types were used in a LightCycler multiplex real-time PCR. A singleplex real-time PCR was first optimized and then applied to the multiplex real-time PCR. The singleplex and multiplex real-time PCRs showed no cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of the singleplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for each herpesvirus, while that of the multiplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for HSV-1 and VZV and 10 copies per reaction for HSV-2, EBV and CMV. Intra and inter-assay variations of the single tube multiplex assay were in the range of 0.02%-3.67% and 0.79%-4.35%, respectively. The assay was evaluated by testing 62 clinical CSF samples and was found to have equivalent sensitivity, specificity and agreement as the routine real-time PCR, but reducing time, cost and amount of used sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cycle Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine with a Coaxial Rotary Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Esumi, Motoki; Ikeguchi, Ken Bryan; Kasahara, Jiro; Matsuo, Akiko; Funaki, Ikkoh

    We developed a novel coaxial rotary valve for a multi-tube PDE. Since this single valve can supply three different gases (fuel, oxidizer and purge gas) into a combustor, the unification of the valve systems for three different gases is possible by using our newly designed valve. A PDRE system can be simple and lightweight by using this valve, and thus its thrust-weight ratio can be increased. We proposed the design of a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE system by this rotary valve. Moreover, in preparation for a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE, we carried out the multi-cycle operation experiment by the single-tube rotary-valved PDRE system. The combustion wave velocity was measured to confirm the operation of the PDRE system. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was confirmed and DDT distance decreased under the condition of high operation frequency. In addition, a maximum operation frequency was 159 Hz.

  20. The Sun-Duffey mass effluents calculation model applied to bottom reflooding tests of a single tube performed at the CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.; Rezende, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    A simple generalized model, developed by K.H. Sun and R.B. Duffey, is applied in this work to calculate the ratio of mass effluents during bottom reflooding of a single tube carried out at the CDTN/CNEN. The results of the benchmark experiments indicate that the accuracy on mass effluence ratio prediction can be within 15% by using the Sun-Duffey model. The reasonable agreement obtained between experimental data and model predictions suggest that it could be used for analysis of single tube reflood tests, in similar conditions. (author)

  1. Evaluation of a new single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Yu; Hsia, Kan-Tai; Chan, Yun-Hsien; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Landt, Olfert; Ji, Dar-Der

    2010-08-01

    A single-tube multiprobe real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar was developed. One primer pair with 2 species-specific probes was designed based on new SSU RNA regions of the ribosomal DNA-containing episome. The sensitivity is 1 parasite per milliliter of feces and thus superior to the conventional nested PCR and comparable to other published real-time PCR protocols. The applicability for clinical diagnosis was validated with 218 stool specimens from patients. A total of 51 E. histolytica and 39 E. dispar positive samples was detected by the multiprobe real-time PCR compared to 39 and 22 by routine nested PCR diagnosis. The detection rate of Entamoeba species for the multiprobe real-time PCR assays was significantly higher than the nested PCR (40.8% vs. 28.0%, P Entamoeba moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia , Cryptosporidium sp., Escherichia coli , or other nonpathogenic enteric parasites. The multiprobe real-time PCR assay is simple and rapid and has high specificity and sensitivity. The assay could streamline the laboratory diagnosis procedure and facilitate epidemiological investigation.

  2. Development and validation of a single-tube multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette A T P Brink

    Full Text Available Genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae is indispensable for management of nosocomial infections, monitoring of emerging strains--including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers-, and general epidemiology. Such objectives require a high-resolution genotyping method with a fixed scheme that allows (1 long-term retrospective and prospective assessment, (2 objective result readout and (3 library storage for database development and exchangeable results. We have developed a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA using a single-tube fluorescently primed multiplex PCR for 8 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs and automated fragment size analysis. The type allocation scheme was optimized using 224 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, which yielded 101 MLVA types. The method was compared to the gold standard multilocus sequence typing (MLST using a subset of these clinical isolates (n = 95 and found to be highly concordant, with at least as high a resolution but with considerably less hands-on time. Our results position this MLVA scheme as an appropriate, high-throughput and relatively low-cost tool for K. pneumoniae epidemiology.

  3. Rapid and sensitive multiplex single-tube nested PCR for the identification of five human Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Aoi; Kaneko, Akira; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specific, and economically viable diagnostic method is needed. In this study, we designed a malaria diagnostic method involving a multiplex single-tube nested PCR targeting Plasmodium mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III and single-stranded tag hybridization chromatographic printed-array strip. The detection sensitivity was found to be at least 40 times higher than that of agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide. This system also enables the identification of both single- and mixed-species malaria infections. The assay was validated with 152 Kenyan samples; using nested PCR as the standard, the assay's sensitivity and specificity were 88.7% and 100.0%, respectively. The turnaround time required, from PCR preparation to signal detection, is 90min. Our method should improve the diagnostic speed, treatment efficacy, and control of malaria, in addition to facilitating surveillance within global malaria eradication programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Manmohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

  5. A single-tube 27-plex SNP assay for estimating individual ancestry and admixture from three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Qi-Fan; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hai-Bo; Chen, Jian-Gang; Ye, Jian; Hu, Lan; Li, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    A single-tube multiplex assay of a small set of ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) for effectively estimating individual ancestry and admixture is an ideal forensic tool to trace the population origin of an unknown DNA sample. We present a newly developed 27-plex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel with highly robust and balanced differential power to perfectly assign individuals to African, European, and East Asian ancestries. Evaluating 968 previously described intercontinental AIMs from three HapMap population genotyping datasets (Yoruban in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI); Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry from the Centre de'Etude du Polymorphism Humain (CEPH) collection (CEU); and Han Chinese in Beijing, China (CHB)), the best set of markers was selected on the basis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.00001), population-specific allele frequency (two of three δ values >0.5), according to linkage disequilibrium (r (2) ancestry of the 11 populations in the HapMap project. Then, we tested the 27-plex SNP assay with 1164 individuals from 17 additional populations. The results demonstrated that the SNP panel was successful for ancestry inference of individuals with African, European, and East Asian ancestry. Furthermore, the system performed well when inferring the admixture of Eurasians (EUR/EAS) after analyzing admixed populations from Xinjiang (Central Asian) as follows: Tajik (68:27), Uyghur (49:46), Kirgiz (40:57), and Kazak (36:60). For individual analyses, we interpreted each sample with a three-ancestry component percentage and a population match probability sequence. This multiplex assay is a convenient and cost-effective tool to assist in criminal investigations, as well as to correct for the effects of population stratification for case-control studies.

  6. Optimizing and accelerating the assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using novel alternative single-tube assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carcelén

    Full Text Available The assignation of lineages in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB provides valuable information for evolutionary and phylogeographic studies and makes for more accurate knowledge of the distribution of this pathogen worldwide. Differences in virulence have also been found for certain lineages. MTB isolates were initially assigned to lineages based on data obtained from genotyping techniques, such as spoligotyping or MIRU-VNTR analysis, some of which are more suitable for molecular epidemiology studies. However, since these methods are subject to a certain degree of homoplasy, other criteria have been chosen to assign lineages. These are based on targeting robust and specific SNPs for each lineage. Here, we propose two newly designed multiplex targeting methods-both of which are single-tube tests-to optimize the assignation of the six main lineages in MTB. The first method is based on ASO-PCR and offers an inexpensive and easy-to-implement assay for laboratories with limited resources. The other, which is based on SNaPshot, enables more refined standardized assignation of lineages for laboratories with better resources. Both methods performed well when assigning lineages from cultured isolates from a control panel, a test panel, and a problem panel from an unrelated population, Mexico, which included isolates in which standard genotyping was not able to classify lineages. Both tests were also able to assign lineages from stored isolates, without the need for subculture or purification of DNA, and even directly from clinical specimens with a medium-high bacilli burden. Our assays could broaden the contexts where information on lineages can be acquired, thus enabling us to quickly update data from retrospective collections and to merge data with those obtained at the time of diagnosis of a new TB case.

  7. Development and assessment of multiplex high resolution melting assay as a tool for rapid single-tube identification of five Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Krishna K; Sells, Jessica; Lee, Robin; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2014-12-11

    The zoonosis brucellosis causes economically significant reproductive problems in livestock and potentially debilitating disease of humans. Although the causative agent, organisms from the genus Brucella, can be differentiated into a number of species based on phenotypic characteristics, there are also significant differences in genotype that are concordant with individual species. This paper describes the development of a five target multiplex assay to identify five terrestrial Brucella species using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent high resolution melt curve analysis. This technology offers a robust and cost effective alternative to previously described hydrolysis-probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based species defining assays. Through the use of Brucella whole genome sequencing five species defining SNPs were identified. Individual HRM assays were developed to these target these changes and, following optimisation of primer concentrations, it was possible to multiplex all five assays in a single tube. In a validation exercise using a panel of 135 Brucella strains of terrestrial and marine origin, it was possible to distinguish the five target species from the other species within this panel. The HRM multiplex offers a number of diagnostic advantages over previously described SNP-based typing approaches. Further, and uniquely for HRM, the successful multiplexing of five assays in a single tube allowing differentiation of five Brucella species in the diagnostic laboratory in a cost-effective and timely manner is described. However there are possible limitations to using this platform on DNA extractions direct from clinical material.

  8. Semi-Nested Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Methods for the Successful Quantitation of Cytokeratin mRNA Expression Levels for the Subtyping of Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Using Paraffin-Embedded and Microdissected Lung Biopsy Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Yoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Tsujino, Ichiro; Obana, Yukari; Seki, Toshimi; Fuchinoue, Fumi; Ohni, Sumie; Oinuma, Toshinori; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shu; Nemoto, Norimichi

    2013-01-01

    In patients with inoperable advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), histological subtyping using small-mount biopsy specimens was often required to decide the indications for drug treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of highly sensitive mRNA quantitation for the subtyping of advanced NSCLC using small formalin fixing and paraffin embedding (FFPE) biopsy samples. Cytokeratin (CK) 6, CK7, CK14, CK18, and thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 mRNA expression levels were measured using semi-nested real-time quantitative (snq) reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in microdissected tumor cells collected from 52 lung biopsies. Our results using the present snqRT-PCR method showed an improvement in mRNA quantitation from small FFPE samples, and the mRNA expression level using snqRT-PCR was correlated with the immunohistochemical protein expression level. CK7, CK18, and TTF-1 mRNA were expressed at significantly higher levels (P<0.05) in adenocarcinoma (AD) than in squamous cell carcinoma (SQ), while CK6 and CK14 mRNA expression was significantly higher (P<0.05) in SQ than in AD. Each histology-specific CK, particularly CK18 in AD and CK6 in SQ, were shown to be correlated with a poor prognosis (P=0.02, 0.02, respectively). Our results demonstrated that a quantitative CK subtype mRNA analysis from lung biopsy samples can be useful for predicting the histology subtype and prognosis of advanced NSCLC

  9. Single-tube multiplex PCR using type-specific E6/E7 primers and capillary electrophoresis genotypes 21 human papillomaviruses in neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warenholt Janina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV E6/E7 type-specific oncogenes are required for cervical carcinogenesis. Current PCR protocols for genotyping high-risk HPV in cervical screening are not standardized and usually use consensus primers targeting HPV capsid genes, which are often deleted in neoplasia. PCR fragments are detected using specialized equipment and extra steps, including probe hybridization or primer extension. In published papers, analytical sensitivity is typically compared with a different protocol on the same sample set. A single-tube multiplex PCR containing type-specific primers was developed to target the E6/E7 genes of two low-risk and 19 high-risk genotypes (HPV6, 11 and 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82 and the resulting short fragments were directly genotyped by high-resolution fluorescence capillary electrophoresis. Results The method was validated using long oligonucleotide templates, plasmid clones and 207 clinical samples of DNA from liquid-based cytology, fresh and formalin-fixed specimens and FTA Microcards® imprinted with cut tumor surfaces, swabbed cervical cancers or ejected aspirates from nodal metastases of head and neck carcinomas. Between one and five long oligonucleotide targets per sample were detected without false calls. Each of the 21 genotypes was detected in the clinical sample set with up to five types simultaneously detected in individual specimens. All 101 significant cervical neoplasias (CIN 2 and above, except one adenocarcinoma, contained E6/E7 genes. The resulting genotype distribution accorded with the national pattern with HPV16 and 18 accounting for 69% of tumors. Rare HPV types 70 and 73 were present as the sole genotype in one carcinoma each. One cervical SCC contained DNA from HPV6 and 11 only. Six of twelve oropharyngeal cancer metastases and three neck metastases of unknown origin bore E6/E7 DNA; all but one were HPV16. One neck

  10. Non-stop training during LS1!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The year 2013 is a busy year for the Safety Training team, who are seeing a dramatic increase in their activities during LS1. The Safety Training Service within the HSE Unit offers training courses all year round to people working on the CERN site who are exposed to a variety of potential hazards (e.g. chemical hazards, fire hazards, etc.) either because of the activities they perform (e.g. work in confined spaces or on machines) and/or their place of work (e.g. workshops, laboratories, underground areas, etc.).   LS1 has triggered an increase in the number of requests for training, mainly from people requiring to carry out work on the LHC. Indeed, in order to access the underground areas, it is obligatory to have taken certain safety courses such as the self-rescue mask or radiation protection training courses. Consequently, the number of training sessions and the number of people trained is currently twice what it was during the same period in 2012, with almost 4,600 people trained in 530 s...

  11. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. A one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of enterovirus 71, coxsackie A16 and pan-enterovirus in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyin Zhang

    Full Text Available The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackie A16 (CA16 are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.

  13. A one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of enterovirus 71, coxsackie A16 and pan-enterovirus in a single tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyin; Wang, Jin; Yan, Qiang; He, Shuizhen; Zhou, Wenbin; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.

  14. A single tube PCR assay for simultaneous amplification of HSV-1/-2, VZV, CMV, HHV-6A/-6B, and EBV DNAs in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with virus-related neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y

    2000-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 27 patients with encephalitis, meningitis, and other neurological diseases were studied for the presence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A/-6B) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The DNAs were amplified using two sets of consensus primer pairs in a single tube, bringing simultaneous amplification of the herpesviruses. The PCR products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization with virus-type specific probes, thus allowing discrimination between the different types of herpesviruses to be made. Each virus-specific probe was highly specific for identifying the PCR product. Thirty CSF specimens from 13 patients with encephalitis and 10 specimens from 10 patients with meningitis, respectively, were examined using this method. Eight patients with encephalitis and six with meningitis were positive for different herpesviruses, including patients with coinfections (HSV-1/-2 and VZV, VZV and CMV). Among four CSF specimens from four patients with other neurological disorders, dual amplification of CMV and EBV was present. Since identification of the types of herpesviruses in this system requires a very small amount of CSF, and is completed with one PCR, it is useful for routine diagnosis of herpesvirus infections in diagnostic laboratories. The viruses responsible for central nervous system infection are easily detected with various coinfection and serial patterns of herpesviruses, by this consensus primer-based PCR method. This may give an insight into the relationship between virus-related neurological diseases (VRNDS) and herpesvirus infections.

  15. One-tube semi-nested PCR-ELISA for the detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA sequences: comparison with hybridization-based and semi-nested-based PCR-ELISA procedures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, Daniel; Dráber, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 283, 1-2 (2003), s. 163-172 ISSN 0022-1759 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5052201; GA AV ČR IAA5052310; GA ČR GA204/03/0594; GA ČR GA301/03/0596; GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : PCR * DNA labelin * HCMV Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2003

  16. Compact, single-tube scanning tunneling microscope with thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, Matthew M; Agostino, Christopher J; Michel, Jolai D; Gans, Ashley R; Kandel, S Alex

    2013-10-01

    We have designed and built a scanning tunneling microscope with a compact inertial-approach mechanism that fits inside the piezoelectric scanner tube. Rigid construction allows the microscope to be operated without the use of external vibration isolators or acoustic enclosures. Thermoelectric cooling and a water-ice bath are used to increase temperature stability when scanning under ambient conditions.

  17. A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

    2015-03-18

    We present the case of a young man with a 48 h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Analysis of LOCA/LOECC with a non-stop CATHENA simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, G.; Huynh, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents a new approach which simulates without interruption the blowdown and the post-blowdown portions of a LOCA/LOECC. The blowdown portion is simulated first with the pressures, enthalpies, and void fractions of the headers as boundary conditions. The transient inlet header flowrates are written to a file. The blowdown portion is then simulated again with the inlet header flowrates as boundary conditions. At the end of the blowdown, the flowrates are gradually changed to obtain the desired constant gas flowrate of the post-blowdown portion. This new approach was applied with CATHENA MOD3.5a Rev. 0 for a 20% reactor inlet header break coincident with a total loss of emergency core cooling injection. In summary, this paper shows a successful new approach where the blowdown and the post-blowdown portions of a large LOCA coincident with a total loss of emergency core cooling are simulated continuously. (author)

  19. Detection of toxigenic vibrio cholera from environmental water samples by an enrichment broth cultivation-pit-stop semi-nested PCR procedure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, J

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available V. cholerae. The PCR procedure coupled with an enrichment culture detected as few as four V. cholerae organisms in pure culture. Treated sewage, surface, ground and drinking water samples were seeded with V, cholerae and following enrichment, a...

  20. Comparison of digital PCR platforms and semi-nested qPCR as a tool to determine the size of the HIV reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, K. J.; Nijhuis, M.; van Ham, P. M.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Vervisch, K.; Vandekerckhove, L.; De Spiegelaere, W.

    2015-01-01

    HIV persists in latently infected cells of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This persistent proviral DNA reservoir is an important predictor of viral rebound upon therapy failure or interruption and forms a major obstacle towards cure. Accurate quantification of the low levels of persisting

  1. Reduction of forces on the teats by single tube guiding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Udder health considerably affects the economics of dairy farming. There are different reasons for poor udder health; one of them is the milking technique. In earlier studies it was shown that automatic milking systems (AMS) have advantages over conventional milking systems (CMS). Quarter individual milking and ...

  2. Single-tube linear DNA amplification for genome-wide studies using a few thousand cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Gool, van W.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Linear amplification of DNA (LinDA) by T7 polymerase is a versatile and robust method for generating sufficient amounts of DNA for genome-wide studies with minute amounts of cells. LinDA can be coupled to a great number of global profiling technologies. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled

  3. SSC 50 MM collider dipole cryostat single tube support post conceptual design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet cold masses are connected to the cryostat vacuum vessel at five places equally spaced along their length. Five supports limit sag of the cold assembly due to its own weight to a level consistent with the final magnet alignment specifications. The design essentially consists of two composite tubes nested within each other as a means of maximizing the thermal path length. In addition it provides an ideal way to utilize materials best suited for the temperature range over which they must operate. Filament wound S-glass is used between 300K and 80K. Filament wound graphite fiber is used between 80K and 20K and between 20K and 4.5K. S-glass is a better thermal performer above approximately 40K. Graphite composites are ideally suited for operation below 40K. The designs for the 50 mm reentrant supports are well documented in the literature. The current design of the reentrant support has two major drawbacks. First, it requires very tight dimensional control on all components; composite tubes and metal attachment parts. Second, it is expensive, with cost being driven by both the tolerance constraints and by a complex assembly procedure. It seems clear that production magnets will require a support structure which is considerably less expensive than that which is currently used. It seems clear that a design alternate for reentrant support posts will be required for production dipoles primarily due to their cost. It seems less clear that injection molded composite materials are the ideal choice. This report describes the conceptual design for a support post whose function is identical to that of the current reentrant design, which requires very few modifications to surrounding cryostat components, is thermally equivalent to the current 50 mm support post, and is nearly equivalent structurally

  4. Single Tube Rupture at Cold Side of Steam Generator Simulation Test Report Using the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a postulated SGTR event of the APR1400 was experimentally investigated with the ATLAS. In order to simulate a double-ended rupture of a single U-tube in the APR1400, the SGTR-CL-01 test was performed with the ATLAS. The main objectives of this test were not only to provide a physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the SGTR but also to produce integral effect experimental data to validate the safety analysis code. In the present report, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Following the reactor trip induced by high steam generator level (HSGL) signal, the primary system pressure decreased and the secondary system pressure increased until the MSSVs was opened. The MSSVs repeated on and off status depending on the secondary system pressure during the whole test period. Due to the break flow, the collapsed water level of the affected steam generator showed milder decrease than that of the intact steam generator. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for a SGTR simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants

  5. Optimisation of single-tube heating systems with distribution of heating cost; Optimierung von Einrohrheizungsanlagen mit Heizkostenverteilung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, G.; Kremonke, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung; Bach, H.; Bauer, M.; Eisenmann, G.; Haupt, C.; Tritschler, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Heiz- und Raumlufttechnik

    1997-12-31

    The work had the aim to study the following modernization measures in a large-panel building: enhancement of thermal insulation provided by the shell of the building, enhancement of heating system efficiency, influence on user behaviour of just heating cost allocation systems. Further, general statements are made regarding the following aspects of building modernization: energy consumption analysis, planning, user behaviour and system management. (MSK) [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchungen war es an einem Plattenbau folgende Modernisierungsmassnahmen zu untersuchen: Verbesserung der Waermedaemmung der Gebaeudehuellkonstruktion, Effizienzsteigerung des Heizsystems, Beeinflussung des Nutzerverhaltens durch gerechte Heizkostenverteilsysteme. Zudem werden allgemeine Aussagen zur Modernisierung von Gebaeuden zu folgenden Bereichen vorgelegt: Energiediagnose, Planung, Nutzerverhalten sowie Betriebsmangement.

  6. Detection of MPLW515L/K mutations and determination of allele frequencies with a single-tube PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hiraku; Morishita, Soji; Araki, Marito; Edahiro, Yoko; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Hironaka, Yumi; Noda, Naohiro; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2014-01-01

    A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL) gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system)-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5%) of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  7. Detection of MPLW515L/K mutations and determination of allele frequencies with a single-tube PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takei

    Full Text Available A gain-of-function mutation in the myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL gene, which encodes the thrombopoietin receptor, has been identified in patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, subgroups of classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. The presence of MPL gene mutations is a critical diagnostic criterion for these diseases. Here, we developed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective method of detecting two major MPL mutations, MPLW515L/K, in a single PCR assay; we termed this method DARMS (dual amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. DARMS-PCR is designed to produce three different PCR products corresponding to MPLW515L, MPLW515K, and all MPL alleles. The amplicons are later detected and quantified using a capillary sequencer to determine the relative frequencies of the mutant and wild-type alleles. Applying DARMS-PCR to human specimens, we successfully identified MPL mutations in MPN patients, with the exception of patients bearing mutant allele frequencies below the detection limit (5% of this method. The MPL mutant allele frequencies determined using DARMS-PCR correlated strongly with the values determined using deep sequencing. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of DARMS-PCR to detect MPL mutations and determine the allele frequencies in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  8. Detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis a virus in water by consensus primer multiplex RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Wen; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yuan, Chang-Qing; Zheng, Jin-Lai; Jin, Min; Song, Nong; Shi, Xiu-Quan; Chao, Fu-Huan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To develop a rapid detection method of enteroviruses and Hepatitis A virus (HAV). METHODS: A one-step, single-tube consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR was developed to simultaneously detect Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV. A general upstream primer and a HAV primer and four different sets of primers (5 primers) specific for Poliovirus, Coxsacki evirus, Echovirus and HAV cDNA were mixed in the PCR mixture to reverse transcript and amplify the target DNA. Four distinct amplified DNA segments representing Poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, Echovirus and HAV were identified by gel electrophoresis as 589-, 671-, 1084-, and 1128 bp sequences, respectively. Semi-nested PCR was used to confirm the amplified products for each enterovirus and HAV. RESULTS: All four kinds of viral genome RNA were detected, and producing four bands which could be differentiated by the band size on the gel. To confirm the specificity of the multiplex PCR products, semi-nested PCR was performed. For all the four strains tested gave positive results. The detection sensitivity of multiplex PCR was similar to that of monoplex RT-PCR which was 24 PFU for Poliovrus, 21 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 60 PFU for Echovirus and 105 TCID50 for HAV. The minimum amount of enteric viral RNA detected by semi-nested PCR was equivalent to 2.4 PFU for Poliovrus, 2.1 PFU for Coxsackie virus, 6.0 PFU for Echovirus and 10.5 TCID50 for HAV. CONCLUSION: The consensus primers multiplex RT-PCR has more advantages over monoplex RT-PCR for enteric viruses detection, namely, the rapid turnaround time and cost effectiveness. PMID:12174381

  9. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    Full Text Available Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR, termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques.

  10. [Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in cyst samples using a novel single tube multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hüseyin; İnceboz, Tonay; Caner, Ayşe; Atalay Şahar, Esra; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Döşkaya, Mert; Çelebi, Fehmi; Değirmenci Döşkaya, Aysu; Gülçe İz, Sultan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Korkmaz, Metin

    2016-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, are important helminthic diseases worldwide as well as in our country. Epidemiological studies conducted in Turkey showed that the prevalence of CE is 291-585/100.000. It has also been showed that the seroprevalence of AE is 3.5%. For the diagnosis of CE and AE, radiological (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and serological methods, in addition to clinical findings, are being used. The definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination When the hydatid cysts are sterile or does not contain protoscolex, problems may occur during pathological discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis species. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis using Echi S (5'-TTTATGAATATTGTGACCCTGAGAT-3') and Echi A (5'-GGTCTTAACTCAACTCATGGAG-3') primers and three different probes; Anchor Ech (5'-GTTTGCCACCTCGATGTTGACTTAG-fluoroscein-3'), Granulosus (5'-LC640-CTAAGGTTTTGGTGTAGTAATTGATATTTT-phosphate-3') and Multilocularis (5'-LC705-CTGTGATCTTGGTGTAGTAGTTGAGATT-phosphate-3') that will enable the diagnosis of CE and AE in same assay. During M-RTR-PCR, plasmids containing E.granulosus (GenBank: AF297617.1) and E.multilocularis (GenBank: NC_000928.2) mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions were used as positive controls. Cysts samples of patients which were pathologically confirmed to be CE (n: 10) and AE (n: 15) and healthy human DNA samples (n: 25) as negative control as well as DNA samples of 12 different parasites (Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola hepatica, Enterobius vermicularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) were used to develop M-RT-PCR. E.granulosus and E.multilocularis control plasmids were constructed to detect analytic sensitivity of the test using TOPO cloning. Positive control plasmids were diluted to determine analytical sensitivity and specificity by distilled water at 10(6)-10(5)-10(4)-10(3)-10(2)-10(1)-1 plasmid copy of dilution in each reaction. According to the results, analytical sensitivity of the assay for E.granulosus and E.multilocularis was 1 copy plasmid/µl reaction. The non-existence of cross reactivity with 12 different parasites' DNA samples showed the analytical specificity of the assay. Displaying Echinococcus DNA in cyst samples among 25 patients and species discrimination as well as non-existence of cross reactivity with human DNA samples showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100%. As a result, the M-RT-PCR developed in the present study provided a sensitive, specific, rapid, and reliable method in the diagnosis of echinococcosis and the discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis from cyst samples.

  11. B-ALL minimal residual disease flow cytometry: an application of a novel method for optimization of a single-tube model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Aaron C; Greig, Bruce W; Mosse, Claudio A; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    Optimizing a clinical flow cytometry panel can be a subjective process dependent on experience. We develop a quantitative method to make this process more rigorous and apply it to B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) minimal residual disease (MRD) testing. We retrospectively analyzed our existing three-tube, seven-color B-ALL MRD panel and used our novel method to develop an optimized one-tube, eight-color panel, which was tested prospectively. The optimized one-tube, eight-color panel resulted in greater efficiency of time and resources with no loss in diagnostic power. Constructing a flow cytometry panel using a rigorous, objective, quantitative method permits optimization and avoids problems of interdependence and redundancy in a large, multiantigen panel. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  12. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy-a flat-plate collector with a single-tube serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficienty is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  13. A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

  14. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    understanding of the virus. In this study, a BRSV fluorogenic reverse transcription PCR (fRT-PCR) assay, based on TaqMan principle, was developed and evaluated on a large number of clinical samples, representing various cases of natural and experimental BRSV infections. By using a single-step closed-tube format......, the turn-around time was shortened drastically and results were obtained with minimal risk for cross-contamination. According to comparative analyses, the detection limit of the fRT-PCR was on the same level as that of a nested PCR and the sensitivity relatively higher than that of a conventional PCR......, antigen ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and virus isolation (VI). Interspersed negative control samples, samples from healthy animals and eight symptomatically or genetically related viruses were all negative, confirming a high specificity of the assay. Taken together, the data indicated that the fRT-PCR assay can...

  15. Study of heat transfer in a eccentric fuel rods in a non stop planned shutdown of a PWR type reactor; Estudo da transferencia de calor em uma vareta combustivel excentrica, num desligamento nao planejado de um reator do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Sampaio, Paulo Augusto Berquo de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: deisedy@gmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: sampaio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to conduct a case study in which the fuel pellets are displaced related to the center coating. Therefore, it will be addressed, first, the verification of computer code, comparing the results obtained with analytical solutions. This check is important so that, at a time later, you can use the program to know the fuel rod behavior and coolant channel.

  16. Crossing the ultimate ecological barrier : Evidence for an 11000 km long non-stop flight from Alaska to New Zealand and eastern Australia by Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, Robert E.; Piersma, Theunis; Hufford, Gary; Servranckx, Rene; Riegen, Adrian; Boere, G.C.; Galbraith, C.A.; Stroud, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of the Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica embark on some of the longest migrations known among birds. The baueri race breeds in western Alaska and spends the non-breeding season a hemisphere away in New Zealand and eastern Australia; the menzbieri race breeds in Siberia and migrates to

  17. 从循环经济观点看上海一次性泡沫塑料餐盒的回收利用%Non-stop tissue Goma-camps has installed the first automaticunwinder/splicer at its Vilaverd converting plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刀

    2004-01-01

    国家主席胡锦涛最近指出:“各地区在推进发展的过程中,要抓好资源的节约和综合利用,大力发展循环经济,抓好生态环境保护和建设,构建资源节约型国民经济体系和资源节省型社会”。由此联想到我们包装工业,也是这样一个可以大力发展循环经济的广阔领域。包装材料种类多、耗用量大、涉及面广,在包装材料、容器的科学合理使用中,尤其是包装的减量、

  18. In-planta detection and monitorization of endophytic colonization by a Beauveria bassiana strain using a new-developed nested and quantitative PCR-based assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, B B; López-Díaz, C; Jiménez-Fernández, D; Montes-Borrego, M; Muñoz-Ledesma, F J; Ortiz-Urquiza, A; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2013-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip obtained from larvae of the opium poppy stem gall Iraella luteipes endophytically colonizes opium poppy plants and protect it against this pest. Development of a specific, rapid and sensitive technique that allows accurately determining the process and factors leading to the establishment of this strain in opium poppy plants would be essential to achieve its efficient control in a large field scale. For that purpose in the present study, species-specific primers that can be used in conventional or quantitative PCR protocols were developed for specifically identification and detection of B. bassiana in plant tissues. The combination of the designed BB.fw/BB.rv primer set with the universal ITS1-F/ITS4 primer set in a two-step nested-PCR approach, has allowed the amplification of up to 10fg of B. bassiana. This represented an increase in sensitivity of 10000- and 1000-fold of detection than when using the BB.fw/BB.rv primers in a single or single-tube semi-nested PCR approaches, respectively. The BB.fw and BB.rv primer set were subsequently optimized to be used in real time quantitative PCR assays and allowed to accurately quantify B. bassiana DNA in different plant DNA backgrounds (leaves and seeds) without losing accuracy and efficiency. The qPCR protocol was used to monitor the endophytic colonization of opium poppy leaves byB. bassiana after inoculation with the strain EABb 04/01-Tip, detecting as low as 26fg of target DNA in leaves and a decrease in fungal biomass over time. PCR quantification data were supported in parallel with CLMS by the monitoring of spatial and temporal patterns of leaf and stem colonization using a GFP-tagged transformant of the B. bassiana EABb 04/01-Tip strain, which enabled to demonstrate that B. bassiana effectively colonizes aerial tissues of opium poppy plants mainly through intercellular spaces and even leaf trichomes. A decline in endophytic colonization was also observed by the last sampling

  19. Usefulness of in-house PCR methods for hepatitis B virus DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilho, Moyra Machado; Baptista, Marcia Leite; da Silva, Messias; de Sousa, Paulo Sérgio Fonseca; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of three in-house PCR techniques for HBV DNA detection and compare it with commercial quantitative methods to evaluate the usefulness of in-house methods for HBV diagnosis. Three panels of HBsAg reactive sera samples were evaluated: (i) 50 samples were examined using three methods for in-house qualitative PCR and the Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Assay; (ii) 87 samples were assayed using in-house semi-nested PCR and the Cobas TaqMan HBV test; (iii) 11 serial samples obtained from 2 HBV-infected individuals were assayed using the Cobas Amplicor HBV test and semi-nested PCR. In panel I, HBV DNA was detected in 44 samples using the Cobas Amplicor HBV test, 42 samples using semi-nested PCR (90% concordance with Cobas Amplicor), 22 samples using PCR for the core gene (63.6% concordance) and 29 samples using single-round PCR for the pre-S/S gene (75% concordance). In panel II, HBV DNA was quantified in 78 of the 87 HBsAg reactive samples using Cobas TaqMan but 52 samples using semi-nested PCR (67.8% concordance). HBV DNA was detected in serial samples until the 17th and 26th week after first donation using in-house semi-nested PCR and the Cobas Amplicor HBV test, respectively. In-house semi-nested PCR presented adequate concordance with commercial methods as an alternative method for HBV molecular diagnosis in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning and characterisation of a glucoamylase gene (GlaM) from dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houghton-Larsen, J.; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a novel strategy for the cloning of glucoamylase genes using conserved sequences and semi-nested PCR and its application in cloning the GlaM glucoamylase gene and cDNA from the dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides. The deduced 609-amino-acid enzyme (including signal...

  1. lmmunohistochemical and Molecular Characterization of Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma in Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the JPC, Forest Glen Annex, Silver Spring, Maryland. An identification number was assigned to each of the retrieved specimens randomly (1 through...mM KCl, 10 mM tris-HCl, and .01% gelatin . Appropriate 22 controls were used with each run. The semi-nested PCR protocol described by Wan (1990

  2. Application of a novel Paenibacillus-specific PCR-DGGE method and sequence analysis to assess the diversity of Paenibacillus spp. in the maize rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da K.R.A.; Salles, J.F.; Seldin, L.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a Paenibacillus-specific PCR system, based on the specific primer PAEN515F in combination with bacterial primer R1401, was tested and used to amplify specific fragments of the 16S rRNA gene from rhizosphere DNA. The amplicons were used in a second (semi-nested) PCR for DGGE, in which

  3. Application of a novel Paenibacillus-specific PCR-DGGE method and sequence analysis to assess the diversity of Paenibacillus spp. in the maize rhizosphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, Katia Regina Araujo; Falcao Salles, Joana; Seldin, Lucy; van Elsas, Jan

    In this study, a Paenibacillus-specific PCR system, based on the specific primer PAEN515F in combination with bacterial primer R1401, was tested and used to amplify specific fragments of the 16S rRNA gene from rhizosphere DNA. The amplicons were used in a second (semi-nested) PCR for DGGE, in which

  4. A study of the process of rewetting of hot surfaces by flooding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents the results of an analytical study based on a system approach that gave substantial agreement with experimental data for bottom flooding in a single tube. The experimental results for both confined and unconfined top flooding in a single tube, bottom flooding in annular test sections with a centre heated core, and a visual study are also presented

  5. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  6. Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods targeting the seM gene for detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Seiji; Niwa, Hidekazu; Oku, Kazuomi

    2012-03-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) constitutes a potentially valuable diagnostic tool for rapid diagnosis of contagious diseases. In this study, we developed a novel LAMP method (seM-LAMP) to detect the seM gene of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi), the causative agent of strangles in equids. The seM-LAMP successfully amplified the target sequence of the seM gene at 63°C within 60 min. The sensitivity of the seM-LAMP was slightly lower than the 2nd reaction of the seM semi-nested PCR. To evaluate the species specificity of the seM-LAMP, we tested 100 S. equi and 189 non-S. equi strains. Significant amplification of the DNA originating from S. equi was observed within 60 min incubation, but no amplification of non-S. equi DNA occurred. The results were identical to those of seM semi-nested PCR. To investigate the clinical usefulness of the methods, the seM-LAMP and the seM semi-nested PCR were used to screen 590 nasal swabs obtained during an outbreak of strangles. Both methods showed that 79 and 511 swabs were S. equi positive and negative, respectively, and the results were identical to those of the culture examination. These results indicate that the seM-LAMP is potentially useful for the reliable routine diagnosis of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi infections.

  7. Izmentshivõi metall / Eva Kübar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübar, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Muutuva ekspositsiooniga metallikunsti näitus "Non-Stop" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis Tallinnas. Osalevad kunstnikud Eestist, Leedust, Rootsist ja Ameerikast. Kommenteerib metallikunstnik Krista Lehari. 10 värvifotot

  8. 65 aasta juubel, monstrumkausid, kitsikuses metall / Anne Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Mare Vindi graafikanäitus "Arhitektuur" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis. Skulptuuride näitus "Vaikus interjööris" HOP galeriis. Metallikunstnike Liidu näitus "Non-Stop" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis

  9. RNA analysis of inner ear cells from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) archival human temporal bone section using laser microdissection--a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yurika; Kubo, Sachiho; Koda, Hiroko; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Motoji; Kitamura, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Molecular analysis using archival human inner ear specimens is challenging because of the anatomical complexity, long-term fixation, and decalcification. However, this method may provide great benefit for elucidation of otological diseases. Here, we extracted mRNA for RT-PCR from tissues dissected from archival FFPE human inner ears by laser microdissection. Three human temporal bones obtained at autopsy were fixed in formalin, decalcified by EDTA, and embedded in paraffin. The samples were isolated into spiral ligaments, outer hair cells, spiral ganglion cells, and stria vascularis by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted and heat-treated in 10 mM citrate buffer to remove the formalin-derived modification. To identify the sites where COCH and SLC26A5 mRNA were expressed, semi-nested RT-PCR was performed. We also examined how long COCH mRNA could be amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR in archival temporal bone. COCH was expressed in the spiral ligament and stria vascularis. However, SLC26A5 was expressed only in outer hair cells. The maximum base length of COCH mRNA amplified by RT-PCR was 98 bp in 1 case and 123 bp in 2 cases. We detected COCH and SLC26A5 mRNA in specific structures and cells of the inner ear from archival human temporal bone. Our innovative method using laser microdissection and semi-nested RT-PCR should advance future RNA study of human inner ear diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and ixodid ticks from the northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Gholamreza; Pourhosseini, Moslem; Yaghfouri, Saeed; Rashidi, Ahmad; Seidabadi, Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Theilerioses and babesioses are important diseases in Iranian sheep. The present study was undertaken to identify and classify/specify Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in sheep and vector ticks. Investigation was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. In total, 302 sheep originating from 60 different flocks were clinically examined and their blood collected. In addition, from the same flocks, ixodid ticks were sampled. Stained blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Theileria and Babesia organisms, and a semi-nested PCR was used for subsequent molecular specification. From the ticks, salivary glands and uterus were isolated and subsequently analyzed by semi-nested PCR. Piroplasm organisms were observed in 29% of the blood smears with low parasitemia, whereas 65% of the blood samples yielded positive PCR findings. The presence of Theileria ovis (55.6%), Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection with Theileria spp. and Babesia ovis were detected by semi-nested PCR in 0.3%, 5.6%, and 0.99%, respectively. In total, 429 ixodid ticks were collected from different areas of the province. The most prevalent ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus (n = 376; 87.6% of the total), followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (n = 30; 7.0%), Dermacentor raskemensis (n = 12; 2.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (n = 7; 1.6%), Dermacentor marginatus (n = 2; 0.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 1; 0.2%), and Haemaphysalis sp. (n = 1; 0.2%). Of the positive R. turanicus samples, 5 (5.7%) were infected with T. ovis and 2 (2.9%) with T. lestoquardi. Neither Babesia ovis nor Babesia motasi infection was detected in salivary glands or uterine samples of the ticks. The results also suggest that R. turanicus could be the vector responsible for transmission of the 2 Theileria species.

  11. [Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in pig livers destined for human consumption in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Roig-Sagués, Artur Xavier; Cedillo-Rosales, Sibilina; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Avalos-Ramírez, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Molecular detection of HEV in pig livers destined for human consumption in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 87 livers were collected from pigs slaughtered in TIF and 40 livers from butchers. A 212 pb fragment of HEV ORF2 gene was amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR. 19.54% (17) of tif's and 22.5% (9) of butcher's livers were positive for HEV. Sequencing of the amplified products showed a 94%-95% homology with the sequences reported for genotype 3. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating in swine herds in the state, constituting a probable source of contamination of pig meat products.

  12. Detection and quantification of Spirocerca lupi by HRM qPCR in fecal samples from dogs with spirocercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Segev, Gilad; Markovics, Alex; Aroch, Itamar; Baneth, Gad

    2017-09-19

    Spirocerca lupi, the dog oesophageal nematode, causes a potentially fatal disease in domestic dogs, and is currently clinically diagnosed by coproscopy and oesophagoscopy. To date, a single molecular method, a semi-nested PCR, targeting the cox1 gene, has been developed to aid in the diagnosis of spirocercosis. The present study describes three novel high-resolution melt (HRM) quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting fragments of the ITS1, 18S and cytb loci of S. lupi. The performance of these molecular assays in feces was compared to fecal flotation and to the previously described cox1 gene semi-nested PCR in 18 fecal samples from dogs with clinical oesophageal spirocercosis diagnosed by oesophagoscopy. The HRM qPCR for ITS1 and 18S were both able to detect 0.2 S. lupi eggs per gram (epg), while the HRM qPCR for the cytb and the semi-nested PCR for the cox1 detected 6 epg and 526 epg, respectively. Spirocerca lupi was detected in 61.1%, 44.4%, 27.8%, 11.1% and 5.6% of the fecal samples of dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis by using the ITS1 and 18S HRM qPCR assays, fecal flotation, cytb HRM qPCR and cox1 semi-nested PCR, respectively. All dogs positive by fecal flotation were also positive by ITS1 and 18S HRM qPCRs. Quantification of S. lupi eggs was successfully achieved in the HRM qPCRs and compared to the fecal flotation with no significant difference in the calculated concentrations between the HRM qPCRs that detected the 18S and ITS1 loci and the fecal flotation. The HRM qPCR for the 18S cross-amplified DNA from Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. In contrast, the HRM qPCR for ITS1 did not cross-amplify DNA from other canine gastrointestinal parasites. This study presents two new molecular assays with significantly increased sensitivity for confirming and quantifying fecal S. lupi eggs. Of these, the HRM qPCR for ITS1 showed the best performance in terms of the limit of detection and absence of cross-amplification with other parasites. These assays will be

  13. Dengue virus type 3 isolation from Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective field study conducted from July 2000 to June 2001, adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were caught from the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Virus isolation in Ae. albopictus clone C6/36 cell line and a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected only dengue virus type 3 in three pools of Ae. aegypti, despite the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-3 serotypes in that area. No viruses were detected in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. This virological surveillance consists in a sentinel system alerting for dengue outbreaks.

  14. Post-induction residual disease in translocation t(12;21)-positive childhood ALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Jeanette; Madsen, Hans O; Nyvold, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    of induction therapy (prednisolone, vincristine, doxorubicin, i.t. methotrexate) by a competitive, clone-specific, semi-nested PCR analysis. RESULTS: Among 96 children diagnosed with ALL, and quantified for post induction residual disease, 32 were t(12;21)-positive. The median residual disease was similar...... and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-MRD 95 study, which includes children from Iceland, Norway, and Denmark diagnose d with ALL, patients were screened for the presence of t(12; 21) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at diagnosis, and their residual disease was quantified after 4 weeks...

  15. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis from fresh tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Kamran; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash Mandya; Das, Ashim; Panda, Naresh; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate a PCR-based technique for the diagnosis of mucormycosis and the identification of fungi from fresh tissue specimens in patients with rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM). Fifty cases of ROCM were included in the study. Conventional identification was performed using microscopy and culture. Molecular diagnosis was performed by amplifying the ribosomal DNA using pan-fungal ITS primers and semi-nested Mucorales-specific primers of the 18S region. The amplified products were sequenced to identify the agents. The utility of PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA was evaluated to identify the Mucorales. The ROCM cases were diagnosed by the demonstration of aseptate ribbon-like hyphae in biopsy specimens collected from the patients. Isolation was possible in 24 (48 %) samples. The ITS2 PCR confirmed mucormycosis in 27 cases (54 %; CI 59.4-68.2). By comparison, Mucorales-specific PCR was able to amplify DNA and the sequence enabled the identification of Mucorales speciesin all the patients. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region of rDNA could only identify the agent to genus level. The molecular technique was able to identify Mucorales species in 26 (42 %) cases that were negative by culture. Mucorales-specific semi-nested PCR targeting the 18S region is a better technique than ITS2 PCR for diagnosis. PCR-RFLP of the 18S region helps in identification to genus level.

  17. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  18. 4. FIELU REGI~E~T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    times, worrying, days, during which we were ill-equipped - .... ce party, working non-stop for ... (Express of Japan, 38000 tons) with 42 of- ficers and ... area for artillery work and to draw accurate maps. ..... and dug in over a long period. Advance ...

  19. Metabolic profile of long-distance migratory flight and stopover in a shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landys, MM; Piersma, T; Guglielmo, CG; Jukema, J; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Wingfield, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Migrating birds often complete long non-stop flights during which body energy stores exclusively support energetic demands. The metabolic correlates of such long-distance travel in free-living migrants are as yet poorly studied. Bar-tailed godwits, Limosa lapponica taymyrensis, undertake a 4500 km

  20. Collection for SOS animaux

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Pays de Gex animal shelter is collecting funds. There will be things to buy. You will be able to make a donation and/or become a member of the association or simply get information. SOS Animaux stall (Hall, Build. 60, next to restaurant 1) On Wednesday 23 November 2005 (from 9h - 17h non-stop)

  1. Commissioning and maintenance experience of in-plant coal handling system of captive power plant at HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 5.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugappan, K.; Mohan Rao, A.C.; Sastry, M.S.N.

    1992-01-01

    For achieving a non-stop generation of power for a minimum period of one year can be a reality only if due importance is given to inplant coal handling system. The paper highlights the major commissioning and maintenance problem faced and corrective action taken for inplant coal handling system of the captive power plant at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. (author)

  2. a comparative study of species diversity of migrant birds between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.S RINGIM

    ABSTRACT. Among the most complex and fascinating behaviour in birds is their long, non-stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory ...

  3. Registration Service

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Following a reorganization in Building 55, please note that the Registration Service is now organised as follows :  Ground floor: access cards (76903). 1st floor : registration of external firms’ personnel (76611 / 76622); car access stickers (76633); biometric registration (79710). Opening hours: 07-30 to 16-00 non-stop. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  4. 75 FR 67899 - National Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... a full-time, non-stop job, and this month, we also honor the compassionate caregivers and medical... caregivers and victims of this devastating disease. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United... people of the United States to learn more about Alzheimer's disease and what they can do to support their...

  5. Hogere verwachtingen van technologie dan van elkaar?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Stijn Verhagen

    2012-01-01

    Boekbespeking van Sherrie Turkle, 2011, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. New York: Basic Books. Mails, sms’jes, instant messages, tweets, Skype, voicemails, Facebookberichten – via smartphones en andere apparaten zijn we vrijwel non-stop in contact met

  6. Airport costs and production technology : a translog cost function analysis with implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Based upon 50 large and medium hub airports over a 13 year period, this research estimates one and two : output translog models of airport short run operating costs. Output is passengers transported on non-stop : segments and pounds of cargo shipped....

  7. Ada Run Time Support Environments and a common APSE Interface Set. [Ada Programming Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.

  8. Microglia energy metabolism in metabolic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Martin J. T.; Mulder, Laurie; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal survival. Microglia carry out a non-stop patrol of the CNS, make contact with neurons and look for abnormalities, all of which requires a vast amount of energy. This

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-02-24

    Feb 24, 2018 ... Data are the crucial element for productivity improvement and the ... lean manufacturing are to perform production with zero defects, to reduce ... At the same time, TPM aims to increase employee morale and .... information for the next improvement and this will be a non-stop .... Number of Preventive Work.

  10. Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    During the winter of 1990, Northwoods Nursery (Elk River, ID) purchased a wood-burning system to heat the current greenhouses. This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the greenhouses. The winter of 1990 was extremely harsh, requiring non-stop operation of the heating system. In order to keep seedlings in the greenhouse from freezing,...

  11. The cover stars of Nature and Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, N.; Mooij, H.; Kouwenhoven, L.; Vermeersen, B.; Riva, R.; Dekker, C.; Godfroy, F.

    For the nano-scientists at the Faculty of Applied Sciences, having their articles published in prestigious journals like Nature and Science is no longer all that special these days. The TU Delft physicists have been publishing virtually non-stop in what are regarded as the best science journals in

  12. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    1. This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ.

  13. Thermohydraulic tests in the area of reactor safety done in CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main experimental works performed in the last five years at the Thermohydraulics Laboratory of the Nuclear Technology Development Center, in the field of reactor safety are briefly described. This paper cover the performing and analysis of pressure drop, heat transfer and mixing tests in 3X3 rod bundle and rewetting tests in single tube section. (autor) [pt

  14. Clinical Application of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Legionella Species, Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez, Alvaro J.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila, and Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in primary specimens. Evaluation of 21 clinical specimens and 115 clinical isolates demonstrated this assay to be a rapid, high-throughput diagnostic test with 100% specificity that may aid during legionellosis outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations.

  15. New centrifugation blood culture device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, G L; Smith, K

    1978-01-01

    A single-tube blood culture device designed for centrifugation in a tabletop centrifuge is described. Reconstruction experiments using 21 different organisms and human donor blood indicate that excellent recovery can be obtained by centrifugation for 30 min at 3,000 X g. PMID:342539

  16. Autoantibodies Profile in the Sera of Patients with Sjogren]s Syndrome: The ANA Evaluation—A Homogeneous, Multiplexed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Gilburd

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flow-based, multiplex bead arrays (MBA have been developed for a variety of applications including the detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA. It offers a rapid and sensitive method to assess multiple analyses in a single tube/well.

  17. UC-B reflood experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.P.; Abdollahian, D.; Peake, W.T.; Elias, E.; Yadigaroglu, G.; Greif, R.

    1977-04-01

    The EPRI sponsored single tube reflooding heat transfer facility is described. The facility is located at the University of California, Berkeley. The physical systems which constitute the facility as well as the objectives and background of the program are described. The steam-water separator is described in detail Finally, the operating procedure and the test apparatus performance are discussed

  18. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Six Different Staphylococcus spp. and Simultaneous Detection of Methicillin and Mupirocin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Peña, E.; Martín-Nuñez, E.; Pulido-Reyes, G.; Martín-Padrón, J.; Caro-Carrillo, E.; Donate-Correa, J.; Lorenzo-Castrillejo, I.; Alcoba-Flórez, J.; Machín, F.; Méndez-Alvarez, S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new, efficient, sensitive, and fast single-tube multiple-PCR protocol for the identification of the most clinically significant Staphylococcus spp. and the simultaneous detection of the methicillin and mupirocin resistance loci. The protocol identifies at the species level isolates belonging to S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. lugdunensis, and S. saprophyticus.

  19. Development of a multiplex PCR assay detecting 52 autosomal SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Phillips, C.; Børsting, Claus

    2006-01-01

    for amplifying 52 genomic DNA fragments, each containing one SNP, in a single tube, and accurately genotyping the PCR product mixture using two single base extension reactions. This multiplex approach reduces the cost of SNP genotyping and requires as little as 0.5 ng of genomic DNA to detect 52 SNPs. We used...

  20. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... days in most of the cultured genotypes. Formed embryos were cultured in a single tube before in vivo acclimatization. After sanitary assays, regenerated plants were shown to be free from the agents detected in the mother trees. Key words: Algeria, citrus germplasm, plant regeneration, sanitation, somatic embryogenesis.

  1. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  2. Evaluation by latent class analysis of a magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by real-time qPCR as a new diagnostic method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Miriam; van Roon, Annika; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Opsteegh, Marieke; Massolo, Alessandro; Deksne, Gunita; Teunis, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2016-10-30

    A new method, based on a magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR, was developed for the detection of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive hosts. Latent class analysis was used to compare this new method with the currently used phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. In total, 60 red foxes and coyotes from three different locations were tested with both molecular methods and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) or intestinal scraping technique (IST). Though based on a limited number of samples, it could be established that the magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR showed similar sensitivity and specificity as the currently used phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. All methods have a high specificity as shown by Bayesian latent class analysis. Both molecular assays have higher sensitivities than the combined SCT and IST, though the uncertainties in sensitivity estimates were wide for all assays tested. The magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR has the advantage of not requiring hazardous chemicals like the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. This supports the replacement of the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR by the magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR for molecular detection of E. multilocularis in definitive hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An improved high throughput sequencing method for studying oomycete communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    the usefulness of the method not only in soil DNA but also in a plant DNA background. In conclusion, we demonstrate a successful approach for pyrosequencing of oomycete communities using ITS1 as the barcode sequence with well-known primers for oomycete DNA amplification....... communities. Thewell-known primer sets ITS4, ITS6 and ITS7were used in the study in a semi-nested PCR approach to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of ribosomal DNA in a next generation sequencing protocol. These primers have been used in similar studies before, butwith limited success.......Wewere able to increase the proportion of retrieved oomycete sequences dramaticallymainly by increasing the annealing temperature during PCR. The optimized protocol was validated using three mock communities and the method was further evaluated using total DNA from 26 soil samples collected from different...

  4. PREVALENCE OF ''TTV'' IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS ''B'' AND ''C''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOSSEIR, N.M.; MANSOUR, H.H.; FAHMY, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is an enveloped single strand virus discovered in serum of patients with post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in Japan and designated as TT virus (TTV). To investigate the frequency of TTV infection in patients with viral hepatitis B or C, 25 Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) aged 8-40 years and 25 patients with B virus (HBV) aged 8-57 years were tested. Detection of TTV-DNA was performed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primers. Serum levels of transaminases were tested. The prevalence of TTV in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was frequent and the co-infection of TTV with HCV or HBV was accompanied by a high level of transaminases as compared to that of HBV or HCV alone. The present study confirms and extends that infection alone doesn't cause significant liver damage

  5. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  6. A PCR-DGGE method for detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Arcobacter and related Epsilobacteria and its application to saliva samples from humans and domestic pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Harrington, C. S.; Kortegaard, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    Results: A semi-nested PCR was developed to allow sensitive detection of all Epsilobacteria, with species separation undertaken by DGGE. A database was constructed in BioNumerics using 145 strains covering 51 Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter taxa; Nineteen distinct DGGE profile-groups were......Aims: To develop a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method for the detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter and Arcobacter species (Epsilobacteria) in clinical samples and evaluate its efficacy on saliva samples from humans and domestic pets. Methods ans...... distinguished. This approach detected Epsilobacteria in all saliva samples collected from humans, cats and dogs, and identified Campylobacter concisus and/or Campylobacter gracilis in the human samples. The pet animal samples were taken from individuals with oral/dental diseases; PCR-DGGE identified up to four...

  7. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  8. First record of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Estrella; González, Luis Miguel; Chaparro, Alberto; Benzal, Jesús; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Masero, José A; Colominas-Ciuró, Roger; Vidal, Virginia; Barbosa, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    This is the first reported case of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins, specifically a population of Chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) in the Vapour Col penguin rookery in Deception Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. We collected peripheral blood from 50 adult and 30 chick Chinstrap penguins. Examination of the samples by microscopy showed intraerythrocytic forms morphologically similar to other avian Babesia species in 12 Chinstrap penguin adults and seven chicks. The estimated parasitaemias ranged from 0.25×10(-2)% to 0.75×10(-2)%. Despite the low number of parasites found in blood smears, semi-nested PCR assays yielded a 274 bp fragment in 12 of the 19 positive blood samples found by microscopy. Sequencing revealed that the fragment was 97% similar to Babesia sp. 18S rRNA from Australian Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor) confirming presence of the parasite. Parasite prevalence estimated by microscopy in adults and chicks was higher (24% vs. 23.3%, respectively) than found by semi-nested PCR (16% vs. 13.3% respectively). Although sampled penguins were apparently healthy, the effect of Babesia infection in these penguins is unknown. The identification of Babesia sp. in Antarctic penguins is an important finding. Ixodes uriae, as the only tick species present in the Antarctic Peninsula, is the key to understanding the natural history of this parasite. Future work should address the transmission dynamics and pathogenicity of Babesia sp. in Chinstrap penguin as well as in other penguin species, such as Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), present within the tick distribution range in the Antarctic Peninsula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Hardronic Festival 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On 8 August, the Hardronic Festival took place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 in Prévessin. Ten bands from the CERN MusiClub played an assortment of excellent music in a non-stop show that lasted until the early hours. Hundreds of people gathered by the stage, favouring the Hardronic rhythms over the bangs and crackles of the Fête de Genève fireworks.

  10. Trans-Pacific voyage in a solar-powered boat built of recycled aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-03-01

    The first solo crossing of the Pacific was made in 1962 by Mr Kenichi Horie in a tiny yacht called ``Mermaid``. In 1996, Mr. Horie made the first solo, non-stop, trans-Pacific voyage in a solar-powered boat made of recycled aluminium. The boat, called ``Malt`s Mermaid``, sailed 16,000 km from Ecuador to Tokyo in 138 days. The themes of the project were preserving the environment and using resources efficiently. (Author)

  11. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  12. Infusion of water into a coal mass, carried out at the mines of Houilleres du Bassin du Nord et du Pas-de-Calais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on research work concerning water infusion in order to reduce dust danger at working face. It also describes development of the process since 1950; improvements to various low flow methods; and factors governing the choice of a process. Infusion can be carried out from working face, or from levels. The paper also describes hole drilling (equipment and methods used); fitting out holes (equipment, cementing); inspection; and non-stop infusion.

  13. Transoceanic migration by a 12 g songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, William V; Woodworth, Bradley K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Marra, Peter P; Taylor, Philip D; McFarland, Kent P; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Many fundamental aspects of migration remain a mystery, largely due to our inability to follow small animals over vast spatial areas. For more than 50 years, it has been hypothesized that, during autumn migration, blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata) depart northeastern North America and undertake a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean to either the Greater Antilles or the northeastern coast of South America. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators, we provide the first irrefutable evidence that the blackpoll warbler, a 12 g boreal forest songbird, completes an autumn transoceanic migration ranging from 2270 to 2770 km (mean ± s.d.: 2540 ± 257) and requiring up to 3 days (62 h ± 10) of non-stop flight. This is one of the longest non-stop overwater flights recorded for a songbird and confirms what has long been believed to be one of the most extraordinary migratory feats on the planet. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, David C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  15. Experimental investigations of heat exchange and hydrodynamics on models of a VG-400 steam generator tube bundle made up of small diameter helicoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, V.F; Ivaskov, N.A.; Obukhov, P.I.; Pospelov, V.N.; Sergeev, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Features of HTGR steam generators having heat exchange surface made up of small diameter helicoils are discussed in the paper. A general approach to optimization of thermohydraulic characteristics BΓW-400 steam generator design backed by calculation and experiment are given. Main results of steam generator assembly's model aerodynamic test are presented. Data of thermohydraulic tests of a single tube model in a helium heated test rig are discussed. (author)

  16. Means for use in radioimmunodetection of an antigen-antibody reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A unitized, solid phase kit for radioimmunoassay is described. All of the necessary assay reagents are incorporated in a single tube. Requiring only the addition of the patient's sample, all phases of the assay procedure are performed in this tube. Antibodies are bound to the tube surface, while labelled antigens are also present but unbound. Storage in the absence of air and water results in the stabilization of the reagents such that the system can be stored for long periods

  17. Unitized solid phase immunoassay kit and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A unitized solid phase kit for radioimmunoassay is disclosed. All of the necessary assay reagents are incorporated into a single tube wherein all phases of the assay procedure are performed, requiring only the addition of the patient's sample. Antibody is bound to the tube surface while labelled antigen is also present but unbound. Storage in the absence of air and water results in the stabilization of the reagents such that the system can be stored for long periods

  18. Pre-test evaluation of LLTR Series II Test A-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittle, D.

    1980-11-01

    Purpose of this report is to present pre-test predictions of pressure histories for the A6 test to be conducted in the Large Leak Test Facility (LLTF) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. A6 is part of a test program being conducted to evaluate the effects of leaks produced by a double-ended guillotine rupture of a single tube. A6 will provide data on the CRBR prototypical double rupture disc performance

  19. Low grade heat utilisation for seawater desalination by the HTTF process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, M. [Desalination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: mchansh@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Majumdar, M.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K. [Desalination Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    To improve heat transfer efficiency, Horizontal Tube Thin Film (HTTF) evaporators are being used in multieffect desalination plants. These plants require less pumping energy than thermal-based desalination plants. To generate the design data, experimental studies were carried out in a single-tube HTTF experimental setup, and heat transfer correlations were developed at BARC. The experimental findings and results are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction on FTA cards vs. flow cytometry for B-lymphocyte clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dictor, Michael; Skogvall, Ingela; Warenholt, Janina; Rambech, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Two-colour flow cytometry was compared with multiplex PCR with capillary electrophoresis for clonality determination in specific categories of B-cell lymphoma. FTA cards were evaluated for preserving DNA from node imprints and expediting molecular analysis. A single-tube multiplex PCR targeted IGH and lymphoma-specific translocations in DNA extracted from 180 frozen lymphoid tissues and DNA bound to FTA cards from 192 fresh tissues and 137 aspirates. PCR results were compared with flow cytometry in the extracted and aspirated samples. Overall, single-tube multiplex PCR sensitivity was equivalent in the sample groups (intergroup range 79%-91%). False negatives were associated with tumour origin in the follicle centre. Multiplex PCR and flow cytometry were equally sensitive and together detected 98% of B-cell lymphomas. Additional two-tube targeting of IGK suggested an overall molecular sensitivity >90%. False positive (pseudoclonal) single-tube multiplex PCR was associated with necrosis and sparse lymphocytes. Multiplex PCR using template DNA bound to an FTA card effectively detects B-lymphocyte clonality, obviates DNA extraction and refrigeration, and can be used without diminished sensitivity in fine needle aspirates or node imprints as a replacement for or complement to flow cytometry at any point in the diagnostic work-up.

  1. On the separation and association of vapour in large power stations; Ueber die Trennung und Vereinigung von Dampf in Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschke, Alan

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives for the improvement of utility boilers are to increase their overall efficiency. Therefore, steam parameters need to be increased leading to temperatures which may exceed the limiting temperatures of the tube materials. Considering these aspects, the single tube temperatures of a powerplant have to be determined to prevent material failure. In order to account for the mutual impact of combustion and water-steam-cycle, a coupled simulation is performed to calculate the single tube temperatures. Apart from the interaction of combustion and water-steam-cycle, the design of the heat exchanger headers is relevant. On the basis of a detailed investigation of the pressure distribution in steam distributors and headers, a new quality regarding the prediction and calculation of single tube temperatures will be obtained. By means of a similarity analysis, the governing geometry relations associated with the pressure change in steam distributors and headers are identified. The parametrisation of this approach is done by comparing the measured pressure values of an air-flow divider-collector-combination. The portability of the air-flow results to water, respectively steam is approved. Based on the experimental data, computational fluid dynamic simulations of all governing geometrical relations are performed. The validity of the similarity based approach is shown for nearly all geometrical relations corresponding to real utility boiler application. Deviations between experiment and calculations based on the similarity approach are only evident for very short distances of separating tubes originating from secondary vortices. However, the impact of these vortices to the global mass distribution is minimal. The comparison between measured and calculated single tube temperatures from a lignite-fired utility boiler shows the good match between the simulated and measured temperatures. The single tube temperatures of a heat exchanger across the boiler width are

  2. First evidence of dengue infection in domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Thongyuan

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is considered an important public health problem in many countries worldwide. However, only a few studies have been conducted on primates and domestic animals that could potentially be a reservoir of dengue viruses. Since domestic dogs share both habitats and vectors with humans, this study aimed to investigate whether domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in dengue endemic areas in Thailand could be naturally infected with dengue viruses.Serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in three different ecological settings of Thailand: urban dengue endemic areas of Nakhon Sawan Province; rubber plantation areas of Rayong Province; and Koh Chang, an island tourist spot of Trat Province. These samples were screened for dengue viral genome by using semi-nested RT-PCR. Positive samples were then inoculated in mosquito and dog cell lines for virus isolation. Supernatant collected from cell culture was tested for the presence of dengue viral genome by semi-nested RT-PCR, then double-strand DNA products were double-pass custom-sequenced. Partial nucleotide sequences were aligned with the sequences already recorded in GenBank, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the urban setting, 632 domestic dog serum samples were screened for dengue virus genome by RT-PCR, and six samples (0.95% tested positive for dengue virus. Four out of six dengue viruses from positive samples were successfully isolated. Dengue virus serotype 2 and serotype 3 were found to have circulated in domestic dog populations. One of 153 samples (0.65% collected from the rubber plantation area showed a PCR-positive result, and dengue serotype 3 was successfully isolated. Partial gene phylogeny revealed that the isolated dengue viruses were closely related to those strains circulating in human populations. None of the 71 samples collected from the island tourist spot showed a positive result

  3. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  4. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  5. A new technology perspective and engineering tools approach for large, complex and distributed mission and safety critical systems components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Miguel A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Rapidly emerging technology and methodologies have out-paced the systems development processes' ability to use them effectively, if at all. At the same time, the tools used to build systems are becoming obsolescent themselves as a consequence of the same technology lag that plagues systems development. The net result is that systems development activities have not been able to take advantage of available technology and have become equally dependent on aging and ineffective computer-aided engineering tools. New methods and tools approaches are essential if the demands of non-stop and Mission and Safety Critical (MASC) components are to be met.

  6. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANCED AIR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Udzhukhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach allowing one to predict the development of air-route network is proposed. It proceeds from the principle of increasing the accessibility of points of destination, that is to make available for passengers non-stop flights or flights with one transit landing in case of the largest number of routes. With comparative analysis of possible variants of extending the structure of air-route network, it is reasonable to take into account a generalized time parameter and a number of alternative routes for passenger delivery from departure point to point of destination.

  7. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  8. Correlating Multimodal Physical Sensor Information with Biological Analysis in Ultra Endurance Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles D.Warrington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The sporting domain has traditionally been used as a testing ground for new technologies which subsequently make their way into the public domain. This includes sensors. In this article a range of physical and biological sensors deployed in a 64 hour ultra-endurance non-stop cycling race are described. A novel algorithm to estimate the energy expenditure while cycling and resting during the event are outlined. Initial analysis in this noisy domain of “sensors in the field” are very encouraging and represent a first with respect to cycling.

  9. Hardronic Festival 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On 8 August, the Hardronic Festival took place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 in Prévessin. Ten bands from the CERN MusiClub played an assortment of excellent music in a non-stop show that lasted until the early hours. Hundreds of people gathered by the stage, favouring the Hardronic rhythms over the bangs and crackles of the Fête de Genève fireworks.   - See full-size images - Photos: Viola Krebs (ICVs.org)

  10. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  11. A universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1988-01-01

    Genitron Instruments, Frankfurt/Main, committed themselves to revise the 'conventional' concept of counting tube metrology. The goal was to develop a modular system that would allow large-area measuring tasks. The contribution in hand explains this development, which consists of a highly integrated measuring head that can be combined with various detector types, and complemented by various system components, to form a universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation. This modular design concept is capable of fulfilling a multitude of tasks, ranging from single, specific applications to non-stop monitoring tasks within a large-area measuring network. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  13. Mediální výchova v mateřské škole

    OpenAIRE

    PAPEŽOVÁ, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Today's modern society use mass media on a daily basis as a modern way of communication. Lot of us can't imagine everyday life without them. They are surrendering us with non-stop flow of various informations. Everyday we spent a lot of time with media and sometimes we even don't realize, what risks are menacing us and others. Media are capable of manipulating with people without even noticing it by common population. They are influencing their opinions, behavior and thinking. Kids and teen-a...

  14. [Neuro-cardiology or cardio-neurology - a new specialization of the future?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widimský, Petr; Štětkářová, Ivana

    2015-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a catastrophic cardiovascular disease with frequent cardiac causes and cerebral consequences, thus the close cooperation between neurologists and cardiologists is necessary for the optimal patient management. Furthermore, recent randomized trials demonstrated, that catheter-based thrombectomy (CBT) is the most effective treatment for properly selected patients. Interventional cardiology with its widespread non-stop services for acute myocardial infarction can fill the existing gaps in coverage of population needs with neurointerventional services. Thus, a new future medical subspecialization may emerge: neurocardiology or cardioneurology.

  15. PERCEPÇÃO DA EQUIPE DE SAÚDE RESPONSÁVEL PELA ASSISTÊNCIA AOS PORTADORES DE HANSENÍASE ACERCA DO ABANDONO DO TRATAMENTO PELOS PACIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Nascimento Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the perception of the Multidisciplinary Team of a health unit in Anápolis about leprosy treatment abandonment. Methods: A descriptive study of qualitative approach. Results: This study showed that most professionals find satisfaction with the work done by the team composed and believes that abandoning the recommended treatment for patients has no significant influence on their professional performance. Conclusion: This perception of the multidisciplinary team is important to help identify high-risk groups who may be accompanied by more rigid and carefully during multi drug therapy and to establish control strategies for non-Stop Treatment Interruption.

  16. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  17. New opening hours of the gates

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  18. New gate opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    Please note the new opening hours of the gates as well as the intersites tunnel from the 19 May 2009: GATE A 7h - 19h GATE B 24h/24 GATE C 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h GATE D 8h - 12h\t13h - 16h GATE E 7h - 9h\t17h - 19h Prévessin 24h/24 The intersites tunnel will be opened from 7h30 to 18h non stop. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  19. Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria L C R; Galiza, Glauco J N; Dantas, Antônio F M; Oliveira, Rafael N; Iamamoto, Keila; Achkar, Samira M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster. © 2011 The Author(s)

  20. Development of a molecular approach to describe the composition of Trichoderma communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meincke, Remo; Weinert, Nicole; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Smalla, Kornelia; Berg, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Trichoderma and its teleomorphic stage Hypocrea play a key role for ecosystem functioning in terrestrial habitats. However, little is known about the ecology of the fungus. In this study we developed a novel Trichoderma-specific primer pair for diversity analysis. Based on a broad range master alignment, specific Trichoderma primers (ITSTrF/ITSTrR) were designed that comprise an approximate 650bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer region from all taxonomic clades of the genus Trichoderma. This amplicon is suitable for identification with TrichoKey and TrichoBLAST. Moreover, this primer system was successfully applied to study the Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of different potato genotypes grown at two field sites in Germany. Cloning and sequencing confirmed the specificity of the primer and revealed a site-dependent Trichoderma composition. Based on the new primer system a semi-nested approach was used to generate amplicons suitable for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and applied to analyse Trichoderma communities in the rhizosphere of potatoes. High field heterogeneity of Trichoderma communities was revealed by both DGGE. Furthermore, qPCR showed significantly different Trichoderma copy numbers between the sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  2. Molecular detection of canine distemper virus (CDV, canine adenovirus A type 1 and 2 (CAdV-1 and CAdV-2, and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in the urine of naturally infected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.

  3. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  4. Isolation and G-typing of Rotaviruses from diarrheal Calves in Tehran and Alborz provinces, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses group A are the major cause of diarrhea in calves under one month and every year causes enormous economic losses. Serological and molecular techniques can be used for rapid detection of rotaviruses but virus isolation requires specific methods of cell culture and suitable cell lines. In this study, 41 samples were collected from diarrheal calves up to the age of one month, from industrial and semi-industrial farms in Tehran and Alborz provinces. The samples were positive by RT-PCR on VP6 gene. After preparation and inoculation onto MA104 cells in roller tube culture and constant cell culture system, the cytopathic effect (CPE was observed. Eligible cultured with CPE, were confirmed by two-step RT-PCR using VP6 gene primers. Semi-nested PCR using VP7 gene primers was also performed for G-genotyping in which 11 and 2 samples were detected as G6 and G10, respectively. This is the first report on isolation and identification of rotaviruses, one of the causative agents of viral diarrhea in Iran. The results of this research suggest that, these two types, can be used as the dominant strains for manufacturing a suitable vaccine against the rotaviruses in Iran.

  5. [Genetic profiling of Giardia intestinalis by polimerase chain in human and dogs samples of Colombian Caribean Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Buelvas-Montes, Yaleyvis; Villalba-Vizcaíno, Vivian; Salomón-Arzuza, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis (G. Intestinalis) is a protozoan that causes diarrheal disease and malabsorption syndrome in humans and other mammals. It presents a high genetic diversity evidenced in the recognition of 7 genotypes (A-G). Genotypes A and B are commonly associated to humans and domestic animals such as dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary genetic characterization of G. intestinalis in humans and dogs from two cities on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Sampling areas were selected according to the highest numbers of acute diarrheal disease. Stool samples were collected from children under 7 years old, with positive medical tests for G. intestinalis. Cysts were purified by sucrose gradient and DNA samples were isolated by extraction with organic solvents. Molecular characterization was performed by amplifying the gene triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) by using a semi-nested PCR. A total of 202 samples of DNA were obtained; of these, 111 were positive in coproparasitological analysis (13 dogs and 98 children). Genotype distribution in positive samples was: 5.1% belonged to genotype A and 92.3% to genotype B. Genotype B was present in humans and animals. The most common genotype in both human and animal samples was genotype B, suggesting a zoonotic transmission cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Excretion and detection of SARS coronavirus and its nucleic acid from digestive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wei; Li, Jin-Song; Guo, Ting-Kai; Zhen, Bei; Kong, Qing-Xin; Yi, Bin; Li, Zhong; Song, Nong; Jin, Min; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Wen-Jun; Zhu, Xiu-Mei; Gu, Chang-Qing; Yin, Jing; Wei, Wei; Yao, Wei; Liu, Chao; Li, Jian-Feng; Ou, Guo-Rong; Wang, Min-Nian; Fang, Tong-Yu; Wang, Gui-Jie; Qiu, Yao-Hui; Wu, Huai-Huan; Chao, Fu-Huan; Li, Jun-Wen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) could be excreted from digestive system. METHODS: Cell culture and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect SARS-CoV and its RNA from 21 stool and urine samples, and a kind of electropositive filter media particles was used to concentrate the virus in 10 sewage samples from two hospitals receiving SARS patients in Beijing in China. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that there was no live SARS-CoV in all samples collected, but the RNA of SARS-CoV could be detected in seven stool samples from SARS patients with any one of the symptoms of fever, malaise, cough, or dyspnea, in 10 sewage samples before disinfection and 3 samples after disinfection from the two hospitals. The RNA could not be detected in urine and stool samples from patients recovered from SARS. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid of SARS-CoV can be excreted through the stool of patients into sewage system, and the possibility of SARS-CoV transmitting through digestive system cannot be excluded. PMID:16038039

  7. Glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype as risk factor for SOS in oxaliplatin-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreuls, C P H; Olde Damink, S W M; Koek, G H; Winstanley, A; Wisse, E; Cloots, R H E; van den Broek, M A J; Dejong, C H C; Bosman, F T; Driessen, A

    2013-02-19

    Oxaliplatin is used as a neo-adjuvant therapy in hepatic colorectal carcinoma metastasis. This treatment has significant side effects, as oxaliplatin is toxic to the sinusoidal endothelial cells and can induce sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), which is related to decreased overall survival. Glutathione has an important role in the defence system, catalysed by glutathione S-transferase (GST), including two non-enzyme producing polymorphisms (GSTM1-null and GSTT1-null). We hypothesise that patients with a non-enzyme producing polymorphism have a higher risk of developing toxic injury owing to oxaliplatin. In the nontumour-bearing liver, the presence of SOS was studied histopathologically. The genotype was determined by a semi-nested PCR. Thirty-two of the 55 (58%) patients showed SOS lesions, consisting of 27% mild, 22% moderate and 9% severe lesions. The GSTM1-null genotype was present in 25 of the 55 (46%). Multivariate analysis showed that the GSTM1-null genotype significantly correlated with the presence of (moderate-severe) SOS (P=0.026). The GSTM1-null genotype is an independent risk factor for SOS. This finding allows us, in association with other risk factors, to conceive a potential risk profile predicting whether the patient is at risk of developing SOS, before starting oxaliplatin, and subsequently might result in adjustment of treatment.

  8. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in vegetables cultivated with organic and chemical fertilizer from street markets and community vegetable gardens in a region of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Katyelle; Marchioro, Ariella A; Colli, Cristiane M; Tiyo, Bruna T; Evangelista, Fernanda F; Bezagio, Renata C; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and its genotypes in vegetables that are consumed raw, we analyzed samples cultivated with organic or chemical fertilizer, sold in street markets and from community vegetable gardens in an urban area located in Southern Brazil. We analyzed 130 samples of vegetables such as crisp lettuce, regular lettuce, kale, chicory and rocket, from street markets, and 130 from community gardens. From each sample, 50 g were washed in Tween 80 solution (1%) and the solution obtained was filtered through a cellulose acetate membrane. The retained material was used for DNA extraction with the commercial kit Purelink®. GDH gene was amplified by semi-nested PCR using the GDHeF, GDHiR and GDHiF primers. Positive samples were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP technique with the restriction enzyme NlaIV. We obtained 7.3% (19/260) positive samples for G. duodenalis, both from street markets (10/130) and from community gardens (9/130), including organic and non-organic products. The assemblage AI was predominant, but assemblages B and E were also found. The molecular technique revealed genotypes with zoonotic potential, evidencing the importance of investigating commercialized vegetables that are consumed raw and establishing a more rigid quality control.

  9. PREVALENCE OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH HAND, FOOT, AND MOUTH DISEASE AND HERPANGINA IN THAILAND, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Korkong, Sumeth; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Human enterovirus (EV) infection causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA). We studied the prevalence of enterovirus (EV) among patients with HFMD and HA in Thailand during 2013. We conducted a study in archived specimens of patients sent for screening for enterovirus. A total of 203 clinical specimens from 184 individuals with painful blister in the oropharynx and on the palms, soles, knees, elbows or buttock were examined by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 5'UTR and VP1 genes of EV. Eighty-six samples were positive: EV71 was detected in 14 (30%), CV-A8 in 12 (26%) and CV-A16 in 10 (21%). Classification of EV species detected revealed that 46 specimens were EV-A, 14 specimens were EV-B, 1 specimen was EV-D, and 16 specimens were positive for unclassified enterovirus. The majority of individuals with EV infection were aged 2-6 years. Multiple EV-A serotypes were detected among HFMD and HA patients in our study.

  10. Detection of Dengue Virus in Bat Flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of Common Vampire Bats, Desmodus rotundus, in Progreso, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.

  11. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  12. Diversity of picornaviruses in rural Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, W. Allan; Khetsuriani, Nino; Peñaranda, Silvia; Maher, Kaija; Venczel, Linda; Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Freire, Maria Cecelia; Cisterna, Daniel; Lema, Cristina L.; Rosales, Patricia; Rodriguez, Jacqueline R.; Rodriguez, Wilma; Halkyer, Percy; Ronveaux, Olivier; Pallansch, Mark A.; Oberste, M. Steven

    2015-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae is a large and diverse group of viruses that infect humans and animals. Picornaviruses are among the most common infections of humans and cause a wide spectrum of acute human disease. This study began as an investigation of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in a small area of eastern Bolivia, where surveillance had identified a persistently high AFP rate in children. Stools were collected and diagnostic studies ruled out poliovirus. We tested stool specimens from 51 AFP cases and 34 healthy household or community contacts collected during 2002–2003 using real-time and semi-nested RT-PCR assays for enterovirus, parechovirus, cardiovirus, kobuvirus, salivirus, and cosavirus. Anecdotal reports suggested a temporal association with neurologic disease in domestic pigs, so six porcine stools were also collected and tested with the same set of assays, with the addition of an assay for porcine teschovirus. A total of 126 picornaviruses were detected in 73 of 85 human individuals, consisting of 53 different picornavirus types encompassing five genera (all except Kobuvirus). All six porcine stools contained porcine and/or human picornaviruses. No single virus, or combination of viruses, specifically correlated with AFP; however, the study revealed a surprising complexity of enteric picornaviruses in a single community. PMID:23804569

  13. Penentuan Serotipe Virus Dengue dan Gambaran Manifestasi Klinis serta Hematologi Rutin pada Infeksi Virus Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basti Andriyoko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All DENV serotypes can cause a spectrum of disease from dengue fever (DF to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. It is difficult to differentiate clinical characteristicand hematologic result for each serotype. Aim of this study were to determine dengue serotype and describe clinical manifestation of DF, DHF, DSS and routine hematologic results, i.e.haemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte, and thrombocyte in each serotype. This study was conducted at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung from March 2010 until July 2011. Subjects were dengue patients aged >14 years with a history of fever <5 days. Blood samples were taken for serotype determination by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR followed by semi-nested PCR. Clinical manifestation data and haematologic result were obtained from medical records. This was a descriptive study. Seventy five patients were included in this study. Dengue serotype can be detected in 27 (36% samples with DENV-3 (13 were dominating followed by DENV-2 (8, DENV-4 (4, and DENV-1 (2. DHF was mainly found in DENV-3. DENV-2 gavethe highest decrease in hemoglobin, highest percentage increase in haematocrit, lowest leukocyte, and lowest thrombocyte. In conclusion, all 4 serotypes are found in RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung with DENV-3 domination. DHF is mainly caused by DENV-3.

  14. Evidence for presumable feline origin of sporadic G6P[9] rotaviruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Corinna; Liebert, Uwe G

    2018-05-31

    Species A rotaviruses are highly diverse and impose a substantial burden to human and animal health. Interspecies transmission between livestock, domestic animals and humans is commonly observed, but spread of animal-like rotaviruses within the human population is limited. During the continued monitoring of rotavirus strains in Germany, an unusual G6P[9] rotavirus strain was detected in feces of a child. The complete rotavirus coding sequences revealed a unique G6-P[9]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A3-N2-T3-E2-H3 genotype constellation. The virus was phylogenetically related to feline G3P[9] strains and other human G6P[9] rotaviruses of presumable zoonotic origin. Analysis of primer binding sites of G6 specific genotyping revealed further evidence of a G6P[9] feline reservoir. Moreover, substantial deficits of conventional semi-nested PCR genotyping approaches in detecting contemporary G6P[9] were revealed. Rotavirus strain GER29-14 most likely resulted from a direct or recent interspecies transmission from a cat to human. Further studies could assess nucleic acid sequences and genotype constellations of feline rotavirus to confirm the likely feline origin of sporadic human G6P[9] strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PCR نیمه‌آشیانه‌ای برای تشخیص آلودگی نئوسپورا کنینوم در گاوها

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    غلامرضا حبیبی

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan, is regarded as a major cause of abortion and stillbirth in cattle in countries world-wide. The ability to detection N.caninum in tissue samples can be a useful detection diagnostic tool for use in the study of the pathogenicity, immunoprophylaxis, and treatment of Neospora infection. However, molecular biology is one of the most sensitive tools for detecting protozoa in infected tissue samples. Specific semi-nested PCR was designed based on specific ITS1 and 5.8S rRNA genomic DNA for detection of parasite in infected tissues. The designed PCR detected four of six aborted fetal brain samples infected by N.caninum. Our results revealed that PCR with selected primers gave a 357bp product in examined samples and confirmed the presence of N.caninum DNA in infected fetal brains. This is the first report that demonstrated the reliability of PCR-based assay to identify N.caninum infection in Iran.

  16. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

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    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  17. PCR-based clonality analysis of B-cell lymphomas in paraffin-embedded tissues: diagnostic value of immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chain gene rearrangement investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Khaled; Trimeche, Mounir; Ziadi, Sonia; Sriha, Badreddine; Mokni, Moncef; Korbi, Sadok

    2006-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis, employed for detecting immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements, has become a diagnostic tool widely used in the investigation of B-cell lymphomas, but the overall sensitivity of these methods does not exceed 80%, notably in germinal center (GC) and post-GC B-cell origin lymphomas. Many PCR strategies devised for detecting immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) gene rearrangements have been developed to enhance the clonality detection rates. However, the feasibility of these methods in routine clinical diagnosis using paraffin-embedded tissues has not yet been investigated sufficiently. We studied a large series of 108 cases of B-cell lymphomas, as well as 20 reactive lymphoid tissues using degenerate primers to amplify immunoglobulin kappa (Igkappa) and lambda (Iglambda) light chain genes. B-cell clonality was further investigated using semi-nested PCR for IgH gene rearrangements. B-cell clonality was detected in 74%, 56.5%, and 43.5% of cases using IgH, Igkappa, and Iglambda PCR, respectively. By combining these methods, the clonality detection rate increased to 93.5%. Only polyclonal patterns were noted in reactive lymphoid samples. We concluded that in addition to the established methods for IgH analysis, a PCR-based approach for IgL gene rearrangements analysis improves the clonality detection rate in over 90% of B-cell lymphoma cases using routine histological specimens with poor preservation of the genomic DNA.

  18. An innovative and integrated approach based on DNA walking to identify unauthorised GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2014-03-15

    In the coming years, the frequency of unauthorised genetically modified organisms (GMOs) being present in the European food and feed chain will increase significantly. Therefore, we have developed a strategy to identify unauthorised GMOs containing a pCAMBIA family vector, frequently present in transgenic plants. This integrated approach is performed in two successive steps on Bt rice grains. First, the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs is assessed by the qPCR SYBR®Green technology targeting the terminator 35S pCAMBIA element. Second, its presence is confirmed via the characterisation of the junction between the transgenic cassette and the rice genome. To this end, a DNA walking strategy is applied using a first reverse primer followed by two semi-nested PCR rounds using primers that are each time nested to the previous reverse primer. This approach allows to rapidly identify the transgene flanking region and can easily be implemented by the enforcement laboratories. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

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    Galina E Zemtsova

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87. The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  20. Relative sensitivity of conventional and real-time PCR assays for detection of SFG Rickettsia in blood and tissue samples from laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemtsova, Galina E; Montgomery, Merrill; Levin, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the natural transmission cycles of zoonotic pathogens and the reservoir competence of vertebrate hosts require methods for reliable diagnosis of infection in wild and laboratory animals. Several PCR-based applications have been developed for detection of infections caused by Spotted Fever group Rickettsia spp. in a variety of animal tissues. These assays are being widely used by researchers, but they differ in their sensitivity and reliability. We compared the sensitivity of five previously published conventional PCR assays and one SYBR green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of rickettsial DNA in blood and tissue samples from Rickettsia- infected laboratory animals (n = 87). The real-time PCR, which detected rickettsial DNA in 37.9% of samples, was the most sensitive. The next best were the semi-nested ompA assay and rpoB conventional PCR, which detected as positive 18.4% and 14.9% samples respectively. Conventional assays targeting ompB, gltA and hrtA genes have been the least sensitive. Therefore, we recommend the SYBR green-based real-time PCR as a tool for the detection of rickettsial DNA in animal samples due to its higher sensitivity when compared to more traditional assays.

  1. Molecular Evidence of Different Rickettsia Species in Villeta, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Forero-Becerra, Elkin; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Escandón, Patricia; Rodas, Juan D; Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Hidalgo, Marylin

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to detect and identify Rickettsia species in ticks collected in rural areas of Villeta, Colombia. Tick specimens were collected from domestic animals and walls of houses in five rural villages of Villeta town and from humans in Naranjal village (same town). Moreover, a flea collected from the same area was also processed. DNA was extracted and tested by conventional, semi-nested, and nested PCR reactions targeting rickettsial genes. In the ticks collected from humans from Naranjal village, a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato was amplified using primers for ompA and sequenced (100% identity with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii"). Last, three amplicons from the Ctenocephalides felis flea, corresponding to gltA, ompB, and 16S rRNA genes, showed high identity with R. felis (98.5%, 97.3%, and 99.2%, respectively) and "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" (99.7% and 100%, respectively). To our knowledge, these results correspond to the first molecular detection in Colombia of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" and "Ca. Rickettsia asemboensis" in fleas.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  3. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis in Ecuador by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Atherton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis present in a human population living in a northern Ecuadorian rain forest. All Giardia positive samples (based on an ELISA assay were analysed using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that targets the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh gene; those amplified were subsequently genotyped using NlaIV and RsaI enzymes. The gdh gene was successfully amplified in 74 of 154 ELISA positive samples; 69 of the 74 samples were subsequently genotyped. Of these 69 samples, 42 (61% were classified as assemblage B (26 as BIII and 16 as BIV, 22 (32% as assemblage A (3 as AI and 19 as AII and five (7% as mixed AII and BIII types. In this study site we observe similar diversity in genotypes to other regions in Latin America, though in contrast to some previous studies, we found similar levels of diarrheal symptoms in those individuals infected with assemblage B compared with those infected with assemblage A.

  4. An optimized method for elution of enteroviral RNA from a cellulose-based substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Wang, Lu; Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Aiqiang

    2012-12-01

    The Flinders Technology Australia (FTA) Elute Card is a commercial product that facilitates the collection, transport, archiving and processing of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological samples at room temperature. While the cards have been designed so that sterile/deionized water can elute DNA easily, they are not suitable for some less stable RNAs. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions such as the buffer type, buffer pH and incubation temperature for the elution of enteroviral RNA from FTA Elute Cards prior to quantitative analysis using real-time PCR (qPCR) or consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer VP1 RT-semi nested PCR (CODEHOP VP1 RT-snPCR). TE-1 (pH 8.0), rather than sterile water, was the best buffer for high efficiency elution of enteroviral RNA at 95°C. However, as the estimated recovery rate of viral RNA eluted from the cards averaged to be only 6.1%, enterovirus assays using FTA elution should be considered qualitative, especially at low virus titers, and therefore the results of the assay should be interpreted carefully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular diversity of human parvovirus B19 during two outbreaks of erythema infectiosum in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996–2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999–2000 and 2004–2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b. The phylogenetic tree supported the division of the G1a into two well-defined clades with 1.3% of divergence. The low diversity of the G1a strains may be explained by the fact that all patients had acute B19V infection and 30/32 sera were collected during two distinct outbreaks. The G3b strain was from an HIV-infected patient who seroconverted to anti-B19 IgG antibodies in September/2005. This is the first report of G3b in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  6. Human parvovirus B19 and parvovirus 4 among Iranian patients with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Davod; Ziaee, Masood; Ghaffari, Hadi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-12-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the smallest DNA viruses and shows great resistance to most disinfectants. Therefore, it is one of the common contaminant pathogens present in blood and plasma products. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a newly identified parvovirus, which is also prevalent in parenteral transmission. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of B19V and PARV4 DNA among patients with hemophilia in Birjand County in eastern Iran. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study comprising nearly all people with hemophilia in this region. Whole blood samples were taken after patient registration and sent for plasma isolation. After nucleic acid extraction, B19V was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction, PARV4 DNA was then detected using sensitive semi-nested PCR. In total, there were 86 patients with hemophilia, with mean age 28.5±1.5 years. Of these, 90.7% were men and 9.3% women; 84.9% had hemophilia A and 7.0% had hemophilia B. We found 11 patients (12.8%) were positive for B19V DNA and 8 were positive (9.3%) for PARV4 DNA. The prevalence of B19V was higher in middle-aged groups rather than younger people, whereas PARV4 infection was more common in younger patients ( P B19 virus, imposing more precautionary measures for serum and blood products is recommended.

  7. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  8. Application of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique as an efficient diagnostic tool for ciliate communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Alexandre; Lara, Enrique; Nikolausz, Marcell; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2010-02-01

    Ciliates (or Ciliophora) are ubiquitous organisms which can be widely used as bioindicators in ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic and industrial influences. The evaluation of the environmental impact on soil ciliate communities with methods relying on morphology-based identification may be hampered by the large number of samples usually required for a statistically supported, reliable conclusion. Cultivation-independent molecular-biological diagnostic tools are a promising alternative to greatly simplify and accelerate such studies. In this present work a ciliate-specific fingerprint method based on the amplification of a phylogenetic marker gene (i.e. the 18S ribosomal RNA gene) with subsequent analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed and used to monitor community shifts in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soil. The semi-nested approach generated ciliate-specific amplification products from all soil samples and allowed to distinguish community profiles from a PAH-polluted and a non-polluted control soil. Subsequent sequence analysis of excised bands provided evidence that polluted soil samples are dominated by organisms belonging to the class Colpodea. The general DGGE approach presented in this study might thus in principle serve as a fast and reproducible diagnostic tool, complementing and facilitating future ecological and ecotoxicological monitoring of ciliates in polluted habitats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Superinfection occurs in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infected sheep irrespective of infection phase and protection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Karin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in domestic ruminants is widespread in the coastal areas of southern Norway. The bacteria may persist in mammalian hosts. Several genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum exist. In the present study, we investigate whether superinfection occurs in the acute and persistent phase of the infection. Methods Five-month-old lambs of the Norwegian Dala breed were experimentally infected with two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. A. phagocytophilum variant 1 (GenBank accession number M73220 and variant 2 (GenBank acc. no. AF336220. Eighteen lambs were used, two lambs in each group. Eight groups were experimentally inoculated with either variant 1 or 2 on day 0. Six of these groups were then challenged with the other variant on either days 7, 42 or 84, respectively. One group was left uninfected. The occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in blood samples was determined using semi-nested PCR analysis and gene sequencing. Specific antibodies were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA. Results A. phagocytophilum variant 1 and 2 differed significantly with regards to clinical reaction and cross-immunity in infected lambs. Both variants were found in the blood after challenge. However, variant 1 was detected most frequently. Conclusion The present experiment indicates that superinfection of different genotypes occurs during the acute as well as the persistent phase of an A. phagocytophilum infection, even in lambs protected against the challenged infection.

  10. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Circulating Rotavirus Strains in Tanzania Prior to the Introduction of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sabrina J.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hanevik, Kurt; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Background Tanzania currently rolls out vaccination against rotavirus-diarrhea, a major cause of child illness and death. As the vaccine covers a limited number of rotavirus variants, this study describes the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus among children under two years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, prior to implementation of vaccination. Methods Stool specimens, demographic and clinical information, were collected from 690 children admitted to hospital due to diarrhea (cases) and 545 children without diarrhea (controls) during one year. Controls were inpatient or children attending child health clinics. Rotavirus antigen was detected using ELISA and positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and sequencing. Results The prevalence of rotavirus was higher in cases (32.5%) than in controls (7.7%, Protavirus prevalence was higher in cool (23.9%) than hot months (17.1%) of the year (P = 0.012). We also observed significant seasonal variation of G genotypes. Rotavirus was most frequently found in the age group of four to six months. The prevalence of rotavirus in cases was lower in stunted children (28.9%) than in non-stunted children (40.1%, P = 0.003) and lower in HIV-infected (15.4%, 4/26) than in HIV-uninfected children (55.3%, 42/76, PRotavirus infection and circulating genotypes showed seasonal variation. This study also suggests that rotavirus may not be an opportunistic pathogen in children infected with HIV. PMID:24844631

  12. High-resolution melting PCR assay, applicable for diagnostics and screening studies, allowing detection and differentiation of several Babesia spp. infecting humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Masny, Aleksander; Golab, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the study was to design a single tube PCR test for detection and differentiation of Babesia species in DNA samples obtained from diverse biological materials. A multiplex, single tube PCR test was designed for amplification of approximately 400 bp region of the Babesia 18S rRNA gene. Universal primers were designed to match DNA of multiple Babesia spp. and to have low levels of similarity to DNA sequences of other intracellular protozoa and Babesia hosts. The PCR products amplified from Babesia DNA isolated from human, dog, rodent, deer, and tick samples were subjected to high-resolution melting analysis for Babesia species identification. The designed test allowed detection and differentiation of four Babesia species, three zoonotic (B. microti, B. divergens, B. venatorum) and one that is generally not considered zoonotic-Babesia canis. Both detection and identification of all four species were possible based on the HRM curves of the PCR products in samples obtained from the following: humans, dogs, rodents, and ticks. No cross-reactivity with DNA of Babesia hosts or Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii was observed. The lack of cross-reactivity with P. falciparum DNA might allow using the assay in endemic malaria areas. The designed assay is the first PCR-based test for detection and differentiation of several Babesia spp. of medical and veterinary importance, in a single tube reaction. The results of the study show that the designed assay for Babesia detection and identification could be a practical and inexpensive tool for diagnostics and screening studies of diverse biological materials.

  13. Heat transfer test in a tube using CO2 at supercritical pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyungrae; Song, Jin Ho; Cho, Bong Hyun; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2005-01-01

    Heat transfer test facility, which is named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation), has been constructed in KAERI for the study of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a single tube, single rod and rod bundle at supercritical CO 2 conditions. The tests with supercritical water are difficult it terms of cost and effort, since the critical pressure and temperature of water are as high as 22.12 MPa and 374.14degC. As a substitute for water, CO 2 is selected for the test since the critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 are 7.38 MPa and 31.05degC that are much lower than those of water. This paper describes the design characteristics of the SPHINX and the experimental investigations on the heat transfer and pressure drop of a vertical single tube with an inside diameter of 4.4 mm with upward flow of supercritical CO 2 . The geometry of the single tube is the same as that of Kyushu University test performed with Freon (R22) for the direct comparison of a medium effect. The tests were performed with various heat and mass fluxes at a given pressure. The range of mass flux is 400∼1200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux is chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressure are 7.75, 8.12, and 8.85 MPa. The test results are investigated and compared with the previous tests. (author)

  14. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chunlin; Guo Bin; Wang Xiaoying; Li Jie; Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo; Ouyang Shan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N 4 -acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4 -acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1 ) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  15. Thermohydraulic tests in nuclear fuel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.; Navarro, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The main experimental works performed in the Thermohydraulics Laboratory of the NUCLEBRAS Nuclear Technology Development Center, in the field of thermofluodynamics are briefly described. These works include the performing of steady-state flow tests in single tube test sections, and the design and construction of a rod bundle test section, which will be also used for those kind of testes. Mention is made of the works to be performed in the near future, related to steady-state and transient flow tests. (Author) [pt

  16. Parametric study on the performance of automotive MR shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdasz, J.; Dzierżek, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper contains the results of a parametric study to explore the influence of various quantities on the performance range of semi-active automotive shock absorbers using the magnetorheological (MR) fluid under steady-state and transient excitations. The analysis was performed with simulated data and using a standard single-tube shock absorber configuration with a single-gap MR valve. Additionally, the impact of material variables and valves geometry was examined as the parameters were varied and its dynamic range studied.

  17. Hydrogen isotope exchange in a metal hydride tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report describes a model of the displacement of one hydrogen isotope within a metal hydride tube by a different isotope in the gas phase that is blown through the tube. The model incorporates only the most basic parameters to make a clear connection to the theory of open-tube gas chromatography, and to provide a simple description of how the behavior of the system scales with controllable parameters such as gas velocity and tube radius. A single tube can be seen as a building block for more complex architectures that provide higher molar flow rates or other advanced design goals.

  18. Heat transport the cold way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A novel system for long-distance heat transport is being born in the 'Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' with the project being called 'Nukleare Fernenergie' (nuclear district energy). The project is also known as 'EVA/ADAM' [EVA = Einzelrohr-Versuchs-Anlage (single tube test facility); ADAM = Anlage mit Drei Adiabaten Methanisierungsreaktoren (plant provided with three adiabate methanising reactors)] and is based in principle on transport of energy in chemical bond within a closed loop. In the 60ies already this development was discussed both in the 'Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' and in the 'Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke' independent of each other. In 1975 these two organizations concluded a co-operation contract. (orig.) [de

  19. System evaluation of improved thermal stability jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, K.E.; Dieterle, G.L.; Williams, T. [Univ. of Dayton Research Institute, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A single-pass, single-tube heat exchanger device called the Phoenix rig and a single-pass, dual-heat exchanger system called the Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test system are specific devices/systems developed for evaluating jet fuel thermal stability. They have been used extensively in the evaluation of various jet fuels and thermal stability additives. The test results have indicated that additives can substantially improve the thermal stability of conventional jet fuels. Relationships of oxygen consumption, residence time, bulk, and wetted wall temperatures on coking deposits that form in the heated tubes have also been investigated.

  20. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  1. Bottom-up approach for carbon nanotube interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Ye Qi; Cassell, Alan; Ng, Hou Tee; Stevens, Ramsey; Han Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report a bottom-up approach to integrate multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) into multilevel interconnects in silicon integrated-circuit manufacturing. MWNTs are grown vertically from patterned catalyst spots using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We demonstrate the capability to grow aligned structures ranging from a single tube to forest-like arrays at desired locations. SiO 2 is deposited to encapsulate each nanotube and the substrate, followed by a mechanical polishing process for planarization. MWNTs retain their integrity and demonstrate electrical properties consistent with their original structure

  2. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis bycolorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Guevara, Angel G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64 degrees C for 60 mm using a heatin...

  3. Development of modified FT (MFT) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinglai Zhou; Zhixin Zhang; Wenjie Shen [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two-Stage Modified FT (MFT) process has been developed for producing high-octane gasoline from coal-based syngas. The main R&D are focused on the development of catalysts and technologies process. Duration tests were finished in the single-tube reactor, pilot plant (100T/Y), and industrial demonstration plant (2000T/Y). A series of satisfactory results has been obtained in terms of operating reliability of equipments, performance of catalysts, purification of coal - based syngas, optimum operating conditions, properties of gasoline and economics etc. Further scaling - up commercial plant is being considered.

  4. Experimental prediction of tube support interaction characteristics in steam generators: Volume 2, Westinghouse Model 51 flow entrance region: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1988-06-01

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characterisitics were determined experimentally on a single tube, multi-span geometry, representative of the Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator economizer design. Results, in part, became input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). More importantly, the test data reported here have been used to validate two analytical wear prediction codes; the WECAN code, which was developed by Westinghouse, and the ABAQUS code which has been enhanced for EPRI by Foster Wheeler to enable simulation of gap conditions (including fluid film effects) for various support geometries

  5. Greenhouse effect, energy conservation; Effet de serre, economie d`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This symposium is composed of 12 communications grouped in three sessions which titles and themes are: influence of the greenhouse gas emission reduction policy on refrigerating and air conditioning engineering; characteristics and performances of refrigerants and working fluids, circuit architectures, two-phase fluids, single-tube systems and district cooling systems; principles and characteristics of thermo-pumps for heating, refrigerating and air conditioning applications, more especially in residential and small commercial buildings (air condensation thermo-pumps, ammonia thermo-pumps, ground source thermo-pumps), quality assurance

  6. Evidence for intermittency and a truncated power law from highly resolved aphid movement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanova, Alla; Oliver, Tom H; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2010-01-06

    Power laws are increasingly used to describe animal movement. Despite this, the use of power laws has been criticized on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and alternative models based on extensions of conventional random walk theory (Brownian motion) have been suggested. In this paper, we analyse a large volume of data of aphid walking behaviour (65,068 data points), which provides a highly resolved dataset to investigate the pattern of movement. We show that aphid movement is intermittent--with alternations of a slow movement with frequent change of direction and a fast, relatively directed movement--and that the fast movement consists of two phases--a strongly directed phase that gradually changes into an uncorrelated random walk. By measuring the mean-squared displacement and the duration of non-stop movement episodes we found that both spatial and temporal aspects of aphid movement are best described using a truncated power law approach. We suggest that the observed spatial pattern arises from the duration of non-stop movement phases rather than from correlations in turning angles. We discuss the implications of these findings for interpreting movement data, such as distinguishing between movement and non-movement, and the effect of the range of data used in the analysis on the conclusions.

  7. CERN gives a hand to Telethon

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Let's go for 30 hours of non-stop events with Telethon 2000! Telethon is a televised event across France, which has taken place every year for the last 10 years. Its aim is to raise money for research into genetically transmitted diseases. This year it will be held in four cities and one of them is Divonne-le-Bains. The Spa town, which has chosen the theme of 'Internationality', is expecting over 40 000 visitors! Many spectacular attractions are planned. Among them, 200 children between the ages of 8 and 14 of all nationalities will gather in a parade on 8 December. They will wear their national costumes and carry national flags. Non-stop sports, cultural, musical, and gastronomical events will add to the fun part of Telethon. French craftsmen will offer for sale pieces of a huge wooden globe built by them, and a grand drawing competition will test children's talent to design a flag for the world. CERN is involved in the event by designing a webpage that will be accessible through CERN's main website. On thi...

  8. Volunteers wanted for the Telethon 'Children of the World' gathering

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Thirty hours of non-stop attractions ! That’s the challenge that Divonne-les-Bains has set itself for the Telethon on 8 and 9 December. This annual event is organised to raise money for research into genetically transmitted diseases. Donations are collected throughout France and the entire proceeds go to the French Association for Muscular Diseases. This year Divonne has been chosen as one of the four French towns to host a centre to which promises of donations can be made and the town’s various events will be televised. The spa town, which has chosen the theme of 'Internationality', is expecting over 40 thousand visitors ! Numerous spectacular attractions are planned. For instance visitors will be able to buy pieces of a giant wooden globe which will be built by members of France’s trade guilds “les compagnons de France”, with live television coverage. There will also be non-stop sports, cultural, musical and gastronomic events. CERN is taking part in Telethon 2000. An article devoted to CERN’s contr...

  9. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  10. The influence of chemical composition of LNG on the supercritical heat transfer in an intermediate fluid vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuangqing; Chen, Xuedong; Fan, Zhichao; Chen, Yongdong; Nie, Defu; Wu, Qiaoguo

    2018-04-01

    A three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been established for the simulations of supercritical heat transfer of real liquefied natural gas (LNG) mixture in a single tube and a tube bundle of an intermediate fluid vaporizer (IFV). The influence of chemical composition of LNG on the thermal performance has been analyzed. The results have also been compared with those obtained from the one-dimensional steady-state calculations using the distributed parameter model (DPM). It is found that the current DPM approach can give reasonable prediction accuracy for the thermal performance in the tube bundle but unsatisfactory prediction accuracy for that in a single tube as compared with the corresponding CFD data. As benchmarked against pure methane, the vaporization of an LNG containing about 90% (mole fraction) of methane would lead to an absolute deviation of 5.5 K in the outlet NG temperature and a maximum relative deviation of 11.4% in the tube side HTC in a bundle of about 816 U tubes at the inlet pressure of 12 MPa and mass flux of 200 kg·m-2·s-1. It is concluded that the influence of LNG composition on the thermal performance should be taken into consideration in order to obtain an economic and reliable design of an IFV.

  11. Experimental study of the reflooding of a constricted tube in the REFLEX rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.K.; Elliott, D.F.; Britton-Jones, K.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Winfrith experimental programme in support of the PWR is focussed on fuel thermal and hydraulic performance under hypothetical accident conditions, and includes studies of reflooding heat transfer of single tubes and fuel rod clusters under simulated accident conditions, aimed at improving understanding of the processes involved and providing data for code development and validation. The work described is part of a study of the possible effects of clad ballooning on ECCS effectiveness. During a large loss of coolant accident the primary circuit will depressurise and the core will overheat. The Zircaloy fuel cladding may swell, partially blocking the coolant passages by the formation of local ''balloons''. An experiment was carried out in the REFLEX single tube reflooding rig, to study, in a simple geometry, the effect of the partial blockage of the tube on the fluid flow and heat transfer during reflooding. The blockage consisted of a tapering entrance with a flow area 60 percent less than the unconstricted tube, and a tapering exit. The flow could be viewed through windows. 66 refloods were carried out over a pressure range of 1 to 4 bar. Results of these tests are presented. (U.K.)

  12. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  13. High-resolution melting-curve analysis of ligation-mediated real-time PCR for rapid evaluation of an epidemiological outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E; Schön, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE.

  14. High-Resolution Melting-Curve Analysis of Ligation-Mediated Real-Time PCR for Rapid Evaluation of an Epidemiological Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woksepp, Hanna; Jernberg, Cecilia; Tärnberg, Maria; Ryberg, Anna; Brolund, Alma; Nordvall, Michaela; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Wisell, Karin Tegmark; Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Schön, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Methods for the confirmation of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial pathogens are complex, expensive, and time-consuming. Recently, a method based on ligation-mediated PCR (LM/PCR) using a low denaturation temperature which produces specific melting-profile patterns of DNA products has been described. Our objective was to further develop this method for real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRM) in a single-tube system optimized in order to achieve results within 1 day. Following the optimization of LM/PCR for real-time PCR and HRM (LM/HRM), the method was applied for a nosocomial outbreak of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and ST131-associated Escherichia coli isolates (n = 15) and control isolates (n = 29), including four previous clusters. The results from LM/HRM were compared to results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which served as the gold standard. All isolates from the nosocomial outbreak clustered by LM/HRM, which was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the LM/PCR products and PFGE. Control isolates that clustered by LM/PCR (n = 4) but not by PFGE were resolved by confirmatory gel electrophoresis. We conclude that LM/HRM is a rapid method for the detection of nosocomial outbreaks of bacterial infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli strains. It allows the analysis of isolates in a single-tube system within a day, and the discriminatory power is comparable to that of PFGE. PMID:21956981

  15. The treatment of oily brines containing waste oils using membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, H.; Tremblay, A.Y. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Veinot, D.E. [Defence R and D Canada, Halifax, NS (Canada). Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Bilge water is an oily wastewater from ships that must be treated before it is discharged to coastal waters. It is difficult to treat because it contains seawater, particulates, used oils and detergents. This paper presents the results of a study which examined a cascaded membrane system comprised of a backflushed microfiltration membrane used for pretreatment of bilge water. It also examined an ultrafiltration membrane used in the final polishing step. Membrane pore size, materials and support structures were examined for single tube carbon membrane and multilumen ceramic membranes. Results indicate that membranes with a pore size less than 0.2 microns can treat bilge water directly. The performance of the membrane depends on its pore size and on the particle size distribution of the bilge water. Backflushing improved the flux in single tube carbon membranes but not in the multilumen ceramic membranes. Another important factor in bilge water treatment was the clearance of the support structure with respect to particulates. Heating, air and steam methods were all found to be suitable for membrane flux regeneration. A hybrid microfiltration and ultrafiltration membrane proved to be very effective in treating bilge water.

  16. A Set of Plastid Loci for Use in Multiplex Fragment Length Genotyping for Intraspecific Variation in Pinus (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin M. Wofford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Recently released Pinus plastome sequences support characterization of 15 plastid simple sequence repeat (cpSSR loci originally published for P. contorta and P. thunbergii. This allows selection of loci for single-tube PCR multiplexed genotyping in any subsection of the genus. Methods: Unique placement of primers and primer conservation across the genus were investigated, and a set of six loci were selected for single-tube multiplexing. We compared interspecific variation between cpSSRs and nucleotide sequences ofycf1 and tested intraspecific variation for cpSSRs using 911 samples in the P. ponderosa species complex. Results: The cpSSR loci contain mononucleotide and complex repeats with additional length variation in flanking regions. They are not located in hypervariable regions, and most primers are conserved across the genus. A single PCR per sample multiplexed for six loci yielded 45 alleles in 911 samples. Discussion: The protocol allows efficient genotyping of many samples. The cpSSR loci are too variable for Pinus phylogenies but are useful for the study of genetic structure within and among populations. The multiplex method could easily be extended to other plant groups by choosing primers for cpSSR loci in a plastome alignment for the target group.

  17. A set of plastid loci for use in multiplex fragment length genotyping for intraspecific variation in Pinus (Pinaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Austin M.; Finch, Kristen; Bigott, Adam; Willyard, Ann

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Recently released Pinus plastome sequences support characterization of 15 plastid simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) loci originally published for P. contorta and P. thunbergii. This allows selection of loci for single-tube PCR multiplexed genotyping in any subsection of the genus. • Methods: Unique placement of primers and primer conservation across the genus were investigated, and a set of six loci were selected for single-tube multiplexing. We compared interspecific variation between cpSSRs and nucleotide sequences of ycf1 and tested intraspecific variation for cpSSRs using 911 samples in the P. ponderosa species complex. • Results: The cpSSR loci contain mononucleotide and complex repeats with additional length variation in flanking regions. They are not located in hypervariable regions, and most primers are conserved across the genus. A single PCR per sample multiplexed for six loci yielded 45 alleles in 911 samples. • Discussion: The protocol allows efficient genotyping of many samples. The cpSSR loci are too variable for Pinus phylogenies but are useful for the study of genetic structure within and among populations. The multiplex method could easily be extended to other plant groups by choosing primers for cpSSR loci in a plastome alignment for the target group. PMID:25202625

  18. Investigation of anodic TiO2 nanotube composition with high spatial resolution AES and ToF SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronov, Alexey; Gavrilin, Ilya; Kirilenko, Elena; Dronova, Daria; Gavrilov, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    High resolution Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass-Spectrometry (ToF SIMS) were used to investigate structure and elemental composition variation of both across an array of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) and single tube of an array. The TiO2 NT array was grown by anodic oxidation of Ti foil in fluorine-containing ethylene glycol electrolyte. It was found that the studied anodic TiO2 nanotubes have a layered structure with rather sharp interfaces. The differences in AES depth profiling results of a single tube with the focused primary electron beam (point analysis) and over an area of 75 μm in diameter of a nanotube array with the defocused primary electron beam are discussed. Depth profiling by ToF SIMS was carried out over approximately the same size of a nanotube array to determine possible ionic fragments in the structure. The analysis results show that the combination of both mentioned methods is useful for a detailed analysis of nanostructures with complex morphology and multi-layered nature.

  19. Resolution and Efficiency of Monitored Drift-Tube Chambers with Final Read-out Electronics at High Background Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbert, J; Kortner, O; Kroha, H; Manz, A; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Rauscher, F; Richter, R; Staude, A; Stiller, W

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a monitored drift-tube chamber for ATLAS with the final read-out electronics was tested at the Gamma Irradiation facility at CERN under varyin photon irradiation rates of up to 990~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$ which corresponds to 10 times the highest background rate expected in ATLAS. The signal pulse-height measurement of the final read-out electronics was used to perform time-slewing corrections. The corrections improve the average single-tube resolution from 106~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the nominal discriminator threshold of 44~mV without irradiation, and from 114~$\\mu$m to 89~$\\mu$m at the maximum nominal irradiation rate in ATLAS of 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The reduction of the threshold from 44~mV to 34~mV and the time-slewing corrections lead to an average single-tube resolution of 82~$\\mu$m without photon background and of 89~$\\mu$m at 100~Hz\\,cm$^{-2}$. The measured muon detection efficiency agrees with the expectation for the final read-out electronics.

  20. First Case of Legionnaire's Disease Caused by Legionella anisa in Spain and the Limitations on the Diagnosis of Legionella non-pneumophila Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Lucianna; Izquierdo, Fernando; Magnet, Angela; Hurtado, Carolina; Salinas, Mireya B; Gomes, Thiago Santos; Angulo, Santiago; Salso, Santiago; Pelaez, Jesús; Tejeda, Maria Isabel; Alhambra, Almudena; Gómez, Carmen; Enríquez, Ana; Estirado, Eva; Fenoy, Soledad; Del Aguila, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia, with worldwide relevance, caused by Legionella spp. Approximately 90% of all cases of legionellosis are caused by Legionella pneumophila, but other species can also be responsible for this infection. These bacteria are transmitted by inhalation of aerosols or aspiration of contaminated water. In Spain, environmental studies have demonstrated the presence of Legionella non-pneumophila species in drinking water treatment plants and water distribution networks. Aware that this evidence indicates a risk factor and the lack of routine assays designed to detect simultaneously diverse Legionella species, we analyzed 210 urine samples from patients presenting clinical manifestations of pneumonia using a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the 16S rDNA gene of Legionella and a diagnostic method used in hospitals for Legionella antigen detection. In this study, we detected a total of 15 cases of legionellosis (7.1%) and the first case of Legionnaires' disease caused by L. anisa in Spain. While the conventional method used in hospitals could only detect four cases (1.9%) produced by L. pneumophila serogroup 1, using PCR, the following species were identified: Legionella spp. (10/15), L. pneumophila (4/15) and L. anisa (1/15). These results suggest the need to change hospital diagnostic strategies regarding the identification of Legionella species associated with this disease. Therefore, the detection of Legionella DNA by PCR in urine samples seems to be a suitable alternative method for a sensitive, accurate and rapid diagnosis of Legionella pneumonia, caused by L. pneumophila and also for L. non-pneumophila species.

  1. Enterovirus RNA in Peripheral Blood May Be Associated with the Variants of rs1990760, a Common Type 1 Diabetes Associated Polymorphism in IFIH1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Witsø, Elisabet; Kramna, Lenka; Holkova, Katerina; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C.; Rønningen, Kjersti S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Polymorphisms in the IFIH1 (common rs1990760 and four rare rs35667974, rs35337543, rs35744605, rs35732034) have been convincingly associated with type 1 diabetes. The encoded protein (interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1) senses double-stranded RNA during replication of Picornavirales, including Enterovirus, a genus suspected in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the polymorphisms are associated with differences in the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood. Research Design and Methods The study included 1001 blood samples, each from a child participating in the Norwegian ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes: the MIDIA study’. The enterovirus RNA was tested using qualitative semi-nested real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on RNA extracted from frozen cell packs after removal of plasma. Stool samples previously analyzed for enterovirus RNA were available in 417 children. Results The genotypes of IFIH1 rs1990760 were associated with different frequencies of enterovirus RNA in blood (7.0%, 14.4% and 9.5% bloods were enterovirus positive among children carrying the Ala/Ala, Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr genotypes, respectively, p = 0.012). This association remained essentially unchanged after adjustment for age and calendar year. The presence of enterovirus in the concomitantly sampled stool further increased the likelihood of enterovirus RNA in blood (odds ratio 2.40, CI 95% 1.13–4.70), but did not affect the association with IFIH1 rs1990760. The rare polymorphisms (individually, or pooled) were not significantly associated with enterovirus RNA in blood. Conclusions The common IFIH1 SNP may modify the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood of healthy children. This effect can help explain the association of IFIH1 with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23144876

  2. Defining the Enterovirus Diversity Landscape of a Fecal Sample: A Methodological Challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

    2016-01-12

    Enteroviruses are a group of over 250 naked icosahedral virus serotypes that have been associated with clinical conditions that range from intrauterine enterovirus transmission withfataloutcome through encephalitis and meningitis, to paralysis. Classically, enterovirus detection was done by assaying for the development of the classic enterovirus-specific cytopathic effect in cell culture. Subsequently, the isolates were historically identified by a neutralization assay. More recently, identification has been done by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, in recent times, there is a move towards direct detection and identification of enteroviruses from clinical samples using the cell culture-independent RT semi-nested PCR (RT-snPCR) assay. This RT-snPCR procedure amplifies the VP1 gene, which is then sequenced and used for identification. However, while cell culture-based strategies tend to show a preponderance of certain enterovirus species depending on the cell lines included in the isolation protocol, the RT-snPCR strategies tilt in a different direction. Consequently, it is becoming apparent that the diversity observed in certain enterovirus species, e.g., enterovirus species B(EV-B), might not be because they are the most evolutionarily successful. Rather, it might stem from cell line-specific bias accumulated over several years of use of the cell culture-dependent isolation protocols. Furthermore, it might also be a reflection of the impact of the relative genome concentration on the result of pan-enterovirus VP1 RT-snPCR screens used during the identification of cell culture isolates. This review highlights the impact of these two processes on the current diversity landscape of enteroviruses and the need to re-assess enterovirus detection and identification algorithms in a bid to better balance our understanding of the enterovirus diversity landscape.

  3. FATAL OUTCOME OF INFECTION BY DENGUE 4 IN A PATIENT WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA AS A COMORBID CONDITION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Figueiredo Amâncio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently a major public-health problem. Dengue virus (DENV is classified into four distinct serotypes, DENV 1-4. After 28 years of absence, DENV-4 was again detected in Brazil in 2010 in Roraima State, and one year later, the virus was identified in the northern Brazilian states of Amazonas and Pará, followed by Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. In Minas Gerais, the first confirmed case of DENV-4 occurred in the municipality of Frutal in 2011 and has now been isolated from a growing number of patients. Although DENV-2 is associated with the highest risk of severe forms of the disease and death due to the infection, DENV-4 has also been associated with severe forms of the disease and an increasing risk of hemorrhagic manifestations. Herein, the first fatal case of confirmed DENV-4 in Brazil is reported. The patient was an 11-year-old girl from the municipality of Montes Claros in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. She had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura as a comorbid condition and presented with a fulminant course of infection, leading to death due to hemorrhagic complications. Diagnosis was confirmed by detection of Dengue-specific antibodies using IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and semi-nested RT-PCR. Primary care physicians and other health-care providers should bear in mind that DENV-4 can also result in severe forms of the disease and lead to hemorrhagic complications and death, mainly when dengue infection is associated with coexisting conditions.

  4. Detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in children with hand, foot and mouth disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Mou, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Yifei; Lin, Jian; Liu, Fanlong; Yuan, Li; Tang, Yiming; Xiang, Charlie

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the genetic characteristics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) strains in China and to evaluate the relationship between the genotypes of CVA16 and EV71 and their geographical distribution. A total of 399 stool specimens were collected from children with symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Zhejiang Province. The presence of enteroviruses was determined using reverse transcription-semi-nested PCR targeted to the VP1 gene of all human enteroviruses and DNA sequencing. EV71 and CVA16, the major etiological agents of HFMD, were detected in 38.4% (38/99) and 35.4% (35/99) of HEV-A species-positive cases, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, EV71 strains identified in this study belong to subgenotype C4, and CVA16 strains herein were classified into clusters B2a and B2b within the genotype B2. Taking into consideration other published data, we conclude that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China reflect the pattern of the endemic circulation of the subgenotype C4 to EV71 and clusters B2a and B2b within genotype B2 to CVA16, which have been continuously circulating in China since 1997. This observation indicates that the genetic characteristics of enteroviruses in China seem to depend on their special geographical and climatical features allowing them to be sustained with little external effect.

  5. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

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    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marciapilatti@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Ferreira, Sidney A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with {sup 32}P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  6. Restriction site extension PCR: a novel method for high-throughput characterization of tagged DNA fragments and genome walking.

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    Jiabing Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insertion mutant isolation and characterization are extremely valuable for linking genes to physiological function. Once an insertion mutant phenotype is identified, the challenge is to isolate the responsible gene. Multiple strategies have been employed to isolate unknown genomic DNA that flanks mutagenic insertions, however, all these methods suffer from limitations due to inefficient ligation steps, inclusion of restriction sites within the target DNA, and non-specific product generation. These limitations become close to insurmountable when the goal is to identify insertion sites in a high throughput manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a novel strategy called Restriction Site Extension PCR (RSE-PCR to efficiently conduct large-scale isolation of unknown genomic DNA fragments linked to DNA insertions. The strategy is a modified adaptor-mediated PCR without ligation. An adapter, with complementarity to the 3' overhang of the endonuclease (KpnI, NsiI, PstI, or SacI restricted DNA fragments, extends the 3' end of the DNA fragments in the first cycle of the primary RSE-PCR. During subsequent PCR cycles and a second semi-nested PCR (secondary RSE-PCR, touchdown and two-step PCR are combined to increase the amplification specificity of target fragments. The efficiency and specificity was demonstrated in our characterization of 37 tex mutants of Arabidopsis. All the steps of RSE-PCR can be executed in a 96 well PCR plate. Finally, RSE-PCR serves as a successful alternative to Genome Walker as demonstrated by gene isolation from maize, a plant with a more complex genome than Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RSE-PCR has high potential application in identifying tagged (T-DNA or transposon sequence or walking from known DNA toward unknown regions in large-genome plants, with likely application in other organisms as well.

  7. Comparison of kDNA PCR-hybridization assay with three PCR methods for canines visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilatti, Marcia M.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Ferreira, Sidney A.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of the kDNA PCR-Hybridization assay, which uses radioactive DNA probes (labeled with 32 P), was compared with three conventional PCR methods used for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. All PCR methods had two steps: a first amplification followed by hybridization or by a new amplification (nested or semi nested). Two methods (kDNA PCR-Hybridization and kDNA snPCR) used primers addressed to kinetoplast minicircles and the other two methods to the coding (LnPCR) and intergenic noncoding regions (ITS-1 nPCR) of the ribosomal rRNA genes. The comparison was accomplished in two groups of 23 infected dogs using samples collected by the conjunctival swab procedure. In the Group 1 the DNA was extracted from cotton swabs by phenol-chloroform and in Group 2 by boiling. The most efficient PCR methods in the Group 1 were those based on kDNA targets. The kDNA PCR-Hybridization was able to detect parasites in 22/23 dogs (95.6%) and in 40/46 samples (86.9%). The kDNA snPCR was positive for 21/23 dogs (91.3%) and for 40/46 samples (86.9%). The positivities of the kDNA based methods were significantly higher than the positivities verified for the methods based on ribosomal rRNA genes (p<0.05). In the Group 2 the kDNA PCR- Hybridization showed a better performance detecting parasites in 18/23 dogs (78.3%) and in 31/46 samples (67.4%), significantly higher than the other three methods (p<0.05). The higher sensitivity of the minicircle kDNA based assays reported by others was confirmed in this study and kDNA PCR-Hybridization showed the best sensitivity among the assays evaluated. (author)

  8. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory viruses in young South African children with acute lower respiratory infections and interactions with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalay, Alicia A; Abbott, Salome; Sikazwe, Chisha; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Bizzintino, Joelene; Zhang, Guicheng; Laing, Ingrid; Chidlow, Glenys R; Smith, David W; Gern, James; Goldblatt, Jack; Lehmann, Deborah; Green, Robin J; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common respiratory virus and has been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The prevalence of RV species among HIV-infected children in South Africa is unknown. To describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including RV species, associated with HIV status and other clinical symptoms in children less than two years of age with and without ALRI in Pretoria, South Africa. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 105 hospitalized ALRI cases and 53 non-ALRI controls less than two years of age. HIV status was determined. Common respiratory viruses were identified by PCR, and RV species and genotypes were identified by semi-nested PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses. Respiratory viruses were more common among ALRI cases than controls (83.8% vs. 69.2%; p=0.041). RV was the most commonly identified virus in cases with pneumonia (45.6%) or bronchiolitis (52.1%), regardless of HIV status, as well as in controls (39.6%). RV-A was identified in 26.7% of cases and 15.1% of controls while RV-C was identified in 21.0% of cases and 18.9% of controls. HIV-infected children were more likely to be diagnosed with pneumonia than bronchiolitis (pinfected cases (n=15) compared with 30.6% of HIV-uninfected cases (n=85, p=0.013), and was identified more frequently in bronchiolitis than in pneumonia cases (43.8% vs. 12.3%; pinfection may be protective against RSV and bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting β-thalassaemia mutations from a single cell by PEP and RDB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Ping; LI Li; YAO Hong; ZHOU Yuan-guo; DENG Bing; CHEN Zhu-qin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possibility of the technology involving PEP and RDB for detecting β-thalassaemia multipoint mutations from a single cell simultaneously. Methods: A set of allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) probes used for detecting 8 familiar β-thalassaemia mutations (CD41-42, IVS- Ⅱ -654, CD17, TATA box nt-28, CD71-72, TATA box nt-29, CD26, IVS- Ⅰ -5) were immobilized on a strip of nylon membrane. The genome of a individual cell was amplified by primer extension preamplification (PEP) with the mixture of15-base random oligonucleotides. The aliquots from PEP were used to amplify the objective gene fractions of β-thalassaemia gene by nested or semi-nested PCR. The membrane was hybridized with the final amplified products and then treated with Streptavidin-HRP and color development.Results :Totally 30 lymphocytes were picked up from blood samples of 1 healthy female and 4 patients with known β-thalassaemia mutations respectively. Each single lymphocyte was lysed in the proteinase K buffer. The amplification efficacy was 94.0% and alle drop-out(ADO) rate was 8.0%. Revert dot blot (RDB) was applied to the final amplified products from the 5 participants. The results of diagnosis were the same to the expected, and their genotypes were N/N, CD17 (A→T)/N, IVS- Ⅱ -654(C→T)/CD17(A → T), CD41-42 (-CTTT)/N and TATA box nt-28 (A→G)/N, respectively. Conclusion: The technology involving PEP and RDB could detectmultiple β-thalassaemia mutations from a single cell simultaneously,and the research provides experimental evidences for the feasibility of applying PEP and DNA array technology to screening multiple genetic mutations from a single cell, and will be applied to preimplantation genetic diagnosis and non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for β-thalassaemia.

  11. Phytoplasma phylogenetics based on analysis of secA and 23S rRNA gene sequences for improved resolution of candidate species of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Jennifer; Boonham, Neil; Mumford, Rick; Harrison, Nigel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2008-08-01

    Phytoplasma phylogenetics has focused primarily on sequences of the non-coding 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (16-23S ISR), and primers that enable amplification of these regions from all phytoplasmas by PCR are well established. In this study, primers based on the secA gene have been developed into a semi-nested PCR assay that results in a sequence of the expected size (about 480 bp) from all 34 phytoplasmas examined, including strains representative of 12 16Sr groups. Phylogenetic analysis of secA gene sequences showed similar clustering of phytoplasmas when compared with clusters resolved by similar sequence analyses of a 16-23S ISR-23S rRNA gene contig or of the 16S rRNA gene alone. The main differences between trees were in the branch lengths, which were elongated in the 16-23S ISR-23S rRNA gene tree when compared with the 16S rRNA gene tree and elongated still further in the secA gene tree, despite this being a shorter sequence. The improved resolution in the secA gene-derived phylogenetic tree resulted in the 16SrII group splitting into two distinct clusters, while phytoplasmas associated with coconut lethal yellowing-type diseases split into three distinct groups, thereby supporting past proposals that they represent different candidate species within 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'. The ability to differentiate 16Sr groups and subgroups by virtual RFLP analysis of secA gene sequences suggests that this gene may provide an informative alternative molecular marker for pathogen identification and diagnosis of phytoplasma diseases.

  12. Molecular characterization of norovirus variants and genetic diversity of noroviruses and sapoviruses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Khamrin, Pattara; Malasao, Rungnapa; Thongprachum, Aksara; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) and Sapovirus (SaV) have been reported as a common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. For a decade, surveillances of NoV and SaV have been conducted continually in Thailand. To monitor the epidemiological situation and to determine the genetic variation of NoV and SaV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 567 samples collected from pediatric patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were examined during 2007, and 2010-2011 by semi-nested RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing methods. NoV was detected at 15.9%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multiple NoV genotypes, GI/14 (1.1%), GII/1 (1.1%), GII/2 (1.1%), GII/3 (4.4%), GII/4 (65.6%), GII/6 (10.0%), GII/7 (2.2%), GII/12 (4.4%), GII/13 (3.3%), GII/16 (5.7%), and unclassified genotype (1.1%), circulating in this area. Among these, NoV GII/4 was the most prevalent genotype with a predominance of GII/4 2009 over other variants, 1996, 2006a, and 2006b. For SaV, the prevalence was 1.2% which was much lower than those of NoV and only SaV GI/1 was detected. This study highlights the epidemiology of NoV and SaV and genetic diversity of viruses circulating in pediatric patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Shi, Kun; Li, Jian-Ming; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Quan; Du, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Toxolasma gondii is one of the most important obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. Recently, toxoplasmosis is of increasing concerns because T. gondii not only has a worldwide distribution but also can infect virtually all warm-blooded hosts including donkeys. However, limited information is available concerning the genetic characterization of T. gondii in donkeys in northeastern China. In this study, a total of 302 brain tissue samples collected from donkeys from Jilin (n=108) and Liaoning (n=194) provinces, northeastern China, were examined for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 loci (i.e., SAG1, alternative SAG2, 5'-and 3'-SAG2, SAG3, L358, BTUB, c22-8, GRA6, c29-2, PK1 and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Of 302 brain tissue samples, 19 (6.29%) were PCR-positive for T. gondii. The prevalence rates of T. gondii were 6.48% (7/108) and 6.19% (12/194) in Jilin Province and Liaoning Province, respectively. The prevalence of T. gondii in different season groups varied from 5.56% to 7.41%. The prevalence of T. gondii in "Cage-free" donkeys was higher than that in "Captive" donkeys. Of the 19 positive samples, only two isolates were successfully genotyped at all loci, three were genotyped at 9 loci. In total, four samples belong to ToxoDB genotype #9, one belong to ToxoDB genotype #10. This is firstly characterized the T. gondii isolates from donkeys in northeastern China. The results of the present study will improve the information of the distribution of T. gondii genotypes in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteritics of Rotavirus VP4(P Genotypes in Children With Acute Diarrhea

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    Haghshenas Z

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Rotaviruses are recognized as the most common etiologic factors of gastroenteritis. In this study, we determined the epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms and molecular structure of rotavirus VP4(P genotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran Iran, during 2009 for justifying the routine use of rotavirus vaccines in children. Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from 150 children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran were collected from January to December 2009. The patients’ mean age was 20.90+18.19 years (ranging from 1 month to 14 years. Fecal samples were transported on ice to the laboratory of virology department of Pasture Institute of Iran. The demographic and clinical data for each case were entered in an author-devised questionnaire. Group A rotavirus was detected by dsRNA-PAGE. Subsequently, rotavirus genotyping (VP4 was performed by semi-nested multiple RT-PCR and the phylogenetic tree of the Rotavirus nucleotides was constructed. The data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon signed and Mann-Whitney U. Results: Rotavirus was isolated in 19.3% of the samples, more than 90% of which had long RNA patterns. The predominant genotype (VP4 was P[8] (86% and other genotypes respectively were P[6] (6.9% and P[4] (6.9%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the P[8] genotype was found to be the cause of acute diarrhea. The analysis of P[8] genotype sequence showed a high level of similarity of the virus in this study with those of other Asian countries.

  15. Molecular characterisation and genetic variation of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus infection in captive young Asian elephants in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripiboon, Supaphen; Jackson, Bethany; Ditcham, William; Holyoake, Carly; Robertson, Ian; Thitaram, Chatchote; Tankaew, Pallop; Letwatcharasarakul, Preeda; Warren, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesvirus (EEHV) is emerging as a new threat for elephant conservation, since being identified as the cause of severe, often fatal, haemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants. To describe positive cases and the molecular relatedness of virus detected in elephants in Thailand, we re-examined all available of EEHV samples occurring in young elephants in Thailand between 2006 and 2014 (n=24). Results indicated 75% (18/24) of suspected cases were positive for EEHV by semi-nested PCR. Further gene analysis identified these positive cases as EEHV1A (72%, 13/18 cases), EEHV1B (11%, 2/18) and EEHV4 (17%, 3/18). This study is the first to phylogenetically analyse and provide an overview of most of the known EEHV cases that have occurred in Thailand. Positive individuals ranged in age from one to nine years, with no sex association detected, and occurred across geographical locations throughout the country. All individuals, except one, were captive-born. No history of direct contact among the cases was recorded, and this together with the fact that various subtype clusters of virus were found, implied that none of the positive cases were epidemiologically related. These results concur with the hypothesis that EEHV1 is likely to be an ancient endogenous pathogen in Asian elephants. It is recommended that active surveillance and routine monitoring for EEHV should be undertaken in all elephant range countries, to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology, transmission and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid detection of fungal keratitis with DNA-stabilizing FTA filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menassa, Nardine; Bosshard, Philipp P; Kaufmann, Claude; Grimm, Christian; Auffarth, Gerd U; Thiel, Michael A

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly important for the rapid detection of fungal keratitis. However, techniques of specimen collection and DNA extraction before PCR may interfere with test sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of DNA-stabilizing FTA filter paper (Indicating FTA filter paper; Whatman International, Ltd., Maidstone, UK) for specimen collection without DNA extraction in a single-step, nonnested PCR for fungal keratitis. Methods. Specimens were collected from ocular surfaces with FTA filter discs, which automatically lyse collected cells and stabilize nucleic acids. Filter discs were directly used in single-step PCR reactions to detect fungal DNA. Test sensitivity was evaluated with serial dilutions of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus fumigatus cultures. Test specificity was analyzed by comparing 196 and 155 healthy individuals from Switzerland and Egypt, respectively, with 15 patients with a diagnosis of microbial keratitis. Results. PCR with filter discs detected 3 C. albicans, 25 F. oxysporum, and 125 A. fumigatus organisms. In healthy volunteers, fungal PCR was positive in 1.0% and 8.4% of eyes from Switzerland and Egypt, respectively. Fungal PCR remained negative in 10 cases of culture-proven bacterial keratitis, became positive in 4 cases of fungal keratitis, but missed 1 case of culture-proven A. fumigatus keratitis. Conclusions. FTA filter paper for specimen collection together with direct PCR is a promising method of detecting fungal keratitis. The analytical sensitivity is high without the need for a semi-nested or nested second PCR, the clinical specificity is 91.7% to 99.0%, and the method is rapid and inexpensive.

  17. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Gondim, Breno Herman Ferreira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Dutra, Valéria; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  19. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Borges da Silva HEINEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dengue virus (DENV, which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV, which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  20. Molecular characterization of Torque teno virus and SEN virus co-infection with HIV in patients from Southern Iran

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    Aliyar Pirouzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Torque teno virus (TTV and SEN virus are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that cause blood-borne infections. The SEN virus (SEN-V was originally detected in the serum of an injection drug user infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Recently TTV was discovered as a potential causative agent of non-A-E hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the SEN-V-D/H and TTV in HIV patients and healthy blood donors in Iran. Methods One hundred and fifty HIV patients with a mean age of 50.46 ± 18.46 years and 150 healthy blood donors with a mean age of 48.16 ± 13.73 years were included in this study. TTV and SEN-V were detected by the PCR and were quantitatively assayed by competitive PCR (nested and semi-nested PCR. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs were used to determine the heterogeneity of TTV. Results TTV and SEN-V were detected 96 (64% and 84 (56% of 150 HIV patients respectively. These rates were 34% (n=51 and 37.33% (n=56 in healthy blood donors (significant, p<0.05. PCR detected SEN-V/TTV DNA from 32 of the healthy blood donors (21.33%, while 65 (43.33% of HIV patients were positive for SEN-V/TTV DNA. Of 150 HIV patients, 32.66% and 23.33% were positive for SEN-V-H and SEN-V-D, respectively and 18.66% (n=28 were co-infected with SEN-V-D/H. Conclusions The prevalence of SEN-VD/H and TTV is higher in HIV patients than in healthy blood donors in Southern Iran. Our results suggest that TTV and SEN-V might play a role in the development of liver disease in patients with immunodeficiency diseases.

  1. Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia Claudia de Toni Aquino da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. METHODS: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriário neighborhood of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758 were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. RESULTS: DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%. Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiabá, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

  2. Genetic analysis of the porcine group B rotavirus NSP2 gene from wild-type Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Médici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.

  3. The Far East taiga forest: unrecognized inhospitable terrain for migrating Arctic-nesting waterbirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The degree of inhospitable terrain encountered by migrating birds can dramatically affect migration strategies and their evolution as well as influence the way we develop our contemporary flyway conservation responses to protect them. We used telemetry data from 44 tagged individuals of four large-bodied, Arctic breeding waterbird species (two geese, a swan and one crane species to show for the first time that these birds fly non-stop over the Far East taiga forest, despite their differing ecologies and migration routes. This implies a lack of suitable taiga refuelling habitats for these long-distance migrants. These results underline the extreme importance of northeast China spring staging habitats and of Arctic areas prior to departure in autumn to enable birds to clear this inhospitable biome, confirming the need for adequate site safeguard to protect these populations throughout their annual cycle.

  4. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  5. The CERN car stickers for 2008 are now available

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2008 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the following documents: the 2007 sticker for the vehicle in question, the "carte grise" registration paper of the vehicle in question (photocopies accepted). If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2008 sticker using the request form on the Web.NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2007. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  6. The Motivational Power of Game Communities - Engaged through Game Jamming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    to develop games and to meet new people. We believe that the community building as well as the motivation and engagement due to social aspects and the desire to learn more about game development among participants at such events might have beneficial ripple effects, which are valuable to investigate more......Game jams have become a rapid growing phenomenon. Every year brings new and larger game jams. In this study, we closely followed the world’s largest single location game jam in order to explore the engagement among participants. The authors joined the organizing group of the Nordic Game Jam 2013......, and gained a favorable opportunity to observe the 470 game developers efforts during the 48 hours of non-stop development. The paper presents the results of two surveys conducted just before and after the event as well as observations during the game jam. The main motivational factors among participants were...

  7. The effect of podcast lectures on nursing students' knowledge retention and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Karen S

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of academic podcasts in promoting knowledge retention and application in nursing students. Nursing education no longer simply occurs in a fixed location or time. Computer-enhanced mobile learning technologies, such as academic podcasts, must be grounded in pedagogically sound characteristics to ensure effective implementation and learning in nursing education. A convenience sample of 35 female undergraduate nursing students was randomized into three groups: a traditional face-to-face lecture group, an unsegmented (non-stop) podcast lecture group, and a segmented podcast lecture group. Retention and application of information were measured through a multiple-choice quiz and a case study based on lecture content. Students in the segmented podcast lecture group demonstrated higher scores on multiple-choice and case-study assessments than those in the other two groups. Nurse educators should be aware of this finding when seeking to employ podcast lectures in nursing education.

  8. An avoidance layer in hierarchical process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Callatay, A.

    1994-01-01

    A project of layered software architecture is proposed: a safety-critical real-time non-stop simple kernel system includes a layer avoiding threatening actions from operators or programs in other control systems. Complex process-control applications (such as fuzzy systems) are useful for the smooth operation of the system, optimum productivity, efficient diagnostics, and safe management of degraded modes of operation. Defects in these complex process-control applications do not have an impact on safety if their commands have first to be accepted by a safety-critical module. The development, testing, and certification of complex applications computed in the outside layers can be made simpler and less expensive than for those in the kernel. Avoidance systems use rule-base systems having negative fuzzy conditions and actions. Animal and human behaviour cannot be explained without active avoidance

  9. Swiss post office on the Meyrin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As of 4 September 2006, the post office on the Meyrin site will be open to the public from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m non-stop Mondays to Fridays. NB: the Meyrin 1 post office (23, avenue de Feuillasse) is open from 8.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. and the Meyrin 2 Village post office (3, chemin Antoine-Verchère) from 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 a.m. and from 3.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. For further information, please contact the Meyin Site post office on 72798. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  10. SWISS POST OFFICE ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As of 4 September 2006, the post office on the Meyrin site will be open to the public from 9.00 a.m. to 4.00 p.m non-stop Mondays to Fridays. NB: the Meyrin 1 post office (23, avenue de Feuillasse) is open from 8.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. and the Meyrin 2 Village post office (3, chemin Antoine-Verchère) from 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 a.m. and from 3.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. For further information, please contact the Meyin Site post office on 72798. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ relations.secretariat@cern.ch Tel. 72848

  11. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  12. Non-intrusive, fast and sensitive ammonia detection by laser photothermal deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.S.M. de; Harren, F.J.M.; Wyers, G.P.; Otjes, R.P.; Slanina, J.; Reuss, J.

    1995-01-01

    A recently developed non-intrusive photothermal deflection (PTD) instrument allows sensitive, rapid and quantitative detection of local ammonia concentrations in the air. Ammonia is vibrationally excited by an infrared CO 2 laser in an intracavity configuration. A HeNe beam passing over the CO 2 laser beam (multipass arrangement) is deflected by the induced refractive index gradient. The detection limit for ammonia in ambient air is 0.5 ppbv with a spatial resolution of a few mm 3 . The time resolution is 0.1 s (single line) or 15 s (multi line). The system is fully automated and suited for non-stop measuring periods of at least one week. Results were compared to those obtained with a continuous-flow denuder (CFD). (author)

  13. Efficient and tunable high-order harmonic light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Huth, Michael; Trützschler, Andreas; Schumann, Frank O.; Kirschner, Jürgen; Widdra, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of photoelectron spectroscopy using high-order harmonics is presented. • Photoemission spectra on Ag(0 0 1) using megahertz harmonics are shown. • A gas recycling system for harmonic generation is presented. • Non-stop operation of megahertz harmonics up to 76 h is demonstrated. • The bandwidth and pulse duration of the harmonics are discussed. - Abstract: With the recent progress in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) using femtosecond lasers, laboratory photoelectron spectroscopy with an ultrafast, widely tunable vacuum-ultraviolet light source has become available. Despite the well-established technique of HHG-based photoemission experiments at kilohertz repetition rates, the efficiency of these setups can be intrinsically limited by the space-charge effects. Here we present recent developments of compact HHG light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at high repetition rates up to megahertz, and examples for angle-resolved photoemission experiments are demonstrated.

  14. A new advanced software platform for nuclear power plant process information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorsa, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the late 80s, ABB Stromberg Power Ltd. started the development of a new generation software platform for the power plant Process Information System (PIS). This development resulted in a software platform called Procontrol PMS. Procontrol PMS is a platform for fully distributed systems which provides the following features: distributed data processing, non-stop architecture, low-cost incremental expansion path, open network architecture, high functionality, effective application development environment, and advanced user interface services. A description of the structure of the Procontrol PMS software is given. ABB has received by May 1992 six orders for nuclear power plant PISs based on Procontrol PMS (4 for PWR plants, 2 for BWRs). The first Procontrol PMS based nuclear power plant PIS was commissioned in 1989 at the Loviisa nuclear power plant and has been running with 100% availability since the commissioning. (Z.S.) 2 figs

  15. Operational results in the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kanichi; Kato, Katsuya; Terada, Hideo; Kamata, Takakage; Kaimura, Yoshiharu

    1986-01-01

    In the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (BWR type, with electric output 524 MW) started operation in June 1, 1984. The power plant has then continued non-stop operation up to April 2, 1985, thus exhibiting its base load plant. In fiscal 1984, the continuous operation is for 342 days; the capacity factor is about 96.1 %, which is the world's top. During the period, the radioactivity releases to the environment in both liquid and gaseous wastes are below the detection limits. The collective exposure dose for plant personnel is merely 6 man-rem. Subsequently, its 1st periodical inspection was started on April 3, 1985, and finished in July the same year. So, the power plant is now again in operation. (Mori, K.)

  16. Novel gaseous ethylene binding inhibitor prevents ethylene effects in potted flowering plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, M.; Reid, M.S. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Horticulture); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1994-11-01

    A 6-hour fumigation of flowering Begonia xelatior hybrida Fotsch. Najada' and Rosa', B. xtuberhybrida Voss. Non-Stop', Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Tropicana', and Rosa hybrida L. Victory Parade' plants with 1-MCP, (formerly designated as SIS-X), a gaseous nonreversible ethylene binding inhibitor, strongly inhibited exogenous ethylene effects such as bud and flower drop, leaf abscission, and accelerated flower senescence. The inhibitory effects of 1-MCP increased linearly with concentration, and at 20 nl-liter[sup [minus]1] this compound gave equal protection to that afforded by spraying the plants with a 0.5 STS mM solution. Chemical names used: 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), silver thiosulfate (STS).

  17. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  18. Biochemical and hematological changes following the 120-km open-water marathon swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key pointsData on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce.This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim.An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences.Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required.

  19. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Chunlin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Guo Bin, E-mail: binnguo@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Wang Xiaoying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Li Jie [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and Life Science, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhu Weitao; Chen Bo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Ouyang Shan [Food Inspection and Quarantine Center, Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People' s Republic of China, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Yao Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China), Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2012-08-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N{sup 4}-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PreS-IDA-EPI in LC-QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography-hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71-109% with RSDs < 20%) and decreased matrix interferences (-9 to 19%) of multiresidual sulfonamide extraction from different tissue samples. The novel use of neutral loss scan of 66 Da (NLS) or precursor ion scanning of m/z 108 (PreS) in positive ion mode was found to achieve more comprehensive coverage of protonated molecular ions of a wide array of sulfonamides including N{sup 4}-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC-QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67-116%), precision (RSDs < 25%), and sensitivity (LOQs {<=} 7.5 ng

  20. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  1. MEDEA, Steady-State Pressure and Temperature Distribution in He H2O Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    1976-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: MEDEA calculates the time-independent pressure and temperature distribution in a helium-water steam generator. The changing material properties of the fluids with pressure and temperature are treated exactly. The steam generator may consist of economizer, evaporator, superheater and reheater in variable flow patterns. In case of reheating the high-pressure turbine is taken into account. The main control circuits influencing the behaviour of the system are simulated. These are water spraying of the hot steam, load-dependent control of steam pressure at the HP-turbine inlet and valves before the LP-turbine to ensure constant pressure in the reheater section. Investigations of hydrodynamic flow stability in single tubes can be performed. 2 - Method of solution: The steam generator is calculated as a 1-dimensional model, (i.e. all parallel tubes working under equal conditions) and is divided into small heat exchanger elements with helium and water in ideal parallel or counter flow. The material and thermodynamic properties are kept constant within one element. The calculations start at the cold end of the steam generator and proceed stepwise along the water flow pattern to produce pressure and temperature distributions of helium and water. The gas outlet temperature is changed until convergence is reached with a continuous temperature profile on the gas side. MEDEA chooses the iteration scheme according to flow pattern and other special arrangements in the steam generator. The hydrodynamic stability is calculated for a single tube assuming that all tubes are exposed to the same gas temperature profile and changing the water flow in a single tube will not influence the conditions on the gas side. Varying the water flow by keeping gas temperature constant and repeating the steam generator calculations yield pressure drop and steam temperature as a function of flow rate. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum

  2. Design and analysis on super-critical water cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    The Super-Critical Water Cooled Power Reactors (SCPR) is cooled by 25 MPa supercritical water of 280degC at reactor inlet and greater than 500degC at reactor outlet and directly connected with turbine/generators with high energy conversion efficiency. This corresponds to the deletion of recirculation system and steam-water separation system of BWR type reactors or of pressurizer and steam generator of PWR type reactors. In addition to the design study of the university of Tokyo, technology development of the SCPR for practical use has started under the collaboration of industry and academia since 2000. Mockup single tube and bundle tests for heat transfer/fluid flow characteristics of the design have been conducted with 3D heat transfer analysis. Materials compatible with coolant conditions for fuel cans and reactor internals are also assessed. Overall evaluation of the reactor concept is under way. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Bound states of Dipolar Bosons in One-dimensional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Volosniev, A.; R. Armstrong, J.; V. Fedorov, D.

    2013-01-01

    that in the weakly-coupled limit the inter-tube interaction is similar to a zero-range term with a suitable rescaled strength. This allows us to address the corresponding many-body physics of the system by constructing a model where bound chains with one molecule in each tube are the effective degrees of freedom......We consider one-dimensional tubes containing bosonic polar molecules. The long-range dipole-dipole interactions act both within a single tube and between different tubes. We consider arbitrary values of the externally aligned dipole moments with respect to the symmetry axis of the tubes. The few....... This model can be mapped onto one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which exact solutions are known....

  4. Experimental study of nonequilibrium post-chf heat transfer in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Tuzla, K.; Badr, O.; Neti, S.; Chen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Verifications and improvements of nonequilibrium heat transfer models, for post-critical-heat-flux convective boiling, has been greatly affected by the lack of experimental data regarding the degree of thermodynamic nonequilibrium. Recent studies had been successful in measuring vapor superheats in a vertical single tube. This paper extends the nonequilibrium convective boiling data to a rod bundle geometry. Vapor superheat measurements were obtained in a rod bundle with nine heated rods and a heated shroud. Tests were carried out with water at low mass fluxes with a wide range of dryout conditions. Significant nonequilibrium was observed, with vapor superheats of up to 600 0 C. Parametric effects of mass flux, heat flux and inlet conditions on vapor superheat are presented

  5. Chemical and hydrothermal studies on once through boilers using a full scale replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, D.; Gill, G.M.; Greene, J.C.; Harrison, G.S.; Walker, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the scope of research work carried out on once through boilers on the test rig at Wythenshawe, United Kingdom. The latter rig was designed and built to replicate the chemical, metallurgical and hydrothermal conditions on single tube test sections of Heysham 1 (AGR) and Wylfa (Magnox) boilers. A description is given of the rig, along with the facilities for obtaining the research data. Research studies on the once through boilers include: Heysham 1 boiler inlet, oxygen stress corrosion risk in post trip operation, Wylfa two phase erosion-corrosion risk in post trip operation, Wylfa two phase erosion-corrosion, dryout phenomena in a helical coil, and heat transfer co-efficients. (UK)

  6. A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Quantity Measurement in Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Terzic, Edin; Nagarajah, Romesh; Alamgir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Sloshing causes liquid to fluctuate, making accurate level readings difficult to obtain in dynamic environments. The measurement system described uses a single-tube capacitive sensor to obtain an instantaneous level reading of the fluid surface, thereby accurately determining the fluid quantity in the presence of slosh. A neural network based classification technique has been applied to predict the actual quantity of the fluid contained in a tank under sloshing conditions.   In A neural network approach to fluid quantity measurement in dynamic environments, effects of temperature variations and contamination on the capacitive sensor are discussed, and the authors propose that these effects can also be eliminated with the proposed neural network based classification system. To examine the performance of the classification system, many field trials were carried out on a running vehicle at various tank volume levels that range from 5 L to 50 L. The effectiveness of signal enhancement on the neural network base...

  7. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  8. Heat Transfer Experiment with Supercritical CO{sub 2} Flowing Upward in a Circular Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. Heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required in relevant geometries for the proper prediction of thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor core. A heat transfer test loop, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been constructed in KAERI. The loop uses carbon dioxide as a surrogate fluid for water since the critical pressure and temperature of CO{sub 2} are much lower those of water. As a first stage of heat transfer experiments, a single tube test is being performed in the test loop. Controlled parameters for the tests are operating pressure, mass flux, and heat flux. Wall temperatures are measured along the tube. Experimental data are compared with existing correlations.

  9. Numerical simulation of cross-flow in a bank of tubes with three rows in the subcritical region of Reynolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzairin; Faizal, Mohd; Ambri, Zainal; Raghavan, V R

    2013-01-01

    The present work focused on 2-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation in predicting hydrodynamics and thermal characteristics of air flow across circular tube banks with integral wake splitters. The tube banks studied consist of three rows of tubes in staggered arrangement. The lengths of the splitter are 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times the tube diameter. The range of Reynolds number investigated is in the range of 1000 to 10000, which is in the sub-critical region of Reynolds number. The flow condition within this range is incompressible since the maximum Mach number is less than 0.3. The numerical approach was validated against the experimental works of Zukauskas (1985) and Anderson (1997). Local pressure coefficient for flow around a single tube with integral wake splitter is also presented for comparison. It was found that the present of the wake splitters was able to improve the overall heat transfer of the system

  10. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  11. Helium production technology based on natural gas combustion and beneficial use of thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakoryakov Vladimir E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helium is widely used in all industries, including power plant engineering. In recent years, helium is used in plants operating by the Brayton cycle, for example, in the nuclear industry. Using helium-xenon mixture in nuclear reactors has a number of advantages, and this area is rapidly developing. The hydrodynamics and mass transfer processes in single tubes with various cross-sections as well as in inter-channel space of heating tube bundle were studied at the Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Currently, there is a strongest shortage in helium production. The main helium production method consists in the liquefaction of the natural gas and subsequent separation of helium from remaining gas with its further purification using membranes.

  12. Numerical simulation of random stresses on an annular turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti-Moreno, Marta

    2000-01-01

    The flow along a circular cylinder may induce structural vibrations. For the predictive analysis of such vibrations, the turbulent forcing spectrum needs to be characterized. The aim of this work is to study the turbulent fluid forces acting on a single tube in axial flow. More precisely we have performed numerical simulations of an annular flow. These simulations were carried out on a cylindrical staggered mesh by a finite difference method. We consider turbulent flow with Reynolds number up to 10 6 . The Large Eddy Simulation Method has been used. A survey of existent experiments showed that hydraulic diameter acts as an important parameter. We first showed the accuracy of the numerical code by reproducing the experiments of Mulcahy. The agreement between pressure spectra from computations and from experiments is good. Then, we applied this code to simulate new numerical experiments varying the hydraulic diameter and the flow velocity. (author) [fr

  13. Comparison of various primer sets for detection of Toxoplasma gondii by polymerase chain reaction in fetal tissues from naturally aborted foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smielewska-Loś, E

    2003-01-01

    Tissues from 4 aborted polar foxes (3 samples of brain and 4 samples of liver) were selected for Toxoplasma gondii PCR assay. Positive results of serological tests of mothers and immunofluorescence test (IFT) of fetal organ smears were the criteria of sample selection. Five sets of primers designed from B1 gene and ITS1 sequences of T. gondii were used for detection of the parasite in fetal fox tissues. All used primer sets successfully amplified T. gondii DNA in PCR from organs which were positive by IFT. Single tube nested PCR also showed positive result from a sample negative by IFT, but this product was not confirmed. The studies showed usefullness of PCR for routine diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in carnivores.

  14. Heat Transfer Experiment with Supercritical CO2 Flowing Upward in a Circular Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2005-01-01

    SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. Heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required in relevant geometries for the proper prediction of thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor core. A heat transfer test loop, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been constructed in KAERI. The loop uses carbon dioxide as a surrogate fluid for water since the critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 are much lower those of water. As a first stage of heat transfer experiments, a single tube test is being performed in the test loop. Controlled parameters for the tests are operating pressure, mass flux, and heat flux. Wall temperatures are measured along the tube. Experimental data are compared with existing correlations

  15. Heat transfer enhancement in cross-flow heat exchanger using vortex generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S. Y.; Kwon, H. K.; Kim, B. C.; Park, D. S.; Lee, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    Fouling is very serious problem in heat exchanger because it rapidly deteriorates the performance of heat exchanger. Cross-flow heat exchanger with vortex generators is developed, which enhance heat transfer and reduce fouling. In the present heat exchanger, shell and baffle are removed from the conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The naphthalene sublimation technique is employed to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The experiments are performed for single circular tube, staggered array tube bank and in-line array tube bank with and without vortex generators. Local and average Nusselt numbers of single tube and tube bank with vortex generator are investigated and compared to those of without vortex generator

  16. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values

  17. Analytical modeling of inverted annular film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1987-01-01

    By employing a two-fluid formulation similar to the one used in the most recent LWR accident analysis codes, a model for the Inverted Annular Film Boiling region is developed. The conservation equations, together with appropriate closure relations are solved numerically. Successful comparisons are made between model predictions and heat transfer coefficient distributions measured in a series of single-tube reflooding experiments. Generally, the model predicts correctly the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on liquid subcooling and flow rate; for some cases, however, heat transfer is still under-predicted, and an enhancement of the heat exchange from the liquid-vapour interface to the bulk of the liquid is required. The importance of the initial conditions at the quench front is also discussed. (orig.)

  18. The top-down reflooding model in the Cathare code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Bestion, D.; Haapalehto, T.

    1993-01-01

    A top-down reflooding model was developed for the French best-estimate thermalhydraulic code CATHARE. The paper presents the current state of development of this model. Based on a literature survey and on compatibility considerations with respect to the existing CATHARE bottom reflooding package, a falling film top-down reflooding model was developed and implemented into CATHARE version 1.3E. Following a brief review of previous work, the paper describes the most important features of the model. The model was validated with the WINFRITH single tube top-down reflooding experiment and with the REWET - II simultaneous bottom and top-down reflooding experiment in rod bundle geometry. The results demonstrate the ability of the new package to describe the falling film rewetting phenomena and the main parametric trends both in a simple analytical experimental setup and in a much more complex rod bundle reflooding experiment. (authors). 9 figs., 28 refs

  19. Analytical modeling of inverted annular film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1985-01-01

    By employing a two-fluid formulation similar to the one used in the most recent LWR accident analysis codes, a model for the Inverted Annular Film Boiling region is developed. The conservation equations, together with appropriate constitutive relations are solved numerically and successful comparisons are made between model predictions and heat transfer coefficient distributions measured in a series of single-tube reflooding experiments. The model predicts generally correctly the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on liquid subcooling and flow rate, through, for some cases, heat transfer is still under-predicted, and an enhancement of the heat exchange from the liquid-vapour interface to the bulk of the liquid is required

  20. A Simple and Robust Method for Semi-Quantitative Detection of Human Papillomavirus Nucleic Acids (HPV Helps Oncological Clinicians to Assess the Severeness of HPV Cellular Changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heirler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and robust method for the detection of nucleic acids of human papilloma virus (HPV has been developed. The assay exploits the excellent sensitivity and specificity of “nested” polymerase chain reaction (nPCR that is designed in the original single tube configuration to effectively prevent the carry-over contamination. This approach theoretically covers the amplification of all cancer developing genotypes currently known. The nPCR, paired with very simple nucleic acids isolation steps, is a real alternative to the standard method. This manuscript shows its capacity for routine use under clinical conditions. It is shown that the strategy is at least as sensitive as the standard two tube nPCR and the data are acceptably reproducible.

  1. Computational simulation of natural circulation and rewetting experiments using the TRAC/PF1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.D. da.

    1994-05-01

    In this work the TRAC code was used to simulate experiments of natural circulation performed in the first Brazilian integral test facility at (COPESP), Sao Paulo and a rewetting experiment in a single tube test section carried out at CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In the first simulation the loop behavior in two transient conditions with different thermal power, namely 20 k W and 120 k W, was verified in the second one the quench front propagation, the liquid mass collected in the carry over measuring tube and the wall temperature at different elevations during the flooding experiment was measured. A comparative analysis, for code consistency, shows a good agreement between the code results and experimental data, except for the quench from velocity. (author). 15 refs, 19 figs, 12 tabs

  2. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  3. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  4. Novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukes, J.P.; King, D.P.; Alexandersen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. The development of a one-step, reverse transcription loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assay enables FMD virus (FMDV) to be detected in under an hour...... in a single tube without thermal cycling. A fragment of the 3D RNA polymerase gene of the virus is amplified at 65 degrees C in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase. Compared with real-time RT-PCR, RT-LAMP was consistently faster, and ten copies of FMDV...... vesicular diseases and from that of genetically related picornaviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity was validated by the amplification of reference FMDV strains and archival material from field cases of FMD. In comparison with the performance of the established diagnostic TaqMan (R) assay, RT-LAMP appears...

  5. Measurement of the surface tension by the method of maximum gas bubble pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugne, Jean

    1971-01-01

    A gas bubble method for measuring surface tension was studied. Theoretical investigations demonstrated that the maximum pressure can be represented by the envelope of a certain family of curves and that the physical nature of the capillary tube imposes an upper limit to its useful radius. With a given tube and a specified liquid, the dynamic evolution of the gas bubble depends only upon the variation of the mass of gas contained with time; this fact may restrict the choice of tubes. The use of one single tube requires important corrections. Computer treatment of the problem led to some accurate equations for calculating γ. Schroedinger equations and Sudgen's table are examined. The choice of tubes, the necessary corrections, density measurement, and the accuracy attainable are discussed. Experiments conducted with water and mercury using the sessile drop method and continuous recording of the pressure verified the theoretical ideas. (author) [fr

  6. Analysis of two way fluid structure interaction and local material properties of brazed joints for estimation of mechanical integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seok Hoon; Park, Sang Hu; Son, Chang Min; Ha, Man Young; Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ho Sung [Pusan Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jongrae [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Jun [Donghwa Entec Co., Ltd., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Recent years have witnessed a strong need for eco friendly and energy efficient systems owing to global environmental problems. A heat exchanger is a well known mechanical rig that has long been used in many energy systems. The use of a heat exchanger in an airplane engine has been attempted. In this case, the heat exchanger should be redesigned to be compact, lightweight, and highly reliable, and the issue of mechanical integrity gains importance. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method for evaluating the mechanical integrity of a tube type heat exchanger. A U shaped single tube was used as an example, and its behavior and stress distribution were studied using fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis.

  7. Computational simulation of natural circulation and rewetting experiments using the TRAC/PF1 code; Simulacao computacional dos experimentos: circulacao natural no CTE-150 e remolhamento na ITR utilizando o TRAC-PF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.D. da

    1994-05-01

    In this work the TRAC code was used to simulate experiments of natural circulation performed in the first Brazilian integral test facility at (COPESP), Sao Paulo and a rewetting experiment in a single tube test section carried out at CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In the first simulation the loop behavior in two transient conditions with different thermal power, namely 20 k W and 120 k W, was verified in the second one the quench front propagation, the liquid mass collected in the carry over measuring tube and the wall temperature at different elevations during the flooding experiment was measured. A comparative analysis, for code consistency, shows a good agreement between the code results and experimental data, except for the quench from velocity. (author). 15 refs, 19 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.

  9. Hideout of sodium salts in tubesheet crevices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Campon, J.L.

    1987-07-01

    The hideout of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride in tubesheet crevices was studied in single tube model boilers at CADARACHE. Radioactive Na 24 was used for the measurements. Crevices of 0.2 mm width were empty or packed. A hydraulically expanded crevice and a rolled crevice were also studied. The concentration rate depends on the bulk water concentration but the equilibrium concentration appears to be related only to thermal conditions. The equilibrium value of 25 moles per liter in the crevice was extrapolated, the sodium concentration in the bulk water being in the range of 5 to 50 ppM. This equilibrium will be obtained with an ''integrated pollution'' of 5000 to 10,000 ppM x hours. Flushing produced by the boiler depressurization was shown to be an effective way to remove salt from the crevice. Sodium hydroxide was shown to concentrate even in a residual crevice of few μm width

  10. Theoretical support to the NOKO experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffrath, A.; Prasser, H.M.

    1998-06-01

    The work which was performed by FZR within the BWR-CA is divided into three tasks: Implementation of two phase flow instrumentation, ATHLET calculations of NOKO experiments and approach for the optimization of passive components. Chapter two contains a description of the two phase flow measurement instrumentation developed by FZR in general and especially of the instrumentation of the single emergency condenser tube, which is installed in parallel to the emergency condenser test bundle. The experimental data should be used for the validation of the improved ATHLET condensation model. Because the evaluation of these experiments shows an undesired accumulation of non-condensable gases in front of the water level, some of the goals of the single tube measurements can`t be met. Therefore there is a need for further single tube experiments with an improved instrumentation. On the other hand the results give valuable insights to the phenomena caused by non-condensables. In the second part of chapter two an improved two-phase flow instrumentation is suggested based on the collected experience and taking into account the detected problems. In chapter three ATHLET calculations of NOKO experiments are presented. Within the BWR-CA FZR had performed 10 post test calculations and an additional blind test calculation of NOKO experiments. The tests were selected by FZJ. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Basis of the comparison between computational and experimental data is the evaluation and the uncertainty analysis of the NOKO experiments, which were performed by FZR with the computer code CASH-(Computergestuetzte Auswertung und Unsicherheitsanalyse von NOKO Experimenten) Graphics. The fourth chapter deals with the optimization of the emergency condenser. This is desirable because this allows to decrease of the pressurized BWR surface and the possibility of leakages. An ATHLET calculation is performed for an optimized emergency condenser tube of a

  11. Ribo HRM--detection of inter- and intra-species polymorphisms within ribosomal DNA by high resolution melting analysis supported by application of artificial allelic standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Aleksander; Jagiełło, Agata; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Golab, Elzbieta

    2012-09-01

    Ribo HRM, a single-tube PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) assay for detection of polymorphisms in the large subunit ribosomal DNA expansion segment V, was developed on a Trichinella model. Four Trichinella species: T. spiralis (isolates ISS3 and ISS160), T. nativa (isolates ISS10 and ISS70), T. britovi (isolates ISS2 and ISS392) and T. pseudospiralis (isolates ISS13 and ISS1348) were genotyped. Cloned allelic variants of the expansion segment V were used as standards to prepare reference HRM curves characteristic for single sequences and mixtures of several cloned sequences imitating allelic composition detected in Trichinella isolates. Using the primer pair Tsr1 and Trich1bi, it was possible to amplify a fragment of the ESV and detect PCR products obtained from the genomic DNA of pools of larvae belonging to the four investigated species: T. pseudospiralis, T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. nativa, in a single tube Real-Time PCR reaction. Differences in the shape of the HRM curves of Trichinella isolates suggested the presence of differences between examined isolates of T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis species. No differences were observed between T. spiralis isolates. The presence of polymorphisms within the amplified ESV sequence fragment of T. nativa T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis was confirmed by sequencing of the cloned PCR products. Novel sequences were discovered and deposited in GenBank (GenBank IDs: JN971020-JN971027, JN120902.1, JN120903.1, JN120904.1, JN120906.1, JN120905.1). Screening the ESV region of Trichinella for polymorphism is possible using the genotyping assay Ribo HRM at the current state of its development. The Ribo HRM assay could be useful in phylogenetic studies of the Trichinella genus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronounced differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.

  13. Tuberculosis Biomarker Extraction and Isothermal Amplification in an Integrated Diagnostic Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Creecy

    Full Text Available In this study, we integrated magnetic bead-based sample preparation and isothermal loop mediated amplification (LAMP of TB in a single tube. Surrogate sputum samples produced by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health containing inactivated TB bacteria were used to test the diagnostic. In order to test the sample preparation method, samples were lysed, and DNA was manually extracted and eluted into water in the tube. In a thermal cycler, LAMP amplified TB DNA from 103 TB cells/mL of sputum at 53.5 ± 3.3 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 46.3 ± 2.2 minutes, and 105 cells/mL at 41.6 ± 1.9 minutes. Negative control samples did not amplify. Next, sample preparation was combined with in-tubing isothermal LAMP amplification by replacing the water elution chamber with a LAMP reaction chamber. In this intermediate configuration, LAMP amplified 103 cells/mL at 74 ± 10 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 60 ± 9 minutes, and 105 TB cells/mL of sputum at 54 ± 9 minutes. Two of three negative controls did not amplify; one amplified at 100 minutes. In the semi-automated system, DNA was eluted directly into an isothermal reaction solution containing the faster OptiGene DNA polymerase. The low surrogate sputum concentration, 103 TB cells/mL, amplified at 52.8 ± 3.3 minutes, 104 cells/mL at 45.4 ± 11.3 minutes, and 105 cells/mL at 31.8 ± 2.9 minutes. TB negative samples amplified at 66.4 ± 7.4 minutes. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a single tube design for integrating sample preparation and isothermal amplification, which with further development could be useful for point-of-care applications, particularly in a low-resource setting.

  14. Theoretical support to the NOKO experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, A.; Prasser, H.M.

    1998-06-01

    The work which was performed by FZR within the BWR-CA is divided into three tasks: Implementation of two phase flow instrumentation, ATHLET calculations of NOKO experiments and approach for the optimization of passive components. Chapter two contains a description of the two phase flow measurement instrumentation developed by FZR in general and especially of the instrumentation of the single emergency condenser tube, which is installed in parallel to the emergency condenser test bundle. The experimental data should be used for the validation of the improved ATHLET condensation model. Because the evaluation of these experiments shows an undesired accumulation of non-condensable gases in front of the water level, some of the goals of the single tube measurements can't be met. Therefore there is a need for further single tube experiments with an improved instrumentation. On the other hand the results give valuable insights to the phenomena caused by non-condensables. In the second part of chapter two an improved two-phase flow instrumentation is suggested based on the collected experience and taking into account the detected problems. In chapter three ATHLET calculations of NOKO experiments are presented. Within the BWR-CA FZR had performed 10 post test calculations and an additional blind test calculation of NOKO experiments. The tests were selected by FZJ. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Basis of the comparison between computational and experimental data is the evaluation and the uncertainty analysis of the NOKO experiments, which were performed by FZR with the computer code CASH-(Computergestuetzte Auswertung und Unsicherheitsanalyse von NOKO Experimenten) Graphics. The fourth chapter deals with the optimization of the emergency condenser. This is desirable because this allows to decrease of the pressurized BWR surface and the possibility of leakages. An ATHLET calculation is performed for an optimized emergency condenser tube of a

  15. Analisis Penerapan Metode Kaporitisasi Sederhana Terhadap Kualitas Bakteriologis Air PMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahur Rohim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Water bacteriological quality is a parameter required for fresh water. The bacteriological content  is high because of the contamination from surrounding or activity of people near the area. From fact in the field, most of water bacteriological quality in Indonesia is still worse. In Flores land area, especially in Boawae the water from PMA are not treated by a good tretment water. Result of water quality monitoring program in Boawae, indicating that the MPN Coli Content is 210 Col/100 ml sample. One of the alternatives is to improve bacteriological quality is by using chlorination process of the PMA water. The aim of the study was to analyze the difference between physicchemist parameter and bacteriological parameter in PMA water after chlorinated by using three methods (Single Tube an Layered Tube and Molasses Tube. Methods: The research was experimental research with one group and after intervention design. Number of sample is 270: 30 samples of PMA water control, 120 samples before treatment and 120 samples after the treatment. The physicochemist sample and bacteriological sample has examinate according to examination procedure in laboratory. Data was analyzed by using method of univariate, bivariate and multivariate as Kruskal Wallis test and Cochran test. Results: The result of the research showed that from the treatment of a single tube, layered tube and molasses tube was found that there were  differences among parameters of pH, TDS, Chlor, Fe, Mn, NO2 , NO3 , CaCO3 , Coliform total, E.Coli with a 5%  p=0,0001. Conclusion : It is concluded that based on parameter of Chlor, Coliform total and E.Coli, the better and suitable devices of water  treatment is Layered Tube Key Words : Clean Water, Chlorination and Bacteriological

  16. Genetic mutation analysis of HBV covalently closed circular DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic hepatitis B patients with nucleos(tide analog-resistant mutations in serum virions

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    Zhong-bin LI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the characteristics of genetic mutations in reverse-transcriptase (RT domain of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with drug-resistant mutations in serum virions during nucleoside/nucleotide analog (NA therapy. Methods  A total of 30 CHB patients admitted to 302 Hospital of PLA from July 2010 to August 2011 were included in this study. All the patients were confirmed to harbor the drug-resistant mutations in serum virions during an NA therapy longer than 6 months. Total DNA was extracted from PBMCs isolated from 30 whole blood samples at the same time point as that of serum analysis. Plasmid-safe ATP-dependent DNase (PSAD digestion in combination with rolling circle amplification and gap-spanning semi-nested PCR were used to amplify the RT region of HBV cccDNA. NA-resistant-associated mutations were analyzed at nine sites. Results  HBV cccDNA was efficiently amplified in 16 out of 30 (53.3% PBMC samples, and the detection rate was not correlated with HBeAg-positive rate, serum ALT level or HBV DNA load. Five of 16 (31.3% patients were sustained to have genotype B HBV infection, and 11 of 16 (68.8% were of genotype C HBV infection, and the result was consistent with the genotyping results using serum HBV. Different from drug-resistant mutations detected in the serum virions, the viruses detected in HBV cccDNA of 16 PBMC samples were all wild-type viruses without NA-resistant-associated mutations in RT region. Conclusions  During NA antiviral treatment, if drug-resistant mutations occur in serum HBV DNA of CHB patients, the dominant species of HBV cccDNA in PBMCs from the same patient is still the original wild-type strains. It is speculated that PBMCs might be the potential "repository" of HBV wild-type strain in vivo.

  17. Epidemics and Frequent Recombination within Species in Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus B-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Shandong China in 2010 and 2011.

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    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human enterovirus B (HEV-B associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD outbreaks in China are not well known. In the present study, we tested 201 HEV isolates from 233 clinical specimens from patients with severe HFMD during 2010-2011 in Linyi, Shandong, China. Of the 201 isolates, 189 were fully typed and 18 corresponded to HEV-B species (six serotypes CVA9, CVB1, CVB4, Echo 6, Echo 25 and Echo 30 using sensitive semi-nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of VP1 gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 region showed that eight E30SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D2; E25SD belonged to a novel sub-genogroup D6; E6SD belonged to sub-lineage C6 and five CVB1SD belonged to subgroup 4C; and B4SD belonged sub-lineage D2. The full viral genomes of the CVB1SD, E6SD, E25SD and E30SD isolates were sequenced. Analysis of phylogenetic and similarity plots indicated that E25SD recombined with E25-HN-2, E30FDJS03 and E4AUS250 at noncontiguous P2A-P3D regions, while E30SD, E30FDJ03, E25-HN-2 and E9 DM had shared sequences in discrete regions of P2 and P3. Both E6SD and B1SD shared sequences with E1-HN, B4/GX/10, B5-HN, and A9-Alberta in contiguous regions of most of P2 and P3. Genetic algorithm recombination detection analysis further confirmed the existence of multiple potential recombination points. In conclusion, analysis of the complete genomes of E25SD, E30SD, CVB1SD and E6SD isolated from HFMD patients revealed that they formed novel subgenogroup. Given the prevalence and recombination of these viruses in outbreaks of HFMD, persistent surveillance of HFMD-associated HEV-B pathogens is required to predict potential emerging viruses and related disease outbreaks.

  18. Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: report of rotavirus surveillance in Turkey.

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    Riza Durmaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. METHODS: Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2% of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7% was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%. A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G-P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9 and two common P types (P[8] and P[4] accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%, G2P[8] (9.3%, G2P[4] (6.5%, G3P[8] (3.5%, and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%. These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. CONCLUSION: The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1-G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country.

  19. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  20. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Detection of TT Virus Among Thalassaemic Children With Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Receiving Irradiated and Non Irradiated RBCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, D.F.; EL-Shafie, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.; Alkady, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    TTV was first identified in the serum of a patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1997.As a consequence of the high prevalence of TTV in blood donors, thalassemia patients frequently acquire various genotypes of this virus through therapeutic blood transfusions.TTV as a cause of chronic hepatitis has not yet determined . Ten healthy and twenty-eight poly-transfused thalassemia children were evolved in this study where ten patients were receiving irradiated RBCs and eighteen receiving non irradiated ones.TTV was detected in serum samples by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primer. Transaminases levels, hepatitis B and C virus markers were interpreted for possible association with TTV infection. As a result, TTV was found in 50% of thalassemia patients and in 20 % of the controls. Among thalassemia patients, isolated HBsAG, isolated HCV-AB, HBsAG and TTV-DNA and HCV-AB and TTV-DNA distributions were: 6 (21.43%) ,8 ( 28.57%) , 4 ( 14.29%) and 10 (35.7%) respectively. Regarding thalassemia patients receiving irradiated RBCs, the frequency of viral infections were 8(80%), 2(20%) and 0% for TTV co-infections, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. On the other hand, the prevalence of viral infections among patients receiving non irradiated RBCs were 6(33.3%), 4(22.2%) and 8(44.5%) for TTV co-infection, isolated HBV and isolated HCV, respectively. These data may give evidence that radiation raises the levels of blood safety especially regarding HCV. Furthermore, liver transaminase levels were significantly higher in all patients versus the controls, meanwhile, transaminase values were not different in HBsAG-positive subjects as compared with subjects who had both HBsAG and TTV-DNA positive. Also, there was no significant difference between isolated HCV infection and HCV and TTV co-infection. So, no convincing evidence was found to support TTV involvement in the D. F. EL-MAGHRABY, et al. / J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci

  2. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  3. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  4. Benzimidazole -Resistance in Haemonchus Contortus: New PCR-RFLP Method for the Detection of Point Mutation at Codon 167 of Isotype 1 Β-Tubulin Gene

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    A Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the lack of a suitable and economic test for the analysis of the polymorphism at codon 167, we developed a new PCR-RFLP technique, based on a modified forward primer (UT-HC167 MF-primer, to identify simultaneously the SNPs at codons 167 and 200 of isotype 1 β-tubu­lin gene of Haemonchus contortus.Methods: There already are several safe and easy methods for identification of point mutations at codons 198 and 200. Due to the lack of a reliable and easy method for the detection of the single nucleo­tide polymorphism (SNP at codon 167, we developed an innovative PCR-RFLP technique based on a modified forward primer (UT-HC167 MF-primer, in which the nucleotide T at the posi­tion 443 was substituted through a nucleotide A creating a restriction site for restriction endonuc­lease SnaB I in the nucleotide sequences including codon 167. A total of 138 adult male H. contortus were collected from three different geo-climatic areas of Iran. The isolated genomic DNA of each single worm was amplified by PCR using primers flanking codon 167. The PCR product (527 bp was then amplified by semi-nested PCR using the UT-HC167 MF-primer and the reverse primer achiev­ing a PCR product of 451 bp in length. This PCR product was subsequently digested with the restriction endonucleases SnaB I and TaaI for analysis of the mutations at codons 167 and 200, respec­tively.Results: All worms had two alleles encoding for phenylalanine (BZss homozygote for both codons.Conclusion: Using the UT-HC167 MF-primer and a suitable reverse primer designed upstream from codon 200, it is possible to amplify a PCR product which can be used for analysis of the SNPs at all three mentioned codons using RFLP.

  5. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  6. HDP2: a ribosomal DNA (NTS-ETS) sequence as a target for species-specific molecular diagnosis of intestinal taeniasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, María D; Gonzalez, Luis M; Hurtado, Carolina; Motta, Yamileth Monje; Domínguez-Hidalgo, Cristina; Merino, Francisco Jesús; Perteguer, María J; Gárate, Teresa

    2018-02-27

    Taenia solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata tapeworms cause human taeniasis and are the origin of porcine and bovine cysticercosis. Furthermore, T. solium eggs can cause human cysticercosis, with neurocysticercosis being the most serious form of the disease. These helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases and are endemic in several countries in the Americas, Asia and Africa. As a result of globalization, migration in particular, the infections have been extending to non-endemic territories. Species-specific diagnosis of taeniasis is subject to drawbacks that could be resolved using molecular approaches. In the present study, conventional and real-time amplification protocols (cPCR and qPCR) based on the T. saginata HDP2 sequence were applied in the differential diagnosis of taeniasis (T. saginata, T. solium) in both fecal samples and proglottids expelled by patients. The HDP2 homolog in T. solium was cloned and characterized. Semi-nested cPCR and qPCR (Sn-HDP2 cPCR and Sn-HDP2 qPCR) amplified T. saginata and T. solium DNA, with an analytical sensitivity of 40 and 400 fg, respectively, and identically in both protocols. Eighteen taeniasis patients were diagnosed directly with T. saginata or T. solium, either from proglottids or fecal samples with/without eggs (detected using microscopy), based on the optimized Sn-HDP2 qPCR. After cloning, the T. solium HDP2 homolog sequence was confirmed to be a ribosomal sequence. The HDP2 fragment corresponded to a non-transcribed sequence/external transcribed repeat (NTS/ETS) of ribosomal DNA. Compared with the T. saginata HDP2 homolog, the T solium HDP2 sequence lacked the first 900 nt at the 5' end and showed nucleotide substitutions and small deletions. Sn-HDP2 cPCR and Sn-HDP2 qPCR were set up for the diagnosis of human taeniasis, using proglottids and fecal samples from affected patients. The new Sn-HDP2 qPCR protocol was the best option, as it directly differentiated T. saginata from T. solium. The diagnosis of

  7. Paired methods to measure biofilm killing and removal: a case study with Penicillin G treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausbacher, D; Lorenz, L; Pitts, B; Stewart, P S; Goeres, D M

    2018-03-01

    Biofilms are microbial aggregates that show high tolerance to antibiotic treatments in vitro and in vivo. Killing and removal are both important in biofilm control, therefore methods that measure these two mechanisms were evaluated in a parallel experimental design. Kill was measured using the single tube method (ASTM method E2871) and removal was determined by video microscopy and image analysis using a new treatment flow cell. The advantage of the parallel test design is that both methods used biofilm covered coupons harvested from a CDC biofilm reactor, a well-established and standardized biofilm growth method. The control Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treated with growth medium increased by 0·6 logs during a 3-h contact time. Efficacy testing showed biofilms exposed to 400 μmol l -1 penicillin G decreased by only 0·3 logs. Interestingly, time-lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that penicillin G treatment dispersed the biofilm despite being an ineffective killing agent. In addition, no biofilm removal was detected when assays were performed in 96-well plates. These results illustrate that biofilm behaviour and impact of treatments can vary substantially when assayed by different methods. Measuring both killing and removal with well-characterized methods will be crucial for the discovery of new anti-biofilm strategies. Biofilms are tolerant to antimicrobial treatments and can lead to persistent infections. Finding new anti-biofilm strategies and understanding their mode-of-action is therefore of high importance. Historically, antimicrobial testing has focused on measuring the decrease in viability. While kill data are undeniably important, measuring biofilm disruption provides equally useful information. Starting with biofilm grown in the same reactor, we paired assessment of biofilm removal using a new treatment-flow-cell and real-time microscopy with kill data collected using the single tube method (ASTM E2871). Pairing these two methods

  8. Fluorescence-intensity multiplexing: simultaneous seven-marker, two-color immunophenotyping using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Jolene A; Buller, Gayle; Suter, Michael; Ignatius, Michael; Beechem, Joseph M

    2004-10-01

    Conventional immuno-based multiparameter flow cytometric analysis has been limited by the requirement of a dedicated detection channel for each antibody-fluorophore set. To address the need to resolve multiple biological targets simultaneously, flow cytometers with as many as 10-15 detection channels have been developed. In this study, a new Zenon immunolabeling technology is developed that allows for multiple antigen detection per detection channel using a single fluorophore, through a unique method of fluorescence-intensity multiplexing. By varying the Zenon labeling reagent-to-antibody molar ratio, the fluorescence intensity of the antibody-labeled cellular targets can be used as a unique identifier. Although demonstrated in the present study with lymphocyte immunophenotyping, this approach is broadly applicable for any immuno-based multiplexed flow cytomety assay. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping of 38 clinical blood specimens using CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD56, CD19, and CD20 antibodies was performed using conventional flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence-intensity multiplexing analysis. Conventional analysis measures a single antibody-fluorophore per photomultiplier tube (PMT). Fluorescence-intensity multiplex analysis simultaneously measures seven markers with two PMTs, using Zenon labeling reagent-antibody complexes in a single tube: CD19, CD4, CD8, and CD16 antibodies labeled with Zenon Alexa Fluor 488 Mouse IgG(1) labeling reagent and CD56, CD3, and CD20 antibodies labeled with Zenon R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) Mouse IgG(1) or IgG(2b) labeling reagents. The lymphocyte immunophenotyping results from fluorescence-intensity multiplexing using Zenon labeling reagents in a single tube were comparable to results from conventional flow cytometric analysis. Simultaneous evaluation of multiple antigens using a single fluorophore can be performed using antibodies labeled with varying ratios of a Zenon labeling reagent. Labeling two sets of antibodies with different Zenon

  9. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon E.; Sargent, Steve; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2018-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2). The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL) that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ˜ 250 W). A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016) in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: -26.1 to 31.6 °C). The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz) and similar to that of a closed-path CO2 eddy-covariance system (4

  10. Subcooled Pool Boiling from Two Tubes of 6 Degree Included Angle in Vertical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the major issues in the design of a heat exchanger is the heat transfer in a tube bundle. The passive condensation heat exchanger (PCHX) adopted in APR+ has U-type tube. The PCHX is submerged in the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment and inclined at 3 degrees to prevent water hammer as shown in Fig. 1. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Therefore, the results for a single tube are not applicable to the design of the PCHX. However, the passive heat exchangers are submerged in the subcooled water under atmospheric pressure. The water temperature in the PCCT rises according to the PAFS actuation and reaches the saturation temperature after more than 2.5 hours. Since this period is very important to maintain reactor integrity, the exact evaluation of heat transfer on the tube bundle is indispensable. Although an experimental study on both subcooled and saturated pool boiling of water was performed to obtain local heat transfer coefficients on a 3 degree inclined tube at atmospheric pressure by Kang, no previous results were treating the bundle effect in the subcooled liquid. The heat transfer on the upper tube is enhanced compared with the single tube. The enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect ( h{sub r} ). It is defined as the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient ( h{sub b} ) for an upper tube in a bundle with lower tubes activated to that for the same tube activated alone in the bundle. The upper tube within a tube bundle can significantly increase nucleated boiling heat transfer compared to the lower tubes at moderate heat fluxes. Summarizing the published results, it is still necessary to identify effects of liquid subcooling on inclined tubes for application to the PCHX design. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study the variations of pool boiling heat transfer on a tube bundle having a 6 degree included angle in

  11. Migration patterns and wintering range of common loons breeding in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Adams, D.; Schoch, N.; Evers, D.C.; Hanson, W.; Yates, D.; Savoy, L.; Fox, T.J.; Major, A.; Kratt, R.; Ozard, J.

    2009-01-01

    A study, using satellite telemetry, was conducted to determine the precise migration patterns and wintering locations of Common Loons (Gavia immer) breeding in the northeastern United States. Transmitters were implanted in 17 loons (16 adults and one juvenile) that were captured on breeding lakes in New York, New Hampshire, and Maine during the summers of 2003, 2004, and 2005. Transmitters from ten of the birds provided adequate location data to document movement to wintering areas. Most adult loons appeared to travel non-stop from breeding lakes, or neighboring lakes (within 15 km), to the Atlantic coast. Adult loons marked in New Hampshire and Maine wintered 152 to 239 km from breeding lakes, along the Maine coast. Adult loons marked in the Adirondack Park of New York wintered along the coasts of Massachusetts (414 km from breeding lake), Rhode Island (362 km), and southern New Jersey (527 km). Most of the loons remained relatively stationary throughout the winter, but the size of individual wintering areas of adult loons ranged from 43 to 1,159 km 2, based on a 95% fixed kernel utilization distribution probability. A juvenile bird from New York made a number of stops at lakes and reservoirs en route to Long Island Sound (325 km from breeding lake). Maximum functional life of transmitters was about 12 months, providing an opportunity to document spring migration movements as well. This work provides essential information for development and implementation of regional Common Loon conservation strategies in the Northeastern U.S.

  12. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  13. Suspended particulate matter in railway coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, M.; Siegmann, K.; Monn, Ch

    Measurements of particles intercity connection in Switzerland. All trains are electrified and the indoor air quality is regulated by a mechanical ventilation system. In the smoker sections, pPAH levels were on average about 250 ng m -3, PM 10 levels about 950 μg m -3. In the non-smoker section, pPAH levels were about 45 ng m -3 and PM 10 levels about 210 μg m -3. Our observations suggest that smoking is the most important source of pPAH and PM 10. The spatial variation within the coaches indicates that pPAHs spread out from the smoker compartments into the non-smoker compartments. For PM 10, resuspended material may also be a source of airborne PM 10 but the contribution within this non-stop connection with most of the passengers being seated all the time was probably small. The influence of outdoor PM 10 and pPAH on indoor levels was negligible. Both pollutants, pPAH and PM 10 were largely elevated in the smoker as well as in the non-smoker compartments. Despite this fact, a questionnaire on the quality of travelling showed that most of the passengers felt well and only a small proportion felt uneasy.

  14. Reliable high-power diode lasers: thermo-mechanical fatigue aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumel, Genady; Gridish, Yaakov; Szafranek, Igor; Karni, Yoram

    2006-02-01

    High power water-cooled diode lasers are finding increasing demand in biomedical, cosmetic and industrial applications, where repetitive cw (continuous wave) and pulsed cw operation modes are required. When operating in such modes, the lasers experience numerous complete thermal cycles between "cold" heat sink temperature and the "hot" temperature typical of thermally equilibrated cw operation. It is clearly demonstrated that the main failure mechanism directly linked to repetitive cw operation is thermo-mechanical fatigue of the solder joints adjacent to the laser bars, especially when "soft" solders are used. Analyses of the bonding interfaces were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that intermetallic compounds, formed already during the bonding process, lead to the solders fatigue both on the p- and n-side of the laser bar. Fatigue failure of solder joints in repetitive cw operation reduces useful lifetime of the stacks to hundreds hours, in comparison with more than 10,000 hours lifetime typically demonstrated in commonly adopted non-stop cw reliability testing programs. It is shown, that proper selection of package materials and solders, careful design of fatigue sensitive parts and burn-in screening in the hard pulse operation mode allow considerable increase of lifetime and reliability, without compromising the device efficiency, optical power density and compactness.

  15. Building Sangha in the American Healthcare Setting for Persons with Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Beaulieu, Jamie; Pickering, Carolyn E Z

    For persons with chronic disease, participation in meditation interventions can reduce anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in a dose dependent fashion. Unfortunately, information about how to support long-term participation in such an intervention is lacking. Therefore, a recent discovery of persons with chronic lung disease who have maintained a self-led meditation group for more than four years created an opportunity to analyze experiences, meanings and relationship dynamics of this community-based meditation group. A focused ethnography was conducted using the following techniques: participant observation of four group meditation sessions, semi-structured interviews of six group participants, the interviewer's reflective practice and collection of demographic information. Analysis of transcribed audio-recordings followed an iterative approach. Findings highlighted the inclusive nature of the group sessions that supported meditation practice through the processing of ancient wisdom traditions similar to a traditional Sangha. Reflecting the current culture of non-affiliation, the group often moved beyond religious teachings to use the environment, literature and pop culture representations to teach wisdom traditions. Data analysis revealed that the holistic group characteristics of wisdom circling, non-Stopping, organic way-finding and sacred space were supported by identifiable yet inseparable individual and group actions. This holistic pattern is best described through the metaphor of flocking birds. This self-led group supports long term meditation practice and provides a sense of eudemonic well-being for a diverse group of individuals in an accessible community setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodrying of animal slaughterhouse residues and heat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y. [Centre de recherche industrielle, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Animal carcasses from slaughterhouses are usually composted on farms, but the composting process is not optimized and a large volumes of carbonaceous residues are needed. This type of composting takes place over a period of 6 to 9 months in a nonaerated static pile. Quebec's industrial research centre (CRIQ) developed an organic biodrying process (BIOSECO) adapted to large-scale operations in order to optimize the treatment of slaughterhouse residues. Biodrying is a form of composting, in which the thermophilic phase is optimized, making it possible to evaporate large amounts of water. Biodrying is done inside a building and reduces the amount of carbonaceous residues considerably. The process is optimized by the sequence in which the slaughterhouse residues are added, the choice of input and the aeration flow. Slaughterhouse residues can be treated non-stop throughout the entire year. Since the odours are nearly completed limited to the building, the biodrying can be done near the slaughterhouse. A large amount of heat was produced by the process during the pilot project. It was concluded that the BIOSECO biodrying process is suitable for treating slaughterhouse residues in an effective and economic manner, and has the added advantage of producing heat that could be used for various purposes.

  17. Atmospheric pressure imaging mass spectrometry of drugs with various ablating lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkunov, K A; Alimpiev, S S; Pento, A V; Grechnikov, A A; Nikifirov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric detection efficiency of organic species (tofisopam and verapamil) was measured by means of the laser ablation of dried solution drops containing known amount of the analyte. Ablated molecules were ionized by an atmospheric pressure laser plasma cell and then introduced in the TOF mass-spectrometer. The spot was formed by dripping 2 μl of solution on the stainless steel substrate and consequent drying. Then it was scanned by an intense ablating beam of various lasers (CO 2 , Nd:YAG and femtosecond fiber laser) until the spot was completely eroded during the non-stop MS-analysis of ablated material. The sensitivity was defined as the ratio of the total ion current integral of the relevant mass peaks to the amount of molecules in the spot. All the tested lasers are suitable for the ablation and subsequent MS-detection of organic species in dried solution spots given enough power deposition is provided. The measured sensitivity values reach 0.1 ions/fg of tested analytes

  18. Development and optimisation of tungsten armour geometry for ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Safronov, V.; Yablokov, N.

    1998-01-01

    The plasma facing components (PFC) of the future thermonuclear reactor in great extend determine the time of non-stop operation of the reactor. In current ITER project the most of the divertor PFC surfaces are covered by tungsten armour. Therefore selection of tungsten grade and attachment scheme for joining the tungsten armour to heat sink is a matter of great importance. Two attachment schemes for highly loaded components (up to 20 MW/m 2 ) are described in this paper. The small size mock-ups were manufactured and successfully tested at heat fluxes up to 30 MW/m 2 in screening test and up to 20 MW/m 2 at thermal fatigue test. One mock-up with four different tungsten grades was tested by consequent thermal shock (15 MJ/m 2 at 50 μs) and thermal cycling loading (15 MW/m 2 ). The damages that could lead to mock-up failure were not found but the behaviour of tungsten grades was quite different. (author)

  19. Indico 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J B Gonzalez; Avilés, A; Baron, T; Ferreira, P; Kolobara, B; Pugh, M A; Resco, A; Trzaskoma, J P

    2014-01-01

    Indico has evolved into the main event organization software, room booking tool and collaboration hub for CERN. The growth in its usage has only accelerated during the past 9 years, and today Indico holds more that 215,000 events and 1,100,000 files. The growth was also substantial in terms of functionalities and improvements. In the last year alone, Indico has matured considerably in 3 key areas: enhanced usability, optimized performance and additional features, especially those related to meeting collaboration. Along the course of 2012, much activity has centred around consolidating all this effort and investment into 'version 1.0', recently released in 2013.Version 1.0 brings along new features, such as the Microsoft Exchange calendar synchronization for participants, many new and clean interfaces (badges and poster generation, list of contributions, abstracts, etc) and so forth. But most importantly, it brings a message: Indico is now stable, consolidated and mature after more than 10 years of non-stop development. This message is addressed not only to CERN users but also to the many organisations, in or outside HEP, which have already installed the software, and to others who might soon join this community. In this document, we describe the current state of the art of Indico, and how it was built. This does not mean that the Indico software is complete, far from it! We have plenty of new ideas and projects that we are working on and which we have shared during CHEP 2013.

  20. Fine-Scale Movements and Behaviors of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in a Seasonal Aggregation near Al Lith, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Movement and behavior studies are traditional yet effective ways to understand the biology and ecology of a species. For an endangered species like the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), a comprehensive knowledge of its movement and behavior is particularly critical for successful management and conservation. For this dissertation, acoustic telemetry and biologging tagging studies were carried out at a seasonal whale shark aggregation site near Al Lith in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Acoustic telemetry data revealed consistent path usage in a narrow longshore area with patterns in seasonality and diel horizontal movements within a smaller scale. Some individuals specifically concentrated on this path and made non-stop back and forth movements along it. In another dimension, depth use of whale sharks derived from biologgers showed distinct diel patterns. The sharks heavily utilized shallow waters with mixed depth usage consisting of surface swimming and varied types of dives, which explained the data of previous visual surveys. Vertical velocities indicated potential energy expenditure strategies that were further investigated based on acceleration data. Energy expenditure data suggested strategies that fine-tuned foraging efforts to optimize the balance between feeding and foraging. However, while these strategies fit well in the natural habitat, local human impacts could be of great disturbance if not well managed.

  1. Cooperation of Ukraine and Republic of Poland: Economic and Diplomatic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poland in viewed by Ukraine as a reliable economic and political partner supporting Ukraine’s intention to integrate in Europe. Therefore, facts, documents and statistical data reflecting qualitative and quantitative aspects of relations between Ukraine and Poland need to be subject to non-stop monitoring and analysis, to help in finding timely solutions for problematic issues that may occur in these countries’ relations. The article’s objective is to analyze the performance and perspectives of economic and diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Republic of Poland. The analysis of documents on diplomatic and economic cooperation of the two countries after they gained political independence, and statistical data on trade in goods and services (by category and investment flows (by data on direct investment from Ukraine to Poland and from Poland to Ukraine shows that both countries have immense potentials for cooperation in various fields. As regards diplomatic dimension, Republic of Poland is the strongest promoter and lobbyist of the Euro-integration and Euro-Atlantic course of Ukraine. Regarding the economic cooperation, while mutual trade in goods declined in 2014 due to the economic and political crisis in Ukraine, it grew in 2016 with the recovery processes in the Ukrainian economy. Mutual trade in services is less intensive than trade in goods. Analysis of the investment cooperation shows the large asymmetry in favor of Polish investors in Ukraine and the reducing investment in both directions in the latest years.

  2. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective – A Case Study on Romania’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective – A Case Study on Romania’s Experience” presents the electronic commerce with its definitions, historical evolution and importance, it’s the main forms, the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce, the electronic commerce versus traditional commerce as well as the electronic commerce in Romania. In this research we have emphasised the role and the importance of the e-commerce in comparison with the traditional commerce, stressing the fact that it has many advantages that underpin the on-going development and success of this trade: time; the availability of virtual stores: program almost non-stop, every day of the year; the possibility of free decision; the possibility of purchasing products even outside the borders of the country the buyer; communication, particularly internationally, low cost, the relations with suppliers and customers and its importance for small businesses using e-commerce which can compete with large companies

  3. Integral experiments on in-vessel coolability and vessel creep: results and analysis of the FOREVER-C1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Vaeg., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the first FOREVER-C1 test. During this experiment, the 1/10th scale pressure vessel, heated to about 900degC and pressurized to 26 bars, was subjected to creep deformation in a non-stop 24-hours test. The vessel wall displacement data clearly shows different stages of the vessel deformation due to thermal expansion, elastic, plastic and creep processes. The maximum displacement was observed at the lowermost region of the vessel lower plenum. Information on the FOREVER-C1 measured thermal characteristics and analysis of the observed thermal and structural behavior is presented. The coupled nature of thermal and mechanical processes, as well as the effect of other system conditions (such as depressurization) on the melt pool and vessel temperature responses are analyzed. (author)

  4. Impact logistics-technique study of generating predictive maintenance in SME sin Milagro, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rolando Cedeño Anchundia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to discern the organizational culture regarding the acceptance of monitoring techniques and predictive inspections that help reduce the problems arising in the infrastructure of production processes within an industrial plant and thus optimize downtime that they occur due to ignorance or little attention and in some cases due to lack of awareness of operators or direct users of these computers. SMEs currently are optimizing their processes, automating their production line which implies that there should be better controls, to be more competitive because the increase in technology, greatly improves productivity. Before the technology boom happening in terms of machinery and processes, corrective measures were used to eliminate problems and these generated high rates in terms of costs for equipment maintenance, in the XXI century predictive maintenance techniques, consisting develops diagnose and maintain installed both in the electrical part and mechanical non-stop operational teams, allowing the reduction of lost production time and costs, costs of obtaining the most competitive end products in the market infrastructure. Also analyze the type of maintenance they currently possess SMEs in the city of Milagro-Ecuador and how it is influencing their productivity in order to develop proposals for improvements and recommendations in order to optimize their processes and increase profitability.

  5. First radioactive ions charge bred in REXEBIS at the REX-ISOLDE accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H; Fostner, O; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Liljeby, L; Skeppstedt, Ö; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H

    2003-01-01

    REXEBIS is the charge breeder of the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. The radioactive 1$^{+}$ ions produced at ISOLDE are accumulated, phase-space cooled and bunched in the REXTRAP, and thereafter injected into the EBIS with an energy up to 60 keV. The REXEBIS produced the first charge bred ions in August 2001 and has been running nearly non-stop during September to December 2001. It has delivered stable $^{39}$K$^{10+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ beams generated in the ion source in front of REXTRAP with a Na$^{7+}$ current exceeding 70 pA (6x10$^{7}$ p/s). Stable $^{27}$Al$^{7+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ from ISOLDE and also the first radioactive $^{26}$Na$^{7+}$ and $^{24}$Na$^{7+}$ beams (just 5x10$^{5}$ p/s) have been charge bred and accelerated for tests of the experimental setup. Despite some problems with the electron gun, which had one breakdown after about 1500 hours of operation and displays slow changes of the emission conditions, the EBIS is working remarkably stable (24 hours / 7 days a week). We will report ...

  6. Rock stars for the day

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    After a two-year hiatus, the CERN Hardronic Festival is back! On 8 August, ten CERN MusiClub bands will take to the stage for the popular event. As usual, the non-stop show will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 3 and will run until after midnight.   The Canettes Blues Band, part of the CERN MusiClub, performing live on the Music In The Park stage at the Montreux Jazz Festival, on 18 July 2013. A large range of musical styles will entertain the audience: from Irish folk, via 70s/80s/90s rock, to pop, blues and R&B. Alongside the music there will be activities for kids and food and drink stands. This year, the income from food sales will be donated to charity. The spirit that has characterised the festival ever since the first event in 1989 is that of a staff party. Any band who volunteers to play also helps to organise the event and set up the stage. “This is a really good thing because a festival that has been growing for many years requires a considerable amount of har...

  7. Go on a particle quest at the first CERN webfest

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2012-01-01

    From 3 to 5 August, CERN played host to its very first webfest. Organised by the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) and the Peer 2 Peer University, the 2012 CERN Webfest saw pizza-fuelled summer students hacking their way almost non-stop through an entire weekend to produce a host of weird and wonderful innovations. As each of the teams raced against time in the hope of winning the grand prize of a trip to the Mozilla festival in London, sleep was hard for the students to come by, but fortunately great ideas were not.   Particle quest sprites. Source: André-Pierre Olivier. Projects dreamt up by the students included a browser-based dashboard for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a new CERN open-data initiative, and a virtual world for the LHC@home platform.  However, the highlight of the event was the ParticleQuest game, which was selected by a panel of judges as the weekend’s overal...

  8. Energy use and related risk management problems in CEE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, R.; Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the 'Old Europe'. The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc.. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use. (Authors)

  9. Modeling the Aerodynamics and Performances of a Historic Airplane: the Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González-Betes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of modeling the aerodynamics and performances of a historic airplane is very similar to the conceptual and preliminary design phases of a new plane, with the advantage of knowing the configuration and that the airplane was airworthy; thus it is unnecessary to outline and assess many different alternatives. However, the drag polar, the real performances, stability features, etc, are still unknown. For various reasons (in particular because of two World Wars, or the Civil War in the Spanish case most details of many historical airplanes have been lost.In the present research work, the situation is as follows. In June 1933 the "Cuatro Vientos", a Spanish-built Bréguet XIX Super TR, flew non-stop from Seville to Cuba; a distance of 7500 km (about 4100 nautical miles in around 40 hours. A few days later, in a far less complicated stage between Havana and Mexico, the airplane was lost with its occupants to a storm in the Yucatan peninsula.The modeling considered in this paper starts by addressing the aerodynamic modifications introduced in the airplane for the extremely long flight. Then, with the help of old and present day aerodynamic data and methods the drag polar is estimated. The available engine data is completed and extrapolated to obtain information on power and fuel consumption. Finally, all this data is integrated to provide a reliable and technically sound reproduction of the Seville-Cuba flight.

  10. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  11. Flying from Europe to the Algarve: The Geographical Impacts of the Growth of Low- Cost Carriers (1996–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramos-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of non-scheduled traffic by scheduled services is one of the main impacts that the liberalisation of the European Common Aviation Area has had on tourist airports. In the case of Faro, between 1996 and 2013, this shift led to both fewer routes served and reduced catchment areas in the source markets for tourists visiting the Algarve. The strategy pursued by Ryanair, the airport’s main carrier, focuses on connections that already channelled a greater volume of traffic when charter airlines dominated. Therefore, the impact of low-cost carriers on diversifying the number of airports of origin and source markets is limited. Moreover, using the spatial analysis functions of GIS software, we verified that the population linked to the theoretical catchment areas of airports with a non-stop flight to Faro in 2013 was smaller than that of the airports with such connections in 2000. The decision-making process involved in the policy incentives for introducing new routes could benefit greatly from this type of analysis.

  12. Solar Transportation, on the critical path to 100% Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, R.; Furman, B.

    2016-12-01

    The path from hydrocarbons and climate change to 100% renewable energy requires a complete transformation of human mobility systems—from oil to solar electricity, and away from personal cars to shared transit. Electric (and autonomous) personal vehicles cannot scale rapidly enough to address CO2 increase and resource depletion. While atmospheric science can characterize the challenge, design science aimed at order of magnitude improvements in energy and resource consumption is needed to achieve carbon free transit that can scale rapidly for urban mobility. An NGO and University engineering team collaboration has led to a multi-disciplinary international program creating prototypes and test tracks to demonstrate the efficacy and economics of solar-powered, automated, non-stop origin-to-destination, elevated on-demand transit systems. With their aptitude for innovation, students in the Solar Skyways challenge have convened from several countries in order to propel development and overcome resistance from the automotive industry incumbency. Innovation has been occurring in lesser developed countries as well as in the industrialized world. An online curriculum has been developed and will be presented to encourage international participation and rapid acceleration for sustainable zero-net-carbon transportation.

  13. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  14. Alceu Amoroso Lima’s Spiritual Itinerary Desert and Faith’s Ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Garcia Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show a little bit of Alceu Amoroso Lima’s (1893-1983 spiritual trajectory, the mainly catholic leadership in Brazil throughout XX century.  Amoroso Lima was a victim of the Agnosticism lived in the beginning of that century, exactly when he rediscovered religion as a source of life and turned into Catholicism.  All these changes happened during his strong friendship with two important intellectuals of that time: the writer Jackson de Figueiredo and the theologian Father Leonel Franca.  Amoroso Lima kept a non-stopping Correspondence with them, and then faced a kind of “spiritual battle” through six years, giving another significance to the Epistolography as a literary gender.  This research follows the “desertic paths” faced by Amoroso Lima up to his final meeting with God, the doubts and certainties, faults and lucky hits, specially in the peculiar difficulties of those who believe in God.Keywords: theology; literature; spirituality; conversion.

  15. At the Dawn of Radio Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Samokhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the history of radio communications, which were used before the advent of humanity tubes, in the context of the essays in the series "At the root of media", published in the "History of Technical Progress" section of the supplement to our journal "Science and Education". The review covers the main stages of the development of spark radio-telegraph systems, the creation of the first powerful arc and electric machine generators of non-stopping oscillations of the carrier frequency for radiotelephony and the detection features. The first experiments of Mahlon Loomis, scientific and technical achievements of James Maxwell, Henry Hertz, Eduard Branly, Alexander Popov, Oliver Lodge, Jagadish Bosch, Karl Brown, Lee de Forest, Louis Austin, Herman Simon, William Duddel, Valdemar Paulsen, Ernst Alexander, Valentin Vologdin, Semyon Eisenstein and other creators of the nascent radio engineering. Particular attention is paid to the intersections of their work with the work of Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Guglielmo Marconi, Reginald Fessenden and other heroes of our essays.

  16. New professions in librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Bottazzo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on how information-communication and network computer technology effects changes in library operation and presents new possibilities in the development and differentiation of the librarian profession. At the time of the introduction of the Internet, numerous experts were convinced that the decline of librarianship, as a profession, was only a question of time. According to such opinions, users were supposed to search and obtain information on their own and purchase books through electronic bookstores. The reality turned out to be just the opposite. Nowadays, librarians are required to make more and more complex inquiries, to provide rapid, high-quality and non-stop services, to supply documents directly by computer or onto the working table. Moreover, librarians must follow the rapid development of the profession and participate in permanent and polyvalent training. The introduction of the digitalisation of materials and the future development of libraries require that librarians familiarize themselves with complex hypertext protocols, graphic design, and marketing. Moreover, librarians are obliged to accept any change brought about during the process of technological development. Therefore, in the developed world, new professions are being established and relating to the provision of aggregate information in form of various services and products. Those professions do not only imply universal information providers but trained experts with regard to individual fields of interest.

  17. The pleasures of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Isaac, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The ideas of probability are all around us. Lotteries, casino gambling, the al­ most non-stop polling which seems to mold public policy more and more­ these are a few of the areas where principles of probability impinge in a direct way on the lives and fortunes of the general public. At a more re­ moved level there is modern science which uses probability and its offshoots like statistics and the theory of random processes to build mathematical descriptions of the real world. In fact, twentieth-century physics, in embrac­ ing quantum mechanics, has a world view that is at its core probabilistic in nature, contrary to the deterministic one of classical physics. In addition to all this muscular evidence of the importance of probability ideas it should also be said that probability can be lots of fun. It is a subject where you can start thinking about amusing, interesting, and often difficult problems with very little mathematical background. In this book, I wanted to introduce a reader with at least a fairl...

  18. Indico 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, J B Gonzalez; Baron, T; Ferreira, P; Kolobara, B; Pugh, M A; Resco, A; Trzaskoma, J P

    2014-01-01

    Indico has evolved into the main event organization software, room booking tool and collaboration hub for CERN. The growth in its usage has only accelerated during the past 9 years, and today Indico holds more that 215,000 events and 1,100,000 files. The growth was also substantial in terms of functionalities and improvements. In the last year alone, Indico has matured considerably in 3 key areas: enhanced usability, optimized performance and additional features, especially those related to meeting collaboration. Along the course of 2012, much activity has centred around consolidating all this effort and investment into 'version 1.0', recently released in 2013.Version 1.0 brings along new features, such as the Microsoft Exchange calendar synchronization for participants, many new and clean interfaces (badges and poster generation, list of contributions, abstracts, etc) and so forth. But most importantly, it brings a message: Indico is now stable, consolidated and mature after more than 10 years of non-stop de...

  19. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  20. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  1. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  2. Airline Schedule Disruption Management. The impact of flight delays on connection loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air travel demand is important and many travellers choose to drive to larger airports instead of flying from a small airport for many reasons, especially availability of non-stop flights. Another reason is perceived reliability of service. Consultants have pointed to a large number of delays and cancellations as reasons for low passenger. However, the effect of these flight delays on actual travel times is less clear. Because connections are usually necessary when traveling from small airports, departure delays may lead to missed connections. In the case of a cancellation, need to wait several hours (often overnight for the next flight due to the small number of daily departures. This paper evaluate the impact of delays and cancellations on the profit earned through the seats captured on new opened routes. This aspect of decision-making comes in the form of multi-objective problem by testing the impact of a new opened route in terms of flight delays costs, financial gain and the quality of the service provided to a target customer. The NSGA-II algorithm is adopted to generate a front of Pareto-optimal compound of a number of optimal departure times to the new destination while ensuring the best fill rate, and a minimum flight delays. The experiences are based on the flights of the Royal Air Maroc Company on the Casablanca hub.

  3. Qualification of contemporary French TV news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie LELEU-MERVIEL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The News is one of the main programs on TV. In this regard, many investigations are concerned with TV News tackling the problem of the specificity of the audiovisual media. So, descriptive methods were designed to investigate conception and writing processes. Today, the emerging forms (non-stop news TV channels, no comment images TV, revitalize the information processing at television.Carrying on with the analyses of (Compte & Mouchon, 1990, this paper develops a method to examine the news productions in a relevant way. To do so, this article advocates the use of MCR, Méthode générale de Conceptualisation Relativisée based upon knowledge weaving theory (Mugur-Schächter, 2006. This study analysed a few TV news programs by using MCR tools. The method was applied to a corpus of news programs which were broadcasted the same day by two French channels. The study revealed the specificities of the present TV innovations.

  4. Inlet Diameter and Flow Volume Effects on Separation and Energy Efficiency of Hydrocyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikli, Ş.; Olcay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates hydrocyclone performance of an oil injected screw compressor. Especially, the oil separation efficiency of a screw compressor plays a significant role for air quality and non-stop working hour of compressors has become an important issue when the efficiency in energy is considered. In this study, two separation efficiency parameters were selected to be hydrocyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top of the hydrocyclone. Nine different cases were studied in which cyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top were investigated in regards to separation and energy performance aspects and the effect of the parameters on the general performance appears to be causing powerful influence. Flow inside the hydrocyclone geometry was modelled by Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and hydro particles were tracked by Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Besides, particle break up was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The reversed vortex generation was observed at different planes. The upper limit of the inlet diameter of the cyclone yields the centrifugal force on particles to decrease while the flow becomes slower; and the larger diameter implies slower flow. On the contrary, the lower limit is increment in speed causes breakup problems that the particle diameters become smaller; consequently, it is harder to separate them from gas.

  5. Vital signs : no end in sight to high revenues for producers (and headaches for consumers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2001-01-01

    Prices for petroleum products in North America have been on a roller coaster ride for a while now, with prices remaining high for the normally more dormant summer season. Although it is beneficial to producers, consumers are not as happy about the situation. Refinery problems, growing demand and product proliferation have combined to create this situation. Refineries on the East Coast of the United States were forced to extend the required maintenance period in the spring since they had been running non-stop to meet the requirements of last winter. Canadian refiners benefited from the situation. They enjoy strong refining margins. Canadian refined-product exports jumped 22 per cent higher in February of 2001 when compared to February 2000. Heavy fuel oil exports in January and February were especially strong, as the industrial boilers in the United States were feeling the effects of the very high natural gas prices. A similar phenomenon was reflected in exports of gasoline and crude oil. The commissioning last year of the Alliance Pipeline and successful exploration programs in British Columbia ensured it led the pack. The crude production in Saskatchewan was up 11.4 per cent due to the widespread horizontal drilling and recovery programs. To ensure adequate winter peaking supplies, storage injections are lagging behind, which tends to indicate that gas prices will remain high for the remainder of the year. 7 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on femtosecond technology (power generation facility monitoring system using high- intensity X-ray pulse); 1998 nendo femuto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu (kokido X senb pulse riyo hatsuden shisetsu monitoring system no kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report reports the fiscal 1998 R and D result of Femtosecond Technology Research Association (FESTA) supported by NEDO. For creation of industrial basic technologies supporting the advanced information society in the 21st century, ultra-high speed electronics technology including new functions beyond the speed limit of conventional electronics technologies is indispensable. From such viewpoint, this R and D aims at establishment of the basic technology controlling conditions of beams and electrons in a femtosecond (10{sup -15}-10{sup -12} seconds) region. In development of the titled system, this R and D aims at generation of high-intensity X-ray pulse by interaction between femtosecond light pulse and high-density electron beam pulse, and development of measurement technology (non- stop inspection) of high-speed moving objects using such X- ray pulse. In fiscal 1998, this project succeeded in time stabilization of laser oscillators at a 100fs level and generation of low-emittance electron beam pulse through development of ultra-short pulse synchronization, laser stabilization and electron beam pulse generation technologies. (NEDO)

  7. [Plasticity of memory in the brain of white rats after long-term exposure to titanium in drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuliński, S; Strusiński, A

    2001-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on male white rats from breeding base of the National Institute of Hygiene: WIS own breeding. During sixteen months the drinking water with TiCl3 in concentrations 5 and 25 mg/l, what is equivalent respectively 0.45 and 2.25 mg per 1 kg of daily weight of rats, was given the animals. After 3 and 15 months of exposure the rats were taught to differentiate and remember sight effects. The investigation of each cluster of rats, living previously in the same cage, was going non-stop by 24 hours for 5 days. The training was carried on in the special adopted cages making possible to record all correct and incorrect attempts in day long cycle. Percentage indicator, the ratio of mistakes to all number of the attempts, was used for assessment the training effectiveness in each group and the result in intoxicated group were compared with control group. During the whole time of exposition the supplying drinking water with TiCl3 in concentrations 5 and 25 mg/l has not caused changes in rats confirming possibility to evoke disorders of brain memory plasticity.

  8. Juvenile Osprey Navigation during Trans-Oceanic Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W Horton

    Full Text Available To compensate for drift, an animal migrating through air or sea must be able to navigate. Although some species of bird, fish, insect, mammal, and reptile are capable of drift compensation, our understanding of the spatial reference frame, and associated coordinate space, in which these navigational behaviors occur remains limited. Using high resolution satellite-monitored GPS track data, we show that juvenile ospreys (Pandion haliaetus are capable of non-stop constant course movements over open ocean spanning distances in excess of 1500 km despite the perturbing effects of winds and the lack of obvious landmarks. These results are best explained by extreme navigational precision in an exogenous spatio-temporal reference frame, such as positional orientation relative to Earth's magnetic field and pacing relative to an exogenous mechanism of keeping time. Given the age (<1 year-old of these birds and knowledge of their hatching site locations, we were able to transform Enhanced Magnetic Model coordinate locations such that the origin of the magnetic coordinate space corresponded with each bird's nest. Our analyses show that trans-oceanic juvenile osprey movements are consistent with bicoordinate positional orientation in transformed magnetic coordinate or geographic space. Through integration of movement and meteorological data, we propose a new theoretical framework, chord and clock navigation, capable of explaining the precise spatial orientation and temporal pacing performed by juvenile ospreys during their long-distance migrations over open ocean.

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of femtosecond technology. R and D of high intensity X-ray pulse use power generation facility monitoring system; 2000 nendo femto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kokido X sen pulse riyo hatsuden shisetsu monitoring system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project aims at creating new industrial basement technology which supports the highly information-oriented society in the 21st century, conducts the R and D of technology to control the state of light and electron in the femtosecond time domain (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -12} sec), and establishes the basement technology which exceeds the speed limit of the conventional electronics technology and also includes new functionality. Especially, in the R and D of the high intensity X-ray pulse use power generation facility monitoring system, the establishment is aimed at of the basement technology toward the realization of non-stop inspection of high speed moving objects of power generation facilities, etc. using femtosecond high intensity X-ray pulse generated in the interaction between femtosecond optical pulse and high density electron beam pulse. In this fiscal year, femtosecond X-ray was successfully generated. The pulse width of X-ray: 400fs, the wavelength: 6 angstroms, the X-ray dose generated in one collision: 10{sup 4} photons/pulse or more, and the energy of electron beam colliding with laser optical pulse: 12 MeV. Moreover, developed were the laser amplifying system and the stabilized high power femtosecond laser system. (NEDO)

  10. Design for Manufacture and Assembly for Product Development (Case study : Emergency Lamp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatilah, Y.; Pulansari, F.; Ernawati, Dira; Pujiastuti, C.; Parwati, C. I.; Prasetyo, B.

    2018-01-01

    Community needs that are not primary but important in everyday life are lights for lighting. State electricity company (PLN) is experiencing limitations in supplying electricity for this puIDRose. Therefore emergency lights (emergency lights) are already marketed in the community, which limited function only illuminate a very limited space. Therefore we developed the design of energy saving lamps using “Light Emitting Diode” (LED) which can illuminate the whole house as well as functioning as mobile phone charger (HP). The method used is Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA), with the result of design development The percentage increase in assembly efficiency (E) is 0.01071 - 0.00645 = 0.00426 or = 39.76%. The decrease in material costs is IDR 234,000 - IDR 214,000 = IDR 20,000 or = 8.54% .Development design is received because of more assembly efficiency than the initial design. Power usage on previous products with series and designs of the original product can last only 4-5 hours non-stop, while the development of the design can survive 9-10 hours 2x more energy efficient.

  11. Developments in control systems for rotary left ventricular assist devices for heart failure patients: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlOmari, Abdul-Hakeem H; Savkin, Andrey V; Lovell, Nigel H; Stevens, Michael; Mason, David G; Timms, Daniel L; Salamonsen, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    From the moment of creation to the moment of death, the heart works tirelessly to circulate blood, being a critical organ to sustain life. As a non-stopping pumping machine, it operates continuously to pump blood through our bodies to supply all cells with oxygen and necessary nutrients. When the heart fails, the supplement of blood to the body's organs to meet metabolic demands will deteriorate. The treatment of the participating causes is the ideal approach to treat heart failure (HF). As this often cannot be done effectively, the medical management of HF is a difficult challenge. Implantable rotary blood pumps (IRBPs) have the potential to become a viable long-term treatment option for bridging to heart transplantation or destination therapy. This increases the potential for the patients to leave the hospital and resume normal lives. Control of IRBPs is one of the most important design goals in providing long-term alternative treatment for HF patients. Over the years, many control algorithms including invasive and non-invasive techniques have been developed in the hope of physiologically and adaptively controlling left ventricular assist devices and thus avoiding such undesired pumping states as left ventricular collapse caused by suction. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the developments of control systems and techniques that have been applied to control IRBPs. (topical review)

  12. Developments in control systems for rotary left ventricular assist devices for heart failure patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlOmari, Abdul-Hakeem H; Savkin, Andrey V; Stevens, Michael; Mason, David G; Timms, Daniel L; Salamonsen, Robert F; Lovell, Nigel H

    2013-01-01

    From the moment of creation to the moment of death, the heart works tirelessly to circulate blood, being a critical organ to sustain life. As a non-stopping pumping machine, it operates continuously to pump blood through our bodies to supply all cells with oxygen and necessary nutrients. When the heart fails, the supplement of blood to the body's organs to meet metabolic demands will deteriorate. The treatment of the participating causes is the ideal approach to treat heart failure (HF). As this often cannot be done effectively, the medical management of HF is a difficult challenge. Implantable rotary blood pumps (IRBPs) have the potential to become a viable long-term treatment option for bridging to heart transplantation or destination therapy. This increases the potential for the patients to leave the hospital and resume normal lives. Control of IRBPs is one of the most important design goals in providing long-term alternative treatment for HF patients. Over the years, many control algorithms including invasive and non-invasive techniques have been developed in the hope of physiologically and adaptively controlling left ventricular assist devices and thus avoiding such undesired pumping states as left ventricular collapse caused by suction. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the developments of control systems and techniques that have been applied to control IRBPs.

  13. Safe decommissioning of mobile nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliukhovich, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses some issues for ensuring radiation safety during the process of decommissioning the 630 kW 'Pamir-630D' mobile nuclear power plant (MNPP). That nuclear power plant consisted of a gas cooled reactor (weight of 76.5t), gas turbine-driven set (76t), two control units (2'20t), and an auxiliary unit (20t). The reactor and turbine-driven set were supposed to be put on transport platforms and carried by tractors. The control and auxiliary units were set on track beds. The 'Pamir-630D' was constructed and tested in an appropriate building. The set-up time was no greater than six hours after all units of the MNPP had reached the site. The 'Pamir-630D' was ready to be moved to another site in 30 hours after the shut down. Service lifetime of 'Pamir-630D' was 10 years: 7 years of storage and 3 years of operation. Operational lifetime was no less than 10000 hours (non-stop operational period was no longer than 2000 hours). Dose rate at the boundary of the restrictive area was no more than 6.5 mR/h at the time of reactor operation and no greater than 300 mR/h on the side surface and 1000 mR/h on the end surface of the biological shielding of the reactor, 24 hours after shut down. (author)

  14. Continuous EB welding of the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Folch, R; Campi, D; Christin, R; Creton, J P; Curé, B; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. In order to withstand the electro-mechanical forces during the operation of the CMS magnet, the superconducting cable embedded in a 99.998% pure aluminum matrix is reinforced with two sections of aluminum alloy EN AW-6082 assembled by continuous Electron Beam Welding (EBW). A dedicated production line has been designed by Techmeta, a leading company in the field of EBW. The production line has a total length of 70 m. Non-stop welding of each of the 20 lengths of 2.5 km, required to build the coil, will last 22 hours. EBW is the most critical process involved in the production line. The main advantage of the EBW process is to minimize the Heat Affected Zone; this is particularly important for avoiding damage to the superconducting cable located only 4.7 mm from the welded joints. Two...

  15. Impact of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Waves on Brainwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Kao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of wireless communication, cellular phone becomes an indispensable accessory to most people. People use cellular phone to interact with others, perform commercial and financial transactions, or conducting recreational activities, etc. The advance in wireless technology and escalate of broadband networks not only flourish communications industry and application service providers but also encourage people perform prolonged wireless network activities under the risk of over exposing themselves in long term high frequency electromagnetic waves. For example, some people conduct excessive phone-trading activities, as it is necessary to the job, and some people exercise the non-stop e-learning or recreation activities on mobile devices with long hours. However, would prolonged exposure to high frequency EMW environment bring adverse effects on human health? This research from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience investigates the effect of EMW from cellular phone to the energy distribution of human brainwave characteristic band by examine brainwave changes of test subjects when exposing to high frequency EMW environment. Experiment uses left ear and right ear to answer the phone separately. The calling session is divided into three stages: the instant of call connection, during the call, and after the call. On each ear, the brainwave signal of each calling stage is extracted and analyzed. The experiment shows at the instant of call connection stage, resulting maximum EMW strength, having extreme effect on the energy distribution of the human brainwave characteristic band, and causing severe changes on the energy of human brainwave.

  16. Junior empresa: un modelo empresarial diferente = Junior enterprise: a different business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen ¿Quién no está harto ya de oír cómo está el mercado laboral? Nos bombardean con un ruido de fondo incesante, como si graduarnos no fuese suficiente reto. Bueno, ¿y qué? Un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (ETSIDI-UPM nos hemos unido y hemos creado nuestra propia Junior Empresa, un modelo empresarial diferente, innovador, que nos permite revertir todos los beneficios en aprendizaje. ¿Quién ha dicho que tengamos que dejarnos vencer por un sistema laboral obsoleto? Abstract Are you tired of hearing how difficult it is to get a job? They are filling our minds with a non-stop background noise, as if getting a degree was an insufficient challenge. So what? Well, some students from the Superior Technical School of Engineering and Industrial Design from the Technical University of Madrid (ETSIDIUPM have come together and created our own Junior Enterprise, a different business model, an innovative canvas, which allows us to transform all the benefits into learning. Who said our destiny is being crushed by an obsolete labour market?

  17. Standard physics solution to the solar neutrino problem?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics

    1996-11-01

    The {sup 8}B solar neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model (SSM) is consistent within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties with that at Kamiokande. The Gallium and Chlorine solar neutrino experiments, however, seem to imply that the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is strongly suppressed compared with that predicted by the SSM. If the {sup 7}Be solar neutrino flux is suppressed, still it can be due to astrophysical effects not included in the simplistic SSM. Such effects include short term fluctuations or periodic variation of the temperature in the solar core, rotational mixing of {sup 3}He in the solar core, and dense plasma effects which may strongly enhance p-capture by {sup 7}Be relative to e-capture. The new generation of solar observations which already look non stop deep into the sun, like Superkamiokande through neutrinos, and SOHO and GONG through acoustic waves, may point at the correct solution. Only Superkamiokande and/or future solar neutrino experiments, such as SNO, BOREXINO and HELLAZ, will be able to find out whether the solar neutrino problem is caused by neutrino properties beyond the minimal standard electroweak model or whether it is just a problem of the too simplistic standard solar model. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., refs.

  18. Biochemical and Hematological Changes Following the 120-Km Open-Water Marathon Swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Drygas, Ewa Rębowska, Ewa Stępień, Jacek Golański, Magdalena Kwaśniewska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test. The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively. Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required.

  19. Espacial.com : a cooperative learning model in internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, A.; Solans, R.

    Espacial.com is the leading and oldest internet site in Spanish language which reports 24 hours a day on space exploration. Moreover it is the only specialized site that has broadcasted live the main space events in the past years with expert comments in Spanish . From its first day, education is the main purpose of the site always with an international and multidisciplinary approach. Fernando Caldeiro, Class 16 NASA Astronaut, is the leading person in the project with his non-stop presence in the forums making valuable comments and answering questions from its young audience. We analyse the ongoing dynamics in the forum, and how a virtual community of space enthusiasts is created. We show that, because of the presence of some key factors (leadership, commitment to excel, motivation, communicative skills, ldots), it is possible to establish a high degree of compromise for learning although in an non-formal way. Cooperative learning is a well-known pedagogical technique which has proven its efficacy in different formal and non-formal areas. Using internet capabilities this technique proves to be an excellent approach to educational outreach on space-related subjects.

  20. Microglia energy metabolism in metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, Martin J T; Mulder, Laurie; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2016-12-15

    Microglia are the resident macrophages of the CNS, and are in charge of maintaining a healthy microenvironment to ensure neuronal survival. Microglia carry out a non-stop patrol of the CNS, make contact with neurons and look for abnormalities, all of which requires a vast amount of energy. This non-signaling energy demand increases after activation by pathogens, neuronal damage or other kinds of stimulation. Of the three major energy substrates - glucose, fatty acids and glutamine - glucose is crucial for microglia survival and several glucose transporters are expressed to supply sufficient glucose influx. Fatty acids are another source of energy for microglia and have also been shown to strongly influence microglial immune activity. Glutamine, although possibly suitable for use as an energy substrate by microglia, has been shown to have neurotoxic effects when overloaded. Microglial fuel metabolism might be associated with microglial reactivity under different pathophysiological conditions and a microglial fuel switch may thus be the underlying cause of hypothalamic dysregulation, which is associated with obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  2. The impact of core-shell nanotube structures on fracture in ceramic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xin; Yang, Yingchao; Lou, Jun; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be used to create ceramic nanocomposites with improved fracture toughness. In the present work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to deposit thin oxide layers on MWCNTs. These core-shell structures were then used to create nanocomposites by using a polymer derived ceramic (PDC) to produce the matrix. Variations in both the initial MWCNT structure and the oxide layers led to substantial differences in fiber-pullout behavior. Single tube pullout tests also showed that the oxide coatings led to stronger bonding with the ceramic matrix. With high defect density MWCNTs, this led to shorter pull-out lengths which is consistent with the conventional understanding of fracture in ceramic matrix composites. However, with low defect density MWCNTs longer pullout lengths were observed with the oxide layers. To interpret the different trends that were observed, we believe that the ALD coatings should not be viewed simply as a means of altering the interfacial properties. Instead, the coated MWCNTs should be viewed as more complex core-shell fibers where both interface and internal properties can be controlled with the ALD layers. - Graphical abstract: Fracture properties of core-shell nanotubes reinforced ceramic nanocomposites.

  3. RELAP5/MOD3 analysis of a heated channel in downflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Qureshi, Z.H.; Boman, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The onset of flow instability (OFI) is a significant phenomenon affecting the determination of a safe operating power limit in the Savannah River Site production reactors. Tests performed at Columbia University for a single tube with uniform axial and azimuthal heating have been analyzed with RELAP5/NPR, Version 0, a version of RELAP5/MOD3. The tests include water flow rates from 3.2 x l0 -4 - 2.l x 10 -3 m 3 /s (5 - 33 gpm), Reynolds numbers from 30,000 - 400,000, and surface heat fluxes from 0 - 3.2 x l0 6 w/m 2 (0 - 1,000,000 Btu/hr- ft 2 ). Pressure drop versus flow rate curves were mapped for both fixed pressure boundary conditions and fixed flow boundary conditions. RELAP5/MOD3 results showed fair agreement with data for both types of boundary conditions, and good internal consistency between calculations using the two different types of boundary conditions. Under single-phase unheated conditions, the code overpredicted the pressure drop by 22 - 34%. Under single-phase heated conditions, the overprediction increased to as much as 55%. For those tests where two-phase conditions were observed at the channel exit, RELAP5 predicted lower flows than seen in the tests before voiding occurred

  4. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  5. Building lab-scale x-ray tube based irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haff, Ron; Jackson, Eric; Gomez, Joseph; Light, Doug; Follett, Peter; Simmons, Greg; Higbee, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the use of x-ray tube based irradiators as alternatives to gamma sources for laboratory scale irradiation. Irradiators were designed with sample placement in closest possible proximity to the source, allowing high dose rates for small samples. Designs using 1000 W x-ray tubes in single tube, double tube, and four tube configurations are described, as well as various cabinet construction techniques. Relatively high dose rates were achieved for small samples, demonstrating feasibility for laboratory based irradiators for research purposes. Dose rates of 9.76, 5.45, and 1.7 Gy/min/tube were measured at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice at 100 keV, 70 keV, and 40 keV, respectively. Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container. For 2.54 cm diameter sample containers containing adult Navel Orangeworm, dose rates of 50–60 Gy/min were measured in the four tube system. - Highlights: • X-ray is demonstrated as an alternative to gamma for lab-based irradiation. • Cabinets using one, two, and four 1000 W tubes are reported. • Dose rate of 9.8 Gy/min/tube at the center of a 12.7 cm container of instant rice. • Dose uniformity varies dramatically as the distance from source to container.

  6. Highly multiparametric analysis by mass cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Nitz, Mark; Winnik, Mitchell A; Tanner, Scott

    2010-09-30

    This review paper describes a new technology, mass cytometry, that addresses applications typically run by flow cytometer analyzers, but extends the capability to highly multiparametric analysis. The detection technology is based on atomic mass spectrometry. It offers quantitation, specificity and dynamic range of mass spectrometry in a format that is familiar to flow cytometry practitioners. The mass cytometer does not require compensation, allowing the application of statistical techniques; this has been impossible given the constraints of fluorescence noise with traditional cytometry instruments. Instead of "colors" the mass cytometer "reads" the stable isotope tags attached to antibodies using metal-chelating labeling reagents. Because there are many available stable isotopes, and the mass spectrometer provides exquisite resolution between detection channels, many parameters can be measured as easily as one. For example, in a single tube the technique allows for the ready detection and characterization of the major cell subsets in blood or bone marrow. Here we describe mass cytometric immunophenotyping of human leukemia cell lines and leukemia patient samples, differential cell analysis of normal peripheral and umbilical cord blood; intracellular protein identification and metal-encoded bead arrays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR Assays for Thiopurine Intolerance Susceptibility Mutations NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C in East Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiopurines are clinically useful in the management of diverse immunological and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, these purine analogues can cause lethal myelosuppression, which may be prevented by prospective testing for variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT and, in East Asians, Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15 genes. Two single-tube, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR assays were developed to genotype the common loss-of-function variants NUDT15 c.415C>T (rs116855232 and TPMT*3C c.719A>G (rs1142345. In a group of 60 unselected patients, one and seven were found to be homozygous and heterozygous, respectively, for NUDT15 c.415C>T; one was found to be heterozygous for TPMT*3C c.719A>G. There was no non-specific amplification, and the genotypes were 100% concordant with Sanger sequencing. Limit-of-detection for both assays was below 1 ng of heterozygous template per reaction. Time- and cost-effective ARMS-PCR assays, suitable for genotyping East-Asian patients for thiopurine intolerance, were successfully developed and validated.

  8. A Neural Network Approach to Fluid Level Measurement in Dynamic Environments Using a Single Capacitive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edin TERZIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A measurement system has been developed using a single tube capacitive sensor to accurately determine the fluid level in vehicular fuel tanks. A novel approach based on artificial neural networks based signal pre-processing and classification has been described in this article. A broad investigation on the Backpropagation neural network and some selected signal pre-processing filters, namely, Moving Mean, Moving Median, and Wavelet Filter has also been presented. An on field drive trial was conducted under normal driving conditions at various fuel volumes ranging from 5 L to 50 L to acquire training samples from the capacitive sensor. A second field trial was conducted to obtain test samples to verify the performance of the neural network. The neural network was trained and verified with 50 % of the training and test samples. The results obtained using the neural network approach having different filtration methods are compared with the results obtained using simple Moving Mean and Moving Median functions. It is demonstrated that the Backpropagation neural network with Moving Median filter produced the most accurate outcome compared with the other signal filtration methods.

  9. Multiplexed Molecular Assays for Rapid Rule-Out of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R; Naraghi-Arani, P; Thissen, J; Olivas, J; Carillo, C; Chinn, C; Rasmussen, M; Messenger, S; Suer, L; Smith, S M; Tammero, L; Vitalis, E; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; Hindson, B J; Hietala, S; Crossley, B; Mcbride, M

    2007-06-26

    A nucleic acid-based multiplexed assay was developed that combines detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with rule-out assays for two other foreign animal diseases and four domestic animal diseases that cause vesicular or ulcerative lesions indistinguishable from FMDV infection in cattle, sheep and swine. The FMDV 'look-alike' diagnostic assay panel contains five PCR and twelve reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) signatures for a total of seventeen simultaneous PCR amplifications for seven diseases plus incorporating four internal assay controls. It was developed and optimized to amplify both DNA and RNA viruses simultaneously in a single tube and employs Luminex{trademark} liquid array technology. Assay development including selection of appropriate controls, a comparison of signature performance in single and multiplex testing against target nucleic acids, as well of limits of detection for each of the individual signatures is presented. While this assay is a prototype and by no means a comprehensive test for FMDV 'look-alike' viruses, an assay of this type is envisioned to have benefit to a laboratory network in routine surveillance and possibly for post-outbreak proof of freedom from foot-and-mouth disease.

  10. Real-time RPA assay for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies and gE-deleted vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Pang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a dual real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay using exo probes for the detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific RPA primers and probes were designed for gB and gE genes of PRV within the conserved region of viral genome. The reaction process can be completed in 20 min at 39 °C. The dual real-time RPA assay performed in the single tube was capable of specific detecting and differentiating of the wild-type PRV and gE-deleted vaccine strains, without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 2 copies for gB and gE genes. The dual real-time RPA demonstrated a 100% diagnostic agreement with the real-time PCR on 4 PRV strains and 37 clinical samples. Through the linear regression analysis, the R 2 value of the real-time RPA and the real-time PCR for gB and gE was 0.983 and 0.992, respectively. The dual real-time RPA assay provides an alternative useful tool for rapid, simple, and reliable detection and differentiation of PRV, especially in remote and rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Designing of primers for detection of salmonella typhimirium and enteritidis by heminested PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben salem, Issam

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella are the main responsible agent for the frequent food borne gastrointestinal diseases. In Tunisia, this pathogen is considered one of the most important causes of toxiinfections and its detection using classical methods is laborious and requires a large amount of time for revelation. To solve this problem, we developed a rapid molecular technique for the detection of the invA virulence gene sequence which is found in the majority of Salmonella spp. This technique is a hemi nested PCR amplification using specific primers designed and by bioinformatics tools. The detection method consisted of pre-enrichment of the sample in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by a total DNA extraction step prior to single tube hemi nested PCR amplification. This method was found highly specific and sensitive to detect low levels of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella enteritidis (1cfu/ 25g) in naturally contaminated spicy sausage (merguez) samples. These results can benefit the public health agencies concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial and traditional merguez meat production in Tunisia. (Author)

  12. Development of boiling transition analysis code TCAPE-INS/B based on mechanistic methods for BWR fuel bundles. Models and validations with boiling transition experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Naoyuki; Utsuno, Hideaki; Kasahara, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    The Boiling Transition (BT) analysis code TCAPE-INS/B based on the mechanistic methods coupled with subchannel analysis has been developed for the evaluation of the integrity of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel rod bundles under abnormal operations. Objective of the development is the evaluation of the BT without using empirical BT and rewetting correlations needed for different bundle designs in the current analysis methods. TCAPE-INS/B consisted mainly of the drift-flux model, the film flow model, the cross-flow model, the thermal conductivity model and the heat transfer correlations. These models were validated systematically with the experimental data. The accuracy of the prediction for the steady-state Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and the transient temperature of the fuel rod surface after the occurrence of BT were evaluated on the validations. The calculations for the experiments with the single tube and bundles were carried out for the validations of the models incorporated in the code. The results showed that the steady-state CHF was predicted within about 6% average error. In the transient calculations, BT timing and temperature of the fuel rod surface gradient agreed well with experimental results, but rewetting was predicted lately. So, modeling of heat transfer phenomena during post-BT is under modification. (author)

  13. Design and progress of the SPHINX in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Teol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae Yoon Yeong

    2005-01-01

    The SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. The SCWR is considered to be a feasible concept of new nuclear power plant if the existing technologies developed in fossil fuel fired plants and LWRs are incorporated together with additional researches on several disciplines such as materials, water chemistry, and safety. Among the research areas, heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required for the proper prediction of thermal hydraulic phenomena, which are essential in the reactor core designs. A heat transfer test loop using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as a surrogate fluid has been constructed in KAERI. The test facility, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), will be used for the study of heat transfer in a single tube, single rod, and rod bundle. The heat transfer correlations obtained from the SPHINX will be compared with the other correlations generated at Kyushu University and INL. This paper describes the design characteristics and progress of the SPHINX in KAERI. The construction of the facility is completed and a trial run is being conducted. The test and the data production are expected to start by April 2005

  14. Design and progress of the SPHINX in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Teol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. The SCWR is considered to be a feasible concept of new nuclear power plant if the existing technologies developed in fossil fuel fired plants and LWRs are incorporated together with additional researches on several disciplines such as materials, water chemistry, and safety. Among the research areas, heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required for the proper prediction of thermal hydraulic phenomena, which are essential in the reactor core designs. A heat transfer test loop using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a surrogate fluid has been constructed in KAERI. The test facility, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), will be used for the study of heat transfer in a single tube, single rod, and rod bundle. The heat transfer correlations obtained from the SPHINX will be compared with the other correlations generated at Kyushu University and INL. This paper describes the design characteristics and progress of the SPHINX in KAERI. The construction of the facility is completed and a trial run is being conducted. The test and the data production are expected to start by April 2005.

  15. Embryonic Heart Morphogenesis from Confocal Microscopy Imaging and Automatic Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongda Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart morphogenesis (EHM is a complex and dynamic process where the heart transforms from a single tube into a four-chambered pump. This process is of great biological and clinical interest but is still poorly understood for two main reasons. On the one hand, the existing imaging modalities for investigating EHM suffered from either limited penetration depth or limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, current works typically adopted manual segmentation, which was tedious, subjective, and time consuming considering the complexity of developing heart geometry and the large size of images. In this paper, we propose to utilize confocal microscopy imaging with tissue optical immersion clearing technique to image the heart at different stages of development for EHM study. The imaging method is able to produce high spatial resolution images and achieve large penetration depth at the same time. Furthermore, we propose a novel convex active contour model for automatic image segmentation. The model has the ability to deal with intensity fall-off in depth which is characterized by confocal microscopy images. We acquired the images of embryonic quail hearts from day 6 to day 14 of incubation for EHM study. The experimental results were promising and provided us with an insight view of early heart growth pattern and also paved the road for data-driven heart growth modeling.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic experiments for the PCHE type steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, C. W.; No, H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) manufactured by HEATRIC is a compact type of the mini-channel heat exchanger. The PCHE is manufactured by diffusion bonding of the chemically-etched plates, and has high heat transfer rate due to a large surface. Therefore, the size of heat exchanger can be reduced by 1/5 - 1/6 and PCHE can be operated under high pressure, high temperature and multi-phase flow. Under such merits, it is used as heat exchanger with various purposes of gas cycle and water cycle. Recently, it is newly suggested as an application of a steam generator. IRIS of MIT and FASES of KAIST conceptually adopted PCHE as a steam generator. When using boiling condition of micro-channel, flow instability is one of the critical issues. Instability may cause unstable mass flow rate, sudden temperature change and system control failure. However instability tests of micro channels using water are very limited because the previous studies were focused on a single tube or other fluid instead of water. In KAIST, we construct the test facility to study the thermal hydraulics and fluid dynamics of the heat exchanger, especially occurrence of instability. By inducing the pressure drop of inlet water, amplitude of oscillation declined by 90%. Finally, the throttling effect was experimentally confirmed that PCHE could be utilized as a steam generator

  17. Free thyroid hormones in patients with severe non-thyroidal illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, I.; Schneck, H.W.

    1985-11-01

    Free thyroid hormone radioligand assays and indirect methods for FT/sub 4/ and FT/sub 3/ were applied to measurement in sera of patients with severe NTI (hemodialysis, intensive-care, polytrauma). FT/sub 4/ by different techniques was low-normal to decreased by a kinetic two-tube and a T/sub 4/-analogue tracer single-tube assay whereas another two-tube technique measured normal to low-normal but in some instances increased FT/sub 4/ levels. Indirect parameters behaved in a similar fashion. FT/sub 3/ was decreased in most of the cases as were the indirect parameters, mostly due to affected T/sub 4/-T/sub 3/ conversion. Direct and indirect parameters for free thyroid hormones changed in parallel also during follow-up of NTI. There was no clear protein or albumen effect upon the two-tube FT/sub 4/ and the two-tube FT/sub 3/ assay(s). Supersensitively determined basal TSH was found to be decreased in some cases with severe NTI (polytrauma). The findings taken together are consistent with (pseudo) sedondary hypothyroidism in severe NTI. The data show the free thyroid hormone assays tested to be rather reliable with little or no disturbance by severe NTI or specifically hypoalbumenemia.

  18. Free thyroid hormones in patients with severe non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.; Schneck, H.W.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1985-01-01

    Free thyroid hormone radioligand assays and indirect methods for FT 4 and FT 3 were applied to measurement in sera of patients with severe NTI (hemodialysis, intensive-care, polytrauma). FT 4 by different techniques was low-normal to decreased by a kinetic two-tube and a T 4 -analogue tracer single-tube assay whereas another two-tube technique measured normal to low-normal but in some instances increased FT 4 levels. Indirect parameters behaved in a similar fashion. FT 3 was decreased in most of the cases as were the indirect parameters, mostly due to affected T 4 -T 3 conversion. Direct and indirect parameters for free thyroid hormones changed in parallel also during follow-up of NTI. There was no clear protein or albumen effect upon the two-tube FT 4 and the two-tube FT 3 assay(s). Supersensitively determined basal TSH was found to be decreased in some cases with severe NTI (polytrauma). The findings taken together are consistent with (pseudo) sedondary hypothyroidism in severe NTI. The data show the free thyroid hormone assays tested to be rather reliable with little or no disturbance by severe NTI or specifically hypoalbumenemia. (orig.)

  19. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.

    2009-09-09

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.

  20. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishear, R.

    2009-01-01

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels

  1. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  2. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy.

  3. Indian Point 2 steam generator tube rupture analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayan, A.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses were conducted with RETRAN-02 to study consequences of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) events. The Indian Point, Unit 2, power plant (IP2, PWR) was modeled as a two asymmetric loops, consisting of 27 volumes and 37 junctions. The break section was modeled once, conservatively, as a 150% flow area opening at the wall of the steam generator cold leg plenum, and once as a 200% double-ended tube break. Results revealed 60% overprediction of breakflow rates by the traditional conservative model. Two SGTR transients were studied, one with low-pressure reactor trip and one with an earlier reactor trip via over temperature ΔT. The former is more typical to a plant with low reactor average temperature such as IP2. Transient analyses for a single tube break event over 500 seconds indicated continued primary subcooling and no need for steam line pressure relief. In addition, SGTR transients with reactor trip while the pressurizer still contains water were found to favorably reduce depressurization rates. Comparison of the conservative results with independent LOFTRAN predictions showed good agreement

  4. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  5. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.3 condensation models for the tube bundle condensation in the PCCS of ESBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Revankar, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    The passive containment condenser system (PCCS) in an ESBWR reactor consists of vertical tube bundle submerged in a large pool of water. The condensation model for the PCCS in a thermalhydraulics code RELAP5/MOD3.3 consists of the default Nusselt model and an alternate condensation model from UCB condensation correlation. An assessment of the PCCS condensation model in RELAP5/MOD3.3 was carried out using experiments conducted on a single tube and tube bundle PCCS tests at Purdue University. The experimental conditions were simulated with the default and the alternate condensation models in the REALP5/MOD3.3 beta version of the code. The default model and the UCB model (alternate model) give quite different results on condensation heat transfer for the PCCS. The default model predicts complete condensation well whereas the UCB model predicts the through flow condensation well. Based on this study it was found that none of the models in REALP5 can predict complete condensation as well as the through flow condensation well. (author)

  6. EBaLM-THP - A neural network thermohydraulic prediction model of advanced nuclear system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Manic, Milos; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2009-01-01

    In lieu of the worldwide energy demand, economics and consensus concern regarding climate change, nuclear power - specifically near-term nuclear power plant designs are receiving increased engineering attention. However, as the nuclear industry is emerging from a lull in component modeling and analyses, optimization for example using ANN has received little research attention. This paper presents a neural network approach, EBaLM, based on a specific combination of two training algorithms, error-back propagation (EBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), applied to a problem of thermohydraulics predictions (THPs) of advanced nuclear heat exchangers (HXs). The suitability of the EBaLM-THP algorithm was tested on two different reference problems in thermohydraulic design analysis; that is, convective heat transfer of supercritical CO 2 through a single tube, and convective heat transfer through a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) using CO 2 . Further, comparison of EBaLM-THP and a polynomial fitting approach was considered. Within the defined reference problems, the neural network approach generated good results in both cases, in spite of highly fluctuating trends in the dataset used. In fact, the neural network approach demonstrated cumulative measure of the error one to three orders of magnitude smaller than that produce via polynomial fitting of 10th order

  7. HRM and SNaPshot as alternative forensic SNP genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; McNevin, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in forensics for prediction of identity, biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs). Single base extension (SBE) assays, most notably SNaPshot® (Thermo Fisher Scientific), are commonly used for forensic SNP genotyping as they can be employed on standard instrumentation in forensic laboratories (e.g. capillary electrophoresis). High resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative method and is a simple, fast, single tube assay for low throughput SNP typing. This study compares HRM and SNaPshot®. HRM produced reproducible and concordant genotypes at 500 pg, however, difficulties were encountered when genotyping SNPs with high GC content in flanking regions and differentiating variants of symmetrical SNPs. SNaPshot® was reproducible at 100 pg and is less dependent on SNP choice. HRM has a shorter processing time in comparison to SNaPshot®, avoids post PCR contamination risk and has potential as a screening tool for many forensic applications.

  8. Determination of Sperm Sex Ratio in Bovine Semen Using Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisadee Khamlor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender selection is important in livestock industries; for example, female calves are required in the dairy industry. Sex-sorted semen is commonly used for the production of calves of the desired gender. However, assessment of the sex ratio of the sorted semen is tedious and expensive. In this study, a rapid, cost effective and reliable method for determining the sex ratio was developed using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In this assay, the X and Y chromosome-specific markers, i.e., bovine proteolipid protein (PLP gene and sex-determining region Y (SRY were simultaneously quantified in a single tube. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was shown to have high amplification efficiencies (97% to 99% comparable to the separated-tube simplex real-time PCR assay. The results obtained from both assays were not significantly different (p>0.05. The multiplex assay was validated using reference DNA of known X ratio (10%, 50%, and 90% as templates. The measured %X in semen samples were the same within 95% confidence intervals as the expected values, i.e., >90% in X-sorted semen, <10% in Y-sorted semen and close to 50% in the unsorted semen. The multiplex real-time PCR assay as shown in this study can thus be used to assess purity of sex-sorted semen.

  9. Development and validation of a SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detection of haptoglobin gene deletion in clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Mikiko; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Egashira, Kouichi; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Koda, Yoshiro

    2010-06-01

    Anhaptoglobinemic patients run the risk of severe anaphylactic transfusion reaction because they produce serum haptoglobin (Hp) antibodies. Being homozygous for the Hp gene deletion (HP(del)) is the only known cause of congenital anhaptoglobinemia, and clinical diagnosis of HP(del) before transfusion is important to prevent anaphylactic shock. We recently developed a 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A SYBR Green I-based duplex real-time PCR assay using two forward primers and a common reverse primer followed by melting curve analysis was developed to determine HP(del) zygosity in a single tube. In addition, to obviate initial DNA extraction, we examined serially diluted blood samples as PCR templates. Allelic discrimination of HP(del) yielded optimal results at blood sample dilutions of 1:64 to 1:1024. The results from 2231 blood samples were fully concordant with those obtained by the TaqMan-based real-time PCR method. The detection rate of the HP(del) allele by the SYBR Green I-based method is comparable with that using the TaqMan-based method. This method is readily applicable due to its low initial cost and analyzability using economical real-time PCR machines and is suitable for high-throughput analysis as an alternative method for allelic discrimination of HP(del).

  10. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-01-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. PMID:27044566

  12. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, Albert; Dünnweber, Wolfgang

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large H adron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise m easurement of trajec- tories of traversing muons. In order to determine the moment um of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the m uon in a single tube has to be more accurate than σ ≤ 100 m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and th e high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and γ s in the muon spectrome- ter. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade [1] to 5 10 34 cm − 2 s − 1 is planned, which will increase the background counting rates consider ably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber tech- nology to provide the required accuracy of the position meas urement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the dri ft tube chambers are described: • In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more lin ear ...

  13. Highly Selective Continuous Flow Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol in a Pt/SiO2 Coated Tube Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel continuous flow process for selective hydrogenation of α, β-unsaturated aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde, CAL to the unsaturated alcohol (cinnamyl alcohol, COL has been reported in a tube reactor coated with a Pt/SiO2 catalyst. A 90% selectivity towards the unsaturated alcohol was obtained at the aldehyde conversion of 98.8%. This is a six-fold improvement in the selectivity compared to a batch process where acetals were the main reaction products. The increased selectivity in the tube reactor was caused by the suppression of acid sites responsible for the acetal formation after a short period on stream in the continuous process. In a fixed bed reactor, it had a similar acetal suppression phenomenon but showed lower product selectivity of about 47–72% due to mass transfer limitations. A minor change in selectivity and conversion caused by product inhibition was observed during the 110 h on stream with a turnover number (TON reaching 3000 and an alcohol production throughput of 0.36 kg gPt−1 day−1 in the single tube reactor. The catalysts performance after eight reaction cycles was fully restored by calcination in air at 400 °C. The tube reactors provide an opportunity for process intensification by increasing the reaction rates by a factor of 2.5 at the reaction temperature of 150 °C compared to 90 °C with no detrimental effects on catalyst stability or product selectivity.

  14. Detection of four important Eimeria species by multiplex PCR in a single assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myung-Jo

    2014-06-01

    The oocysts of some of the recognized species of chicken coccidiosis are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly utilizing DNA-based technologies for the specific identification of Eimeria species. This study reports a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) for the simultaneous diagnosis of the Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria necatrix species, which infect domestic fowl. Primer pairs specific to each species were designed in order to generate a ladder of amplification products ranging from 20 to 25 bp, and a common optimum annealing temperature for these species was determined to be 52.5 °C. Sensitivity tests were performed for each species, showing a detection threshold of 1-5 pg. All the species were amplified homogeneously, and a homogenous band ladder was observed, indicating that the assay permitted the simultaneous detection of all the species in a single-tube reaction. In the phylogenic study, there was a clear species clustering, which was irrespective of geographical location, for all the ITS-1 sequences used. This multiplex PCR assay represents a rapid and potential cost-effective diagnostic method for the detection of some key Eimeria species that infect domestic fowl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid detection and typing of pathogenic nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates using a multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Alvaro J; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-04-01

    We developed a single tube multiplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the rapid detection and typing of 9 nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates that are clinically relevant. The multiplex assay is capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. longbeachae, L. feeleii, L. anisa, L. parisiensis, L. tucsonensis serogroup (sg) 1 and 3, and L. sainthelensis sg 1 and 2 isolates. Evaluation of the assay with nucleic acid from each of these species derived from both clinical and environmental isolates and typing strains demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 43 other Legionella spp. Typing of L. anisa, L. parisiensis, and L. tucsonensis sg 1 and 3 isolates was accomplished by developing a real-time PCR assay followed by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis targeting the ssrA gene. Further typing of L. bozemanii, L. longbeachae, and L. feeleii isolates to the serogroup level was accomplished by developing a real-time PCR assay followed by HRM analysis targeting the mip gene. When used in conjunction with other currently available diagnostic tests, these assays may aid in rapidly identifying specific etiologies associated with Legionella outbreaks, clusters, sporadic cases, and potential environmental sources. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Advanced industrial ceramic heat pipe recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumpf, H.J.; Stillwagon, T.L.; Kotchick, D.M.; Coombs, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation involving the use of ceramic heat pipe recuperators for high-temperature heat recovery from industrial furnaces. The function of the recuperator is to preheat combustion air with furnace exhaust gas. The heat pipe recuperator comprises a bundle of individual ceramic heat pipes acting in concert, with a partition separating the air and exhaust gas flow streams. Because each heat pipe is essentially an independent heat exchanger, the failure of a single tube does not compromise recuperator integrity, has only a minimal effect on overall heat exchanger performance and enables easier replacement of individual heat pipes. In addition, the heat pipe acts as an essentially isothermal heat transfer device, leading to a high thermodynamic efficiency. Cost estimates developed for heat pipe recuperator systems indicate favorable payback periods. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating the required ceramic tubes, coating the inside of the tubes with CVD tungsten, and sealing the heat pipe with an electron-beam-welded or vacuum-brazed end cap.

  17. Comparison of analyzed design-basis events to actual plant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, M.W.; Hightower, N.T. III; Fields, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fitness-for-Service Guidelines have recently been developed to provide acceptance criteria and evaluation methods for assessment of the integrity of the Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes in operating Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. The guidelines provide a methodology for the evaluation of specific conditions in a single tube, such as manufacturing and inservice generated flaws, hydride blisters formed at points of contact between a pressure tube and its calandria tube, and generic degradation of pressure tube properties in service. The guidelines are divided into three sections. The first section describes the requirements that must be met to qualify the tubes ofr continued service. The second section provides the material properties data-base information needed to carry out the assessments. The third section provides the technical basis for the acceptance criteria and evaluation procedures as well as justifications and descriptions of the data bases. The guidelines were issued to CANDU reactor operators for trial use and released to the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada for review and comment in May 1991

  18. Temperature stabilisation in Fischer–Tropsch reactors using phase change material (PCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odunsi, Ademola O.; O'Donovan, Tadhg S.; Reay, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer–Tropsch (FT) reaction is highly exothermic. The exothermicity combined with a high sensitivity of product selectivity to temperature constitute the main challenges in the design of FT reactors. Temperature control is particularly critical to the process in order to ensure longevity of the catalyst, optimise the product distribution, and to ensure thermo-mechanical reliability of the entire process. The use of encapsulated, Phase Change Material (PCM), in conjunction with a supervisory temperature control mechanism, could help mitigate these challenges and intensify the heat transport from the reactor. A 2D-axisymmetric, pseudo-homogeneous, steady-state model, with the dissipation of the enthalpy of reaction into an isothermal PCM sink, in a wall-cooled, single-tube fixed bed reactor is presented. Effective temperature control shows a shift in thermodynamic equilibrium, favouring the selectivity of longer chain hydrocarbons (C_5_+) to the disadvantage of CH_4 selectivity-a much desired outcome in the hydrocarbon Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) industry. - Highlights: • Phase change material is used to control temperature in a Fischer–Tropsch reactor. • Effective temperature control favours the production of C_5_+ over CH_4. • A 2D-axisymmetric, steady-state model is presented. • The model is verified against similar experimental work done in literature.

  19. Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nancy A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Barker, Bridget M.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides is essential for the prevention of Valley fever, a disease primarily caused by inhalation of the arthroconidia. Methods for collecting and detectingCoccidioides in soil samples are currently in use by several laboratories; however, a method utilizing current air sampling technologies has not been formally demonstrated for the capture of airborne arthroconidia. In this study, we collected air/dust samples at two sites (Site A and Site B) in the endemic region of Tucson, Arizona, and tested a variety of air samplers and membrane matrices. We then employed a single-tube nested qPCR assay for molecular detection. At both sites, numerous soil samples (n = 10 at Site A and n = 24 at Site B) were collected and Coccidioides was detected in two samples (20%) at Site A and in eight samples (33%) at Site B. Of the 25 air/dust samples collected at both sites using five different air sampling methods, we detected Coccidioides in three samples from site B. All three samples were collected using a high-volume sampler with glass-fiber filters. In this report, we describe these methods and propose the use of these air sampling and molecular detection strategies for environmental surveillance of Coccidioides.

  20. Untethered Recyclable Tubular Actuators with Versatile Locomotion for Soft Continuum Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaojie; Chen, Qiaomei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Yanshuang; Li, Zhen; Wang, Zhenhua; Wu, Yahe; Wei, Yen; Ji, Yan

    2018-05-27

    Stimuli-responsive materials offer a distinguished platform to build tether-free compact soft robots, which can combine sensing and actuation without a linked power supply. In the past, tubular soft robots have to be made by multiple components with various internal channels or complex cavities assembled together. Moreover, robust processing, complex locomotion, simple structure, and easy recyclability represent major challenges in this area. Here, it is shown that those challenges can be tackled by liquid crystalline elastomers with allyl sulfide functional groups. The light-controlled exchange reaction between allyl sulfide groups allows flexible processing of tubular soft robots/actuators, which does not need any assisting materials. Complex locomotion demonstrated here includes reversible simultaneous bending and elongation; reversible diameter expansion; and omnidirectional bending via remote infrared light control. Different modes of actuation can be programmed into the same tube without the routine assembly of multiple tubes as used in the past. In addition, the exchange reaction also makes it possible to use the same single tube repeatedly to perform different functions by erasing and reprogramming. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A subchannel based annular flow dryout model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, Najmeddine; Cheng, Zhong; Rao, Yanfei F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified annular flow dryout model for subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis. • Implementation of the model in Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Assessment of the model against tube CHF experiments. • Assessment of the model against CANDU-bundle CHF experiments. - Abstract: This paper assesses a popular tube-based mechanistic critical heat flux model (Hewitt and Govan’s annular flow model (based on the model of Whalley et al.), and modifies and implements the model for bundle geometries. It describes the results of the ASSERT subchannel code predictions using the modified model, as applied to a single tube and the 28-element, 37-element and 43-element (CANFLEX) CANDU bundles. A quantitative comparison between the model predictions and experimental data indicates good agreement for a wide range of flow conditions. The comparison has resulted in an overall average error of −0.15% and an overall root-mean-square error of 5.46% with tube data representing annular film dryout type critical heat flux, and in an overall average error of −0.9% and an overall RMS error of 9.9% with Stern Laboratories’ CANDU-bundle data.

  2. Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of the Cavity Evolution in Gypsum Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2017-11-01

    When water flows through a preexisting cylindrical tube in gypsum rock, the nonuniform dissolution alters the tube into an enlarged tapered tube. A 2-D analytical model is developed to study the transport-controlled dissolution in an enlarged tapered tube, with explicit consideration of the tapered geometry and induced radial flow. The analytical model shows that the Graetz solution can be extended to model dissolution in the tapered tube. An alternative form of the governing equations is proposed to take advantage of the invariant quantities in the Graetz solution to facilitate modeling cavity evolution in gypsum rock. A 2-D finite volume model was developed to validate the extended Graetz solution. The time evolution of the transport-controlled and the reaction-controlled dissolution models for a single tube with time-invariant flow rate are compared. This comparison shows that for time-invariant flow rate, the reaction-controlled dissolution model produces a positive feedback between the tube enlargement and dissolution, while the transport-controlled dissolution does not.

  3. Multicolor-based discrimination of 21 short tandem repeats and amelogenin using four fluorescent universal primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Hoshina, Chisato; Omura, Tomohiro; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Shiono, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shimizu, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective genotyping method using high-quality DNA for human identification. A total of 21 short tandem repeats (STRs) and amelogenin were selected, and fluorescent fragments at 22 loci were simultaneously amplified in a single-tube reaction using locus-specific primers with 24-base universal tails and four fluorescent universal primers. Several nucleotide substitutions in universal tails and fluorescent universal primers enabled the detection of specific fluorescent fragments from the 22 loci. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) produced intense FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labeled fragments ranging from 90 to 400 bp, and these fragments were discriminated using standard capillary electrophoretic analysis. The selected 22 loci were also analyzed using two commercial kits (the AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit and the PowerPlex ESX 17 System), and results for two loci (D19S433 and D16S539) were discordant between these kits due to mutations at the primer binding sites. All genotypes from the 100 samples were determined using 2.5 ng of DNA by our method, and the expected alleles were completely recovered. Multiplex 22-locus genotyping using four fluorescent universal primers effectively reduces the costs to less than 20% of genotyping using commercial kits, and our method would be useful to detect silent alleles from commercial kit analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving image quality in portal venography with spectral CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Li-qin; He, Wen; Li, Jian-ying; Chen, Jiang-hong; Wang, Ke-yang; Tan, Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of energy spectral CT on the image quality of CT portal venography in cirrhosis patients. Materials and methods: 30 portal hypertension patients underwent spectral CT examination using a single-tube, fast dual tube voltage switching technique. 101 sets of monochromatic images were generated from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for portal veins from the monochromatic images were measured. An optimal monochromatic image set was selected for obtaining the best CNR for portal veins. The image noise and CNR of the intra-hepatic portal vein and extra-hepatic main stem at the selected monochromatic level were compared with those from the conventional polychromatic images. Image quality was also assessed and compared. Results: The monochromatic images at 51 keV were found to provide the best CNR for both the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic portal veins. At this energy level, the monochromatic images had about 100% higher CNR than the polychromatic images with a moderate 30% noise increase. The qualitative image quality assessment was also statistically higher with monochromatic images at 51 keV. Conclusion: Monochromatic images at 51 keV for CT portal venography could improve CNR for displaying hepatic portal veins and improve the overall image quality.

  5. Physicist makes muon chamber sing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This Monitored Drift Tube detector, consisting of argon-CO2-filled aluminium tubes with a wire down the centre of each, will track muons in ATLAS; Tiecke used a single tube from one of these detectors to create the pipes in his organ. Particle physicists can make good musicians; but did you know particle detectors can make good music? That's what NIKHEF physicist Henk Tiecke learned when he used pipes cut from the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector (MDT) to build his own working Dutch-style barrel organ in the autumn of 2005. 'I like to work with my hands,' said Tiecke, who worked as a senior physicist at NIKHEF, Amsterdam, on ZEUS until his retirement last summer. Tiecke had already constructed his barrel organ when he visited some colleagues in the ATLAS muon chambers production area at Nikhef in 2005. He noticed that the aluminium tubes they were using to build the chambers were about three centimetres in diameter-just the right size for a pipe in a barrel organ. 'The sound is not as nice as from wooden...

  6. Electrostatic Switching in Vertically Oriented Nanotubes for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Khan, Paul; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Allmen, Paul von

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated electrostatic switching in vertically oriented nanotubes or nanofibers, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside an SEM. When the nanoprobe was manipulated to be in close proximity to a single tube, switching voltages between 10 V - 40 V were observed, depending on the geometrical parameters. The turn-on transitions appeared to be much sharper than the turn-off transitions which were limited by the tube-to-probe contact resistances. In many cases, stiction forces at these dimensions were dominant, since the tube appeared stuck to the probe even after the voltage returned to 0 V, suggesting that such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. The stiction effects, to some extent, can be adjusted by engineering the switch geometry appropriately. Nanoscale mechanical measurements were also conducted on the tubes using a custom-built anoindentor inside an SEM, from which preliminary material parameters, such as the elastic modulus, were extracted. The mechanical measurements also revealed that the tubes appear to be well adhered to the substrate. The material parameters gathered from the mechanical measurements were then used in developing an electrostatic model of the switch using a commercially available finite-element simulator. The calculated pull-in voltages appeared to be in agreement to the experimentally obtained switching voltages to first order.

  7. Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TEC-LAMP Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Higgins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, TEC-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex TEC-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The TEC-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex TEC-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology.

  8. Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (TEC-LAMP) Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Eoin; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; Cunney, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, TEC-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex TEC-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The TEC-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex TEC-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology. PMID:29425124

  9. Thermal performance test of the hot gas ducts of HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, M.; Kunitomi, K.; Ioka, I.; Umenishi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Shimomura, H.; Sanokawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    A hot gas duct provided with internal thermal insulation is to be used for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). This type of hot gas duct has not been used so far in industrial facilities, and only a couple of tests on such a large-scale model of a hot gas duct have been conducted. The present report deals with the results of the thermal performance of the single tube type hot gas ducts which are installed as parts of a helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL). Uniform temperature and heat flux distribution at the surface of the duct were observed, the experimental correlations being obtained for the effective thermal conductivity of the internal thermal insulation layer. The measured temperature distribution of the pressure tube was in good agreement with the calculation by a TRUMP heat transfer computer code. The temperature distribution of the inner tube of the co-axial hot gas duct was evaluated and no hot spot was detected. These results would be very valuable for the design and development of HTGR. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.3 condensation models for the tube bundle condensation in the PCCS of ESBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W., E-mail: wenzzhou@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wolf, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Revankar, S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    The passive containment condenser system (PCCS) in an ESBWR reactor consists of vertical tube bundle submerged in a large pool of water. The condensation model for the PCCS in a thermalhydraulics code RELAP5/MOD3.3 consists of the default Nusselt model and an alternate condensation model from UCB condensation correlation. An assessment of the PCCS condensation model in RELAP5/MOD3.3 was carried out using experiments conducted on a single tube and tube bundle PCCS tests at Purdue University. The experimental conditions were simulated with the default and the alternate condensation models in the REALP5/MOD3.3 beta version of the code. The default model and the UCB model (alternate model) give quite different results on condensation heat transfer for the PCCS. The default model predicts complete condensation well whereas the UCB model predicts the through flow condensation well. Based on this study it was found that none of the models in REALP5 can predict complete condensation as well as the through flow condensation well.

  11. Performance of a RT-PCR Assay in Comparison to FISH and Immunohistochemistry for the Detection of ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, David R; Schweitzer, Brock L; Lawrence, Kasey; Morris, Stephan W; Tucker, Tracy; Mazzola, Rosetta; Skelton, Rachel; McMahon, Frank; Handshoe, John; Lesperance, Mary; Karsan, Aly; Saltman, David L

    2017-08-01

    Patients with lung cancers harboring an activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) rearrangement respond favorably to ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are validated and widely used screening tests for ALK rearrangements but both methods have limitations. The ALK RGQ RT-PCR Kit (RT-PCR) is a single tube quantitative real-time PCR assay for high throughput and automated interpretation of ALK expression. In this study, we performed a direct comparison of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung cancer specimens using all three ALK detection methods. The RT-PCR test (diagnostic cut-off Δ C t of ≤8) was shown to be highly sensitive (100%) when compared to FISH and IHC. Sequencing of RNA detected full-length ALK transcripts or EML4-ALK and KIF5B-ALK fusion variants in discordant cases in which ALK expression was detected by the ALK RT-PCR test but negative by FISH and IHC. The overall specificity of the RT-PCR test for the detection of ALK in cases without full-length ALK expression was 94% in comparison to FISH and sequencing. These data support the ALK RT-PCR test as a highly efficient and reliable diagnostic screening approach to identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors are driven by oncogenic ALK.

  12. A heat transfer study for vertical straight-tube steam generators heated by liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, M.

    1984-04-01

    A single-tube mockup of a vertical straight-tube steam generator heated by sodium-potassium alloy NaK was submitted to thermal and hydraulic testing in conditions representative of fast breeder reactor operation. The mockup consisted of a 10mm I.D. ferritic steel heat exchange tube centered inside a cylindrical stainless steel shell. The complete assembly was 20.9 meters long. Water flowed upward inside the exchange tube, and NaK flowed downward in the annular gap between the tube and the shell. The steam outlet pressure ranged from 90 to 195 bars, while the liquid metal temperature at the mockup inlet was between 480 and 580 0 C. The water flowrate in the tube ranged from 153 to 2460 kg.m -2 .s -1 . During the tests the fluid inlet and outlet temperatures, flowrate and pressures were measured, as was the NaK temperature profile over the full length of the device. The test results were subsequently compared with heat exchange and pressure drop values calculated using the standard formulas for straight-tube heat exchangers. The heat exchange coefficients predicted by these correlations in the boiling zone were found to be largely overestimated, while the calculated pressure drop values proved satisfactory. A set of modified correlations is proposed to account for the observed phenomena, and for use in designing commercial units, provided the sodium flow in the tube bundle is adequately distributed

  13. Evaluation of a new free-thyroxin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welby, M.L.; Guthrie, L.; Reilly, C.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Amerlex Free Thyroxin (T 4 ) Radioimmunoassay Kit (Amersham International Ltd.) is a new direct equilibrium radioimmunoassay for free T 4 based on an antiserum with very high affinity for T 4 , and a unique 125 l-labeled T 4 analog as tracer. It is a very simple single-tube radioimmunoassay, making use of Amerlex particles to separate antibody-bound from free species. Interassay precision (CV) is 3.7% at 13 pmol/L and 2.3% at 30 pmol/L; within-assay precision is 4.2% at 21 pmol/L. The reference interval is 11-22 pmol/L. The assay did not misclassify any patients tested who had untreated myxedema or untreated thyrotoxicosis. The free T 4 assay excelled both the free T 4 index and the T 4 /T 4 -binding globulin ratio in correcting for increased thyroxin-binding globulin from pregnancy, and it was better than the index but not better than the ratio in correcting for increased thyroxin-binding globulin in users of oral contraceptives

  14. The Swiss contribution to American nuclear technology and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueling, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the industrial position in Switzerland (40 years of industrial peace, extensive development of nuclear energy to an installed capacity of 2000MW, supplying 33% of the national energy requirement) the article considers the following institutions that contribute substantially to the nuclear situation: the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR), Brown Boveri and Cie AG, Gebrueder Sulzer AG, Georg Fischer AG. It lists the spheres of cooperation between the EIR and organisations in the USA. The industrial contributions include: Large welded turbo-generator rotors (up to 1300MW, 2640mm dia.) from BBC; single-tube forced-circulation steam generators, site welded pressure vessels (152mm wall thickness), spherical containment vessels envelopes (52mm dia.) from Gebr. Sulzer; very large (227 000HP, 5.4m dia.) Pelton wheels of cavitation-resistant stainless steel, high-pressure pumps for nuclear plants from G. Fischer. In conclusion it discusses the prospects for the high-temperature helium reactor in combination with the closed-circuit gas turbine. (C.J.O.G.)

  15. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  16. Thermal hydraulic considerations and mock-up tests for developing two-phase thermo-siphon loop of CARR-CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejiao, Du; Qincheng, Bi; Tingkuan, Chen; Quanke, Feng

    2005-01-01

    The main component of the China Advanced Research Reactor Cold Neutron Source (CARR-CNS), which is under design, is a two-phase thermo-siphon loop of hydrogen. It consists of a condenser, a single tube with counter current flow avoiding flooding and a cylindrical-annulus moderator cell. The mockup tests were carried out using a full-scale loop with Freon-113, to validate the self-regulating characteristics of the loop, void fraction less than 20% in the liquid of the moderator cell and the requirements for establishing the condition under which the inner shell of the moderator cell has only vapor and the outer shell liquid. In the case of these mockup tests the density ratio of liquid to vapor and the volumetric vapor evaporation rate due to heat load are kept the same as those in normal operation of the CARR-CNS. The results show that the loop has the self-regulating characteristics and the inner shell of the moderator cell contains only vapor, the outer shell liquid. The average void fraction of the moderator cell was verified less than 20% under the volumetric vapor generation of 0.65 l/s corresponding to the nuclear heating of 800 W in the case of the liquid hydrogen. The local void fraction in the liquid hydrogen increases with the increase of the loop pressure under the condition of a constant volumetric evaporation

  17. The aquatic environment as a reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in hydrographic basins of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Silveira Filho, Vladimir da Mota; da Costa, Ana Paula Rocha; Nunes, Mariana de Lira; da Silva Filho, Sandoval Vieira; Figueirôa, Ângela Cristina Torres de Araújo; Hofer, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2013-01-01

    After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1) positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR); 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin) positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR), and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012) and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  18. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  19. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Min Qiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1 and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products.

  20. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium, has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium. The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products. PMID:27721691

  1. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tagging of Test Tubes with Electronic p-Chips for Use in Biorepositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandecki, Wlodek; Kopacka, Wesley M; Qian, Ziye; Ertwine, Von; Gedzberg, Katie; Gruda, Maryann; Reinhardt, David; Rodriguez, Efrain

    2017-08-01

    A system has been developed to electronically tag and track test tubes used in biorepositories. The system is based on a light-activated microtransponder, also known as a "p-Chip." One of the pressing problems with storing and retrieving biological samples at low temperatures is the difficulty of reliably reading the identification (ID) number that links each storage tube with the database containing sample details. Commonly used barcodes are not always reliable at low temperatures because of poor adhesion of the label to the test tube and problems with reading under conditions of frost and ice accumulation. Traditional radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are not cost effective and are too large for this application. The system described herein consists of the p-Chip, p-Chip-tagged test tubes, two ID readers (for single tubes or for racks of tubes), and software. We also describe a robot that is configured for retrofitting legacy test tubes in biorepositories with p-Chips while maintaining the temperature of the sample below -50°C at all times. The main benefits of the p-Chip over other RFID devices are its small size (600 × 600 × 100 μm) that allows even very small tubes or vials to be tagged, low cost due to the chip's unitary construction, durability, and the ability to read the ID through frost and ice.

  3. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a μ-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  4. Dual-energy attenuation coefficient decomposition with differential filtration and application to a microCT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschereau, R; Silverman, R W; Chatziioannou, A F [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: rtaschereau@mednet.ucla.edu

    2010-02-21

    Dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (DECT) has the capability to decompose attenuation coefficients using two basis functions and has proved its potential in reducing beam-hardening artifacts from reconstructed images. The method typically involves two successive scans with different x-ray tube voltage settings. This work proposes an approach to dual-energy imaging through x-ray beam filtration that requires only one scan and a single tube voltage setting. It has been implemented in a preclinical microCT tomograph with minor modifications. Retrofitting of the microCT scanner involved the addition of an automated filter wheel and modifications to the acquisition and reconstruction software. Results show that beam-hardening artifacts are reduced to noise level. Acquisition of a {mu}-Compton image is well suited for attenuation-correction of PET images while dynamic energy selection (4D viewing) offers flexibility in image viewing by adjusting contrast and noise levels to suit the task at hand. All dual-energy and single energy reference scans were acquired at the same soft tissue dose level of 50 mGy.

  5. The Impact of Sepiolite on Sensor Parameters during the Detection of Low Concentrations of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska-Woźniak, Patrycja; Rac, Olga; Fiedot, Marta; Teterycz, Helena

    2016-11-09

    The article presents the results of the detection of low-concentration C1-C4 alcohols using a planar sensor, in which a sepiolite filter was applied next to the gas-sensitive layer based on tin dioxide. The sepiolite layer is composed of tubes that have a length of several microns, and the diameter of the single tube ranges from several to tens of nanometers. The sepiolite layer itself demonstrated no chemical activity in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and the passive filter made of this material did not modify the chemical composition of the gaseous atmosphere diffusing to the gas-sensitive layer. The test results revealed that the structural remodelling of the sepiolite that occurs under the influence of temperature, as well as the effect of the filter (a compound with ionic bonds) with molecules of water, has a significant impact on the improvement of the sensitivity of the sensor in relation to volatile organic compounds when compared to the sensor without a filter.

  6. Flexibility and trackability of laser cut coronary stent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabadíts, Péter; Puskás, Zsolt; Dobránszky, János

    2009-01-01

    Coronary stents are the most important supports in present day cardiology. Flexibility and trackability are two basic features of stents. In this paper, four different balloon-expandable coronary stent systems were investigated mechanically in order to compare their suitability. The coronary stent systems were assessed by measurements of stent flexibility as well as by comparison of forces during simulated stenting in a self-investigated coronary vessel model. The stents were cut by laser from a single tube of 316L stainless steel or L-605 (CoCr) cobalt chromium alloy. The one-and four-point bending tests were carried out to evaluate the stent flexibility E x I (Nmm(2)), under displacement control in crimped and expanded configurations. The flexibility of stents would be rather dependent on the design than on raw material. In general a more flexible stent needs lower tracking force during the implantation. The L-605 raw material stents need lower track force to pass through in the vessel model than the 316L raw material stents. The sort and long stents passed through the curved vessel model in different ways. The long stents nestled to the vessel wall at the outer arc and bent, while the short stents did not bend in the curve, only the delivery systems bent.

  7. On-Chip Sorting of Long Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Multiple Transistors along an Identical Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Keigo; Inoue, Taiki; Maeda, Etsuo; Kometani, Reo; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2017-11-28

    Ballistic transport and sub-10 nm channel lengths have been achieved in transistors containing one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). To fill the gap between single-tube transistors and high-performance logic circuits for the replacement of silicon, large-area, high-density, and purely semiconducting (s-) SWNT arrays are highly desired. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of multiple transistors along a purely semiconducting SWNT array via an on-chip purification method. Water- and polymer-assisted burning from site-controlled nanogaps is developed for the reliable full-length removal of metallic SWNTs with the damage to s-SWNTs minimized even in high-density arrays. All the transistors with various channel lengths show large on-state current and excellent switching behavior in the off-state. Since our method potentially provides pure s-SWNT arrays over a large area with negligible damage, numerous transistors with arbitrary dimensions could be fabricated using a conventional semiconductor process, leading to SWNT-based logic, high-speed communication, and other next-generation electronic devices.

  8. Improving image quality in portal venography with spectral CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Li-qin, E-mail: zhaolqzr@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); He, Wen, E-mail: hewen1724@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Li, Jian-ying, E-mail: jianying.li@med.ge.com [CT Advanced Application and Research, GE Healthcare, 100176 China (China); Chen, Jiang-hong, E-mail: chenjianghong1973@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Wang, Ke-yang, E-mail: ke7ke@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing,100050 (China); Tan, Li, E-mail: Litan@ge.com [CT product, GE Healthcare, 100176 China (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of energy spectral CT on the image quality of CT portal venography in cirrhosis patients. Materials and methods: 30 portal hypertension patients underwent spectral CT examination using a single-tube, fast dual tube voltage switching technique. 101 sets of monochromatic images were generated from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for portal veins from the monochromatic images were measured. An optimal monochromatic image set was selected for obtaining the best CNR for portal veins. The image noise and CNR of the intra-hepatic portal vein and extra-hepatic main stem at the selected monochromatic level were compared with those from the conventional polychromatic images. Image quality was also assessed and compared. Results: The monochromatic images at 51 keV were found to provide the best CNR for both the intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic portal veins. At this energy level, the monochromatic images had about 100% higher CNR than the polychromatic images with a moderate 30% noise increase. The qualitative image quality assessment was also statistically higher with monochromatic images at 51 keV. Conclusion: Monochromatic images at 51 keV for CT portal venography could improve CNR for displaying hepatic portal veins and improve the overall image quality.

  9. Vapor generation rate model for dispersed drop flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Tuzla, K.; Cokmez-Tuzla, A.F.; Chen, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of predictions of existing nonequilibrium post-CHF heat transfer models with the recently obtained rod bundle data has been performed. The models used the experimental conditions and wall temperatures to predict the heat flux and vapor temperatures at the location of interest. No existing model was able to reasonably predict the vapor superheat and the wall heat flux simultaneously. Most of the models, except Chen-Sundaram-Ozkaynak, failed to predict the wall heat flux, while all of the models could not predict the vapor superheat data or trends. A recently developed two-region heat transfer model, the Webb-Chen two-region model, did not give a reasonable prediction of the vapor generation rate in the far field of the CHF point. A new correlation was formulated to predict the vapor generation rate in convective dispersed droplet flow in terms of thermal-hydraulic parameters and thermodynamic properties. A comparison of predictions of the two-region heat transfer model, with the use of a presently developed correlation, with all the existing post-CHF data, including single-tube and rod bundle, showed significant improvements in predicting the vapor superheat and tube wall heat flux trends. (orig.)

  10. Single chest tube drainage is superior to double chest tube drainage after lobectomy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Deng, Xu-Feng; Liu, Quan-Xing; Chen, Qian; Min, Jia-Xin; Dai, Ji-Gang

    2016-05-27

    In this meta-analysis, we conducted a pooled analysis of clinical studies comparing the efficacy of single chest tube versus double chest tube after a lobectomy. According to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration, we established a rigorous study protocol. We performed a systematic electronic search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases to identify articles to include in our meta-analysis. A literature search was performed using relevant keywords. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan© software. Five studies, published between 2003 and 2014, including 630 patients (314 patients with a single chest tube and 316 patients with a double chest tube), met the selection criteria. From the available data, the patients using a single tube demonstrated significantly decreased postoperative pain [weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.60; 95 % confidence intervals [CIs] -0.68-- 0.52; P tube after a pulmonary lobectomy. However, there were no significant differences in postoperative complications [OR 0.91; 95 % CIs 0.57-1.44; P = 0.67] and re-drainage rates [OR 0.81; 95 % CIs 0.42-1.58; P = 0.54]. Our results showed that a single-drain method is effective, reducing postoperative pain, hospitalization times and duration of drainage in patients who undergo a lobectomy. Moreover, the single-drain method does not increase the occurrence of postoperative complications and re-drainage rates.

  11. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  12. Development of Nested PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Cylindrocladium scoparium on Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Li, Shu-Jiang; Han, Shan; Zhu, Tian-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Eucalyptus dieback disease, caused by Cylindrocladium scoparium , has occurred in last few years in large Eucalyptus planting areas in China and other countries. Rapid, simple, and reliable diagnostic techniques are desired for the early detection of Eucalyptus dieback of C. scoparium prior to formulation of efficient control plan. For this purpose, three PCR-based methods of nested PCR, multiplex PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) were developed for detection of C. scoparium based on factor 1-alpha (tef1) and beta-tubulin gene in this study. All of the three methods showed highly specific to C. scoparium . The sensitivities of the nested PCR and LAMP were much higher than the multiplex PCR. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR was also higher than regular PCR. C. scoparium could be detected within 60 min from infected Eucalyptus plants by LAMP, while at least 2 h was needed by the rest two methods. Using different Eucalyptus tissues as samples for C. scoparium detection, all of the three PCR-based methods showed much better detection results than regular PCR. Base on the results from this study, we concluded that any of the three PCR-based methods could be used as diagnostic technology for the development of efficient strategies of Eucalyptus dieback disease control. Particularly, LAMP was the most practical method in field application because of its one-step and rapid reaction, simple operation, single-tube utilization, and simple visualization of amplification products.

  13. Radioisotope AMTEC power system designs for spacecraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K.; Johnson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) system is an exceptional candidate for high performance spacecraft power systems including small systems powered by General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS). The AMTEC converter is best described as a thermally regenerative electrochemical concentration cell. AMTEC is a static energy conversion device and can operate at efficiencies between 15% and 30%. The single tube, remote condensed, wick return minicell design has been incorporated into a radioisotope powered system model. Reported cell efficiencies used for these system design studies ranged from 15% to 25%. This efficiency is significantly higher than other static conversion systems operating at the same temperatures. Savings in mass and cost, relative to other more conventional static conversion systems, have also been shown. The minicell used for this system study has many advanced features not combined in previous designs, including wick return, remote condensing, and hot zone feedthroughs. All of these features significantly enhance the performance of the AMTEC cell. Additionally, the cell end provides enough area for adequate heat transfer from the GPHS module, eliminating the need for a ''hot shoe'', and reducing the complexity and weight of the system. This paper describes and compares small (two module) and larger (16 module) AMTEC radioisotope powered systems and describes the computer model developed to predict their performance

  14. The experimental and engineering programmes to support the PFR Safety Case following the Superheater 2 under sodium leak: In particular, large scale experiments in the Super Noah Rig at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.; Henderson, J.D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The original safety Case for the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay was based on the Double-ended-guillotine failure (DEGF) of one tube followed by six more DEGFs spread out at 3s intervals. Because the DEGF flowrate in the Evaporator units was considerably greater than those for the Superheater and Reheater units, pressure loading predictions were based on a leak incident in the Evaporator. As data became available from sodium-water reaction experiments, this Design Basis Accident (DBA) was revised to be the failure of a single tube (1DEGF). Pressure loadings for the plant were still based on the Evaporator. The plant was, however, designed against the original DBA of 1+6 DEGFs. The under sodium leak in Superheater 2, in which a total of 40 DEGFs occurred in a short period of time, cast doubt on the choice of DBA for PFR and it was obvious that multiple tube failure incidents had to be considered. A revised Safety Case for PFR was constructed based on an event tree and is presented in this paper. Also, in this paper the engineering work carried out on the plant in order to reduce the frequency of occurrence of multiple tube failures and the R and D programme initiated to remove unnecessary pessimism from the postulated multiple tube failure incidents are described. (author). 2 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  15. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszage, A.; Toren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  16. Simultaneous radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1977-01-01

    The radioassays of vitamin B 12 and folic acid can be carried out in a single tube to give the simultaneous assay of both vitamins in 100 μl of serum. Release of bound vitamins from their endogenous binders and the destruction of these binders are effected by a heating step at pH 9.3. The subsequent binding reactions with hog intrinsic factor and milk binder protein proceed advantageously and simultaneously in the same tube at pH 9.3. A single set of dual reagents replaces two sets of reagents that would normally be used for separate radioassays. Complete separation of bound radioactivities, [ 57 Co] cyanocobalamin and 125 I-labeled folate derivative, is obtained in a dual-channel gamma counter with no requirement for any correction for spill-over of counting data. Analytical results are comparable to those found for previously developed individual radioassays. The simultaneous assay has decreased technical time of analysis for these interrelated vitamins by about 50%

  17. Numerical simulation of fluid structure interaction in two flexible tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong

    2014-01-01

    In order to further investigate fluid structure interaction problems, occurring in the nuclear field such as the behavior of PWR fuel rods, steam generator and other heat exchanger tubes, a numerical model was presented. It is a three-dimensional fully coupled approach with solving the fluid flow and the structure vibration simultaneously, for the tube bundles in cross flow. The unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model were solved with finite volume approach on structured grids combined with the technique of dynamic mesh. The dynamic equilibrium equation was discretized according to the finite element theory. The vibration response of a single tube in cross flow was calculated by the numerical model. Both the amplitude and frequency were compared with experimental data and existing models in the literature. It is shown that the present model is reasonable. The flow induced vibration characteristics, for both inline and parallel sets in cross flow, were investigated by the numerical model. The dynamic response and flow characteristics, for both inline tubes and parallel tubes with pitch ratio of 1.2, 1.6, 2, 3 and 4 under different incident velocities, were studied. Critical pitch and critical velocity were obtained. (authors)

  18. Visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 and Coxsackievirus A16 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the hydroxynaphthol blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Kai; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-Jie; Hu, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Miao; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Han, Feng; Xu, Wen-Bo; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infection, respectively. The reaction was performed in one step in a single tube at 65°C for 60 min with the addition of the hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) dye prior to amplification. The detection limits of the RT-LAMP assay were 0.33 and 1.58 of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) per reaction based on 10-fold dilutions of a titrated EV71 or CVA16 strain, respectively. No cross-reaction was observed with Coxsackievirus A (CVA) viruses (CVA2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 14, and 24), Coxsackievirus B (CVB) viruses (CVB1,2,3,4, and 5) or ECHO viruses (ECHO3, 6, 11, and 19). The assay was further evaluated with 47 clinical stool specimens diagnosed previously with EV71, CVA16 or other human enterovirus infections. Virus isolates from stool samples were confirmed by virus neutralization testing and sequencing. RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and cost-effective assay for rapid visual detection of human EV71-C4 and CVA16. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of molecular methods for visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis in asymptomatic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carregal, Virginia M.; Leite, Rodrigo S.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Melo, Maria N.

    2011-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil. In the urban area dog is the main source of infection and VL control in Brazil involves the elimination of infected dogs. Serological tests are used for routine surveys, but they present problems of specificity and sensitivity. In addition, serologic test performance depends on infection status and an important limitation in VL control programs is the inability to identify asymptomatic dogs because these tests are insufficiently sensitive. Molecular methods as the kPCR PCR - hybridization are useful in the diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species. The kDNA PCR - hybridization uses radioactive probes to improve the sensibility of the PCR and allow the discrimination between Leishmania species. The aim of this work was compare the sensibility of the method kDNA PCR - Hybridization with different PCR methods, in different clinical samples, for VL diagnosis in asymptomatic animals. Bone marrow, peripheral blood, conjunctival swab and skin biopsies had been analyzed by the methods kDNA PCR - hybridization, kDNA semi nested PCR (kDNA snPCR), Leishmania nested PCR (LnPCR) e Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 nested PCR (ITS-1 nPCR). Thirty positive asymptomatic dogs with positive serologic and parasitologic tests were used. Six not infected dogs had been used as controls. The DNA extraction from swabs was performed by Phenol-Chloroform method. Commercial kits had been used for DNA extraction of peripheral blood, bone marrow and skin biopsies. The kDNA PCR - hybridization detected 5/30 (16.7 %) positive dogs for peripheral blood, 17/30 (57%) for skin, 19/30 (63.3 %) for bone marrow and 21/30 (70%) for conjunctival swab. The kDNA snPCR found 7/30 (23.3%) positive dogs for peripheral blood, 17/30 (57%) for skin, 12/30 (40%) for bone marrow and 24/30 (80%) samples of conjunctival swab. The LnPCR method detected 9/30 (30%) positive dogs for the samples of peripheral blood, 15/30 (50%) for bone

  20. Determination of human cytomegalovirus genetic diversity in different patient populations in Costa Rica Determinación de la diversidad genética del citomegalovirus humano en diferentes poblaciones de pacientes en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ahumada-Ruiz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of HCMV in Costa Rica is greater than 95% in adults; primary infections occur early in life and is the most frequent congenital infection in newborns. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic variability and genotypes of HCMV gB gene in Costa Rica. Samples were collected from alcoholics, pregnant women, blood donors, AIDS patients, hematology-oncology (HO children and HCMV isolates from neonates with cytomegalic inclusion disease. A semi-nested PCR system was used to obtain a product of 293-296 bp of the gB gene to be analyzed by Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP and sequencing to determine the genetic polymorphic pattern and genotypes, respectively. AIDS patients showed the highest polymorphic diversity with 14 different patterns while fifty-six percent of HO children samples showed the same polymorphic pattern, suggesting in this group a possible nosocomial infection. In neonates three genotypes (gB1, gB2 and gB3, were determined while AIDS patients and blood donors only showed one (gB2. Of all samples analyzed only genotypes gB1, 2 and 3 were determined, genotype gB2 was the most frequent (73% and mixed infections were not detected. The results of the study indicate that SSCP could be an important tool to detect HCMV intra-hospital infections and suggests a need to include additional study populations to better determine the genotype diversity and prevalence.La seroprevalencia de citomegalovirus es mayor del 95% en la población adulta de Costa Rica; la infección primaria ocurre muy temprano en la vida y es la infección congénita más frecuente en recién nacidos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la variabilidad genética y los genotipos del gene gB del citomegalovirus humano. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre de mujeres embarazadas, alcohólicos, pacientes con SIDA, niños con trastornos hemato-oncológicos, donadores de sangre y se incluyeron aislamientos de citomegalovirus de

  1. Comparison of molecular methods for visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis in asymptomatic dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carregal, Virginia M.; Leite, Rodrigo S.; Andrade, Antero S.R., E-mail: antero@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia; Melo, Maria N., E-mail: melo@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICB/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2011-07-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health problem in Brazil. In the urban area dog is the main source of infection and VL control in Brazil involves the elimination of infected dogs. Serological tests are used for routine surveys, but they present problems of specificity and sensitivity. In addition, serologic test performance depends on infection status and an important limitation in VL control programs is the inability to identify asymptomatic dogs because these tests are insufficiently sensitive. Molecular methods as the kPCR PCR - hybridization are useful in the diagnosis and identification of Leishmania species. The kDNA PCR - hybridization uses radioactive probes to improve the sensibility of the PCR and allow the discrimination between Leishmania species. The aim of this work was compare the sensibility of the method kDNA PCR - Hybridization with different PCR methods, in different clinical samples, for VL diagnosis in asymptomatic animals. Bone marrow, peripheral blood, conjunctival swab and skin biopsies had been analyzed by the methods kDNA PCR - hybridization, kDNA semi nested PCR (kDNA snPCR), Leishmania nested PCR (LnPCR) e Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 nested PCR (ITS-1 nPCR). Thirty positive asymptomatic dogs with positive serologic and parasitologic tests were used. Six not infected dogs had been used as controls. The DNA extraction from swabs was performed by Phenol-Chloroform method. Commercial kits had been used for DNA extraction of peripheral blood, bone marrow and skin biopsies. The kDNA PCR - hybridization detected 5/30 (16.7 %) positive dogs for peripheral blood, 17/30 (57%) for skin, 19/30 (63.3 %) for bone marrow and 21/30 (70%) for conjunctival swab. The kDNA snPCR found 7/30 (23.3%) positive dogs for peripheral blood, 17/30 (57%) for skin, 12/30 (40%) for bone marrow and 24/30 (80%) samples of conjunctival swab. The LnPCR method detected 9/30 (30%) positive dogs for the samples of peripheral blood, 15/30 (50%) for bone

  2. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission Investigação preliminar das espécies de culicídeos do Pantanal Sul brasileiro e sua potencial importância na transmissão de arbovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.Regiões como o Pantanal brasileiro, que apresentam fatores como riqueza de fauna silvestre incluindo circulação de aves migratórias e condições ambientais e climáticas favoráveis à proliferação de artrópodes estão potencialmente sujeitas à circulação de arbovírus. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos foram realizados acerca da presença de arbovírus em potenciais vetores no Pantanal. Neste sentido o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir uma investigação preliminar para presença de arbovírus em amostragens de culicídeos capturados na Sub-região da Nhecolândia no Pantanal

  3. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  4. Changing the paradigm of management of innovative activity in the conditions of transformation of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the development of innovation management as a management type from the traditional management, represented by Taylor's, A. Fayolle, G. Hemelom and others. There was a connection transformation of the economy and changes in the management of enterprises, aimed at the competitiveness of the market. Under the terms of the transformation of the economy the author has in mind the following factors: the knowledge economy and the new economy, forecastng and strategic planning at the enterprise and the economy in general, mass marketing and the development of global markets, non-stop process of development of knowledge, forming goal of a competitive economy. Under the innovative activity of the author understands the system of creation, dissemination and use of new types of products, actively or market, providing competitive state of the enterprise. Abstract Innovational management stages: the classic theory justifying the application of new knowledge in organizations, transforming them into new products, management by objectives, technology development and cost reduction, human capital theory, management personnel training school. Emphasizes the principles of school education, such as the complexity and unpredictability of the environment, the impossibility of planning control, since it must be continuously updated study is necessary to all the staff, including managers as a potential strategy, learning involves retrospektive thinking, allows us to analyze the previous steps organization. Abstract forms of knowledge are needed in innovation in the transformation of the economy: group, individual, and others, be implied in the innovation process. In addition, a group distinguished knowledge in the innovation of the type of trainin g, according to the method of scientific activities, as well as sources of information.

  5. A multi-channel bioluminescent bacterial biosensor for the on-line detection of metals and toxicity. Part II: technical development and proof of concept of the biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrier, Thomas; Thouand, Gerald [UMR CNRS 6144 GEPEA, CBAC, Nantes University, PRES UNAM, Campus de la Courtaisiere-IUT, La Roche-sur-Yon cedex (France); Chapeau, Cyrille [Biolumine, Biokar Diagnostic, Rue des Quarante Mines ZAC de Ther-Allonne, Beauvais Cedex (France); Bendria, Loubna; Daniel, Philippe [UMR CNRS 6087 LPEC, Universite du Maine, Av Olivier Messiaen, Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Picart, Pascal [UMR CNRS 6613 IAM-LAUM, Ecole Nationale des Ingenieurs du Mans, Universite du Maine, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-05-15

    This research study deals with the on-line detection of heavy metals and toxicity within the context of environmental pollution monitoring. It describes the construction and the proof of concept of a multi-channel bioluminescent bacterial biosensor in immobilized phase: Lumisens3. This new versatile device, designed for the non-stop analysis of water pollution, enables the insertion of any bioluminescent strains (inducible or constitutive), immobilized in a multi-well removable card. The technical design of Lumisens3 has benefited from both a classical and a robust approach and includes four main parts: (1) a dedicated removable card contains 64 wells, 3 mm in depth, arranged in eight grooves within which bacteria are immobilized, (2) this card is incubated on a Pelletier block with a CCD cooled camera on top for bioluminescence monitoring, (3) a fluidic network feeds the card with the sample to be analyzed and finally (4) a dedicated computer interface, BIOLUX 1.0, controls all the elements of the biosensor, allowing it to operate autonomously. The proof of concept of this biosensor was performed using a set of four bioluminescent bacteria (Escherichia coli DH1 pBzntlux, pBarslux, pBcoplux, and E. coli XL1 pBfiluxCDABE) in the on-line detection of CdCl{sub 2} 0.5 {mu}M and As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 5 {mu}M from an influent. When considering metals individually, the ''fingerprints'' from the biosensor were as expected. However, when metals were mixed together, cross reaction and synergistic effects were detected. This biosensor allowed us to demonstrate the simultaneous on-line cross detection of one or several heavy metals as well as the measurement of the overall toxicity of the sample. (orig.)

  6. Conceptual-driven classification for coding advise in health insurance reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Tun; Chen, Chih-Chuan; Huang, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    With the non-stop increases in medical treatment fees, the economic survival of a hospital in Taiwan relies on the reimbursements received from the Bureau of National Health Insurance, which in turn depend on the accuracy and completeness of the content of the discharge summaries as well as the correctness of their International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. The purpose of this research is to enforce the entire disease classification framework by supporting disease classification specialists in the coding process. This study developed an ICD code advisory system (ICD-AS) that performed knowledge discovery from discharge summaries and suggested ICD codes. Natural language processing and information retrieval techniques based on Zipf's Law were applied to process the content of discharge summaries, and fuzzy formal concept analysis was used to analyze and represent the relationships between the medical terms identified by MeSH. In addition, a certainty factor used as reference during the coding process was calculated to account for uncertainty and strengthen the credibility of the outcome. Two sets of 360 and 2579 textual discharge summaries of patients suffering from cerebrovascular disease was processed to build up ICD-AS and to evaluate the prediction performance. A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of system parameters on accuracy and compare the proposed model to traditional classification techniques including linear-kernel support vector machines. The comparison results showed that the proposed system achieves the better overall performance in terms of several measures. In addition, some useful implication rules were obtained, which improve comprehension of the field of cerebrovascular disease and give insights to the relationships between relevant medical terms. Our system contributes valuable guidance to disease classification specialists in the process of coding discharge summaries, which consequently brings benefits in

  7. Museums of Poland: ways of exploiting the National Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the fellowship Thesaurus Poloniae provided by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage of Poland and the International Cultural Centre Krakow I was able to visit a number of museums in the cities of Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz, and Poznan. The innovative method of using audiovisual media has especially attracted my attention. Visiting Polish museums, I concluded that the country's history, its past hasn't remained in archives, in documents hidden from the public eye and accessible only to specialists in the field. By possibilities of museums upgraded the past comes alive as a page in the life of Poles. The national heritage, studied and carefully preserved, is passed on to the younger generation through the most advanced methods. Today, digital techniques increasingly penetrate into all spheres of art and culture. Museums also look for non-trivial ways to demonstrate the most valuable objects from their collections through the latest information methods. The use of audiovisual media in various forms is an ideal opportunity to immerse visitors in the distant past, help them survive dramatic historical events in a dynamic, penetrate the spirit of patriotism. The screen (monitor has become a traditional element in Polish museums and exhibition halls equipped with touch screens allowing guests to browse and receive a variety of available information in international communication languages (English, French, German and, of course, Polish. On the screens placed in the exhibition halls, documents are displayed non-stop either completely or in fragments, a visual picture sends visitors to real museum exhibits. Museums opened after 2000 are equipped with cinema halls (National Museum, The Warsaw Rising Museum and POLIN Museum, Rynek Underground Museum and Oscar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Krakowб etc., some of them are equipped for films in 3D, with panoramic projection. Expressive audiovisual entourage is created by playing light and shadow

  8. Maintaining Students’ Involvement in a Math Lecture Using Countdown Timers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krizzel A. Aban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Involving students in a lecture is an important but not an easy task that every lecturer must encourage. This task becomes even greater in a math class that is composed of eighty to a hundred sixty students. In 2007, the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB started offering some of its basic math courses in lecture-recitation set-up. This shift and many other factors drove most math instructors of UPLB to widely use presentation software, such as the PowerPoint (PPT, to deliver their lectures. The non-stop use of these softwares, however, seems to have negative effects on the students when it comes to maintaining their involvement in a lecture discussion for they tend to be more passive spectators. On the other hand, adding countdown timers strategically on some parts of the discussion seems to lessen such negative effects. This study determined the effectiveness of using countdown timers in maintaining students’ involvement in a lecture of MATH 27 (Analytic Geometry and Calculus II, a course in UPLB commonly taken by sophomore students. Results show that the effectiveness of countdown timers, as perceived by the students, is independent to students’ genders and degree programs, but is dependent to the colleges where the students belong to. Also, some effects of countdown timers are significantly correlated to various data from students’ profiles. It was concluded in the study that the use of countdown timers is effective in maintaining student’s involvement in MATH 27 lectures and might also be useful in other math lecture classes

  9. Peculiarities in the demand forecast for an HSRL connecting two countries. Case of Kuala Lumpur Singapore HSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeo Martin, A.; Rey Romero, P.

    2016-07-01

    The High Speed Rail Line (HSRL) between Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Singapore (SP) is aimed at reducing to 90 minutes the travel time between two of Southeast Asia’s most vibrant and fast-growing economic engines. Ineco was hired by the Government of Malaysia to forecast the demand for the future HSRL. The Government of Malaysia played a key role when firstly defining the current situation on the corridor and the features of the HSRL, and then providing Ineco with the studies previously developed by them. Besides the obvious interest in connecting both capital cities, Malaysia wishes to promote the economic development of intermediate cities, whereas Singapore, a 718 square-kilometer city-state and island, is interested in improving its connection with Nusajaya - a Malaysian city that is being developed just across the border and regarded as land reserves. Two kinds of services will be provided on the new rail infrastructure: non-stop services between KL and SP, and services with 6 intermediate stops on the Malaysian side. The aim of this paper is to describe the process to forecast the demand for the HSRL Kuala Lumpur – Singapore by focusing on the peculiarities of an international HSRL. Identifying these aspects at an early stage is vital to get a better demand estimate and to reconsider the HSRL characteristics if necessary. The demand for the new line was calculated by applying a three-step model: generation model, distribution model and modal split model. In 2030, 10 years after the opening year, the HSRL is expected to move 23 - 26 million passengers – baseline and optimistic scenarios, respectively -, which represents an 18.5% share of the total demand on the corridor. The demand for the KL-SP pair will account for 30% the demand for the future HSRL. (Author)

  10. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  11. Biomedical wellness monitoring system based upon molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Whitney

    2012-06-01

    We wish to assist caretakers with a sensor monitoring systems for tracking the physiological changes of homealone patients. One goal is seeking biomarkers and modern imaging sensors like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), which has achieved visible imaging at the nano-scale range. Imaging techniques like STORM can be combined with a fluorescent functional marker in a system to capture the early transformation signs from wellness to illness. By exploiting both microscopic knowledge of genetic pre-disposition and the macroscopic influence of epigenetic factors we hope to target these changes remotely. We adopt dual spectral infrared imaging for blind source separation (BSS) to detect angiogenesis changes and use laser speckle imaging for hypertension blood flow monitoring. Our design hypothesis for the monitoring system is guided by the user-friendly, veteran-preferred "4-Non" principles (noninvasive, non-contact, non-tethered, non-stop-to-measure) and by the NIH's "4Ps" initiatives (predictive, personalized, preemptive, and participatory). We augment the potential storage system with the recent know-how of video Compressive Sampling (CSp) from surveillance cameras. In CSp only major changes are saved, which reduces the manpower cost of caretakers and medical analysts. This CSp algorithm is based on smart associative memory (AM) matrix storage: change features and detailed scenes are written by the outer-product and read by the inner product without the usual Harsh index for image searching. From this approach, we attempt to design an effective household monitoring approach to save healthcare costs and maintain the quality of life of seniors.

  12. An infrastructure for telecommunications power in a new era in public networking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifchin, N. [International Power Strategies (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new era in networking is on the horizon as we enter the 21{sup st} century. It is based on a seamless circuit and packet public network (PN) with the potential to transport and process voice, video, data and Internet traffic at higher speeds and lower costs than today's PSTN. Worldwide divestitures and subsequent deregulation and the dramatic growth of the Internet have given rise to a growing number of competitive carriers and service providers. This has accelerated the deployment of packet networks and inspired government mandates that let competitors co-locate their equipment in incumbents COs and POPs. Customer's perceived the cost of co-location in incumbent's space to be expensive and restricting. This gave rise to a new industry that rents equipment space in buildings refurbished to replicate CO environments termed carrier hotels or telehousing. These events have impacted network power in two ways. It increased the demand for higher capacity CO power plants to support growth in Internet, DSLs and second lines and energized the debate over AC verses DC as the preferred power for telecommunications. Quality of service, which is a looming issue as the PSTN transitions to the PN, can be translated to mean dependable and reliable non-stop power. The trend to outsourcing equipment space needs presents ILECs a timely opportunity to consolidate their huge inventories of COs and POPs into business units that would lease equipment space to incumbents and competitors and convert a cost center into a profit center. (orig.)

  13. Innovative configuration of a hybrid nuclear-solar tower power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Dimityr; Borissova, Ana

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a combination of a nuclear and a CSP plant and performs a thermodynamic analysis of the potential benefit. Most of today's operating nuclear reactor systems are producing saturated steam at relatively low pressure. This, in turn, limits their thermodynamic efficiency. Superheating of nuclear steam with solar thermal energy has the potential to overcome this drawback. Accordingly, an innovative configuration of a hybrid nuclear-CSP plant is assembled and simulated. It brings together pressurized water reactor and solar tower. The solar heat is transferred to nuclear steam to raise its temperature. Continuous superheating is provided through thermal energy storage. The results from design point calculations show that solar superheating has the potential to increase nuclear plant electric efficiency significantly, pushing it to around 37.5%. Solar heat to electricity conversion efficiency reaches unprecedented rates of 56.2%, approaching the effectiveness of the modern combined cycle gas turbine plants. Off-design model was used to simulate 24-h operation for one year by simulating 8760 cases. Due to implementation of thermal energy storage non-stop operation is manageable. The increased efficiency leads to solar tower island installed cost reductions of up to 25% compared to the standalone CSP plant, particularly driven by the smaller solar field. - Highlights: • External superheating of nuclear steam with solar thermal energy is proposed. • Novel hybrid plant configuration is assembled, modeled and simulated. • Substantial increase of nuclear plant capacity and efficiency is reported. • Superior efficiency of solar heat to electricity conversion is achieved. • Substantial decrease of solar field investment cost is reported.

  14. Development and application of an efficient method for performing modal analysis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Huinam [Dept of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Myung-Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chi-Yong [KEPCO Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ki-Wahn, E-mail: kwryu@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deogjin-Dong, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator has approximately 10,000 tubes. These tubes have different geometries, supporting conditions, and different material properties due to the non-uniform temperature distribution throughout the steam generator. Even though some tubes may have the same geometry and boundary conditions, the non-uniform distribution of coolant densities adjacent to the tubes causes them to have different added mass effects and dynamic characteristics. Therefore, for a reliable design of the steam generator, a separate modal analysis for each tube is necessary to perform the FIV (flow-induced vibration) analysis. However, the modal analysis of a tube including the finite element modeling is cumbersome and takes lots of time. And when a commercial finite element code is used, interfacing the modal analysis result, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, with the FIV analysis procedure requires an additional significant amount of time and can possibly incur inadvertent error due to the complexity of data processing. It is therefore impossible to perform the complete FIV analysis for ten thousands of tubes when designing or maintaining a steam generator although it is necessary. Rather, to verify the safe design against the FIV, only a couple of tubes are chosen based on engineering judgment or past experience. In this paper, a computer program, PIAT-MODE, was developed which is able to perform modal analysis of all tubes of a PWR steam generator in a very efficient way. The geometries and boundary conditions of every tube were incorporated into PIAT-MODE using appropriate mathematical formulae. Material property data including the added mass effect was also included in the program. Once a specific tube is selected, the program automatically constructs the finite element model and generates the modal data very quickly. Therefore, modal analysis can be performed for every single tube in a straight way. When PIAT-MODE is coupled

  15. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ∼  250 W. A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016 in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: −26.1 to 31.6 °C. The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz and similar to that of a closed

  16. Effects of Dihedral Angle on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Two Tubes in Vertical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One of the major issues in pool boiling heat transfer is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect ( h{sub r} ). It is defined as the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient ( h{sub b} ) for an upper tube in a bundle with lower tubes activated to that for the same tube activated alone in the bundle. Since heat transfer is related with the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. The most effective parameter must be the tube pitch. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The heat transfer on the upper tube of the tubes is enhanced compared with the single tube. The upper tube within a tube bundle can significantly increase nucleate boiling heat transfer compared to the lower tubes at moderate heat fluxes. At high heat fluxes these influences disappear and the data merge onto the pool boiling curve of a single tube. It was explained that the major influential factor is the convective effects due to the fluid velocity and the rising bubbles. They used microstructure-R134a or FC-3184 combinations and identified that the increase in the heat flux of the lower tube decreased the superheat ( ∆T{sub sat} ) of the upper tube. The passive condensers adopted in SWR1000 and APR+ has U-type tubes. Those tubes are slightly inclined from the horizontal to prevent the occurrence of the water hammer. Since the pitch between the upper and lower tubes is varying along the tube length, the results for the fixed pitch are not applicable to the analysis of these condensers. Although there are lots of studies introducing results for the effects of inclination angle on pool boiling heat transfer, no results are treating the angle between two tubes. Therefore, the present study is aimed

  17. Study on tube rupture strength evaluation method for rapid overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Ryuji; Wada, Yusaku

    1998-08-01

    A sodium-water reaction derived from the single tube break in steam generator might overheat neighbor tubes rapidly under internal pressure loadings. If the temperature of tube wall becomes too high, it has to be evaluated that the stress of tube does not exceed the material strength limit to prevent the propagation of tube rupture. In the present study this phenomenon was recognized as the fracture of cylindrical tube with the large deformation due to overheating, and the evaluation method was investigated based on both of experimental and analytical approaches. The results obtained are as follows. (1) As for the nominal stress estimation, it was clarified through the experimental data and the detailed FEM elasto-plastic large deformation analysis that the formula used in conventional designs can be applied. (2) Within the overheating temperature limits of tubes, the creep effect is dominant, even if the loading time is too short. So the strain rate on the basis of JIS elevated temperature tensile test method for steels and heat-resisting alloys is too late and almost of total strain is composed by creep one. As a result the time dependent effect cannot be evaluated under JIS strain rate condition. (3) Creep tests in shorter time condition than a few minutes and tensile tests in higher strain rate condition than 10%/min of JIS are carried out for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel, and the standard values for tube rupture strength evaluation are formulated. (4) The above evaluation method based on both of the stress estimation and the strength standard values application is justified by using the tube burst test data under internal pressure. (5) The strength standard values on Type 321 ss is formulated in accordance with the procedure applied for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. (author)

  18. A Multiplex PCR for the Simultaneous Detection and Genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A.; Rosenzvit, Mara C.; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1–G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1–G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6–G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus. PMID:23350011

  19. Heat transfer test in a vertical tube using CO2 at supercritical pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Kim, Hyungrae; Song, Jin Ho; Cho, Bong Hyun; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt Generation), was constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of supercritical CO 2 at the various geometries of the test section. The test data will be used for the reactor core design of the SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor). As a working fluid, CO 2 was selected to make use of the low critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 compared with water. An experimental study was carried out in the SPHINX to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop at a vertical single tube with an inside diameter of 4.4 mm in case of an upward flow of supercritical CO 2 . The heat and mass fluxes were varied at a given pressure. The mass flux was in the range of 400-1,200 kg/m 2 s and the heat flux was chosen up to 150 kW/m 2 . The selected pressures were 7.75, 8.12, and 8.85 MPa. A heat transfer deterioration occurred at the lower mass fluxes. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were compared with the ones predicted by several existing correlations. The standard deviation was about 20% for each correlation and an apparent discrepancy was not found among the correlations. The major components of the pressure drop were a gravitational pressure drop and a frictional pressure drop. The frictional pressure drop increases as the mass flux and heat flux increase. (author)

  20. Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

    2013-02-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy.

  1. Development and assessment of a sub-channel code applicable for trans-critical transient of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Yang, T.; Cheng, X.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sub-channel code COBRA-SC for SCWR is developed. • Pseudo two-phase method is employed to realize trans-critical transient calculation. • Good suitability of COBRA-SC is demonstrated by preliminary assessment. • The calculation results of COBRA-SC agree well with ATHLET code. -- Abstract: In the last few years, extensive R and D activities have been launched covering various aspects of supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), especially the thermal-hydraulic analysis. Sub-channel code plays an indispensable role to predict the detail thermal-hydraulic behavior of the SCWR fuel assembly. This paper develops a new version of sub-channel code COBRA-SC based on the previous COBRA-IV code. The supercritical water property and heat transfer/pressure drop correlations under supercritical pressure are implemented to this code. Moreover, in order to simulate the trans-critical transient (the pressure undergo a decrease from the supercritical pressure to the subcritical pressure), pseudo two-phase method is employed in COBRA-SC code. This work is completed by introduction of a virtual two-phase region near the pseudo-critical line. A smooth transition of void fraction can be realized. In addition, several heat transfer correlations right underneath the critical point are introduced into this code to capture the heat transfer behavior during the trans-critical transient. Some experimental data from simple geometry, e.g. the single tube, small rod bundle, is used to validate and evaluate this new developed COBRA-SC code. The predicted results show a good agreement with the experimental data, demonstrating good feasibility of this code for SCWR condition. A code to code comparison between COBRA-SC and ATHLET for a blowdown transient of a small fuel assembly is also presented and discussed in this paper

  2. The relative impact of sizing errors on steam generator tube failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Dvorsek, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at tube support plates is currently the major degradation mechanism affecting the steam generator tubes made of Inconel 600. This caused development and licensing of degradation specific maintenance approaches, which addressed two main failure modes of the degraded piping: tube rupture; and excessive leakage through degraded tubes. A methodology aiming at assessing the efficiency of a given set of possible maintenance approaches has already been proposed by the authors. It pointed out better performance of the degradation specific over generic approaches in (1) lower probability of single and multiple steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), (2) lower estimated accidental leak rates and (3) less tubes plugged. A sensitivity analysis was also performed pointing out the relative contributions of uncertain input parameters to the tube rupture probabilities. The dominant contribution was assigned to the uncertainties inherent to the regression models used to correlate the defect size and tube burst pressure. The uncertainties, which can be estimated from the in-service inspections, are further analysed in this paper. The defect growth was found to have significant and to some extent unrealistic impact on the probability of single tube rupture. Since the defect growth estimates were based on the past inspection records they strongly depend on the sizing errors. Therefore, an attempt was made to filter out the sizing errors and to arrive at more realistic estimates of the defect growth. The impact of different assumptions regarding sizing errors on the tube rupture probability was studied using a realistic numerical example. The data used is obtained from a series of inspection results from Krsko NPP with 2 Westinghouse D-4 steam generators. The results obtained are considered useful in safety assessment and maintenance of affected steam generators. (author)

  3. Heat transfer property of refrigerant-oil mixture in a flooded evaporator: The role of bubble formation and oil retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Sung-Gyu; Jeong, Young-Man; Lee, Jae-Keun; Kim, Soo Hyung; Lee, Soowon; Park, Nae-Hyun; Na, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Byung-Soon; Hwang, Joon-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of oil retention on the heat transfer performance of a shell-and-tube-type evaporator which had 26 inner tubes and was filled with the refrigerant R-134a. The refrigerant was boiled on the surface of the inner tubes in the evaporator, while chilled water circulated through these tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed to measure both the pressure and temperature profiles at the inlet and outlet of the flooded evaporator. Four windows were installed for observing the operation of the flooded evaporator. A series of experiments were carried out under the following conditions: the refrigerant saturation temperature, 5 .deg. C; refrigerant inlet quality, 0.1; heat fluxes from water to the refrigerant, 5-7 kW/m"2.. The concentration of the oil retained in the refrigerant was then varied up to approximately 10% to observe the effect on the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator. Increasing the oil content (i.e., increasing the concentration up to a maximum of approximately 10%) in the refrigerant R134a did not lead to any appreciable reduction in the overall heat transfer coefficient of a flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes. When the oil concentration in the refrigerant was approximately 10%, the heat transfer degradation in the case of the flooded evaporator with multiple-inner-tubes was approximately 11%, which was found to be much smaller than the heat transfer degradation in the case of a flooded evaporator with a single-tube (26-49%). This observation suggested that the oil retained in the refrigerant did not significantly deteriorate the heat transfer performance of the flooded evaporator, presumably because the presence of tube bundles promoted forced convection by agitating bubbles

  4. Determination of CMV infection in CSF of children with meningoencephalitis: PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, many ill cases with cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-immuno compromised persons reported. Goal of study: to determine the CMV infection in cerebrospinal fluid of aseptic meningoencephalitis children hospitalized in Rasul & Mofid hospital (2005-2007. "nMethods: In a cross sectional study 132 cases selected with simple sampling. CMV-DNA in their Cerebro spinal fluids searched by qualitative PCR. "nResults: The age range of the study patients was 5 month- 13 years, median age= 2±3.7 years; 87(65.9% male and 45(34.1% was female. The presenting signs and symptoms were convulsion 77(69.4%; meningitis 25(18.8%, loss of consciousness 47(37%; neurologic defects 15.9%. DNA extrated in 11 cases. Mycoplasma- DNA in 2cases; DNA-CMV detected 2(1.5%. Positive DNA HSV found in 7(15.3% of patients. DNA- HSV type- 15.3% (7/132 cases. An infant 5 month age with developmental delay, microcephaly and recurrent convulsions. A 1 year girl with brain atrophy and progressive hydrocephaly with intracranial shunt "nConclusions: Differentiation between herpes meningoencephalitis and other encephalopathy based on clinical signs in children is too difficult. CMV (1.5% has lower rate than herpes simplex type-1 (5.7%. In addition to CMV and HSV1 all of herpes family viruses (varicella, herpes 6, 7, Epstein barr virus could have role in  children with meningoencephalitis. In recent years a sensitive, rapid, simple diagnostic  test "Single tube Multiplex PCR" in cerebro spinal fluid recommend. Rapid diagnosis and faster treatment is necessary for decreasing mortality and morbidity in all of herpes meningoencephalitis cases

  5. Validation of a Multiplex Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of KRAS Gene Mutations in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues from Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Seekhuntod

    Full Text Available Patients with KRAS mutations do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors and fail to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mutation analysis of KRAS is needed before starting treatment with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. The objective of this study is to develop a multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR assay to detect KRAS mutations.We developed a single-tube MAS-PCR assay for the detection of seven KRAS mutations (G12D, G12A, G12R, G12C, G12S, G12V, and G13D. We performed MAS-PCR assay analysis for KRAS on DNA isolated from 270 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE colorectal cancer tissues. Sequences of all 270 samples were determined by pyrosequencing. Seven known point-mutation DNA samples diluted with wild-type DNA were assayed to determine the limitation of detection and reproducibility of the MAS-PCR assay.Overall, the results of MAS-PCR assay were in good concordance with pyrosequencing, and only seven discordant samples were found. The MAS-PCR assay reproducibly detected 1 to 2% mutant alleles. The most common mutations were G13D in codon 13 (49.17%, G12D (25.83% and G12V (12.50% in codon 12.The MAS-PCR assay provides a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tool for accurate detection of KRAS mutations in routine FFPE colorectal cancer tissues.

  6. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  7. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Prada, Laura; Cucher, Marcela A; Rosenzvit, Mara C; Ziadinov, Iskender; Deplazes, Peter; Saarma, Urmas; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno; Spiliotis, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10) and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5), and E. canadensis (G6-G10). The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) allowing three levels of discrimination: (i) Echinococcus genus, (ii) E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii) the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20) and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13). The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (Echinococcus genus.

  8. A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalia Boubaker

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is characterized by high intra-specific variability (genotypes G1-G10 and according to the new molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus, the E. granulosus complex has been divided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3, E. equinus (G4, E. ortleppi (G5, and E. canadensis (G6-G10. The molecular characterization of E. granulosus isolates is fundamental to understand the spatio-temporal epidemiology of this complex in many endemic areas with the simultaneous occurrence of different Echinococcus species and genotypes. To simplify the genotyping of the E. granulosus complex we developed a single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR allowing three levels of discrimination: (i Echinococcus genus, (ii E. granulosus complex in common, and (iii the specific genotype within the E. granulosus complex. The methodology was established with known DNA samples of the different strains/genotypes, confirmed on 42 already genotyped samples (Spain: 22 and Bulgaria: 20 and then successfully applied on 153 unknown samples (Tunisia: 114, Algeria: 26 and Argentina: 13. The sensitivity threshold of the mPCR was found to be 5 ng Echinoccoccus DNA in a mixture of up to 1 µg of foreign DNA and the specificity was 100% when template DNA from closely related members of the genus Taenia was used. Additionally to DNA samples, the mPCR can be carried out directly on boiled hydatid fluid or on alkaline-lysed frozen or fixed protoscoleces, thus avoiding classical DNA extractions. However, when using Echinococcus eggs obtained from fecal samples of infected dogs, the sensitivity of the mPCR was low (<40%. Thus, except for copro analysis, the mPCR described here has a high potential for a worldwide application in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies on the Echinococcus genus.

  9. Thermal stability and filterability of jet fuels containing PDR additives in small-scale tests and realistic rig simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauldreay, J.M.; Clark, R.H.; Heins, R.J. [Shell Research, Ltd., Chester (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Specification, small-scale and realistic fuel simulation tests have addressed concerns about the impact of pipeline drag reducer (PDR) flow modifying additives on jet fuel handling and performance. A typical PDR additive tended to block filters which were similar to those used in the specification Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) and other thermal stability test apparatus. Blockages reduced flow rates and PDR concentrations downstream of the filters. Consequently two PDR additives (A&B) were tested in JFTOT apparatus without the usual in-line pre-filters as part of a Ministry of Defense (MoD) co-ordinated Round Robin exercise. Some fuel/PDR additive combinations caused decreases in JFTOT breakpoints. Effects were additive- (type, concentration and degree of shear) and fuel-dependent; most failures were caused by filter blockages and not by a failing lacquer rating. In further work at Thornton, the thermal stability characteristics of similar fuel/additive combinations have been examined in non-specification tests. In Flask Oxidation Tests, PDR additives caused no significant increase in the liquid phase oxidation rates of the fuels. Additives were tested in the Single Tube Heat Transfer Rig (STHTR) which duplicates many of the conditions of a heat exchanger element in an engine`s fuel supply system. B produced an average two-fold decrease in thermal stability in a Merox fuel; A had no significant effect. In hydrotreated fuel, B reduced the thermal stability up to five-fold. A had little effect below 205{degrees}C, while at higher temperatures there may have been a marginal improvement in thermal stability. Again, certain jet fuel/PDR combinations were seen to reduce thermal stability.

  10. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA, H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur subunit gene (SdhB, I365 and 365S of the putative osmosensor histidine kinase gene (BcOS1, and F412 and 412S of the 3-ketoreductase gene (erg27. This assay was first established and optimized with eight plasmid templates containing the DNA sequence variants BenA-E198, BenA-198A, SdhB-H272, SdhB-272Y, BcOS1-I365, BcOS1-365S, erg27-F412, and erg27-412S. Results indicated that none of the probes showed cross-reactivity with one another. The minimum limit of detection for these genotypes was one copy per test. Four mutant plasmids were mixed with 10 ng/μL wild-type genomic DNA in different ratios. Detection sensitivity of mutant loci was 0.45% for BenA-E198A, BcOS1-I365S, and erg27-F412S, and was 4.5% for SdhB-H272Y. A minimum quantity of 0.1 ng of genomic DNA was necessary to obtain reliable results. This is the first reported assay that can simultaneously detect mutations in BenA, SdhB, BcOS1, and erg27.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  12. Pt-modified carbon nanotube networked layers for enhanced gas microsensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penza, M.; Rossi, R.; Alvisi, M.; Suriano, D.; Serra, E.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) networked films have been grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology onto miniaturized low-cost alumina substrates, coated by nanosized Co-catalyst for growing CNTs, to perform chemical detection of toxic gasses (NO 2 and NH 3 ), greenhouse gasses (CO 2 and CH 4 ) and domestic safety gasses (CO and C 2 H 5 OH) at an operating sensor temperature of 120 °C. The morphology and structure of the CNTs networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A dense network of bundles of multiple tubes consisting of multi-walled carbon nanostructures appears with a maximum length of 1–5 μm and single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5–40 nm. Surface modifications of the CNTs networks with sputtered Platinum (Pt) nanoclusters, at tuned loading of 8, 15 and 30 nm, provide higher sensitivity for significantly enhanced gas detection compared to un-decorated CNTs. This could be caused by a spillover of the targeted gas molecules onto Pt-catalyst surface with a chemical gating into CNTs layers. The measured electrical conductance of the functionalized CNTs upon exposures of a given oxidizing and reducing gas is modulated by a charge transfer model with p-type semiconducting characteristics. The effect of activated carbons as chemical filters to reduce the influence of the domestic interfering alcohols on CO gas detection has been studied. Functionalized CNT gas sensors exhibited better performances compared to unmodified CNTs, making them highly promising candidates for functional applications of gas control and alarms.

  13. Elevated Plasma Soluble CD14 and Skewed CD16+ Monocyte Distribution Persist despite Normalisation of Soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by Effective HIV Therapy: A Changing Paradigm for Routine HIV Laboratory Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison; Berry, Cassandra; French, Martyn; Fernandez, Sonia; Krueger, Romano; Nolan, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. Design Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. Methods A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163) and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. Results HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001). Conclusions Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune activation in HIV

  14. Molecular analysis and association with clinical and laboratory manifestations in children with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Faria Camilo-Araújo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze the frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia, and their influence on clinical manifestations and the hematological profile of children with sickle cell anemia. Method: The frequency of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia and any association with clinical and laboratorial manifestations were determined in 117 sickle cell anemia children aged 3–71 months. The confirmation of hemoglobin SS and determination of the haplotypes were achieved by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and alpha-thalassemia genotyping was by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (single-tube multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The genotype distribution of haplotypes was 43 (36.7% Central African Republic/Benin, 41 (35.0% Central African Republic/Central African Republic, 20 (17.0% Rare/atypical, and 13 (11.1% Benin/Benin. The frequency of the α3.7 deletion was 1.71% as homozygous (−α3.7/−α3.7 and 11.9% as heterozygous (−α3.7/αα. The only significant association in respect to haplotypes was related to the mean corpuscular volume. The presence of alpha-thalassemia was significantly associated to decreases in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and reticulocyte count and to an increase in the red blood cell count. There were no significant associations of βS-globin haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia with clinical manifestations. Conclusions: In the study population, the frequency of alpha-thalassemia was similar to published data in Brazil with the Central African Republic haplotype being the most common, followed by the Benin haplotype. βS-globin haplotypes and interaction between alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia did not influence fetal hemoglobin concentrations or the number of clinical manifestations.

  15. Elevated plasma soluble CD14 and skewed CD16+ monocyte distribution persist despite normalisation of soluble CD163 and CXCL10 by effective HIV therapy: a changing paradigm for routine HIV laboratory monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Castley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that combine biological relevance, clinical utility, and ease of adoption into routine HIV laboratory practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of concurrent plasma and whole blood samples. METHODS: A flow cytometry protocol was developed comprising single-tube CD45, CD14, CD16, CD64, CD163, CD143 analysis with appropriately matched isotype controls. Plasma levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14, soluble CD163 (sCD163 and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: HIV status was associated with significantly increased expression of CD64, CD143 and CD163 on CD16+ monocytes, irrespective of the virological response to HIV therapy. Plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 were also significantly elevated in association with viremic HIV infection. Plasma sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were restored to healthy control levels by effective antiretroviral therapy while sCD14 levels remained elevated despite virological suppression (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometric and plasma biomarkers of monocyte activation indicate an ongoing systemic inflammatory response to HIV infection, characterised by persistent alterations of CD16+ monocyte expression profiles and elevated sCD14 levels, that are not corrected by antiretroviral therapy and likely to be prognostically significant. In contrast, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels declined on antiretroviral therapy, suggesting multiple activation pathways revealed by these biomarkers. Incorporation of these assays into routine clinical care is feasible and warrants further consideration, particularly in light of emerging therapeutic strategies that specifically target innate immune

  16. Utilization of Snail (Achatina fulica Shell Waste for Synthesis of Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate (CaC4H4O6.4H2O Single Crystals in Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sakdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail (Achatina fulica shell waste is massively produced by many home industries in Indonesia, especially in East Java. The snail shell is known for high calcium; therefore it is potential to be used as calcium source of supernatant in the synthesis of piezoeletric material, such as single crystal of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate (CaTT. The aim of this research is to study the synthesis and characterization of CaTT or CaC4H4O6.4H2O from snail shell waste in silica gel. Supernatant solution of CaCl2 was prepared from CaO, which previously made by calcinating the shell at 1000°C, and then reacted with HCl 1,5M. Synthesis of CaTT was conducted in a single-tube reaction at room temperature in which silica gel was used as growth medium with gelling time of 10 days and growth time of 2 weeks. The pH of gel and CaCl2 concentration were varied, 3.00; 3.50; 4.00; 4.50; 5.00; and 0.27; 0.36; 0.45; 0.54 M respectively, in order to obtain optimum condition of the synthesis, which is indicated from crystal yields. The synthesized crystals were characterized by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry (AAS, infrared spectroscopy (IR and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. Experimental data shows that optimum condition was obtained at pH of 3.50 and [CaCl2] of 0.45M with yield of 69.37%. The obtained single crystal has clear color and octahedral-like shape with size ranged between 4 – 9 mm. Analysis data by FTIR and powder XRD confirmed that the obtained crystal was CaTT single crystals with crystal system of orthorhombic.

  17. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea . Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene ( BenA ), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit gene ( SdhB) , I365 and 365S of the putative osmosensor histidine kinase gene ( BcOS1 ), and F412 and 412S of the 3-ketoreductase gene ( erg27 ). This assay was first established and optimized with eight plasmid templates containing the DNA sequence variants BenA- E198, BenA- 198A, SdhB- H272, SdhB- 272Y, BcOS1- I365, BcOS1- 365S, erg27 -F412, and erg27 -412S. Results indicated that none of the probes showed cross-reactivity with one another. The minimum limit of detection for these genotypes was one copy per test. Four mutant plasmids were mixed with 10 ng/μL wild-type genomic DNA in different ratios. Detection sensitivity of mutant loci was 0.45% for BenA- E198A, BcOS1- I365S, and erg27 -F412S, and was 4.5% for SdhB- H272Y. A minimum quantity of 0.1 ng of genomic DNA was necessary to obtain reliable results. This is the first reported assay that can simultaneously detect mutations in BenA , SdhB , BcOS1 , and erg27 .

  18. Identification of novel microsatellite markers preimplantation genetic diagnosis of beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Arnold S C; Cheah, Felicia S H; Saw, Eugene E L; Chong, Samuel S

    2015-12-01

    Beta (β)-thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic diseases worldwide. Affected pregnancies can be avoided through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), which commonly involves customized assays to detect the different combinations of β-globin (HBB) gene mutations present in couples, in conjunction with linkage analysis of flanking microsatellite markers. Currently, the limited number of reported closely linked markers hampers their utility in indirect linkage-based PGD for this disorder. To increase the available markers closely flanking the HBB gene, an in silico search was performed to identify all markers within 1 Mb flanking the HBB gene. Fifteen markers with potentially high polymorphism information content (PIC) and heterozygosity values were selected and optimized into a single-tube pentadecaplex PCR panel. Allele frequencies and polymorphism and heterozygosity indices of each marker were assessed in five populations. A total of 238 alleles were observed from the 15 markers. PIC was >0.7 for all markers, with expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.74 to 0.90 and 0.72 to 0.88, respectively. Greater than 99% of individuals were heterozygous for at least seven markers, with at least two heterozygous markers on either side of the HBB gene. The pentadecaplex marker assay also performed reliably on single cells either directly or after whole genome amplification, thus validating its use in standalone linkage-based β-thalassemia PGD or in conjunction with HBB mutation detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of oxygen content in steel by means of 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, L.S.; Wong, K.C.; Chiu, W.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A sealed-tube type 14 MeV neutron generator with maximum neutron output of 10 11 n/sec, incorporating a pneumatic sample transfer system of single-tube type and with a single rotation of the sample during neutron irradiation, is used to develop a method suitable for routine work in industrial applications. A pulse shape analyser system incorporating an organic scintillation detector is used for monitoring neutron flux level during the neutron irradiation of the sample. Polyethylene, of oxygen content 163 ppm determined by comparison with lucite, is used as the steel sample carrier. A 3 x 3 in. NaI(Tl) crystal is used with a single channel analyser to count the 6.1 and 7.1 MeV gamma rays emitted from 16 N as a result of the reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N. As the present activation analysis makes use of the comparison method, a steel-mylar standard made of layered steel and mylar discs is prepared and a calibration curve constructed. A method of correcting the oxygen contribution in the polyethylene sample carrier is devised and the content of oxygen in the steel standard is determined. A survey of neutron flux distribution is also attempted and it is found that nearly symmetrical distribution of the flux, about the centre of the sample carrier which is placed with its axis in parallel to the plane of the disc-shaped target of the neutron-generating tube, is far from being flat. (Auth.)

  20. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  1. Low-cost HIV-1 diagnosis and quantification in dried blood spots by real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nishaki; Trzmielina, Sonia; Nonyane, Bareng A S; Eliot, Melissa N; Lin, Rongheng; Foulkes, Andrea S; McNeal, Kristina; Ammann, Arthur; Eulalievyolo, Vindu; Sullivan, John L; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Somasundaran, Mohan

    2009-06-05

    Rapid and cost-effective methods for HIV-1 diagnosis and viral load monitoring would greatly enhance the clinical management of HIV-1 infected adults and children in limited-resource settings. Recent recommendations to treat perinatally infected infants within the first year of life are feasible only if early diagnosis is routinely available. Dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper are an easy and convenient way to collect and transport blood samples. A rapid and cost effective method to diagnose and quantify HIV-1 from DBS is urgently needed to facilitate early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection and monitoring of antiretroviral therapy. We have developed a real-time LightCycler (rtLC) PCR assay to detect and quantify HIV-1 from DBS. HIV-1 RNA extracted from DBS was amplified in a one-step, single-tube system using primers specific for long-terminal repeat sequences that are conserved across all HIV-1 clades. SYBR Green dye was used to quantify PCR amplicons and HIV-1 RNA copy numbers were determined from a standard curve generated using serially diluted known copies of HIV-1 RNA. This assay detected samples across clades, has a dynamic range of 5 log(10), and %CV real-time systems demonstrated similar performance. The accuracy, reliability, genotype inclusivity and affordability, along with the small volumes of blood required for the assay suggest that the rtLC DBS assay will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric HIV-1 infection in resource-limited settings.

  2. Demonstration of a very inexpensive, turbidimetric, real-time, RT-LAMP detection platform using shrimp Laem-Singh virus (LSNV as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Arunrut

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens under field laboratory conditions is necessary for effective control of veterinary pathogens. Here we describe a prototype, portable, pathogen detection device developed for single tube, real-time, reverse transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP using Laem-Singh virus (LSNV as a model. LSNV is an RNA virus and a component cause of growth retardation in black tiger shrimp. We chose its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene as the target for our tests. The basis for detection was measurement of turbidity arising from formation of a white, insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate byproduct upon amplification of the RdRp target sequence from 100 ng template RNA extracted from shrimp. The measurement device consisted of a heating block to maintain constant temperature in the RT-LAMP reaction for 8 Eppindorf sample tubes, a light-emitting diode (LED light source providing red light emission at 650 nm wavelength to pass through sample tubes, a light dependent resistance (LDR photo-detector and a software program to report turbidity events and could potentially be marketed for under US$3000. The device was connected to a computer to display real-time results in a variety of formats. The optimized protocol for LSNV detection consisted of incubation of the sample tubes at 65 °C for 1 h during which turbidity was continuously measured, and quantitative results could be obtained by reaction time measurement. The sensitivity of detection was comparable to that of conventional nested RT-PCR and there was no cross reaction with other common shrimp viruses. The device was used for quantitative measurement of relative copy numbers of LSNV RdRp in 8 shrimp tissues and they were found to be highest in the gills followed in order by the lymphoid organ and hemolymph (p ≤ 0.05. This platform can be easily adapted for detection of other pathogens under field laboratory settings.

  3. A simple and rapid identification method for newly emerged porcine Deltacoronavirus with loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. Results In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine kobuvirus (PKoV, porcine astrovirus (PAstV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, classic swine fever virus (CSFV, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192, this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1–2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. Conclusions The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.

  4. Multiplex electrochemical DNA platform for femtomolar-level quantification of genetically modified soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Palenzuela, C Lorena; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2015-06-15

    Current EU regulations on the mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with a minimum content of 0.9% would benefit from the availability of reliable and rapid methods to detect and quantify DNA sequences specific for GMOs. Different genosensors have been developed to this aim, mainly intended for GMO screening. A remaining challenge, however, is the development of genosensing platforms for GMO quantification, which should be expressed as the number of event-specific DNA sequences per taxon-specific sequences. Here we report a simple and sensitive multiplexed electrochemical approach for the quantification of Roundup-Ready Soybean (RRS). Two DNA sequences, taxon (lectin) and event-specific (RR), are targeted via hybridization onto magnetic beads. Both sequences are simultaneously detected by performing the immobilization, hybridization and labeling steps in a single tube and parallel electrochemical readout. Hybridization is performed in a sandwich format using signaling probes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or digoxigenin (Dig), followed by dual enzymatic labeling using Fab fragments of anti-Dig and anti-FITC conjugated to peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase, respectively. Electrochemical measurement of the enzyme activity is finally performed on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The assay gave a linear range of 2-250 pM for both targets, with LOD values of 650 fM (160 amol) and 190 fM (50 amol) for the event-specific and the taxon-specific targets, respectively. Results indicate that the method could be applied for GMO quantification below the European labeling threshold level (0.9%), offering a general approach for the rapid quantification of specific GMO events in foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikten, Cengiz; Ustun, Rustem; Catal, Mursel; Yol, Engin; Uzun, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  6. Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay for Simultaneous and Sensitive Detection of Phytoplasmas in Sesame Plants and Insect Vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Ikten

    Full Text Available Phyllody, a destructive and economically important disease worldwide caused by phytoplasma infections, is characterized by the abnormal development of floral structures into stunted leafy parts and contributes to serious losses in crop plants, including sesame (Sesamum indicum L.. Accurate identification, differentiation, and quantification of phyllody-causing phytoplasmas are essential for effective management of this plant disease and for selection of resistant sesame varieties. In this study, a diagnostic multiplex qPCR assay was developed using TaqMan® chemistry based on detection of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of phytoplasmas and the 18S ribosomal gene of sesame. Phytoplasma and sesame specific primers and probes labeled with different fluorescent dyes were used for simultaneous amplification of 16SrII and 16SrIX phytoplasmas in a single tube. The multiplex real-time qPCR assay allowed accurate detection, differentiation, and quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX groups in 109 sesame plant and 92 insect vector samples tested. The assay was found to have a detection sensitivity of 1.8 x 102 and 1.6 x 102 DNA copies for absolute quantification of 16SrII and 16SrIX group phytoplasmas, respectively. Relative quantification was effective and reliable for determination of phyllody phytoplasma DNA amounts normalized to sesame DNA in infected plant tissues. The development of this qPCR assay provides a method for the rapid measurement of infection loads to identify resistance levels of sesame genotypes against phyllody phytoplasma disease.

  7. A Dual Filtration-Based Multiplex PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on Fresh-Cut Cantaloupe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Feng

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut cantaloupe is particularly susceptible to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, development of rapid, yet accurate detection techniques is necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR system and propidium monoazide (PMA concentration were optimized to detect all viable pathogens in a single tube. A dual filtration system utilized a filtration membrane with different pore sizes to enrich pathogens found on fresh-cut cantaloupe. The results revealed that an optimized multiplex PCR system has the ability to effectively detect three pathogens in the same tube. The viable pathogens were simultaneously detected for PMA concentrations above 10 μg/ml. The combination of a nylon membrane (15 μm and a micro pore filtration membrane (0.22 μm formed the dual filtration system used to enrich pathogens. The achieved sensitivity of PMA-mPCR based on this dual filtration system was 2.6 × 103 cfu/g for L. monocytogenes, 4.3 × 10 cfu/g for E. coli O157:H7, and 3.1 × 102 cfu/g for S. aureus. Fresh-cut cantaloupe was inoculated with the three target pathogens using concentrations of 103, 102, 10, and 1 cfu/g. After 6-h of enrichment culture, assay sensitivity increased to 1 cfu/g for each of these pathogens. Thus, this technique represents an efficient and rapid detection tool for implementation on fresh-cut cantaloupe.

  8. Development and evaluation of a panel of filovirus sequence capture probes for pathogen detection by next-generation sequencing.

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    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the circulating pathogens in a particular geographic location aids in effectively utilizing targeted, rapid diagnostic assays, thus allowing for appropriate therapeutic and containment procedures. This is especially important in regions prevalent for highly pathogenic viruses co-circulating with other endemic pathogens such as the malaria parasite. The importance of biosurveillance is highlighted by the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. For example, a more comprehensive assessment of the regional pathogens could have identified the risk of a filovirus disease outbreak earlier and led to an improved diagnostic and response capacity in the region. In this context, being able to rapidly screen a single sample for multiple pathogens in a single tube reaction could improve both diagnostics as well as pathogen surveillance. Here, probes were designed to capture identifying filovirus sequence for the ebolaviruses Sudan, Ebola, Reston, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo and the Marburg virus variants Musoke, Ci67, and Angola. These probes were combined into a single probe panel, and the captured filovirus sequence was successfully identified using the MiSeq next-generation sequencing platform. This panel was then used to identify the specific filovirus from nonhuman primates experimentally infected with Ebola virus as well as Bundibugyo virus in human sera samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, thus demonstrating the utility for pathogen detection using clinical samples. While not as sensitive and rapid as real-time PCR, this panel, along with incorporating additional sequence capture probe panels, could be used for broad pathogen screening and biosurveillance.

  9. RAPID DETECTION OF -THALASSEMIA MUTATIONS IN THAILAND USING MULTIPLEX ARMS

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    D. Shimbhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of mutations underlining b-thalassemia generate a wide variety of different clinical phenotypes. An understanding of the genotype is important for medical personnel in order to provide proper counseling to patients and their families. Characterization of these mutations should aid the planning of a prenatal diagnosis program for bthalassemia. The heterogeneity of the mutations makes it difficult and time consuming to identify the mutation in some individuals. We developed a single-tube multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (multiplex ARMS to identify common ethnic- specific b-thalassemia mutations. Confirmation of multiplex ARMS results was carried out using direct sequencing. Three thousand three hundred twenty two people from Phitsanulok province were screened for the b-thalassemia trait by quantitation of HbA2 with microcolumn chromatography and the genotypes of mutations were characterized using multiplex ARMS and direct sequencing. We found that the deletion at codons 41/42 (-TCTT was the most frequent (48%, codon 17 (A®T (30%, -28 (A®G (6% and IVS-I-1(G®T (6% were the second and third in frequency respectively. A -87 (C®A mutation (4%, IVS II-654 (C®T (2%, codons 71/72 (+A (2% and codon 35 (C®A mutations (2% were also found. These techniques were found to be a valuable tool for analysis of b-thalassemia mutations because they are accurate, simple, and speedy in operation. The application for the diagnosis of severe thalassemia in high-risk pregnancies is promising.

  10. Effect of spacer grids on CHF in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanti, Sreenivas; Valette, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Spacers grids are used to support tube bundles in steam generators and in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. These grids interface with the flow and heat transfer in a number of ways and their effect has been studied by a number of researchers. It is known that generally they have a beneficial effect on critical heat flux (CHF) in typical nuclear reactor assemblies. However, the enhancement obtained depends on the geometric characteristics of the spacer grids as well as on the parameter range in terms of pressure, local mass velocity and quality. In the present study, the problem is approached in the context of a one-dimensional three-field model. Unlike in previous approaches, no specific modeling of the constitutive laws is made to account for spacer effects and only the geometric details such as the reduction in the cross-sectional area and the hydraulic diameter are included in the calculation which is otherwise the same as that for flow through a single tube. It is shown by comparison with literature data that this approach leads to satisfactory prediction of the thermal-hydraulic effects of spacers and that the beneficial effects of spacers on dry out can be manifested only when the entrainment rate is neither too high nor too low. Their effect on reducing the post-dry out wall temperature is also limited to certain cases. The present work has been performed as part of the EDF-CEA Neptune project also supported by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and FRAMATOME-ANP. NEPTUNE is a new set of two phase thermalhydraulic computer codes devoted to safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Evolution of PHWR fuel transfer system based on operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvatikar, R.S.; Singh, Jaipal; Chaturvedi, P.C.; Bhambra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel Transfer System facilitates loading of new fuel into Fuelling Machine, receipt of spent fuel from Fuelling Machine and its further transportation to Storage Bay. To overcome the limitations of transferring a pair of bundles in the single tube Airlock and Transfer Arm in RAPS-1 and 2/MAPS, a new concept of six tube Transfer Magazine was introduced in NAPS. This resulted in simultaneous loading of new fuel from Transfer Magazine into the Fuelling Machine and unloading of spent fuel from the Fuelling Machine through the exchange mode. It further facilitated the parallel/simultaneous operation of refuelling by Fuelling Machines on the reactor and transferring of spent fuel bundles from the Transfer Magazine to the bay. This new design of Fuel Transfer System was adopted for all standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. Based on the experience gained in 220 MWe PHWRs in the area of operation and maintenance, a number of improvements have been carried out over the years. These aspects have been further strengthened and refined in the Fuel Transfer System of 540 MWe units. The operating experience of the system indicates that the presence of heavy water in the Transfer Magazine poses limitations in its maintenance in the Fuel Transfer room. Further, Surveillance and maintenance of large number of under water equipment and associated valves, rams and underwater sensors is putting extra burden on the O and M efforts. A new concept of mobile light water filled Transfer Machine has been evolved for proposed 700 MWe PHWR units to simplify Fuel Transfer System. This has been made possible by adopting snout level control in the Fuelling Machine, elimination of Shuttle Transport System and locating the Storage Bay adjacent to the Reactor Building. This paper describes the evolution of Fuel Transfer System concepts and various improvements based on the experience gained in the operation and maintenance of the system. (author)

  12. Image quality characteristics for virtual monoenergetic images using dual-layer spectral detector CT: Comparison with conventional tube-voltage images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Nagayama, Yasunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the image quality characteristics for virtual monoenergetic images compared with conventional tube-voltage image with dual-layer spectral CT (DLCT). Helical scans were performed using a first-generation DLCT scanner, two different sizes of acrylic cylindrical phantoms, and a Catphan phantom. Three different iodine concentrations were inserted into the phantom center. The single-tube voltage for obtaining virtual monoenergetic images was set to 120 or 140 kVp. Conventional 120- and 140-kVp images and virtual monoenergetic images (40-200-keV images) were reconstructed from slice thicknesses of 1.0 mm. The CT number and image noise were measured for each iodine concentration and water on the 120-kVp images and virtual monoenergetic images. The noise power spectrum (NPS) was also calculated. The iodine CT numbers for the iodinated enhancing materials were similar regardless of phantom size and acquisition method. Compared with the iodine CT numbers of the conventional 120-kVp images, those for the monoenergetic 40-, 50-, and 60-keV images increased by approximately 3.0-, 1.9-, and 1.3-fold, respectively. The image noise values for each virtual monoenergetic image were similar (for example, 24.6 HU at 40 keV and 23.3 HU at 200 keV obtained at 120 kVp and 30-cm phantom size). The NPS curves of the 70-keV and 120-kVp images for a 1.0-mm slice thickness over the entire frequency range were similar. Virtual monoenergetic images represent stable image noise over the entire energy spectrum and improved the contrast-to-noise ratio than conventional tube voltage using the dual-layer spectral detector CT. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation Dose Reduction of Chest CT with Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space - Part I: Studies on Image Quality Using Dual Source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Jeon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Jin Seong; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Song Soo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the image quality (IQ) is improved with iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS), and whether IRIS can be used for radiation reduction in chest CT. Standard dose chest CT (SDCT) in 50 patients and low dose chest CT (LDCT) in another 50 patients were performed, using a dual-source CT, with 120 kVp and same reference mAs (50 mAs for SDCT and 25 mAs for LDCT) employed to both tubes by modifying a dual-energy scan mode. Full-dose data were obtained by combining the data from both tubes and half-dose data were separated from a single tube. These were reconstructed by using a filtered back projection (FBP) and IRIS: full-dose FBP (F-FBP); full-dose IRIS (F-IRIS); half-dose FBP (H-FBP) and half-dose IRIS (H-IRIS). Objective noise was measured. The subjective IQ was evaluated by radiologists for the followings: noise, contrast and sharpness of mediastinum and lung. Objective noise was significantly lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP (p < 0.01). In both SDCT and LDCT, the IQ scores were highest in F-IRIS, followed by F-FBP, H-IRIS and H-FBP, except those for sharpness of mediastinum, which tended to be higher in FBP. When comparing CT images between the same dose and different reconstruction (F-IRIS/F-FBP and H-IRIS/H-FBP) algorithms, scores tended to be higher in IRIS than in FBP, being more distinct in half-dose images. However, despite the use of IRIS, the scores were lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP. IRIS generally helps improve the IQ, being more distinct at the reduced radiation. However, reduced radiation by half results in IQ decrease even when using IRIS in chest CT.

  14. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  15. Combined mutation and rearrangement screening by quantitative PCR high-resolution melting: is it relevant for hereditary recurrent Fever genes?

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    Nathalie Pallares-Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent identification of genes implicated in hereditary recurrent fevers has allowed their specific diagnosis. So far however, only punctual mutations have been identified and a significant number of patients remain with no genetic confirmation of their disease after routine molecular approaches such as sequencing. The possible involvement of sequence rearrangements in these patients has only been examined in familial Mediterranean fever and was found to be unlikely. To assess the existence of larger genetic alterations in 3 other concerned genes, MVK (Mevalonate kinase, NLRP3 (Nod like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and TNFRSF1A (TNF receptor superfamily 1A, we adapted the qPCR-HRM method to study possible intragenic deletions and duplications. This single-tube approach, combining both qualitative (mutations and quantitative (rearrangement screening, has proven effective in Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Using this approach, we studied 113 unselected (prospective group and 88 selected (retrospective group patients and identified no intragenic rearrangements in the 3 genes. Only qualitative alterations were found with a sensitivity similar to that obtained using classical molecular techniques for screening punctual mutations. Our results support that deleterious copy number alterations in MVK, NLRP3 and TNFRSF1A are rare or absent from the mutational spectrum of hereditary recurrent fevers, and demonstrate that a routine combined method such as qPCR-HRM provides no further help in genetic diagnosis. However, quantitative approaches such as qPCR or SQF-PCR did prove to be quick and effective and could still be useful after non contributory punctual mutation screening in the presence of clinically evocative signs.

  16. Numerical methods on flow instabilities in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability is important for the design and operation of many industrial systems and equipment, such as steam generators. The designer's job is to predict the threshold of flow instability in order to design around it or compensate for it. So it is essential to understand the physical phenomena governing such instability and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of boiling systems. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigations on heat transfer characteristics of steam generator are being performed for the development of Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. As one part of the research work, the evaluations of two-phase flow instability in the steam generator are being carried out experimentally and numerically. In this report, the numerical methods were studied for two-phase flow instability analysis in steam generator. For numerical simulation purpose, the special algorithm to calculate inlet flow rate iteratively with inlet pressure and outlet pressure as boundary conditions for the density-wave instability analysis was established. There was no need to solve property derivatives and large matrices, so the spurious numerical instabilities caused by discontinuous property derivatives at boiling boundaries were avoided. Large time-step was possible. The flow instability in single heat transfer tube was successfully simulated with homogeneous equilibrium model by using the present algorithm. Then the drift-flux model including the effects of subcooled boiling and two phase slip was adopted to improve the accuracy. The computer code was developed after selecting the correlations of drift velocity and distribution parameter. The capability of drift flux model together with the present algorithm for simulating density-wave instability in single tube was confirmed. (author)

  17. TH-CD-202-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): Evaluation of the Use of Direct Electron Density CT Images in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T; Sun, B; Li, H; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mistry, N [Siemens Healthcare, Cary, NC (United States); Raupach, R; Huenemohr, N; Ritter [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim, Bavaria (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The current standard for calculation of photon and electron dose requires conversion of Hounsfield Units (HU) to Electron Density (ED) by applying a calibration curve specifically constructed for the corresponding CT tube voltage. This practice limits the use of the CT scanner to a single tube voltage and hinders the freedom in the selection of optimal tube voltage for better image quality. The objective of this study is to report a prototype CT reconstruction algorithm that provides direct ED images from the raw CT data independently of tube voltages used during acquisition. Methods: A tissue substitute phantom was scanned for Stoichiometric CT calibrations at tube voltages of 70kV, 80kV, 100kV, 120kV and 140kV respectively. HU images and direct ED images were acquired sequentially on a thoracic anthropomorphic phantom at the same tube voltages. Electron densities converted from the HU images were compared to ED obtained from the direct ED images. A 7-field treatment plan was made on all HU and ED images. Gamma analysis was performed to demonstrate quantitatively dosimetric change from the two schemes in acquiring ED. Results: The average deviation of EDs obtained from the direct ED images was −1.5%±2.1% from the EDs from HU images with the corresponding CT calibration curves applied. Gamma analysis on dose calculated on the direct ED images and the HU images acquired at the same tube voltage indicated negligible difference with lowest passing rate at 99.9%. Conclusion: Direct ED images require no CT calibration while demonstrate equivalent dosimetry compared to that obtained from standard HU images. The ability of acquiring direct ED images simplifies the current practice at a safer level by eliminating CT calibration and HU conversion from commissioning and treatment planning respectively. Furthermore, it unlocks a wider range of tube voltages in CT scanner for better imaging quality while maintaining similar dosimetric accuracy.

  18. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  19. Engineered catalytic biofilms for continuous large scale production of n-octanol and (S)-styrene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rainer; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluates the technical feasibility of biofilm-based biotransformations at an industrial scale by theoretically designing a process employing membrane fiber modules as being used in the chemical industry and compares the respective process parameters to classical stirred-tank studies. To our knowledge, catalytic biofilm processes for fine chemicals production have so far not been reported on a technical scale. As model reactions, we applied the previously studied asymmetric styrene epoxidation employing Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120ΔC biofilms and the here-described selective alkane hydroxylation. Using the non-heme iron containing alkane hydroxylase system (AlkBGT) from P. putida Gpo1 in the recombinant P. putida PpS81 pBT10 biofilm, we were able to continuously produce 1-octanol from octane with a maximal productivity of 1.3 g L ⁻¹(aq) day⁻¹ in a single tube micro reactor. For a possible industrial application, a cylindrical membrane fiber module packed with 84,000 polypropylene fibers is proposed. Based on the here presented calculations, 59 membrane fiber modules (of 0.9 m diameter and 2 m length) would be feasible to realize a production process of 1,000 tons/year for styrene oxide. Moreover, the product yield on carbon can at least be doubled and over 400-fold less biomass waste would be generated compared to classical stirred-tank reactor processes. For the octanol process, instead, further intensification in biological activity and/or surface membrane enlargement is required to reach production scale. By taking into consideration challenges such as biomass growth control and maintaining a constant biological activity, this study shows that a biofilm process at an industrial scale for the production of fine chemicals is a sustainable alternative in terms of product yield and biomass waste production. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development of a highly sensitive one-tube nested real-time PCR for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonim; Jeon, Bo-Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Jin, Hyunwoo; Cho, Sang-Nae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Rapid, accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but conventional diagnostic methods have limited sensitivity and specificity or are time consuming. A new highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification test, combined nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a single tube (one-tube nested real-time PCR), was developed for detecting M. tuberculosis, which takes advantage of two PCR techniques, i.e., nested PCR and real-time PCR. One-tube nested real-time PCR was designed to have two sequential reactions with two sets of primers and dual probes for the insertion sequence (IS) 6110 sequence of M. tuberculosis in a single closed tube. The minimum limits of detection of IS6110 real-time PCR and IS6110 one-tube nested real-time PCR were 100 fg/μL and 1 fg/μL of M. tuberculosis DNA, respectively. AdvanSure TB/non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) real-time PCR, IS6110 real-time PCR, and two-tube nested real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and NTM isolates. In comparison, the sensitivities of AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time PCR, single IS6110 real-time PCR, and one-tube nested real-time PCR were 91% (152/167), 94.6% (158/167), and 100% (167/167) for sputum specimens, respectively. In conclusion, IS6110 one-tube nested real-time PCR is useful for detecting M. tuberculosis due to its high sensitivity and simple manipulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.