WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-sterilized fermentative production

  1. Improving lactic acid productivity from wheat straw hydrolysates by membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation under non-sterilized conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans IPE22 was used to produce lactic acid (LA) from mixed sugar and wheat straw hydrolysates, respectively. All fermentations were conducted under non-sterilized conditions and sodium hydroxide was used as neutralizing agent to avoid the production of insoluble CaSO4. In order to e...

  2. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively.

  3. Production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum growing on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol through a non-sterilized fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Dietz, David; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E; Zeng, An-Ping

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the production of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) under non-sterile fermentation conditions by employing the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. A series of batch cultures were performed by utilizing biodiesel-derived crude glycerol feedstocks of different origins as the sole carbon source, in various initial concentrations. The strain presented similarities in terms of PDO production when cultivated on crude glycerol of various origins, with final concentrations ranging between 11.1 and 11.5 g/L. Moreover, PDO fermentation was successfully concluded regardless of the initial crude glycerol concentration imposed (from 20 to 80 g/L), accompanied by sufficient PDO production yields (0.52-0.55 g per gram of glycerol consumed). During fed-batch operation under non-sterile culture conditions, 67.9 g/L of PDO were finally produced, with a yield of 0.55 g/g. Additionally, the sustainability of the bioprocess during a continuous operation was tested; indeed, the system was able to run at steady state for 16 days, during which PDO effluent level was 13.9 g/L. Furthermore, possible existence of a microbial community inside the chemostat was evaluated by operating a polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, and DGGE results revealed the presence of only one band corresponding to that of C. butyricum VPI 1718. Finally, non-sterile continuous cultures were carried out at different dilution rates (D), with inlet glycerol concentration at 80 g/L. Maximum PDO production was achieved at low D values (0.02 h(-1)) corresponding to 30.1 g/L, while the elaboration of kinetic data from continuous cultures revealed the stability of the bioprocess proposed, with global PDO production yield corresponding to 0.52 g/g.

  4. Non-sterilized fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid by a newly isolated thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. 2-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably because of its use as a monomer for the synthesis of polylactic acid (PLA, which is a promising and environment-friendly alternative to plastics derived from petrochemicals. Optically pure L-lactic acid is essential for polymerization of PLA. The high fermentation cost of L-lactic acid is another limitation for PLA polymers to compete with conventional plastics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Bacillus sp. strain 2-6 for production of L-lactic acid was isolated at 55 degrees C from soil samples. Its thermophilic characteristic made it a good lactic acid producer because optically pure L-lactic acid could be produced by this strain under open condition without sterilization. In 5-liter batch fermentation of Bacillus sp. 2-6, 118.0 g/liter of L-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.4% was obtained from 121.3 g/liter of glucose. The yield was 97.3% and the average productivity was 4.37 g/liter/h. The maximum L-lactic acid concentration of 182.0 g/liter was obtained from 30-liter fed-batch fermentation with an average productivity of 3.03 g/liter/h and product optical purity of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With the newly isolated Bacillus sp. strain 2-6, high concentration of optically pure L-lactic acid could be produced efficiently in open fermentation without sterilization, which would lead to a new cost-effective method for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from renewable resources.

  5. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers.

  6. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  7. Enhanced production of histamine dehydrogenase by Natrinema gari BCC 24369 in a non-sterile condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Boonpayung, Somphop; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-01-01

    The production of histamine dehydrogenase (HADH) by Natrinema gari BCC 24369, a halophilic archeaon isolated from fish sauce, was optimized and scaled up under a non-sterile condition. Through statistical design by Plackett-Burman design (PBD), casamino acid, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O and FeCl2·4H2O were identified as the significant medium compositions influencing HADH production. Central composite design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimal values of individual composition yielding the maximum HADH production. The analysis indicated that the optimal medium was composed of 15 g/l casamino acid, 75 g/l MgSO4·7H2O, 273 g/l NaCl, 2.5 mg/l FeCl2·4H2O, 10 g/l yeast extract, 5 g/l sodium glutamate and 5 g/l KCl. Based on the one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method, the optimum initial pH of the culture medium and the incubation temperature for HADH production were 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. The production of HADH under optimal conditions was 2.2-fold higher than that under un-optimized conditions. Owing to the halophilic nature of Nnm. gari BCC 24369, a more economical and eco-friendlier HADH production was developed under a completely non-sterile condition. In a 16-l batch cultivation of Nnm. gari BCC 24369, HADH productivity under a non-sterile condition (858 ± 12 U/g cell biomass) was comparable to that under a sterile condition (878 ± 15 U/g cell biomass). These results demonstrate the feasibility and simplicity of HADH production using Nnm. gari BCC 24369 under a non-sterile condition without compromising enzyme yield and any changes in Km value.

  8. Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsoviti, Maria; Zeng, An-Ping; Koutinas, Apostolis A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim

    2013-02-20

    The production of 1,3-propanediol (PD) by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain [FMCC-B 294 (VK-19)] was investigated. Different grades of biodiesel-derived glycerol were employed. Slightly lower PD biosynthesis was observed in batch experiments only when crude glycerol from waste-cooking oil trans-esterification was utilized and only at elevated initial substrate concentrations employed. Batch bioreactor cultures revealed the capability of the strain to tolerate elevated amounts of substrate (glycerol up to 170 g/L) and produce quantities of PD in such high substrate concentrations. Nevertheless, maximum PD quantities (45.9 g/L) were achieved at lower initial glycerol concentrations (∼100 g/L) employed, suggesting some inhibition exerted due to the increased initial substrate concentrations. In order to improve PD production, a fed-batch fermentation was carried out and 68.1g/L of PD were produced (the highest PD quantity achieved by C. freundii strains so far) with yield per glycerol consumed ∼0.40 g/g and volumetric productivity 0.79 g/L/h. Aiming to perform a more economical and eco-friendlier procedure, batch and fed-batch fermentations under completely non-sterile conditions were carried out. During non-sterilized fed-batch process, 176 g/L of raw glycerol were converted to 66.3g/L of PD, suggesting the potentiality of the non-sterile fermentation by C. freundii FMCC-B 294.

  9. The growth of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis in an airlift bioreactor on crude glycerol through a non-sterile fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Liao, Yu-Ting; Liu, Yi Xian

    2015-08-01

    While the use of oleaginous Rhodotorula glutinis as a feedstock for biodiesel production is an attractive idea, as it can avoid the pollutions associated with over-consumption of fossil fuels. Nevertheless, the related costs, including the energy required for sterilization, remain a barrier to commercialization. This study thus used a low-pH non-sterile medium, instead of a completely sterilized one, to grow R. glutinis in a 5-L airlift bioreactor. The results show that R. glutinis can grow well at a low pH level of 4.0 and without sterilization of the medium, producing a final biomass of 11.7 g/L. Nevertheless, such a low pH will lead to fewer total lipids accumulation, and so a two-stage process of pH control in a non-sterile batch was proposed. Even this two-stage pH operation was also able to produce a similar final biomass of 11.7 g/L. However, the batch with two-stage pH control had a far higher lipid content of 55 ± 4% as compared to that of 21 ± 3% in the batch grown at pH 4.0. This study shows the potential of the proposed non-sterile process with two-stage pH control applied to the growth of R. glutinis to enhance the total lipid accumulation.

  10. Fermentation of non-sterilized fish biomass with a mixed culture of film-forming yeasts and lactobacilli and its effect on innate and adaptive immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeaki; Suzuki-Utsunomiya, Kyoko; Komori, Yukako; Kamijo, Akemi; Yumura, Isao; Tanabe, Koudai; Miyawaki, Ayumi; Koga, Kunimasa

    2013-12-01

    Non-sterilized fish waste containing fish bones was fermented using combined starter cultures of film-forming yeast (Candida ethanolica) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus) in order to obtain a liquefied fermented broth without spoiling. During the entire fermentation, the number of LAB cells was maintained at a high level (6 × 10(8)-5 × 10(7) cells/ml). Although the number of general bacteria was 10(6)cell/ml after adding non-sterilized fish biomass, its growth was suppressed to be 1-3 × 10(4) cells/ml. The entire biomass had completely liquefied and the fermented broth contained all 20 α-amino acids composed of protein and also various kinds of minerals in abundance. The weight of mice group fed the fermented broth content feed (sample feed) for 31 days significantly increased compared with that fed no broth feed (control feed) (21.37 g vs 20.76 g (p fermented fish biomass is expected to be effective for innate and adaptive immunity and thus fit for animal feed. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Citric acid production from partly deproteinized whey under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of lactose-positive and cold-adapted Yarrowia lipolytica B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-10

    The present study was performed to produce citric acid (CA) from partly deproteinized cheese whey (DPCW) under non-sterile culture conditions using immobilized cells of the cold-adapted and lactose-positive yeast Yarrowia lipolytica B9. DPCW was prepared using the temperature treatment of 90°C for 15min. Sodium alginate was used as entrapping agent for cell immobilization. Optimum conditions for the maximum CA production (33.3g/L) in non-sterile DPCW medium were the temperature of 20°C, pH 5.5, additional lactose concentration of 20g/L, sodium alginate concentration of 2%, number of 150 beads/100mL and incubation time of 120h. Similarly, maximum citric acid/isocitric acid (CA/ICA) ratio (6.79) could be reached under these optimal conditions. Additional nitrogen and phosphorus sources decreased CA concentration and CA/ICA ratio. Immobilized cells were reused in three continuous reaction cycles without any loss in the maximum CA concentration. The unique combination of low pH and temperature values as well as cell immobilization procedure could prevent undesired microbial contaminants during CA production. This is the first work on CA production by cold-adapted microorganisms under non-sterile culture conditions. Besides, CA production using a lactose-positive strain of the yeast Y. lipolytica was investigated for the first time in the present study.

  12. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  13. Simultaneous nutrient removal, optimised CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production by Chlorogonium sp. grown in secondary treated non-sterile saline sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Kwan, Ka Ki; Chan, King Ming; Huang, Guocheng; Yip, Ho Yin; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-10-30

    The phycoremediation process has great potential for effectively addressing environmental pollution. To explore the capabilities of simultaneous algal nutrient removal, CO2 mitigation and biofuel feedstock production from spent water resources, a Chlorogonium sp. isolated from a tilapia pond in Hong Kong was grown in non-sterile saline sewage effluent for a bioremediation study. With high removal efficiencies of NH3-N (88.35±14.39%), NO3(-)-N (85.39±14.96%), TN (93.34±6.47%) and PO4(3-)-P (91.80±17.44%), Chlorogonium sp. achieved a CO2 consumption rate of 58.96 mg L(-1) d(-1), which was optimised by the response surface methodology. Under optimised conditions, the lipid content of the algal biomass reached 24.26±2.67%. Overall, the isolated Chlorogonium sp. showed promising potential in the simultaneous purification of saline sewage effluent in terms of tertiary treatment and CO2 sequestration while delivering feedstock for potential biofuel production in a waste-recycling manner.

  14. Pretreatment of non-sterile, rotted silage maize straw by the microbial community MC1 increases biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Binbin; Dai, Jiali; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2016-09-01

    Using microbial community MC1 to pretreat lignocellulosic materials increased the yield of biogas production, and the substrate did not need to be sterilized, lowering the cost. Rotted silage maize straw carries many microbes. To determine whether such contamination affects MC1, rotted silage maize straw was pretreated with MC1 prior to biogas production. The decreases in the weights of unsterilized and sterilized rotted silage maize straw were similar, as were their carboxymethyl cellulase activities. After 5d pretreatment, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the proportions of five key strains in MC1 were the same in the unsterilized and sterilized groups; thus, MC1 was resistant to microbial contamination. However, its resistance to contamination decreased as the degradation time increased. Following pretreatment, volatile fatty acids, especially acetic acid, were detected, and MC1 enhanced biogas yields by 74.7% compared with the untreated group.

  15. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  16. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  17. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production in different process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirian, N. [Islamic Azad Univ., Shoushtar (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Almassi, M.; Minaee, S. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Waste and Water

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which hydrogen was produced by fermentation of biomass. A continuous process using a non-sterile substrate with a readily available mixed microflora was used on heat treated digested sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen was produced from waste sugar at a pH of 5.2 and a temperature of 37 degrees C. An experimental setup of three 5.5 L working volume continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) in different stirring speeds were constructed and operated at 7 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and different organic loading rates (OLR). Dissolved organic carbon was examined. The results showed that the stirring speed of 135 rpm had a beneficial effect on hydrogen fermentation. The best performance was obtained in 135 rpm and 8 h of HRT. The amount of gas varied with different OLRs, but could be stabilized on a high level. Methane was not detected when the HRT was less than 16 h. The study identified the reactor in which the highest specific rate of hydrogen production occurred.

  18. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid fr

  19. Roles of microorganisms other than Clostridium and Enterobacter in anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production systems--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chang, Yu-Jie

    2011-09-01

    Anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production, the conversion of organic substances especially from organic wastes to hydrogen gas, has become a viable and promising means of producing sustainable energy. Successful biological hydrogen production depends on the overall performance (results of interactions) of bacterial communities, i.e., mixed cultures in reactors. Mixed cultures might provide useful combinations of metabolic pathways for the processing of complex waste material ingredients, thereby supporting the more efficient decomposition and hydrogenation of biomass than pure bacteria species would. Therefore, understanding the relationships between variations in microbial composition and hydrogen production efficiency is the first step in constructing more efficient hydrogen-producing consortia, especially when complex and non-sterilized organic wastes are used as feeding substrates. In this review, we describe recent discoveries on bacterial community composition obtained from dark fermentation biohydrogen production systems, with emphasis on the possible roles of microorganisms that co-exist with common hydrogen producers.

  20. Performance and population analysis of a non-sterile trickle bed reactor inoculated with Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, a thermophilic hydrogen producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Groenestijn, J.W.; Meesters, K.P.M. [TNO Quality of Life, P.O. Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); Geelhoed, J.S.; Goorissen, H.P.; Stams, A.J.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein, Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Non-axenic operation of a 400 L trickle bed reactor inoculated with the thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, yielded 2.8 mol/H2/mol hexose converted. The reactor was fed with a complex medium with sucrose as the main substrate, continuously flushed with nitrogen gas, and operated at 73C. The volumetric productivity was 22 mmol/H2/(L filterbed h). Acetic acid and lactic acid were the main by-products in the liquid phase. Production of lactic acid occurred when hydrogen partial pressure was elevated above 2% and during suboptimal fermentation conditions that also resulted in the presence of mono- and disaccharides in the effluent. Methane production was negligible. The microbial community was analyzed at two different time points during operation. Initially, other species related to members of the genera Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldicellulosiruptor were present in the reactor. However, these were out-competed by C. saccharolyticus during a period when sucrose was completely used and no saccharides were discharged with the effluent. In general, the use of pure cultures in non-sterile industrial applications is known to be less useful because of contamination. However, our results show that the applied fermentation conditions resulted in a culture of a single dominant organism with excellent hydrogen production characteristics.

  1. Recent advances in fermentative biohydrogen production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei Liu; Nanqi Ren; Funan Song; Chuanping Yang; Aijie Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen energy, as a kind of clean energy with great potential, has been a hotspot for study worldwide. Based on the recent research on biohydrogen production, this paper gives a brief review on the following aspects: fermentative hydrogen production process and the engineering control statagy, key factors affecting the efficiency of hydrogen production, such as substrates, cysteine, metal ions, anaerobic fermentation terminal products, and formic acid and ammonia. Moreover, anaerobic fermentative hydrogen-producing strain and regulation and control of enzyme gene in fermentative hydrogen production are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of anaerobic fermentative biohydrogen production is proposed in three study areas, namely developing new techniques for breeding hydrogen-producing bacteria, exploitations of more strains and gene resources, and intensifying the application of microbial molecular breeding in hydrogen production.

  2. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  3. Fermented Meat Products%发酵肉制品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌静

    2008-01-01

    This article introduced the types,characteristics of the fermented meat product and the research situation of the domestic and foreign fermented meat product.It also indicated the developing prospect of the fermented meat products.

  4. Microbial changes during the production of Sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Cao, C.F.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation of tofu followed by ripening in dressing mixture. The aim of this study was to quantify microflora changes during the sufu process, which is carried out under non-sterile conditions. From tofu to pehtze (tofu overgrown with

  5. Microbial changes during the production of Sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Cao, C.F.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation of tofu followed by ripening in dressing mixture. The aim of this study was to quantify microflora changes during the sufu process, which is carried out under non-sterile conditions. From tofu to pehtze (tofu overgrown with

  6. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  7. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  8. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  9. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  10. Ethanol production and a case study of ethanol produced from sweet sorghum stalks via solid state fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, X. [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Resource and Environmental Engineering College; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology; Li, S.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol has excellent fuel properties, such as high octane, high heat of vaporization and low photochemical reactivity in the atmosphere. It is less volatile than gasoline and there is lower smog formation from evaporative emissions of pure ethanol compared to gasoline. As such, ethanol has emerged as an important alternative energy source that is sustainable, efficient, cost effective, convenient and safe. In 2006, global production of ethanol reached 13.5 billion gallons, up from 12.1 billion gallons in 2005. However, in light of the current debate of food versus fuel, the industry must shift to non-food feedstocks. This paper described an emerging technology to cost-effectively produce ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks, the most promising alternative feedstock to corn, via solid state fermentation (SSF). Experiments of advanced solid state fermentation (ASSF) for ethanol production from sweet sorghum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in laboratory and pilot scales studies. The process parameters were monitored during the fermentation in three scales. The highest ethanol concentration was achieved in pilot fermentation after 44 hours of incubation when a high yield of ethanol of 94.48 per cent was obtained. In comparison, corn ethanol fermentation yielded 91.5 per cent ethanol after 55 hours of incubation. Ethanol concentration decreased slowly after 44 hours of incubation due to the consumption of sugars and the inhibitory effects of ethanol. Ethanol is a typical primary metabolite whose production closely couples with the growth of yeast cell, indicating yeast is produced as a co-product. Under the same fermentation conditions the fermentation in non-sterilized medium gave the similar ethanol concentration to that of a sterilized medium, which has the advantages of saving in equipment and energy costs for industrialization of ethanol production from sweet sorghum via SSF. 39 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Use of Probiotics in Fermented Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Palamutoğlu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a negative judgements among consumers about meat and meat products, in human nutrition meat and meat products are important for nutrient components which they contain essential nutrients. Intensively produced fermented meat product such as sucuk in our country and lactic acid bacteria (LAB are used for production of various fermented sausages all over the world. LAB primarily used in order to increase the food safety of such products. LAB with probiotic properties have effect on product taste, flavour and aroma as well as the positive effects on functional and physiological properties. Positive effects of probiotics in human health and product properties in the absence of any adverse effects various cultures have been used for the production of probiotic fermented meat products. In the production of such products prepared dough which have meat and fat in the matrix form a suitable vehicle for probiotic cells. During production of products formation of lactic acid reduced the pH, during ripening conditions water activity reduced so these factors adversely affect viability of probiotic cells. For this reason protecting probiotic cultures from negative effects during exposure in the product and vitality of cells in human gastro-intestinal system to continue operating for consumption to be provided during the order process the cells are coated with microencapsuation. The use of probiotic microorganisms isolated from various foods is being investigated for the production of sausages. Studies on the effects of probiotics on human health of meat products are also needed. In this study the probiotic microorganisms used in the production of probiotic fermented sausages were investigated.

  12. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  13. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  14. Extracellular protease derived from lactic acid bacteria stimulates the fermentative lactic acid production from the by-products of rice as a biomass refinery function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanori; Techapun, Charin; Kuntiya, Ampin; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Takenaka, Shinji; Maeda, Isamu; Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-02-01

    A lactic acid producing bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, newly isolated from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. This strain has the ability to utilize the non-sterilized rice washing drainage and rice bran as a source of carbohydrate, saccharifying enzymes and nutrients for lactic acid production. Observation of extracellular protease activity in SSF culture broth showed that a higher protease activity was present in strain M-23 than in other isolated lactic acid producing bacteria (LABs). To investigate the structural changes of solid particles of rice washing drainage throughout LAB cultivation, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed. The results of the SEM observation showed that the surface material could be removed from solid particles of rice washing drainage treated by culture broth (supernatant) of strain M-23, thus exposing the crystal structure of the starch particle surface. The results of the FT-IR analysis revealed that the specific transmittance decrease of the CC and CO stretching and OH group of the solid particles of the rice washing drainage were highly correlated with the produced lactic acid concentration and extracellular protease activity, respectively. These results demonstrate the high lactic acid producing ability of strain M-23 from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran under the SSF condition due to the removal of proteinaceous material and exposure of the starch particle surface by extracellular protease.

  15. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  16. CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANKIT KUMAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid, C3H4OH(COOH3, (Scheele and Wehmer 1897 can be generally manufactured by chemical synthesis which is not much preferred now-a-days because of high costs involved in it and also by fermentation of sugar containing sources in the presence of fungus Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is used in confections and soft drinks ( as a flavouring agent, in metal-cleaning compositions, and in improving the stability of foods and other organic substances by suppressing the deleterious action of dissolved metal salts. Fermentation results in the breakdown of complex organic substances into simpler ones through the action of catalysis. This project involves the production of citric acid from fungal strain of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, using various sources like cane molasses, beet molasses, sweet potato and grape sugar by employing submerged and surface fermentation. The fermentation process has been carried out at ph 4.5 and temperature 28 0C. The recovery of citric acid from fermented broth is generally performed through three procedures-precipitation, extraction and adsorption(mainly using ion-exchange resins. The main aim of the project is to achieve a cost reduction in citric acid production by using less expensive substrates.

  17. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  18. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications. Thi

  19. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  20. Production, characteristics and fermentation of soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for soybean increases because of its extraordinary nutritive and health characteristics. In West countries soymilk is intended for population that cannot consume cow’s milk, due to lactose intolerance, allergies to cow’s milk proteins or non consumption of animal foodstuffs from belief. Health benefits of soymilk increase significantly by fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Because of that, in this paper composition of soybean is described, with special overview on proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates as well as antinutritive factors and isoflavones. Soymilk composition and production, and its nutritive value are represented also. Advantages of fermentation of soybean and soymilk are described, especially with probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

  1. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  2. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  3. Production of Star Fruit Alcoholic Fermented Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Flávia de Paula; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Alves, Vanessa Dias; Maldonado, Rafael Resende

    2016-12-01

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a nutritious tropical fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of a star fruit alcoholic fermented beverage utilizing a lyophilized commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The study was conducted utilizing a 2(3) central composite design and the best conditions for the production were: initial soluble solids between 23.8 and 25 °Brix (g 100 g(-1)), initial pH between 4.8 and 5.0 and initial concentration of yeast between 1.6 and 2.5 g L(-1). These conditions yielded a fermented drink with an alcohol content of 11.15 °GL (L 100 L(-1)), pH of 4.13-4.22, final yeast concentration of 89 g L(-1) and fermented yield from 82 to 94 %. The fermented drink also presented low levels of total and volatile acidities.

  4. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

  5. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  6. Hydrogen production by fermentative consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez-Vazquez, Idania [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Ensenada, B.C. Mexico (Mexico); Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PO Box 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, H{sub 2} production by anaerobic mixed cultures was reviewed. First, the different anaerobic microbial communities that have a direct relation with the generation or consumption of H{sub 2} are discussed. Then, the different methods used to inhibit the H{sub 2}-consuming bacteria are analyzed (mainly in the methanogenesis phase) such as biokinetic control (low pH and short hydraulic retention time), heat-shock treatment and chemical inhibitors along with their advantages/disadvantages for their application on an industrial scale. After that, biochemical pathways of carbohydrate degradation to H{sub 2}, organic acids and solvents are showed. Fourth, structure, diversity and dynamics of H{sub 2}-producers communities are detailed. Later, the hydrogenase structure and activity is related with H{sub 2} production. Also, the causes for H{sub 2} production inhibition are analyzed along with strategies to avoid it. Finally, immobilized-cells systems are presented as a way to enhance H{sub 2} production. (author)

  7. Oxidative stability of fermented meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2012-04-02

    Meat and meat products, which form a major part of our diet, are very susceptible to quality changes resulting from oxidative processes. Quality of fermented food products depends on the course of various physicochemical and biochemical processes. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products may be the result of enzymatic changes occurring as a result of activity of enzymes originating in tissues and microorganisms, as well as lipid peroxidation by free radicals. Primary and secondary products of lipid oxidation are extremely reactive and react with other components of meat, changing their physical and chemical properties. Oxidised proteins take on a yellowish, red through brown hue. Products of lipid and protein degradation create a specific flavour and aroma ; furthermore, toxic substances (such as biogenic amines or new substances) are formed as a result of interactions between meat components, e.g. protein-lipid or protein-protein combinations, as well as transverse bonds in protein structures. Oxidation of meat components in raw ripening products is a particularly difficult process. On the one hand it is essential, since the enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid oxidation creates flavour and aroma compounds characteristic for ripening products; on the other hand excessive amounts or transformations of those compounds may cause the fermented meat product to become a risk to health.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF PROTEATIC ENZYMES IN FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of aroma and taste in fermented sausages is based on proteolytic breakdown. Proteolysis during fermentation and ripening is reflected in an increase in non-protein nitrogen compounds. The fermenting sausage provides optimal conditions for proteolytic enzymes. Muscle proteinases are mainly active during initial fermentation, involuing degradation of myosin and actin, bacterial proteases are more important during the drying period. Added proteolytic enzymes to fermented meat products for increasing proteolysis involves to shorten the ripening period and decreases the costs of storing. Also, organoleptically, fermented meats manufactured with proteinases could yield unique sensory characteristics.

  9. Volatile fatty acids productions by mesophilic and thermophilic sludge fermentation: Biological responses to fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiuxiao; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) productions, as well as hydrolases activities, microbial communities, and homoacetogens, of mesophilic and thermophilic sludge anaerobic fermentation were investigated to reveal the microbial responses to different fermentation temperatures. Thermophilic fermentation led to 10-fold more accumulation of VFAs compared to mesophilic fermentation. α-glucosidase and protease had much higher activities in thermophilic reactor, especially protease. Illumina sequencing manifested that raising fermentation temperature increased the abundances of Clostridiaceae, Microthrixaceae and Thermotogaceae, which could facilitate either hydrolysis or acidification. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that under thermophilic condition the relative abundance of homoacetogens increased in batch tests and reached higher level at stable fermentation, whereas under mesophilic condition it only increased slightly in batch tests. Therefore, higher fermentation temperature increased the activities of key hydrolases, raised the proportions of bacteria involved in hydrolysis and acidification, and promoted the relative abundance of homoacetogens, which all resulted in higher VFAs production.

  10. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi, ethnic fermented vegetable products of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Buddhiman; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Gundruk is a fermented leafy vegetable and khalpi is a fermented cucumber product, prepared and consumed in the Himalayas. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi was studied. Significant increase in population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was found during first few days of gundruk and khlapi fermentation, respectively. Gundruk fermentation was initiated by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and finally dominated by Lb. plantarum. Similarly in khalpi fermentation, heterofermentative LAB such as Leuconostoc fallax, Lb. brevis and P. pentosaceus initiated the fermentation and finally completed by Lb. plantarum. Attempts were made to produce gundruk and khalpi using mixed starter culture of LAB previously isolated from respective products. Both the products prepared under lab condition had scored higher sensory-rankings comparable to market products.

  11. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

  12. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  13. Enhancing fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that fermentative hydrogen production from organic-rich feedstock could be enhanced by supplementing with waste materials such as cattle manure that could provide nutritional needs, buffering capacity, and native hydrogen-producing organisms. This hypothesis was tested in batch reactors fed with sucrose blended with cattle manure run at 25 degrees C without any nutrient supplements, pH adjustments, buffering, or gas-sparging. Hydrogen production rates in these reactors ranged 16-30 mL H(2)/g DeltaCOD-day, while hydrogen content in the biogases ranged 50-59%. Compared to literature studies conducted at higher temperatures, hydrogen yields found in this study at 25 degrees C were higher in the range of 3.8-4.7 mol H(2)/mol sucrose added, with higher positive net energy yields (>14 kJ/L). This study demonstrated that cattle manure as a supplement could not only provide hydrogen-producing seed, nutritional needs, and buffering capacity, but also increase hydrogen yield by approximately 10%, improving the economic viability of fermentative biohydrogen production from sugary wastes.

  14. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  15. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-10-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O32-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Thiosulfate was a quantitative fermentation product. The other fermentation products were ammonia and acetate, and all could be formed by cell-free extracts.

  16. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  17. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  18. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain.

  19. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  20. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  1. Kinetic models for fermentative hydrogen production: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianlong; Wan, Wei [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-05-15

    The kinetic models were developed and applied for fermentative hydrogen production. They were used to describe the progress of a batch fermentative hydrogen production process, to investigate the effects of substrate concentration, inhibitor concentration, temperatures, pH, and dilution rates on the process of fermentative hydrogen production, and to establish the relationship among the substrate degradation rate, the hydrogen-producing bacteria growth rate and the product formation rate. This review showed that the modified Gompertz model was widely used to describe the progress of a batch fermentative hydrogen production process, while the Monod model was widely used to describe the effects of substrate concentration on the rates of substrate degradation, hydrogen-producing bacteria growth and hydrogen production. Arrhenius model was used a lot to describe the effects of temperature on fermentative hydrogen production, while modified Han-Levenspiel model was used to describe the effects of inhibitor concentration on fermentative hydrogen production. The Andrew model was used to describe the effects of H{sup +} concentration on the specific hydrogen production rate, while the Luedeking-Piret model and its modified form were widely used to describe the relationship between the hydrogen-producing bacteria growth rate and the product formation rate. Finally, some suggestions for future work with these kinetic models were proposed. (author)

  2. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...... with a review of the feedstock potential for gas fermentation and how thermophilic production strains as well as unconventional fermentation processes such as mixotrophy can help to exploit this potential. I analyzed a process with respect to thermodynamic and economic considerations, in which acetone......, this thesis describes several projects which help to pave the way for biochemical production with the thermophile M. thermoacetica on in an economically competitive way....

  3. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using solar energy. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ... It is eco-friendly, moderately costly and cleaner than other gasses. Actually, due to ...

  4. Biotechnological lycopene production by mated fermentation of Blakeslea trispora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nieto, M J; Costa, J; Peiro, E; Méndez, E; Rodríguez-Sáiz, M; de la Fuente, J L; Cabri, W; Barredo, J L

    2004-12-01

    A semi-industrial process (800-l fermentor) for lycopene production by mated fermentation of Blakeslea trispora plus (+) and minus (-) strains has been developed. The culture medium was designed at the flask scale, using a program based on a genetic algorithm; and a fermentation process by means of this medium was developed. Fermentation involves separate vegetative phases for (+) and (-) strains and inoculation of the production medium with a mix of both together. Feeding with imidazole or pyridine, molecules known to inhibit lycopene cyclase enzymatic activity, enhanced lycopene accumulation. Different raw materials and physical parameters, including dissolved oxygen, stirring speed, air flow rate, temperature, and pH, were checked in the fermentor to get maximum lycopene production. Typical data for the fermentation process are presented and discussed. This technology can be easily scaled-up to an industrial application for the production of this carotenoid nowadays widely in demand.

  5. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented.

  6. Ethnic fermented and preserved fish products of India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Thapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Eastern Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan; and Darjeeling hills, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur in North East India prepare and consume different types of traditionally processed smoked/sun-dried/fermented/salted fish products. Suka ko maacha and gnuchi are ethnic smoked and dried fish products; sidra and sukuti are sun-dried fish products; ngari, hentak, tungtap, and shidal are fermented fish products; and karati, bordia, and lashim are sun-dried and salted fish products. No fish sauce or shrimp products are prepared and used as condiments in the local diet in the Eastern Himalayan regions.

  7. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL(-1), respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  9. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Jeor, Jeffery D.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2016-06-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  10. Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea: a case study on production of sayur asin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Widianarko, B.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the

  11. Applied in situ product recovery in ABE fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Carl‐Axel; Lee, Jonathan G. M.; Davies, E. Timothy; Harvey, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    The production of biobutanol is hindered by the product's toxicity to the bacteria, which limits the productivity of the process. In situ product recovery of butanol can improve the productivity by removing the source of inhibition. This paper reviews in situ product recovery techniques applied to the acetone butanol ethanol fermentation in a stirred tank reactor. Methods of in situ recovery include gas stripping, vacuum fermentation, pervaporation, liquid–liquid extraction, perstraction, and adsorption, all of which have been investigated for the acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation. All techniques have shown an improvement in substrate utilization, yield, productivity or both. Different fermentation modes favored different techniques. For batch processing gas stripping and pervaporation were most favorable, but in fed‐batch fermentations gas stripping and adsorption were most promising. During continuous processing perstraction appeared to offer the best improvement. The use of hybrid techniques can increase the final product concentration beyond that of single‐stage techniques. Therefore, the selection of an in situ product recovery technique would require comparable information on the energy demand and economics of the process. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:563–579, 2017 PMID:28188696

  12. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  13. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence analysis for rapid screening of microbial contamination in non-sterile pharmaceutical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    An Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence system was compared and validated against standard methods for rapid microbiological monitoring of several non-sterile pharmaceutical formulations such as creams, tablets, and capsules. Results obtained using 1%, 2.5%, and 10% of product suspensions indicated that most samples that did not contain non-microbial ATP neither inhibited the bioluminescence reaction nor did something else. Ten percent product suspensions were inoculated with different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Samples were incubated for 24-120 h at 35 degrees C with shaking. Results indicated a strong inhibitory effect of microbial growth, as no microorganisms were detected by using the ATP bioluminescence assay. However, when 1% and 2.5% product suspensions were spiked with the same microorganisms, positive detection was confirmed. After incubation, all microorganisms were detected by the bioluminescence system within 24-72 h. All positive samples were confirmed by using standard plating media. However, to optimize detection of all microorganisms, different enrichment media were developed.

  14. Perspectives of Solid State Fermentation for Production of Food Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Noe Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry represents one of the economic sectors where microbial metabolites have found a wide variety of applications. This is the case of some enzymes, such as amylases, cellulases, pectinases and proteases which have played a very important role as food additives. Most of these enzymes have been produced by submerged cultures at industrial level. Many works in the literature present detailed aspects involved with those enzymes and their importance in the food industry. However, the production and application studies of those enzymes produced by solid state fermentations are scarce in comparison with submerged fermentation. This review involves production aspects of the seven enzymes: tannases, pectinases, caffeinases, mannanases, phytases, xylanases and proteases, which can be produced by solid state fermentation showing attractive advantages. Additionally, process characteristics of solid state fermentation are considered.

  15. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn.

  16. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  17. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products.

  18. Method for the production of a fermentation product from an organism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hee, P.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Van der Lans, R.G.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the production of a fermentation product from an organism cultured in a culture medium, wherein the organism after the formation of the fermentation product is subjected to a lysis treatment in the presence of a lysis-promoting compound. In accordance with the i

  19. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  20. Probiotic fermentation of plant based products: possibilities and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    Functional foods are claimed to have several health-specific advantages. In addition to their basic nutritive value, they contain a proper balance of ingredients which help in the prevention and treatment of illnesses and diseases. Within this category, products containing lactic acid bacteria or probiotics are increasingly gaining importance. The recognition of the beneficial effects of dairy products containing probiotics has been well established. The allergy to dairy products, lactose intolerance, and cholesterol content are the major drawbacks related to the use of fermented dairy products for a large percentage of consumers. Modern consumers are increasingly interested in their personal health, and expect the food that they eat to be healthy or even capable of preventing illness. Because of this, probiotic food products made out of fermentation of cereals and fruits and vegetables is receiving attention from the scientific world as well as consumers and constitutes the major part of this review. The use of mathematical models for the probiotic fermentation will help in reducing the time and effort involved in the optimization of the probiotic fermentation process. We have tried to summarize the developments in the use of mathematical models for probiotic fermentation. Future technological prospects exist in innovations which represent solutions for the stability and viability problems of probiotics in new food environments. Current research on novel probiotic formulations and microencapsulation technologies exploiting biological carrier and barrier materials has also been discussed.

  1. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  2. Fermentative production of aceton-butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassein, M.; Fouad, M.; Abou-Zeil, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Fourteen different media were used in the fermentative production of acetone-butanol. The highest total yields were achieved in medium containing potatoe starch and soluble starch as C sources. The best concentrations of potato starch and soluble starch were 500.0 and 10.0 g/L respectively. Peptone was the most favourable N source. The best concentration of peptone was 4.0 g/L. CaCO/sub 3/ in 3.6 g/L acted as buffering agent in the fermentation process. The best initial pH value of the fermentation medium was 6.0. The optimum temperature was 32 to 33/sup 0/. The fermentation process required 120 hours to obtain maximum yields of acetone butanol.

  3. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.

  4. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  5. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages.

  6. Study of the tetanus toxin production by fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Quintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reduce time and increase yields of the Clostridium tetani fermentation. In this work, factors that affect tetanic toxin production such as the initial concentration of glucose and glutamate, fermentation span, sterilization time and the superficial aeration were analysed. Initial glucose concentration and the sterilization time were studied simultaneously in 200 mL cultures without agitation. The initial concentration’s values were between zero and 10 g/L and the times between 10 and 60 minutes. Our results showed that cultures growing in medium containing 6g/L of glucose and sterilized by 20 minutes at 121ºC produced the highest toxin amount, with an average of 85 Lf/mL. To test the effect of the glutamate, fermentations were carried out in a stirred reactor with initial concentrations between zero and 16 g/L. Our data suggested that glutamate does not affect the yield of the toxin. However, it did increase biomass production and the rate of growth. Therefore, the fermentation span with the glutamate decreased in 41% compared with the fermentation without it. We used cultures with and without shaking to evaluate the superficial aeration. The production of the toxin increased 50% in aerated cultures without shaking while it was not affected in cultures with shaking.

  7. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University No.38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, (China)

    2006-07-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H{sub 2} concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH{sub 4} is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  8. A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittmann Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biohydrogen production (BHP can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale.

  9. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Éva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Background Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is s...

  10. Improvement of biohydrogen production using a reduced pressure fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisielewska, M; Dębowski, M; Zieliński, M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of reduced pressure on biohydrogen production in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor from whey permeate. The results showed that the reduced pressure fermentation was more effective in enhancing biohydrogen production than dark fermentative hydrogen production at atmospheric pressure. Mesophilic fermentative biohydrogen production was investigated at a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h and increasing organic loading rates (OLRs) of 20, 25, 30, 35 kg COD/m(3) day. The reduced pressure fermentation was successfully operated at all OLRs tested. The maximum proportion of hydrogen in biogas of 47.7 %, volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) of 7.10 L H2/day and hydrogen yield of 4.55 mol H2/kg COD removed occurred at the highest OLR. Increase in OLR affected the hydrogen production in UASB reactor exploited at atmospheric pressure. The reduced pressure process was able to remarkably improve the biohydrogen performance at high OLRs.

  11. Alcoholic fermentation: an option for renewable energy production from agricultural residues; Fermentacion alcoholica: una opcion para la produccion de energia renovable a partir de desechos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, H. J [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: hjv@correo.azc.uam.mx; Dacosta, O [Oficina de Consejo, Desarrollo y Transferencia Tecnologica, Dijon (Francia)]. E-mail: statfor@yahoo.com

    2007-10-15

    Biotechnology offers several options for generating renewable energy. One of these technologies consists on producing bioethanol by fermentation. Bioethanol is mainly used to prepare fuel for motor vehicles. This paper presents a proposal to produce such as fuels with a hundred liters experimental fermentation pilot unit. Results derived from essays are similar, in terms of yield and productivity, to those presented by other systems, if we take into account that our unit works under non sterile conditions, which represents significant energy savings. This technology does not require specialized knowledge for its construction and it would accessible to groups of Mexican farmers. [Spanish] La biotecnologia ofrece diversas opciones para la generacion de energias renovables. Una de ellas es la produccion de bioetanol, el cual se obtiene mediante fermentacion. El bioetanol se usa en la preparacion de carburantes para vehiculos automotores. En este articulo se presenta una propuesta para la obtencion de este combustible mediante una unidad de fermentacion piloto experimental de 100 litros. Los resultados de nuestros ensayos, en rendimiento y productividad, son similares a los de otros laboratorios si se considera que esta unidad piloto funciona en condiciones no esteriles, lo que representa como ventaja un ahorro de energia no despreciable. Ademas, la tecnologia no requiere conocimientos especializados para su realizacion y estaria al alcance de grupos campesinos mexicanos.

  12. [Production of tyramine in "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Akihiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Sadamasu, Yuki; Yasui, Akiko; Shimoi, Toshiko; Endoh, Miyoko; Saito, Kazuo

    2003-10-01

    The concentrations of 7 non-volatile amines, tyramine (Tym), histamine (Him), phenethylamine (Phm), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in the liquid part of "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation were studied. These amines, except for him and Cad, were detected during fermentation by the conventional production method in the laboratory. Put and Spd were detected at the beginning, and Tym, Phm and Spm appeared later; these 5 amines increased gradually during the fermentation. Put, Spd, Spm and Cad were present in the raw starting material for soy sauce; thus, Tym and Phm were produced by the fermentation. When "moromi" mash was added to liquid medium and cultivated, Tym was detected in some "moromi" mash and the other amines were not detected. Tym-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the liquid culture media of Tym-positive "moromi" mash. The Tym-producing strain was a gram-positive coccus. The conditions for production of amines by Tym-producing bacterial strains were examined. These strains grew and produced tyramine under various conditions, which may occur during soy sauce fermentation. Namely, Tym was produced at pH 5-10, at salt concentrations of less than 8%, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. During soy sauce fermentation, it is assumed that Tym would be produced by these strains during the early stages of soy sauce aging within a short period when the salt concentration and pH conditions are optimal for growth. Based on the bacteriological properties, the strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium. With the exception of Phm and Him, which did not exist in the starting raw material, non-volatile amines (including Put, Cad, Spd and Spm) were not produced and microorganisms producing them are not believed to be present during "moromi" fermentation.

  13. Biogenic amines in meat and fermented meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stadnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in food quality and safety promote an increasing search for trace compounds that can affect human health. Biogenic amines belong to this group of substances. They can cause distinctive pharmacological, physiological and toxic effects in organisms. Their amounts are usually increasing as a consequence of the use of poor quality raw materials, during controlled or spontaneous microbial fermentation or in the course of food spoilage. The origin of biogenic amines makes them suitable as chemical indicators of the hygienic quality and freshness of some foods being associated to the degree of food fermentation or degradation. The development of appropriate manufacturing technologies to obtain products free or nearly free from biogenic amines is a challenge for the meat industry. This review briefly summarises current knowledge on the biological implications of biogenic amines on human health and collects data on the factors affecting their formation in meat and fermented meat products.

  14. Monascus purpureus-fermented products and oral cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption have been reported as major factors for the development of oral cancer. Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicine in eastern Asia for several centuries. Monascus-fermented products have many functional secondary metabolites, including monacolin K, citrinin, ankaflavin, and monascin. In several recent studies performed in our laboratory, these secondary metabolites have shown anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor activities. Many published studies have shown the efficacy of Monascus-fermented products in the prevention of numerous types of cancer. The current article discusses and provides evidence to support that Monascus-fermented metabolites may be developed as painting drugs for the mouth to prevent or cure oral carcinogenesis. This is a novel therapeutic approach focusing on tumor growth attenuation to improve patient survival and quality of life.

  15. Challenges for biohydrogen production via direct lignocellulose fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, David B.; Carere, Carlo R.; Cicek, Nazim [Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, E2-376 EITC, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Sparling, Richard [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Direct cellulose fermentation by cellulolytic anaerobic bacteria offers potential to generate renewable hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from inexpensive ''waste'' cellulosic feedstocks. The rates and yields of H{sub 2} production via direct cellulose fermentation are low and must be increased significantly if this technology is to become a viable method for generating usable H{sub 2}. A much more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between gene and gene product expression, end-product synthesis patterns, and the factors that regulate carbon and electron balance, within the context of the bioreactor conditions must be achieved if we are to improve molar yields of H{sub 2} during cellulose fermentation. Strategies to increase yields of H{sub 2} production from cellulose include manipulation of carbon and electron flow via end-product inhibition (metabolic shift), metabolic engineering at the genetic level, synergistic co-cultures, and bioprocess engineering and bioreactor designs that maintain a neutral pH during fermentation and ensure rapid removal of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase. (author)

  16. Production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate by continuous fermentation in a membrane bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.

    1988-12-09

    A continuous bioreactor where cells were recycled using a cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) membrane plant was investigated for the production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. A tubular CFM membrane plant capable of being backflushed was used. The continuous fermentations were characterized by cyclic solventogenic and acidogenic behaviour, and ultimately degenerated to an acidogenic state. Steady-state solvent production was obtained for only short periods. This degeneration is attributed to the complex morphological behaviour of this strain of organism on this substrate. It is postulated that to achieve steady-state solvent production over extended periods of time, it is necessary to maintain a balance among the various morphological cell forms, i.e. acid-producing vegetative cells, solvent-producing clostridial cells, and inert forms, e.g. spores.

  17. Effects of end products on fermentation profiles in Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 for syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Taylor, Steven; Wang, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 is a strict anaerobic bacterium capable of converting syngas to biofuels. However, its fermentation profiles is poorly understood. Here, various end-products, including acetic acid, butyric acid, hexanoic acid, ethanol and butanol were supplemented to evaluate their effects on fermentation profiles in C. carboxidivorans at two temperatures. At 37°C, fatty acids addition likely led to more corresponding alcohols production. At 25°C, C2 and C4 fatty acids supplementation resulted in more corresponding higher fatty acids, while supplemented hexanoic acid increased yields of C2 and C4 fatty acids and hexanol. Supplementation of ethanol or butanol caused increased production of C2 and C4 acids at both temperatures; however, long-chain alcohols were still more likely produced at lower temperature. In conclusion, fermentation profiles of C. carboxidivorans can be changed in respond to pre-added end-products and carbon flow may be redirected to desired products by controlling culture conditions.

  18. Wax Ester Fermentation and Its Application for Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Tamoi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i.e. wax esters, have relatively high molecular weights, are insoluble in water, and accumulate in the cells, in contrast to the common fermentation end products such as lactic acid and ethanol.A unique metabolic pathway involved in the wax ester fermentation is the mitochondrial fatty acid synthetic system. In this system, fatty acid are synthesized by the reversal of β-oxidation with an exception that trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase functions instead of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Therefore, acetyl-CoA is directly used as a C2 donor in this fatty acid synthesis, and the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which requires ATP, is not necessary. Consequently, the mitochondrial fatty acid synthetic system makes possible the net gain of ATP through the synthesis of wax esters from paramylon. In addition, acetyl-CoA is provided in the anaerobic cells from pyruvate by the action of a unique enzyme, oxygen sensitive pyruvate:NADP(+) oxidoreductase, instead of the common pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.Wax esters produced by anaerobic Euglena are promising biofuels because myristic acid (C14:0) in contrast to other algal produced fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), has a low freezing point making it suitable as a drop-in jet fuel. To improve wax ester production, the molecular mechanisms by which wax ester fermentation is regulated in response to aerobic and anaerobic conditions have been gradually elucidated by identifying

  19. Efficient calcium lactate production by fermentation coupled with crystallization-based in situ product removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-07-01

    Lactic acid is a platform chemical with various industrial applications, and its derivative, calcium lactate, is an important food additive. Fermentation coupled with in situ product removal (ISPR) can provide more outputs with high productivity. The method used in this study was based on calcium lactate crystallization. Three cycles of crystallization were performed during the fermentation course using a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1. As compared to fed-batch fermentation, this method showed 1.7 times higher average productivity considering seed culture, with 74.4% more L-lactic acid produced in the fermentation with ISPR. Thus, fermentation coupled with crystallization-based ISPR may be a biotechnological alternative that provides an efficient system for production of calcium lactate or lactic acid.

  20. On-farm solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of whole crop forage rice in wrapped round bale for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Mitsuo; Kitamoto, Hiroko; Kawaide, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Shinozaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    successfully demonstrated an efficient on-site ethanol production system with non-sterilized whole rice crop round bale. However, issues concerning the establishment of the ethanol recovery procedure on-site and evaluation of the fermentation residue as cattle feed have to be addressed.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Budde, M.A.W.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet ex

  2. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethauer, Simone; Wyman, Charles E

    2010-07-01

    Ethanol made biologically from a variety of cellulosic biomass sources such as agricultural and forestry residues, grasses, and fast growing wood is widely recognized as a unique sustainable liquid transportation fuel with powerful economic, environmental, and strategic attributes, but production costs must be competitive for these benefits to be realized. Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation processes offer important potential advantages in reducing costs, but little has been done on continuous processing of cellulosic biomass to ethanol. As shown in this review, some continuous fermentations are now employed for commercial ethanol production from cane sugar and corn to take advantage of higher volumetric productivity, reduced labor costs, and reduced vessel down time for cleaning and filling. On the other hand, these systems are more susceptible to microbial contamination and require more sophisticated operations. Despite the latter challenges, continuous processes could be even more important to reducing the costs of overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the primary obstacle to low cost fuels, through improving the effectiveness of utilizing expensive enzymes. In addition, continuous processing could be very beneficial in adapting fermentative organisms to the wide range of inhibitors generated during biomass pretreatment or its acid catalyzed hydrolysis. If sugar generation rates can be increased, the high cell densities in a continuous system could enable higher productivities and yields than in batch fermentations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Whey-derived valuable products obtained by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Whey, the main by-product of the cheese industry, is considered as an important pollutant due to its high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Whey, often considered as waste, has high nutritional value and can be used to obtain value-added products, although some of them need expensive enzymatic synthesis. An economical alternative to transform whey into valuable products is through bacterial or yeast fermentations and by accumulation during algae growth. Fermentative processes can be applied either to produce individual compounds or to formulate new foods and beverages. In the first case, a considerable amount of research has been directed to obtain biofuels able to replace those derived from petrol. In addition, the possibility of replacing petrol-derived plastics by biodegradable polymers synthesized during bacterial fermentation of whey has been sought. Further, the ability of different organisms to produce metabolites commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (i.e., lactic acid, lactobionic acid, polysaccharides, etc.) using whey as growth substrate has been studied. On the other hand, new low-cost functional whey-based foods and beverages leveraging the high nutritional quality of whey have been formulated, highlighting the health-promoting effects of fermented whey-derived products. This review aims to gather the multiple uses of whey as sustainable raw material for the production of individual compounds, foods, and beverages by microbial fermentation. This is the first work to give an overview on the microbial transformation of whey as raw material into a large repertoire of industrially relevant foods and products.

  4. Improvement of productivity in acetic acid fermentation with Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.; Cheryan, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Production of acetic acid by a mutant strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum was compared in three types of membrane cell-recycle bioreactors. A modified fed-batch bioreactor (where the product is partially removed at the end of fermentation, but the cells are retained), and a two-stage CSTR (with product being removed continuously and the cells being recycled from the second to the first stage) resulted in better performance than a one-stage CSTR or batch fermenter. The difference in performance was greater at higher acetate concentration. With 45 g/L of glucose in the feed, productivity was 0.75-1.12 g/L-h and acetic acid concentrations were 34-38 g/L. This is more than double the batch system. The nutrient supply rate also appeared to have a strong influence on productivity of the microorganism.

  5. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives...... an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...

  6. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Arnoux, M.; Braun, Ph.; Galzy, P.; Guiraud, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  7. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, M.; Braunt, Ph.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (Refs. 13).

  8. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabbert, N.; Braun, P.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar Violet commun attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccaromyces cerevisiae. 5 figures, 1 table.

  9. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  10. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in animal...

  11. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  12. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  13. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Bosch, Guido; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Depauw, Sarah; Xu, Jia; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Hendriks, Wouter Hendrikus; Paul Jules Janssens, Geert; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.

  14. High-titer lactic acid production by Lactobacillus pentosus FL0421 from corn stover using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Lin, Yanxu; Zhang, Zhenting; Xiang, Ting; Mei, Yuxia; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Because the cost of refined sugar substrate and limit of worldwide food availability, lignocellulosic materials are attractive for use in lactic acid (LA) production. In this study, we found Lactobacillus pentosus strain FL0421 produced LA with high yields (0.52-0.82g/g stover) from five NaOH-pretreated and washed agro stovers through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). We developed a fed-batch SSF process at 37°C and pH 6.0 using the cellulase of 30FPU/g stover and 10g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor to produce LA from 14% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated and washed corn stover under non-sterile condition. The LA-titer, yield and productivity reached 92.30g/L, 0.66g/g stover and 1.92g/L/h, respectively; and acetic acid titer and yield reached 34.27g/L and 0.24g/g stover. This study presented a feasible process for LA production from agro stovers and provided a candidate strain for genetic engineering for high-titer and -yield lignocellulosic LA production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Calculation of methane production from enteric fermentation in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, M.C.J.; Hoek, MR; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    Doel van deze studie is om een inschatting te maken van de methaanproductie door melkkoeien vanaf 1990 tot nu. Tevens zijn de effecten van voer onderzochtThe aim of this study is to calculate methane production by dairy cows during the period 1990 till present. A dynamic mechanistic model of rumen fermentation and digestion will be used which represents the effect of detailed dietary characteristics on methane production

  16. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochus, K.; Bosch, G.; Vanhaecke, L.; Velde, van de H.; Depauw, S.; Xu, J.; Fievez, V.; Wiele, van der T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hesta, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. C

  17. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Yan, Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Boekhout, T.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal–pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  18. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  19. Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochus, K.; Bosch, G.; Vanhaecke, L.; Velde, van de H.; Depauw, S.; Xu, J.; Fievez, V.; Wiele, van der T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Hesta, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations.

  20. Production of fermented chestnut purees by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, G; Di Capua, M; Coppola, R; Aponte, M

    2012-09-03

    The objective of this study was to develop a new chestnut-based puree, in order to seasonally adjust the offer and use the surplus of undersized production, providing, at the same time, a response to the growing demand for healthy and environmentally friendly products. Broken dried chestnuts have been employed to prepare purees to be fermented with six different strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. The fermented purees were characterized by a technological and sensorial point of view, while the employed strains were tested for their probiotic potential. Conventional in vitro tests have indicated the six lactobacilli strains as promising probiotic candidates; moreover, being the strains able to grow and to survive in chestnut puree at a population level higher than 8 log₁₀ CFU/mL along 40 days of storage at 4 °C, the bases for the production of a new food, lactose-free and with reduced fat content, have been laid.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which hydrogen was produced from activated sludge. This diverse bacterial source has been compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Repeated batch experiments with activated sludge resulted in increased hydrogen production in consecutive batches. However, the formation of lactic acid and ethanol resulted in unstable hydrogen production in the repeated batches.

  2. Fermentative Hydrogen Production: Influence of Application of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria on Mass and Energy Balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foglia, D.; Wukovits, W.; Friedl, A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of biomass residues and second generation biomasses is a possible way to enable a sustainable production of hydrogen. The HYVOLUTION-project investigates the production of hydrogen by a 2-stage fermentation process of biomass. It consists of a dark fermentation step of sugars to produce

  3. Fermentative Hydrogen Production: Influence of Application of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Bacteria on Mass and Energy Balances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foglia, D.; Wukovits, W.; Friedl, A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation of biomass residues and second generation biomasses is a possible way to enable a sustainable production of hydrogen. The HYVOLUTION-project investigates the production of hydrogen by a 2-stage fermentation process of biomass. It consists of a dark fermentation step of sugars to produce

  4. Dark fermentation on biohydrogen production: Pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Show, Kuan-Yeow; Su, Ay

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of literature reports on the pure hydrogen-producers under anaerobic environment. Challenges and perspective of biohydrogen production with pure cultures are also outlined.

  5. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A. [Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': In this study of hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 {sup o}C) and thermophilic (55 {sup o}C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 {sup o}C and 55 {sup o}C were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The results of repeated batch experiments with activated sludge showed an increase in the hydrogen production during the consecutive batches. However, hydrogen production was not stable along the repeated batches. The observed instability was due to the formation of lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  6. Software sensor for primary metabolite production case of alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, G.; Dahhou, B.; Queinnec, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Goma, G. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    This paper investigate the application of an observer for state and parameter estimation to batch, continuous and fed batch fermentations for alcohol production taken as model for a primary metabolite production. This observer is provided to palliate the lack of suitable sensors for on-line biomass and ethanol concentrations measurements and to estimate the time varying specific growth rate. Estimates are obtained from an interlaced structure filter based on a `modified extended Kalman filter` by using on-line measurements of carbon dioxide outflow rate and substrate concentration. The filter algorithm was tested during batch, continuous and fed batch fermentation processes. The filter behaviour observed in the experiments gives good results with an agreement theory/practice. (authors) 18 refs.

  7. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  8. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  9. Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Alves, Madalena; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2016-03-01

    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T. versicolor pellets. On the other hand, the study of microbial communities by means of DGGE and phylogenetic analyses led us to identify some microbial interactions and helped us moving to a continuous process. PhAC removal efficiency achieved in the fungal treatment operated in non-sterile continuous mode was 44 % after adjusting the C/N ratio with respect to the previously calculated one for sterile treatments. Fungal and bacterial communities in the continuous bioreactors were monitored as well.

  10. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghchehsaraee, Bita; Nakhla, George; Karamanev, Dimitre; Margaritis, Argyrios [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 C) and thermophilic (55 C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 C and 55 C were 0.56 and 1.32 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose consumed, respectively. While with anaerobically digested sludge hydrogen yield was 2.18 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose consumed at 37 C and 1.25 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose consumed at 55 C. The results of repeated batch experiments for 615 h resulted in average yields of 1.21 {+-} 0.62 and 1.40 {+-} 0.16 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose consumed for activated sludge and anaerobic sludge, respectively. The hydrogen production with activated sludge was not stable during the repeated batches and the fluctuation in hydrogen production was attributed to formation of lactic acid as the predominant metabolite in some batches. The presence of lactic acid bacteria in microflora was confirmed by PCR-DGGE. (author)

  12. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  13. Prevalence of non-sterile injuries among modern medicine students of Assam

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjya, Chiranjeev; Srinivasan KANNAN

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To study the prevalence and associated factors of non-sterile occupational injuries among students of modern medicine in Assam. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered, pre-tested, structured questionnaire in English language adapted from the CDC workbook for designing, implementing and evaluating a sharps injury prevention program 2008. All the final year medical, dental and nursing students from the three medical colleges and one den...

  14. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  15. Open fermentative production of L-lactic acid using white rice bran by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Cai, Di; He, Meiling; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-01

    To reduce raw material cost for lactic acid production, white rice bran as an important byproduct in rice milling, was used in l-lactic acid production by open simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Although one thermotolerant strain was used at a temperature as high as 50°C, the open fermentation was still inefficient due to the indigenous thermophilic bacteria from corn steep liquor powder. A stepwise controlled pH was proposed in open SSF process, and no complicated pretreatment or sterilization was needed before fermentation. In batch fermentation, 117 gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained, and the productivity and yield reached 2.79 gL(-1) h(-1) and 98.75%, respectively. These results showed an efficient way to develop high value-added products from white rice bran. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Hydrogen production from water hyacinth through dark- and photo- fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This article discusses the method of producing hydrogen from water hyacinth. Water hyacinth was pretreated with microwave heating and alkali to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrogen production in a two-step process of dark- and photo- fermentation. Water hyacinth with various concentrations of 10-40 g/l was pretreated with four methods: (1) steam heating; (2) steam heating and microwave heating/alkali pretreatment; (3) steam heating and enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) steam heating, microwave heating/alkali pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Water hyacinth (20 g/l) pretreated with method 4 gave the maximum reducing sugar yield of 30.57 g/100 g TVS, which was 45.6% of the theoretical reducing sugar yield (67.0 g/100 g TVS). The pretreated water hyacinth was used to produce hydrogen by mixed H{sub 2}-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 76.7 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 20 g/l of water hyacinth. The residual solutions from dark fermentation (mainly acetate and butyrate) were used to further produce hydrogen by immobilized Rhodopseudomonas palustris in photo fermentation. The maximum hydrogen yield of 522.6 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS was obtained at 10 g/l of water hyacinth. Through a combined process of dark- and photo- fermentation, the maximum hydrogen yield from water hyacinth was dramatically enhanced from 76.7 to 596.1 ml H{sub 2}/g TVS, which was 59.6% of the theoretical hydrogen yield. (author)

  17. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  18. Enhancement of thermoalkaliphilic xylanase production by Pichia pastoris through novel fed-batch strategy in high cell-density fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shang, Tingting; Si, Dayong; Zhang, Dongyan; Liu, Xuhui; Zhao, Longmei; Hu, Cong; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Rijun

    2017-01-01

    .... This study aims to enhance thermoalkaliphilic xylanase production in Pichia pastoris through fermentation parameters optimization and novel efficient fed-batch strategy in high cell-density fermentation...

  19. Kinetic study of biological hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, R. [Annamalai Univ., Chidambaram (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Karunanithi, T. [Annamalai Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the kinetics of batch biohydrogen production from glucose. Clostridium pasteurianum was used to produce biohydrogen by dark anaerobic fermentation. The initial substrate concentration, initial pH and temperature were optimized for biohydrogen production. The maximum production of hydrogen under optimum conditions was found to be 5.376 l/l. The kinetic parameters were determined for the optimized medium and conditions in the batch reactor. The by product was expressed as total acidic equivalent. This presentation discussed the logistic equation that was used to model the growth of the organism and described how the kinetic parameters were calculated. The Leudeking piret kinetic model was used to express the hydrogen production and substrate use because it combines both growth associated and non associated contributions. It was concluded the production of biohydrogen can be predicted well using the logistic model for cell growth kinetics and the logistic incorporated Leudeking Piret model for product and substrate utilization kinetics.

  20. Microbiology and optimization of hydrogen fermentation and bioelectricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work investigated dark fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and bioelectricity production from carbohydrates. Meso- and thermophilic fermentative and mesophilic exoelectrogenic bacteria were enriched from different natural sources. The H{sub 2} production from different hexoses and pentoses, them main constituents of lignocellulose, was studied in batch assays. H{sub 2} production from xylose was examined in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Operational parameters for H{sub 2} production were optimized. Bioelectricity production was studied in microbial fuel cells and process parameters were optimized. Dynamics of microbial communities in H{sub 2} and bioelectricity production processes were determined. A novel thermophilic dark fermentative H{sub 2} producing bacterium, Thermovorax subterraneus, was enriched and isolated from geothermal underground mine. T. subterraneus had the optimum growth temperature of 72 deg C and the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.4 mol/mol glucose in batch assay. The main soluble fermentative end products of T. subterraneus were acetate and ethanol. Thermophilic dark fermentative mixed culture enriched from hot spring (Hisarlan, Turkey) had the maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.7 mol/mol glucose. The optimal environmental parameters to maximize H{sub 2} yield were temperature 52 deg C, initial pH 6.5, 40 mg/L Fe{sup 2+}, 4.5 g/L yeast extract and glucose concentration of 4 g/L. Increasing the glucose concentration to 18 g/L increased the maximum H{sub 2} production rate to 56.2 mmol H{sub 2}/h/L. Environmental parameters had a significant effect on metabolic pathways of fermentation. Another hot spring (Hisarkoy, Turkey) enrichment culture was able to ferment different sugars to H{sub 2} favoring pentoses over hexoses. The best H{sub 2} yields in batch assays were obtained from pentoses: xylose, arabinose and ribose yielded 21, 15 and 8 % of the theoretical yield, respectively; whilst on glucose the yield was only 2 % of the theoretical

  1. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production.

  2. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  3. Enhanced phenylpyruvic acid production with Proteus vulgaris in fed-batch and continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid is a deaminated form of phenylalanine and is used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performed at shake-flask scale with low production. In this study, phenylpyruvic acid production was evaluated in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation for the first time. As a result, maximum phenylpyruvic acid concentrations increased from 1350 mg/L (batch fermentation) to 2958 mg/L utilizing fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, phenylpyruvic acid productivity was increased from 48 mg/L/hr (batch fermentation) to 104 and 259 mg/L/hr by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated that fed-batch and continuous fermentation significantly improved phenylpyruvic acid production in bench-scale bioreactor production.

  4. Solid-State Fermentation vs Submerged Fermentation for the Production of l-Asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doriya, K; Jose, N; Gowda, M; Kumar, D S

    l-Asparaginase, an enzyme that catalyzes l-asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia, has relevant applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry. So, this enzyme is used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a malignant disorder in children. This enzyme is also able to reduce the amount of acrylamide found in carbohydrate-rich fried and baked foods which is carcinogenic to humans. The concentration of acrylamide in food can be reduced by deamination of asparagine using l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase is present in plants, animals, and microbes. Various microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, and fungi are generally used for the production of l-Asparaginase as it is difficult to obtain the same from plants and animals. l-Asparaginase from bacteria causes anaphylaxis and other abnormal sensitive reactions. To overcome this, eukaryotic organisms such as fungi can be used for the production of l-Asparaginase. l-Asparaginase can be produced either by solid-state fermentation (SSF) or by submerged fermentation (SmF). SSF is preferred over SmF as it is cost effective, eco-friendly and it delivers high yield of enzyme. SSF process utilizes agricultural and industrial wastes as solid substrate. The contamination level is substantially reduced in SSF through low moisture content. Current chapter will discuss in detail the chemistry and applications of l-Asparaginase enzyme and various methods available for the production of the enzyme, especially focusing on the advantages and limitations of SSF and SmF processes.

  5. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S(0) ) (known to result in increased H2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S(0) led to increased H2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L(-1) ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L(-1) ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L(-1) . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava waste for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pothiraj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of enzymatic and microbial saccharification of cassava waste for ethanol production was investigated and the effective parameters were optimized. The mixture of amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG resulted in a significantly higher rate of saccharification (79.6% than the amylase alone (68.7%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF yielded 6.2 g L-1 ethanol representing 64.5% of the theoretical yield. Saccharification and fermentation using pure and co-cultures of fungal isolates including Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus terreus, Saccharomyces diastaticus and Zymomonas mobilis revealed that the co-culture system involving S. diastaticus and Z. mobilis was highly suitable for the bio-conversion of cassava waste into ethanol, resulting in 20.4 g L-1 in 36 h (91.3% of the theoretical yield.

  7. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  8. Solvent desorption dynamic headspace sampling of fermented dairy product volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed based on solvent desorption dynamic headspace analysis for the identification and relative quantification of volatiles significant to the study of fermented dairy product aroma. Descriptions of applications of this method are presented including the measurement of diacetyl and acetoin in fermented milk, the evaluation of volatile-hydrocolloid interactions in dairy-based matrices, and the identification of volatiles in cheeses for canonical discriminative analysis. Advantages of this method include rapid analysis, minimal equipment investment, and the ability to analyze samples with traditional GC split/splitless inlet systems. Limitations of this method are that the sample must be in the liquid state and the inherent analytical limitation to those compounds that do not coelute with the solvent or solvent impurity peaks.

  9. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties.

  10. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  11. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid-state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in solid-state fermentation (SSF) was studied. Various substrates were used to evaluate the ability of A. terreus to produce lovastatin. The results showed that either rice or wheat bran was suitable substrate for lovastatin production in SSF. The maximum yield of lovastatin (2.9 mg/g dry substrate) using rice as substrate was achieved after incubating for 11 d at the following optimized process parameters: 50%~60% initial moisture content,pH 5.5, incubation temperature 28 ℃.

  12. Method for ph-controlled fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of biomass processing and bioenergy production and facilitates efficient biomass processing and an increased production of renewable energy from processing and anaerobic fermentation of a wide variety of organic materials. In order to control the pH value of ...... of the biomass during processing thereof, a CO 2 containing gas, such as e.g. biogas or flue gas, is added to the biomass present in the buffer tank and/or in the anaerobic digester operably linked to the buffer tank...

  13. The production of 'Kpaye'--a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr) Taub. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omafuvbe, B O; Abiose, S H; Adaraloye, O O

    1999-10-15

    'Kpaye', a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana seeds was produced using the traditional method. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus were consistently isolated in the fermentations lasting 120 h. 'Kpaye'production involved a rise in pH, moisture content and total free amino acids while titratable acidity and reducing sugar decreased gradually after 24 h and 72 h of fermentation respectively.

  14. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  15. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  16. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  17. Biohydrogen production from combined dark-photo fermentation under a high ammonia content in the dark fermentation effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; Lo, Yung-Chung; Yeh, Kuei-Ling [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chang, Jo-Shu [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Sustainable Environment Research Center; National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Microalgae Biotechnology and Bioengineering Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated dark and photo (two-stage) fermentation was employed to enhance the performance of H{sub 2} production. First, the continuous dark fermentation using indigenous Clostridium butyricum CGS5 was carried out at 12 h HRT and fed with sucrose at a concentration of 18750 mg/l. The overall H{sub 2} production rate and H{sub 2} yield were fairly stable with a mean value of 87.5 ml/l/h and 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively. In addition, a relatively high ammonia nitrogen content (574 mg/l) in the dark fermentation effluent was observed. The soluble metabolites from dark fermentation, consisting mainly of butyric, lactic and acetic acids, were directly used as the influent of continuous photo-H{sub 2} production process inoculated with Rhodopseudomonas palutris WP 3-5 under the condition of 35oC, 10000 lux irradiation, pH 7.0 and 48 h HRT. The maximum overall hydrogen production rate from photo fermentation was 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h, and the utilization of the soluble metabolites could reach 90%. The maximum H{sub 2} yield dramatically increased from 1.015 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (in dark fermentation only) to 6.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose in the combined dark and photo fermentation. Surprisingly, the operation strategy applied in this work was able to attain an average NH{sub 3}-N removal efficiency of 92%, implying that our photo-H{sub 2} production system has a higher NH{sub 3}-N tolerance, demonstrating its high applicability in an integrated dark-photo fermentation system. (orig.)

  18. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  19. Advances in fermentative biohydrogen production: the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Patrick C; Ghosh, Dipankar

    2009-05-01

    A significant effort is underway to develop biofuels as replacements for non-renewable fossil fuels. Among the various options, hydrogen is an attractive future energy carrier due to its potentially higher efficiency of conversion to usable power, low generation of pollutants and high energy density. There are a variety of technologies for biological hydrogen production; here, we concentrate on fermentative hydrogen production and highlight some recently applied approaches, such as response surface methodology, different reactor configurations and organisms that have been used to maximize hydrogen production rates and yields. However, there are significant remaining barriers to practical application, such as low yields and production rates, and we discuss several methods, including two stage processes and metabolic engineering, that are aimed at overcoming these barriers.

  20. Hydrogen production by Clostridium thermolacticum during continuous fermentation of lactose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, C.; Adler, N.; Schwitzguebel, J.P.; Peringer, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Lab. for Environmental Biotechnology

    2004-11-01

    In the production of acetate by Clostridium thermolacticum growing on lactose, considerable amounts of hydrogen were generated. Lactose available in large amounts from milk permeate, a waste stream of the dairy industry, appears to be a valuable substrate for cheap production of biohydrogen. In this study, continuous cultivation of C. thermolacticum was carried out in a bioreactor, under anaerobic thermophilic conditions, on minimal medium containing 10 g l{sup -1} lactose. Different dilution rates and pH were tested. C. thermolacticum growing on lactose produced acetate, ethanol and lactate in the liquid phase. For all conditions tested, hydrogen was the main product in the gas phase. Hydrogen specific production higher than 5 mmol H{sub 2} (g cell){sup -1} h{sup -1} was obtained. By operating this fermentation at high-dilution rate and alkaline pH, the hydrogen content in the gas phase was maximized. (author)

  1. Behavior of Fermentable Sugars in the Traditional Production Process of Cassava Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to evaluate the ferment ability of cassava must in the ethanol production process from cassava in Congo. Three traditional methods of ethyl fermentation were tested: spontaneous fermentation, fermentation with yeast inoculation and fermentation led with yeasting and sugaring. Consumption of fermentable sugars was further in the case of directed fermentation with yeast inoculation (3° Brix residual extract from 48 h compared to spontaneous fermentation without yeast inoculation (3.8° Brixresidual extract from 120 heures. Total sugars have been consumed only partially (66.7% of limit attenuation, while reducing sugars have been almost completely (about 91%. The addition of yeast in the cassava wort have led to a lower assessment of dextrins (2.7% glucose equivalent compared to spontaneous fermentation (3.6%. It have also assured a better overall ethanol productivity PTE= 0.83 g ethanol/L.h than sugaring proceeding (PTE = 0.61 g/L.h and without yeast additional (PTE = 0.32 g/L.h. Among the fermentable sugars developed in the cassava mash there are reducing sugars, such as glucose and maltose. Non-fermentable sugars represent a significant slice of stock of soluble carbohydrate (on average 3.24% dextrose equivalent of the must in the three cases of fermentation tested.

  2. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production of a fermented beverage designated as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor...,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor.” (2) You may request a determination from TTB on whether or... as “beer,” “ale,” “porter,” “stout,” “lager,” or “malt liquor”; and (C) An explanation of the effect...

  3. Production of verruculogen by Penicillium estinogenum in stirred fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J B; Mantle, P G; Shaw, B I

    1980-04-01

    A spectrofluorometric assay for the estimation of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen in crude mycelial extract has been devised and used to determine concentrations as low as 0.2 microgram ml-1. Verruculogen production by Penicillium estinogenum has been extended from surface culture to submerged culture in 60 1 stirred fermenters, in which the maximum cell-associated mycotoxin yield [5 mg (100 ml culture)-1] was obtained within 7 d. It was found necessary to supplement the medium (Czapek Dox broth plus 0.5% yeast extract) with calcium chloride (2%) to induce profuse sporulation (2 X 10(7) conidia ml-1).

  4. Les produits de fermentation et leurs usages industriels Fermentation Products and Their Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Quelques intermédiaires chimiques peuvent être obtenus soit par culture anaérobie, soit par voie pétrochimique. En se limitant à l'acide lactique, l'acétone-butanol et l'acide acétique, on indique pour chacun d'eux les tonnages actuels. En comparant sur les plans technique et économique, fermentation et synthèse pétrochimique, on situe ces deux modes de production d'un même produit en fonction soit du prix du brut, soit du prix de la biomasse. On montre ainsi que l'acide lactique atteint déjà la compétitivité économique. Pour l'acétone-butanol, dans l'état actuel de la technique, il faut que le brut atteigne 45 $/b pour que la voie biomasse l'emporte sur la voie pétrochimique dans le cas du n-butanol ; dans le cas de l'acétone, la voie biomasse est déjà compétitive. Varions building-block chemicals from industrial synthesis can be obtained either by anaerobic culture or by petrochemical methods. By limiting ourselves to the leading compounds considered in this symposium, we will give for each of them the tonnages now produced and the synthesis method(s used. Fermentation and petrochemical synthesis will be compared from the technical and economic point of view. Whenever economic data so allow, we will attempt to situate these two production methods for the same product as a function of the possible evolution of crude-oil prices as well as that of the initial vegetal matter which price also depends on crude-oil price. For biosyntheses which have not yet reached their level of competitivity, the aim consists in forecasting the possibility of reaching it in the future.

  5. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adimpong, David B; Nielsen, Dennis S; Sørensen, Kim I; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    .... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries...

  6. Beneficial effects of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yeu-Ching; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-05-01

    Monascus-fermented products have been used in food, medicine, and industry dating back over a thousand years in Asian countries. Monascus-fermented products contained several bioactive metabolites such as pigments, polyketide monacolins, dimerumic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid. Scientific reports showed that Monascus-fermented products proved to be effective for the management of blood cholesterol, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and prevention of cancer development. This review article describes the beneficial effects about using Monascus-fermented products in human beings and animals.

  7. Optimization of asparaginase production from Zymomonas mobilis by continuous fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Bortoluzzi Menegat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in clinical treatments as a chemotherapeutic agent and in food technology to prevent acrylamide formation in fried and baked foods. Asparaginase is industrially produced by microorganisms, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon source and has been known for its efficiency in producing ethanol, sorbitol, levan, gluconic acid and has recently aroused interest for asparaginase production. Current assay optimizes the production of Z. mobilis asparaginase by continuous fermentation using response surface experimental design and methodology. The studied variables comprised sucrose, yeast extract and asparagine. Optimized condition obtained 117.45 IU L-1 with dilution rate 0.20 h-1, yeast extract 0.5 g L-1, sucrose 20 g L-1 and asparagine 1.3 g L-1. Moreover, carbon:nitrogen ratio (1:0.025 strongly affected the response of asparaginase activity. The use of Z. mobilis by continuous fermentation has proved to be a promising alternative for the biotechnological production of asparaginase.

  8. Fermented dairy products modulate Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Chervaux, Christian; Raymond, Benoit; Derrien, Muriel; Brazeilles, Rémi; Kosta, Artemis; Chambaud, Isabelle; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of fermented dairy products (FDPs) in an infection model, using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR). Treatment of mice with FDP formulas A, B, and C or a control product did not affect CR colonization, organ specificity, or attaching and effacing lesion formation. Fermented dairy product A (FDP-A), but neither the supernatant from FDP-A nor β-irradiated (IR) FDP-A, caused a significant reduction in colonic crypt hyperplasia and CR-associated pathology. Profiling the gut microbiota revealed that IR-FDP-A promoted higher levels of phylotypes belonging to Alcaligenaceae and a decrease in Lachnospiraceae (Ruminococcus) during CR infection. Conversely, FDP-A prevented a decrease in Ruminococcus and increased Turicibacteraceae (Turicibacter). Importantly, loss of Ruminococcus and Turicibacter has been associated with susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Our results demonstrate that viable bacteria in FDP-A reduced CR-induced colonic crypt hyperplasia and prevented the loss of key bacterial genera that may contribute to disease pathology.

  9. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  10. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel; as both substrates are widely available and do not require agricultural areas. Water hyacinth for instance can be cultivated in fresh, brackish or wastewater and owing to its rapid growth and availability. Since owing to its natural abundance it is considered to be an invasive plant in most continents, its utilization and use as a renewable energy source may also contribute for its dilution and control. Agricultural lignocellulosic surplus by-products are also a promising fermentable substrate for bioethanol production, as it decreases both disposal expenses and greenhouse gases emissions. This paper describes a scheme and methodology for transformation of any lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel by simple cost effective operation scheme, integrating an innovative process of mechanochemical activation pre-treatment followed by fermentation of the herbal digest and ethanol production through differential distillation. Under this approach several complex and costly staged of conventional ethanol production scheme may be replaced and by genetic engineering of custom fermenting microorganisms the fermentation process becomes a fully continuous industrial process.

  11. SOLID-STATE FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Aigbodion Omogbai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan production was investigated using a laboratory-scale solid substrate fermentation (SSF technique with four species of fungi: Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme.The peak growth for the organisms was after 16 days. Aspergillus niger had the highest growth with a maximal dry cell biomass of 15.8g/kg after 16 days cultivation on corn straw under solid substrate fermentation. This was closely followed by Rhizopus oryzae (14.6g/kg, Penicillium expansum (13.8g/kg and Fusarium moniliforme (10.6g/kg respectively. The fungus Rhizopus oryzae had the highest chitosan production with a maximum of 8.57g/kg in 16 days under solid substrate fermentation (SSF with a medium containing corn straw. Aspergillus niger showed a modest chitosan yield of 6.8g/kg. Penicillium expansum and Fusarium moniliforme had low chitosan yields of 4.31g/kg and 3.1g/kg respectively. The degree of deacetylation of fungal chitosans ranged between 75.3-91.5% with a viscosity of 3.6-7.2 centipoises (Cp.Chitosan extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was found to have antibacterial activity on some bacterial isolates. At a concentration of 50mg/L, Rhizopus oryzae chitosan paralleled crab chitosan in susceptibility testing against some food-borne bacterial pathogens. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis showed inhibition rates of 83.2%, 67.9%, 63.8% and 62.4% respectively in response to 50mg/l Rhizopus oryzae chitosan in 24 h. The rate of inhibition (% increased with increase in chitosan concentration.

  12. Novel fermentation media for production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Kumar, K Anup

    2003-08-01

    The production of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (deBarjac) (Bti) as a biopesticide is not cost-effective using existing fermentation technology. In this study, we explored the use of several less expensive alternative culture media (potato, common sugar, and Bengal gram) for the growth and production of Bti. Growth was obtained in all tested media and was comparable to that obtained in conventional medium (Luria-Bertani). Toxicity assays showed that the toxin produced from the novel growth media were effective in killing larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti and toxicity was comparable to that produced from Luria-Bertani medium. These observations suggest that potato can be used as a cheap source of culture medium for the production of Bti toxin in mosquito control programs.

  13. Bioreactor design for continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2011-09-01

    Dark fermentative H2 production (DFHP) has received increasing attention in recent years due to its high H2 production rate (HPR) as well as the versatility of the substrates used in the process. For most studies in this field, batch reactors have been applied due to their simple operation and efficient control; however, continuous DFHP operation is necessary from economical and practical points of view. Continuous systems can be classified into two categories, suspended and immobilized bioreactors, according to the life forms of H2 producing bacteria (HPB) used in the reactor. This paper reviews operational parameters for bioreactor design including pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and H2 partial pressure. Also, in this review, various bioreactor configurations and performance parameters including H2 yield (HY), HPR, and specific H2 production rate (SHPR) are evaluated and presented.

  14. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  15. beta-Cyclodextrin production by simultaneous fermentation and cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, H O; De Moraes, F F; Zanin, G M

    1998-01-01

    Production of beta-cyclodextrin (CD) with high-dextrose equivalent (DE) starch hydrolysates by simultaneous fermentation and cyclization (SFC) gives higher yields than using only the enzyme CGTase, because fermentation eliminates glucose and maltose that inhibit CD production, while at the same time, produces ethanol that increases yield. A 10% (w/v) solution of cassava starch, liquefied with alpha-amylase, was incubated with CGTase using: only the enzyme, added ethanol (from 1 to 5%), and added yeast S. cerevisiae (12% w/v), plus nutrients, the latter being the SFC process. Reaction conditions were: 38 degrees C, pH 6.0, DE from 2 to 25, and 3.3 mL of CGTase/L. The yield of beta-CD has decreased with an increase in DE, and maximum reaction yields were found for DE equal to 3.54, reaching 5.6, 14.7, and 11.5 mM beta-CD, respectively. For an increase of DE, of approx 6 times (from 3.54 to 23.79), beta-CD yield decreased 6 times for the first, and second reaction media with 3% (v/v) ethanol, and only approx 3 times for SFC (from 11.5 to 3.73 mM), showing that this process is less sensitive to variations in the DE.

  16. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...

  18. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth and higher productivity over an extended period; the productivity exceeded that from non-pH-controlled fermentation. During electrodialysis fermentation in our system, 97.6 g of acetic acid was produced from 86.0 g of ethanol; the amount of acetic acid was about 2.4 times greater than that produced by non-pH-controlled fermentation (40.1 g of acetic acid produced from 33.8 g of ethanol). Maximum productivity of electrodialysis fermentation in our system was 2.13 g/h, a rate which was 1.35 times higher than that of non-pH-controlled fermentation (1.58 g/h).

  19. Secondary Metabolites Production by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios-González, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial secondary metabolites are useful high value products with an enormous range of biological activities. Moreover, the past two decades have been a phase of rapid discovery of new activities and development of major compounds for use in different industrial fields, mainly pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, agriculture and farming. Many of these metabolites could be produced advantageously in industry by solid–state fermentation (SSF. Two types of SSF can be distinguished, depending on the nature of the solid phase used: 1 Solid cultures of one support-substrate phase in which solid phase is constituted by a material that assumes, simultaneously, the functions of support and of nutrients source; and 2 Solid cultures of two substrate-support phases: solid phase is constituted by an inert support impregnated with a liquid medium. Besides good production performance, two phases systems have provided a convenient model for basic studies. Studies in our laboratory, as well as in others, have shown that physiology of idiophase (production phase in SSF share several similarities with the physiology in liquid medium, so similar strategies must be adapted for efficient production processes. However, our studies indicate the need to develop special strains for SSF since overproducing strains, generated for liquid fermentation, cannot be relied upon to perform well in SSF. On the other hand, there are important parameters, specific for SSF, that have to be optimized (pretreatment, initial moisture content, medium concentration and aeration. Respiration studies of secondary metabolites SSF, performed in our laboratory, have shown more subtle aspects of efficient production in SSF. This indicates that there are certain particularities of physiology in SSF that represent the point that needs a better understanding, and that promise to generate knowledge that will be the basis for efficient processes development and control strategies, as well as for

  20. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  1. Using wastewater after lipid fermentation as substrate for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Shi, Si-Lan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Luo, Jun; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-01-20

    In this study, lipid fermentation wastewater (fermentation broth after separation with yeast biomass) with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) value of 25,591 mg/L was used as substrate for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus for the first time. After 5 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (0.659 g/L) was obtained. Both monosaccharide and polysaccharides present in lipid fermentation wastewater could be utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. By this bioconversion, 30.0% of COD could be removed after 10 days of fermentation and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. The crystallinity of BC samples in lipid fermentation wastewater increased gradually during fermentation but overall the environment of lipid fermentation wastewater showed small influence on BC structure by comparison with that in traditional HS medium by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD. By this work, the possibility of using lipid fermentation wastewater containing low value carbohydrate polymer (extracellular polysaccharides) for high value carbohydrate polymer (BC) production was proven.

  2. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  3. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2016-11-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  4. Techno-economics of carbon preserving butanol production using a combined fermentative and catalytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Robert; Bauer, Fredric; Mesfun, Sennai; Hulteberg, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Wännström, Sune; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris Arvid

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a novel process for n-butanol production which combines a fermentation consuming carbon dioxide (succinic acid fermentation) with subsequent catalytic reduction steps to add hydrogen to form butanol. Process simulations in Aspen Plus have been the basis for the techno-economic analyses performed. The overall economy for the novel process cannot be justified, as production of succinic acid by fermentation is too costly. Though, succinic acid price is expected to drop drastically in a near future. By fully integrating the succinic acid fermentation with the catalytic conversion the need for costly recovery operations could be reduced. The hybrid process would need 22% less raw material than the butanol fermentation at a succinic acid fermentation yield of 0.7g/g substrate. Additionally, a carbon dioxide fixation of up to 13ktonnes could be achieved at a plant with an annual butanol production of 10ktonnes.

  5. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  6. Effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen production and fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-01-01

    Organic waste from municipalities, food waste and agro-industrial residues are ideal feedstocks for use in biological conversion processes in biorefinery chains, representing biodegradable materials containing a series of substances belonging to the three main groups of the organic matter: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation may assume a central role in the biorefinery concept, representing an up-front treatment for organic waste capable of hydrolysing complex organics and producing biohydrogen. This research study was aimed at evaluating the effects of carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of organic waste on hydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and carbon-fate. Biogas and hydrogen productions were linearly correlated to carbohydrate content of substrates while proteins and lipids failed to produce significant contributions. Chemical composition also produced effects on the final products of dark fermentation. Acetic and butyric acids were the main fermentation products, with their ratio proving to correlate with carbohydrate and protein content. The results obtained in this research study enhance the understanding of data variability on hydrogen yields from organic waste. Detailed information on waste composition and chemical characterisation are essential to clearly identify the potential performances of the dark fermentation process.

  7. Short-cut calculations for integrated product recovery options in fermentative production of bio-bulk chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, A.; Berg, C. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are generally sensitive to high concentrations of products that they excrete. Such product inhibition and toxicity effects can significantly be reduced by the integration of fermentations with separation technologies to remove the products continuously. Cost-calculations are required

  8. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, S; Malik, K A; Ah Kang, S; Kim, H-Y

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.

  9. Fermentative production of butanol: Perspectives on synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sonil; Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila; McDermott, John C; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2017-07-25

    Apprehensions relating to global warming, climate change, pollution, rising energy demands as well as fluctuating crude oil prices and supply are leading to a shift in global interest to find suitable alternatives to fossil fuels. This review aims to highlight the many different facets of butanol as an advanced next-generation transportation biofuel. Butanol has fuel properties almost on a par with gasoline, such as high energy content, low vapor pressure, non-hygroscopic nature, less volatility, flexible fuel blends and high octane number. The paper reviews some recent advances in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with special emphasis on the primary challenges encountered in butanol fermentation, including butanol toxicity, solvent intolerance and bacteriophage contamination. The mechanisms for butanol recovery techniques have been covered along with their benefits and limitations. A comprehensive discussion of genetic and metabolic engineering of butanol-producing microorganisms is made for the prospective development of industrially-relevant strains that can overcome the technical challenges involved in efficient butanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Ammonium Lactate by Fed-batch Fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae from Corncob Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Dong-mei; LI Shi-zhong; LIN Fang-qian

    2004-01-01

    L- (+)-Lactic acid production from corncob hydrolysate as a cheap carbohydrate source by fed-batch fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae HZS6 was studied. After 96 h of fermentation in a 5 L fermentor, the final concentration of ammonium L-(+)-lactate, average productivity(based on initial xylose concentration) and max(+)-lactate was 98.8%.

  11. Effect of gas sparging on continuous fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Shin, Hang-Sik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sun-Kee [Department of Environmental Health, Korea National Open University, 169 Dongsung-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of gas sparging on continuous fermentative H{sub 2} production was investigated in completely stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) using internal biogas, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with various flow rates (100, 200, 300 and 400ml/min). The sparging with external gases of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} showed higher H{sub 2} yield than the control of no sparging and internal biogas sparging. It indicated that the decrease of H{sub 2} partial pressure by external gas sparging had a beneficial effect on H{sub 2} fermentation. Especially, CO{sub 2} sparging was more effective in the reactor performance than N{sub 2} sparging, accompanied by higher production of H{sub 2} and butyrate. The best performance was obtained by CO{sub 2} sparging at 300ml/min, resulting in the highest H{sub 2} yield of 1.68molH{sub 2}/molhexose{sub consumed} and the maximum specific H{sub 2} production rate of 6.89L H{sub 2}/g VSS/day. Compared to N{sub 2} sparging, there might be another positive effect in CO{sub 2} sparging apart from lowering H{sub 2} partial pressure. High CO{sub 2} partial pressure had little effect on H{sub 2}-producing bacteria but inhibitory effect on other microorganisms such as acetogens and lactic acid bacteria which were competitive with H{sub 2}-producing bacteria. Only H{sub 2}-producing bacteria, such as Clostridium tyrobutyricum, C. proteolyticum and C. acidisoli were isolated under CO{sub 2} sparging conditions based on 16S rDNA analysis by PCR-DGGE. (author)

  12. Xylanase production by Trichoderma strains in solid substrate fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krisztina Kovacs; George Szakacs; Lew Christopher

    2004-01-01

    @@ The importance of microbial enzymes in pulp and paper manufacturing has grown significantly in the last two decades. Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) holds tremendous potential for the production of microbial enzymes of commercial interest. SSF can be of special interest in those processes where the crude fermented product (whole SSF culture, in situ enzyme) may be used directly as the enzyme source. Xylanase preparations practically free of cellulase activity are especially useful for biobleaching of crude cellulose pulps. Thirty-nine Trichoderma isolates have been screened in SSF for xylanase production on hardwood oxygen-delignified soda-aq pulp as carbon source and enzyme inducer.Xylanase activities varied between 0 and 2200 IU/g dry matter (DM) of initial substrate. In most instances, the simultaneously produced cellulase levels were below 1.0 Filter Paper Unit (FPU) /g DM. The xylanase to cellulase activity ratio varied in the range of 5 to 3500. The three most promising isolates (TUB F-1647, TUB F-1658 and TUB F-1684) yielded xylanase activity of 2040,1300 and 1500 IU/g DM xylanase, respectively, and 0.64, 0.43 and 0.43 FPU/g DM cellulase with a xylanase to cellulase activity ratio of 3200, 3000 and 3500, respectively. Wild strains F-1647, F-1658 and F-1684 were isolated from tree bark of Maldives, soils of Peru (last two), respectively.Medium optimization experiments to enhance the xylanase yield and to increase the xylanase to cellulase ratio have also been performed.

  13. Butanol production in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with in situ product recovery by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Zhao, Jingbo; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8, zeolite CBV901, and polymeric resins Dowex Optipore L-493 and SD-2 with high specific loadings and partition coefficients were studied for n-butanol adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow Langmuir model, which can be used to estimate the amount of butanol adsorbed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In serum-bottle fermentation with in situ adsorption, activated carbon showed the best performance with 21.9g/L of butanol production. When operated in a fermentor, free- and immobilized-cell fermentations with adsorption produced 31.6g/L and 54.6g/L butanol with productivities of 0.30g/L·h and 0.45g/L·h, respectively. Thermal desorption produced a condensate containing ∼167g/L butanol, which resulted in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ∼640g/L after spontaneous phase separation. This in situ product recovery process with activated carbon is energy efficient and can be easily integrated with ABE fermentation for n-butanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  15. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Hsin; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-07-01

    In this study, sufu, a Chinese traditional fermented product of soybean, was prepared by ripening salted tofu cubes in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae-fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes at 25°C, 37°C and 45°C. Antioxidant activity including 2,2-diphenyl-2-picylhydoxyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating ability and reducing power exerted by the methanol extract of sufu was determined and compared with that of the non-fermented tofu extract. It was found that antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts was, generally, higher than the non-fermented tofu extract. Ripening temperature and the duration of ripening period affected the antioxidant activity of the sufu extracts. Taking into account of extraction yields, the sufu product ripened at 45°C for 16 days showed the most profound enhancement in the DPPH radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-iron-chelating ability, which is 3.4 and 11.5 folds, respectively, that noted with the non-fermented tofu.

  16. A Mathematical model for ethanol production by extractive fermentation in a continuous stirred tank fermentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollerup, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-09-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase that removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique together with other key parameters such as extraction efficiency and residual glucose concentration. The model accommodates variable liquid flowrates entering and leaving the system, since it was found that the aqueous outlet flowrate could be up to 35% lower than the inlet flowrate during extractive fermentation of concentrated glucose feeds due to the continuous removal of ethanol from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The model predicts a total ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a solvent dilution rate of 5.0 h(-1). This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. The model has furthermore illustrated the possible trade-offs that exist between obtaining a high extraction efficiency and a low residual glucose concentration.

  17. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  18. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects.

  19. Fermentative production of butanol--the academic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürre, Peter

    2011-06-01

    As mobility is a major pillar of World's economic system and burning fuels from fossil resources leads to a dramatic increase in greenhouse gas emissions, the production and use of appropriate biofuels offer at least a partial solution to this problem. Butanol represents a biofuel extender or replacement with properties clearly superior to ethanol (higher mileage, not hygroscopic, usable without engine modifications, not corrosive). In addition, it is a valuable feedstock for the chemical industry. Scientific challenges for an economically competitive fermentation process include employment of cheap carbon sources, not competing with nutrition, a detailed understanding of the metabolic reactions of the biological process, development of appropriately engineered construction strains, and adaption of process technology to modern standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fermentative hydrogen production in anaerobic membrane bioreactors: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, P; Nemestóthy, N; Simon, V; Bélafi-Bakó, K

    2014-03-01

    Reactor design considerations are crucial aspects of dark fermentative hydrogen production. During the last decades, many types of reactors have been developed and used in order to drive biohydrogen technology towards practicality and economical-feasibility. In general, the ultimate aim is to improve the key features of the process, namely the H2 yields and generation rates. Among the various configurations, the traditional, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) are still the most routinely employed ones. However, due to their limitations, there is a progress to develop more reliable alternatives. One of the research directions points to systems combining membranes, which are called as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). The aim of this paper is to summarize and highlight the recent biohydrogen related work done on AnMBRs and moreover to evaluate their performances and potentials in comparison with their conventional CSTR counterparts.

  1. An overview of some ethnic fermented fish products of the Eastern Himalayan region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Ranendra K.; Roy, Deepayan; Bejjanki, Sandeep; Bhaskar, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Like southeast Asian countries fermented fish is a well known strategy of food preservation in the northeast region of India. The northeastern region of India is known for its vast natural resources and a cauldron of different people and cultures, lie deep in the lap of easternmost Himalayan hills in northeastern part of India. Here the fermentation technology evolved by compulsion of people. Popular fermented fish products of this region of India include Shidal and lonailish. Fer...

  2. Large-scale production of magnetic nanoparticles using bacterial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Rondinone, Adam J; Love, Lonnie J; Roh, Yul; Everett, S Michelle; Lauf, Robert J; Phelps, Tommy J

    2010-10-01

    Production of both nano-sized particles of crystalline pure phase magnetite and magnetite substituted with Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn or the rare earths for some of the Fe has been demonstrated using microbial processes. This microbial production of magnetic nanoparticles can be achieved in large quantities and at low cost. In these experiments, over 1 kg (wet weight) of Zn-substituted magnetite (nominal composition of Zn(0.6)Fe(2.4)O4) was recovered from 30 l fermentations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to confirm that the extracellular magnetites exhibited good mono-dispersity. TEM results also showed a highly reproducible particle size and corroborated average crystallite size (ACS) of 13.1 ± 0.8 nm determined through X-ray diffraction (N = 7) at a 99% confidence level. Based on scale-up experiments performed using a 35-l reactor, the increase in ACS reproducibility may be attributed to a combination of factors including an increase of electron donor input, availability of divalent substitution metal ions and fewer ferrous ions in the case of substituted magnetite, and increased reactor volume overcoming differences in each batch. Commercial nanometer sized magnetite (25-50 nm) may cost $500/kg. However, microbial processes are potentially capable of producing 5-90 nm pure or substituted magnetites at a fraction of the cost of traditional chemical synthesis. While there are numerous approaches for the synthesis of nanoparticles, bacterial fermentation of magnetite or metal-substituted magnetite may represent an advantageous manufacturing technology with respect to yield, reproducibility and scalable synthesis with low costs at low energy input.

  3. Hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Shimazaki, T. [Yokohama National Univ., Shigeharu TANISHO and Tsuruyo SHIMAZAKI, Yokohama (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Hydrogen production by fermentation was examined by using palm oil mill effluent. Clostridium butyricum produced more than 2.2 NL of hydrogen from 1 L of raw POME at pH 5.0, and Enterobacter aerogenes produced ca. 1.9 NL at pH 6.0. While from the culture liquid added 1% of peptone on the raw POME, C. butyricum produced more than 3.3 NL and also E. aerogenes 3.4 NL at pH 6.0 and 5.0, respectively. In this manner, the addition of nitrogen source to the POME liquid exerted an influence on the volume of hydrogen production. Since Aspergillus niger has ability to produce cellulase, co-cultivation of C.butyricum with A. niger was tried to utilize celluloses in the POME. Against our expectations, however, the results were lower productivities than pure cultivation's. We analyzed the components of POME by liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis before and after cultivation. The main substrate for hydrogen production was found to be glycerol. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  5. Continuous treatment of non-sterile hospital wastewater by Trametes versicolor: How to increase fungal viability by means of operational strategies and pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Sarrà, M; Caminal, G

    2016-11-15

    Hospital wastewaters have a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs). Fungal treatments could be appropriate for source treatment of such effluents but the transition to non-sterile conditions proved to be difficult due to competition with indigenous microorganisms, resulting in very short-duration operations. In this article, coagulation-flocculation and UV-radiation processes were studied as pretreatments to a fungal reactor treating non-sterile hospital wastewater in sequential batch operation and continuous operation modes. The influent was spiked with ibuprofen and ketoprofen, and both compounds were successfully degraded by over 80%. UV pretreatment did not extent the fungal activity after coagulation-flocculation measured as laccase production and pellet integrity. Sequential batch operation did not reduce bacteria competition during fungal treatment. The best strategy was the addition of a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment to a continuous reactor, which led to an operation of 28days without biomass renovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed...

  7. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7......% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation...

  8. Integrating syngas fermentation with the carboxylate platform and yeast fermentation to reduce medium cost and improve biofuel productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-01-01

    To ensure economic implementation of syngas fermentation as a fuel-producing platform, engineers and scientists must both lower operating costs and increase product value. A considerable part of the operating costs is spent to procure chemicals for fermentation medium that can sustain sufficient growth of carboxydotrophic bacteria to convert synthesis gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide) into products such as ethanol. Recently, we have observed that wildtype carboxydotrophic bacteria (including Clostridium ljungdahlii) can produce alcohols with a longer carbon chain than ethanol via syngas fermentation when supplied with the corresponding carboxylic acid precursors, resulting in possibilities of increasing product value. Here, we evaluated a proof-of-concept system to couple syngas fermentation with the carboxylate platform to both lower medium costs and increase product value. Our carboxylate platform concept consists of an open culture, anaerobic fermentor that is fed with corn beer from conventional yeast fermentation in the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry. The mixed-culture anaerobic fermentor produces a mixture ofcarboxylic acids at dilute concentrations within the carboxylate platform effluent (CPE). Besides providing carboxylic acid precursors, this effluent may represent an inexpensive growth medium. An elemental analysis demonstrated that the CPE lacked certain essential trace metals, but contained ammonium, phosphate, sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate at required concentrations. CPE medium with the addition of a trace metal solution supported growth and alcohol production of C. ljungdahlii at similar or better levels compared with an optimized synthetic medium (modified ATCC 1754 medium). Other expensive supplements, such as yeast extract or macro minerals (ammonium, phosphate), were not required. Finally, n-butyric acid and n-caproic acid within the CPE were converted into their corresponding medium

  9. Scale-up of dextransucrase production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in fed batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelena Georgina L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fed batch fermentation was carried out for the dextransucrase enzyme production from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and the production was scale-up using oxygen transfer criteriuom. It was found that in 5 L vessel fermentation capacity, the best agitation speed was 225 min-1 and aeration rate was 0.15 vvm, obtaining dextransucrase activity of 127 DSU/mL.. The maximum enzyme production velocity coincide with the maximum growth velocity between 6 and 7 h of fermentation, which confirmed that dextransucrase production was associated with microbial growth. High enzyme yields were achieved during scale up based on oxygen transfer rate.

  10. Lipases production by solid-state fermentation: the case of Rhizopus homothallicus in perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    Lipases are widely used in the industry for different purposes. Although these enzymes are mainly produced by submerged fermentation, lipase production by solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been gaining interest due to the advantages of this type of culture. Major advantages are higher production titers and productivity, less catabolite repression, and use of the dried fermented material as biocatalyst. This chapter describes a traditional methodology to produce fungal (Rhizopus homothallicus) lipases by SSF using perlite as inert support. The use of different devices (glass columns or Erlenmeyer flasks) and type of inoculum (spores or growing mycelium) is considered so that lipase production by SSF could be easily performed in any laboratory.

  11. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, Mette; Sophanodora, Pairat; Gram, Lone; Møller, Peter Lange

    2002-02-25

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation. LAB counts increased to 10(8)-10(9) cfu g(-1) and yeast counts to 10(7)-5 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis, Weisella confusa, L. plantarum and Lactococcus garviae. The latter species was only isolated from high-salt batches. Phenotypic characteristics, ITS-PCR and carbohydrate assimilation identified 95% of the yeasts as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. It is concluded that the fermentation of plaa-som is delayed by a salt-level of 9% due to an inhibition of LAB growth. The growth of Z. rouxii has no influence on the fermentation rate, but may contribute positively to the flavour development of the product.

  12. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  13. Microbiological detection of probiotic microorganisms in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.

  14. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production: II. Continuous culture of Pichia yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.Y.; Srinivasan, S.; Leavitt, R.I.; Coty, V.F.; Kondis, E.F.

    1987-03-01

    Experiments using Pichia yeast grown on n-paraffins have been conducted in laboratory 10-l airlift fermenters and in a 640-l module of commercial scale. Results confirmed the design concept with low-pressure air. However, in the absence of mass transport constraints, the build up of toxic factors in the fermenter appeared to a major variable limiting cell productivity. Foaming in the large fermenter also presented a serious problem, which must be solved before low-pressure airlift fermenters become practical. 14 references.

  15. Botanical origin causes changes in nutritional profile and antioxidant activity of fermented products obtained from honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezmirean, Graţia I; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Bonta, Victoriţa; Erler, Silvio

    2012-08-15

    Honey as rich source of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities, sugar, organic acid profile, total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation with their antioxidant activity. Additionally, an optimized method for HPLC separation of organic acids from honey was established. The total phenolic content of honey samples varied widely among the honey types compared to fermented products. High amounts of total flavonoids were quantified in heather honey, followed by raspberry, multifloral, black locust, and linden honey. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was observed in honey samples. After fermentation, the flavonoid content of dark honey fermented products decreased significantly. Black locust and linden honeys are more suitable for fermentation because the decrease in antioxidant substances is less pronounced.

  16. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  17. Investigating the link between fermentative metabolism and hydrogen production in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, S.J.; Nixon, P.J. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the electrons required for hydrogen production can come from both the biophotolysis of water and from the fermentation of carbohydrate reserves. Anoxia leads to the activation of several fermentative pathways, which produce a number of end products including formic, malic and acetic acid along with ethanol, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. It has been proposed that by switching off competing fermentative pathways hydrogen production can be increased. Therefore the aim of this study was to devise an experimental strategy to down-regulate the expression of enzymes thought to control C. reinhardtii's fermentative metabolism. We demonstrate here that it is possible to use artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology to generate knock-down mutants with reduced expression of pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1), a key fermentative enzyme in C. reinhardtii. This work opens up new possibilities to improve hydrogen yields through metabolic engineering. (orig.)

  18. Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, N Q; Chua, H; Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Wang, Y J; Sin, N

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the optimal fermentation type and the operating conditions of anaerobic process in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors was investigated for the maximization of bio-hydrogen production using mixed cultures. Butyric acid type fermentation occurred at pH>6, propionic acid type fermentation occurred at pH about 5.5 with E(h) (redox potential) >-278mV, and ethanol-type fermentation occurred at pHhydrogen production capacities between the fermentation types, which remained stable when the organic loading rate (OLR) reached the highest OLR at 86.1kgCOD/m(3)d. The maximum hydrogen production reached up to 14.99L/d.

  19. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  20. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  1. Performance comparison of ethanol and butanol production in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation system with membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Long, Sihua; Li, Airong; Xiao, Guoqing; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Zeyi

    2017-03-16

    Since both ethanol and butanol fermentations are urgently developed processes with the biofuel-demand increasing, performance comparison of aerobic ethanol fermentation and anerobic butanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system was necessary to achieve their fermentation characteristics and further optimize the fermentation process. Fermentation and pervaporation parameters including the average cell concentration, glucose consumption rate, cumulated production concentration, product flux, and separation factor of ethanol fermentation were 11.45 g/L, 3.70 g/L/h, 655.83 g/L, 378.5 g/m(2)/h, and 4.83, respectively, the corresponding parameters of butanol fermentation were 2.19 g/L, 0.61 g/L/h, 28.03 g/L, 58.56 g/m(2)/h, and 10.62, respectively. Profiles of fermentation and pervaporation parameters indicated that the intensity and efficiency of ethanol fermentation was higher than butanol fermentation, but the stability of butanol fermentation was superior to ethanol fermentation. Although the two fermentation processes had different features, the performance indicated the application prospect of both ethanol and butanol production by the CCCF system.

  2. Optimization of honey-must preparation and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A

    2010-11-15

    Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality.

  3. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzema, A; Tramper, J; de Bruin, E; Bol, J

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  4. Characterization and product innovation of sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.

    2003-01-01

     Over the centuries, Chinese people have consumed soybeans in various forms of traditional fermented soybean foods. Sufu ( Furu ), a cheese-like product originating in China, is one of the most popular fermented soybean foods in China, and is becoming popular i

  5. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation. W

  6. Novel Production Protocol for Small-scale Manufacture of Probiotic Fermented Foods (video article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerik, N.; Wacoo, A. P.; Sybesma1, W.; Kort, R.

    2016-01-01

    A novel dried bacterial consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106 is cultured in 1 L of milk. This fresh starter can be used for the production of fermented milk and other fermented foods either at home or at small-scale in rural settings. For the fresh star

  7. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  8. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and rumen bacterial populations fermenting corn milling (co)products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W L; Tedeschi, L O; Kononoff, P J; Callaway, T R; Dowd, S E; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation dynamics of 2 commonly fed corn (co)products in their intact and defatted forms, using the in vitro gas production (IVGP) technique, and to investigate the shifts of the predominant rumen bacterial populations using the 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique. The bTEFAP technique was used to determine the bacterial profile of each fermentation time at 24 and 48 h. Bacterial populations were identified at the species level. Species were grouped by substrate affinities (guilds) for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, sugars, protein, lipids, and lactate. The 2 (co)products were a dried distillers grain (DDG) plus solubles produced from a low-heat drying process (BPX) and a high-protein DDG without solubles (HP). Chemical analysis revealed that BPX contained about 11.4% ether extract, whereas HP contained only 3.88%. Previous studies have indicated that processing methods, as well as fat content, of corn (co)products directly affect fermentation rate and substrate availability, but little information is available regarding changes in rumen bacterial populations. Fermentation profiles of intact and defatted BPX and HP were compared with alfalfa hay as a standard profile. Defatting before incubation had no effect on total gas production in BPX or HP, but reduced lag time and the fractional rate of fermentation of BPX by at least half, whereas there was no effect for HP. The HP feed supported a greater percentage of fibrolytic and proteolytic bacteria than did BPX. Defatting both DDG increased the fibrolytic (26.8 to 38.7%) and proteolytic (26.1 to 37.2%) bacterial guild populations and decreased the lactate-utilizing bacterial guild (3.06 to 1.44%). Information regarding the fermentation kinetics and bacterial population shifts when feeding corn (co)products may lead to more innovative processing methods that improve feed quality (e.g., deoiling) and consequently

  9. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, sugar-cane fibre (SCF, beet pulp (BP, wheat bran (WB, fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulin, yeast cell wall (YCW, ground psyllium seed (PS, pea hulls (PH. All substrates were incubated at 39°C under anaerobic conditions with faeces collected from dogs as microbial inoculum. Gas production of fermenting cultures was recorded and after 48 h, pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA and organic matter disappearance (OMD were determined. The results confirm high fermentation by dog faecal bacteria of FOS and inulin that produced high amounts of propionate and that underwent very rapid fermentation. Three substrates (SCF, CMC and PC were not able to support bacterial growth, with low gas and SCFA production, and high BCFA formation. PH and BP showed moderate OMD and SCFA production. Wheat bran B underwent rapid fermentation and generated a high proportion of butyrate. PS underwent slow fermentation with delayed gas production, supporting a high formation of SCFA, with an adequate amount of butyrate for bacterial growth while YCW, which showed a delayed fermentation, gave moderate SCFA production. The fermentation characteristics of PS and YCW suggest their potential use in promoting a more distal fermentation on intestinal tract.

  10. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  11. Development and Improvement of Bioreactor for Fermentative Hydrogen Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; REN Nan-qi; YANG Chuan-ping; DING Jie; LI Jian-zheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviewed hydrogen production biotechnology on reactor development and design aspects. Biological hydrogen-producing reactor as acid-producing phase of two-phase anaerobic organism treatment system plays an important role in the following aspects: Reactor was developed as the follow ideas: 1) CSTR-type anaerobic fermentation reactor is selected to reduce the substrate concentration in reactor and increase target product operational yield and selectivity in the reactor;2)Integration structure with mixing reaction area and deposit-separating area is selected, i.e. gas-liquid-solid phase separation unit; 3)Mixture liquid in reaction area is stirred by the stirrer to reach a turbulent state in order to reduce interfacial layer thickness and temperature gradient in a floc unit particle and increase mass transfer rate;4) H2 in the particle and liquid phase is accelerated to release to prevent accumulated H2 from bringing feedback inhibition to organism metabolism, and H2/CO2conversion to acetic acid; 5) A sector turbine agitator with hoisting capacity and mixing power is selected to facilitate sludge to flow back through a effluence seam; 6 ) Interior wall in the reaction area is equipped with vertical baffles to avoid causing swirling flow of mixture liquid owing to agitation.

  12. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  13. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  14. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  15. Bioconversion of barley straw and corn stover to butanol (a biofuel) in integrated fermentation and simultaneous product recovery bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies concentrated sugar solutions of barley straw and corn stover hydrolysates were fermented with simultaneous product recovery and compared with the performance of a control glucose batch fermentation process. The control glucose batch fermentation resulted in the production of 23.25 g...

  16. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2013-01-01

    to be the main factor that influenced the lipid oxidation in the marine PL emulsion and fermented milk system. In addition, both oxidative stability and sensory acceptability of fortified products varied depending on the quality of the marine PL used for fortification.......Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...

  17. Fertility and reproductive history of sterilized and non-sterilized women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares sterilized and non-sterilized women in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and cohabitation status. Women from 30 to 49 years of age and residing in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, were interviewed with a pre-tested and structured questionnaire: 236 women sterilized at least five years before the interview and 236 non-sterilized women. The sterilized women were significantly more likely to be married or cohabiting, to be younger when they began cohabiting, and to have been in the union longer than the non-sterilized women. They also began childbearing at an earlier age and had a history of more pregnancies and more live births than non-sterilized women. Factors associated with a history of 3 or more live births at the time of the interview were surgical sterilization, younger age at first childbirth, older age at the interview, recognition of fewer contraceptive methods, and lower per capita income. The article concludes that sterilization generally appears to be the consequence of higher fertility in a group of women who initiate childbearing early in life, although its role in preventing these women from having even larger families may also have a demographic impact.

  18. Recent progress on industrial fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2009-06-01

    China is one of the few countries, which maintained the fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production for several decades. Until the end of the last century, the ABE fermentation from grain was operated in a few industrial scale plants. Due to the strong competition from the petrochemical industries, the fermentative ABE production lost its position in the 1990s, when all the solvent fermentation plants in China were closed. Under the current circumstances of concern about energy limitations and environmental pollution, new opportunities have emerged for the traditional ABE fermentation industry since it could again be potentially competitive with chemical synthesis. From 2006, several ABE fermentation plants in China have resumed production. The total solvent (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) production capacity from ten plants reached 210,000 tons, and the total solvent production is expected to be extended to 1,000,000 tons (based on the available data as of Sept. 2008). This article reviews current work in strain development, the continuous fermentation process, solvent recovery, and economic evaluation of ABE process in China. Challenges for an economically competitive ABE process in the future are also discussed.

  19. Comparison of simultaneous and separate processes: saccharification and thermophilic L-lactate fermentation of catch crop and aquatic plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Satoshi; Maeda, Koutaro; Nakatani, Shingo; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Nagare, Hideaki; Maeda, Morihiro; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Catch crop candidates (corn, guinea grass) for recovering nutrients from farm soil and aquatic plants (water caltrop, water hyacinth) were utilized to produce L-lactic acid. The efficiencies ofpre-treatment methods for enzymatic saccharification and L-lactate production of two fermentation processes, thermophilic simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), as well as separate saccharification and fermentation, were compared. Conditions were set at 55 degrees C and pH 5.5 for non-sterile fermentation. Alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment proved the most effective for saccharification in pre-treated corn, guinea grass, water caltrop and water hyacinth with glucose yields of 0.23, 0.20, 0.11 and 0.14 g/g-dry native biomass (24-hour incubation period), respectively. Examination of the two types of thermophilic L-lactate fermentation employed following alkaline/peroxide pre-treatment and saccharification demonstrated that the L-lactate yield obtained using SSF (0.15 g/g in the case of corn) was lower than that obtained using separate saccharification and fermentation (0.28 g/g in the case of corn). The lower yield obtained from SSF is likely to have resulted from the saccharification conditions used in the present study, as the possibility of cellulase deactivation during SSF by thermophilic L-lactate producing bacteria existed. A cellulase that retains high activity levels under non-sterile conditions and a L-lactate producer without cellulose hydrolysis activity would be required in order for SSF to serve as an effective method of L-lactate production.

  20. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  1. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  2. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  3. Production of chitinases with Trichoderma harzianun isolates using solid substrate fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viviana Nagy

    2004-01-01

    @@ Over forty Trichoderma harzianum isolates have been screened in solid substrate fermentation (SSF)for chitinase production. Strains were isolated from Asian soil and tree bark samples. Identification was performed in Canada and Austria by classical and molecular taxonomical methods.

  4. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Production of Alkaline Polygalacturonate Lyase from Bacillus subtilis by Fed-Batch Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mouyong Zou; Fenfen Guo; Xuezhi Li; Jian Zhao; Yinbo Qu

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL, EC 4.2.2.2) is an enzyme used in many industries. We developed a fed-batch fermentation process that combines the enzymatic pretreatment of the carbon source with controlling the pH of the fermentative broth to enhance the PGL production from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3 to decrease the production cost. Maintaining the fermentation broth at pH 6.5 prior to feeding with ammonia and at pH 6.0 after feeding significantly improved PGL activity (743.5 U mL-1) comp...

  6. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  7. Optimization of Amylase Production from B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270) Using Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Demand for microbial amylase production persists because of its immense importance in wide spectrum industries. The present work has been initiated with a goal of optimization of solid state fermentation condition for amylase using agroindustrial waste and microbial strain like B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270). In an aim to improve the productivity of amylase, fermentation has been carried out in the presence of calcium (Ca+2), Nitrate (NO3 −), and chloride ions (Cl−) as well as in the presen...

  8. Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H; Wang, J Q; Kang, H Y; Dong, S H; Sun, P; Bu, D P; Zhou, L Y

    2012-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 29 ± 6 days, parity = 2.8 ± 1.1) were blocked by DIM and parity and then randomly assigned to three treatments (12 per treatment) in a 9-week trial. Cows in control, DFM1 and DFM2 were fed TMR diets supplemented with 0, 6 and 12 g of B. subtilis natto solid-state fermentation product per day per cow respectively. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were lower (p = 0.03) in DFM1 and DFM2 compared with control cows (633 and 639 vs. 685 μm). Ruminal propionate increased (23.9 vs. 26.3 and 26.9/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) and acetate decreased (64.2 vs. 62.7 and 62.1/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) with increasing B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation. DMI of the cows in three treatments was not affected by B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation, but milk yield was 3.1 and 3.2 kg/day higher for DFM1 and DFM2 than that for control cows on average across the 9-week trial, and significant differences were observed during weeks 5-9 of the trial, which resulted in 9.5% and 11.7% increase in feed efficiency. B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation did not affect milk fat percentage and protein yield but increased (p < 0.05) milk fat yield and lactose percentage (p < 0.01) and tended to decrease protein percentage (p = 0.06). The findings show that B. subtilis natto fermentation product was effective in increasing lactation performance of early lactation dairy cows possibly by altering the rumen fermentation pattern without any negative effects on blood metabolites.

  9. Solid-state fermentation: a continuous process for fungal tannase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lagemaat, J; Pyle, D L

    2004-09-30

    Truly continuous solid-state fermentations with operating times of 2-3 weeks were conducted in a prototype bioreactor for the production of fungal (Penicillium glabrum) tannase from a tannin-containing model substrate. Substantial quantities of the enzyme were synthesized throughout the operating periods and (imperfect) steady-state conditions seemed to be achieved soon after start-up of the fermentations. This demonstrated for the first time the possibility of conducting solid-state fermentations in the continuous mode and with a constant noninoculated feed. The operating variables and fermentation conditions in the bioreactor were sufficiently well predicted for the basic reinoculation concept to succeed. However, an incomplete understanding of the microbial mechanisms, the experimental system, and their interaction indicated the need for more research in this novel area of solid-state fermentation.

  10. "Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with non sterile phlebotomy (case report "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (C-JD is a rare disorder characterized with rapidly progressive mental decline, myoclonic jerk and finally death. The transmissible pathogen for this disease is a proteinaceous infectious particle termed prion. The prion protein is encoded by a gene (designated as PRNP on the short arm chromosome 20.This disorder is diagnosed based on clinical findings, course of disease, EEG, MRI and confirmed with brain biopsy. Case report: A 56- year- old woman presented with confusion, disorientation, hyper somnolence, psychiatric problems such as hallucination, progressive mental deterioration and myoclonic jerks. She had history of several times phlebotomy with traditional and non sterile methods in two past years. She had no past history of other disease. Her illness was diagnosed based on clinical findings, course of her illness, typical MRI, EEG and rule out other dementing disease. She died after one month. Conclusion: in any patients with psychiatric disorders, rapidly progressive mental deterioration and myoclonic jerks C-JD should be considered as an important diagnosis. Treatable dementing disease should be considered and ruled out at first. The significance of phlebotomy in C-JD has yet to be determined.

  11. Production of ethyl alcohol by a repeated batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru arukoru no seizoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagoshima (Japan))

    1994-01-11

    This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol from sugar and starch raw materials by a repeated batch fermentation method and aims to provide a method to produce ethyl alcohol efficiently by accurate repetition. Conventional batch fermentation methods require the experiences and skill to confirm an end point of the fermentation and have a problem in a control of repeated batch fermentation. This invention uses a gas flow meter of a velocity head measurement type and judges an end point of fermentation at a time when the amount of the exhaust gas flow from the fermentation is 0.35 to 0.1 m[sup 3] per hour and per 1 kl fermentation liquid or below and the next batch fermentation is started. By this invention, ethyl alcohol is produced efficiently from the raw materials with less damage of the yeast and efficient repeated batch fermentation is realized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Microparticle-enhanced Aspergillus ficuum phytase production and evaluation of fungal morphology in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Turhan, Irfan

    2015-06-01

    Phytase can be used in animal's diets to increase the absorption of several divalent ions, amino acids and proteins and to decrease the excessive phosphorus release in manure to prevent negative effects on the environment. This study aimed to enhance the current submerged fungal phytase productions with a novel fermentation technique by evaluating the effect of the various microparticles on Aspergillus ficuum phytase production. It was observed that microparticles prevented bulk fungal pellet growth, decreased average fungal pellet size and significantly increased phytase activity in the submerged fermentation. Microbial structure imaging results showed that the average fungal pellet radius decreased from 800 to 500 and 200 µm by addition of 15 g/L aluminum oxide and talcum, respectively, in shake-flask fermentation. Also, addition of 15 g/L of talcum and aluminum oxide increased phytase activity to 2.01 and 2.93 U/ml, respectively, compared to control (1.02 U/ml) in shake-flask fermentation. Additionally, phytase activity reached 6.49 U/ml within 96 h of fermentation with the addition of 15 g/L of talcum, whereas the maximum phytase activity was only 3.45 U/ml at 120 h of fermentation for the control in the 1-L working volume bioreactors. In conclusion, microparticles significantly increased fungal phytase activity and production yield compared to control fermentation.

  13. Lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the production of functional antioxidant herbal Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chang-Chai; Wang, Chung-Yi; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated a novel use of the traditional Asian herb Anoectochilus formosanus. This plant is a traditional food item, generally used for the treatment of liver disorder, hepatitis, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disorder, etc. In this study, the root, stem, and leaf of A. formosanus were used as substrates for lactic fermentation. The fermentation products were analyzed for their total antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging effect on superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The pH of the fermentation medium reached its lowest value, 3.5, at the 35th hour of fermentation. Antioxidant activity of A. formosanus was found to be 61-78%. Lactobacillus longum-led fermentation exhibited the greatest reducing power with an average of 0.3. The products of fermentations utilizing the three plant parts as substrates exhibited a similar scavenging activity (27-30%) on free radicals. This study may suggest a novel use of lactic-fermenting A. formosanus in the production of functional food.

  14. Ethanolic fermentation in whey and whey-molasses mixtures. Pt. 2. Two-stage fermentation process of ethanol production from whey and beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, E.; Zmarlicki, S.

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage fermentation process has been developed for ethanol production from regular or partly concentrated whey and molasses. In the first stage ethanolic fermentation in whey is performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. marxianus. Such prefermented whey is then used for dilution of molasses instead of water and the resulting medium subjected to the second stage fermentation performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The process enables complete fermentation of lactose and all fermentble sugars from molasses, leading to an ethanol content of about 10% in the final medium, which makes the distillation much more economical than the separate processing of whey and molasses into spirit.

  15. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Pejo, Elia; Oliva, Jose M.; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    concentration was improved in all tests due to the increase of potential fermentable sugars in the fermentation broth. Inhibitory compounds present in the pretreated wheat straw caused a significantly negative effect on the fermentation rate. However, it was found that the inhibitors furfural and HMF were...... amounts of pentoses. Red Star is a robust hexose-fermenting strain used for industrial fuel ethanol fermentations and it was used for comparative purposes. The highest ethanol concentration, 23.7 g/L, was reached using the whole slurry (10%, w/v) and the recombinant strain (F12) in an SSF process...... completely metabolized by the yeast during SSF by metabolic redox reactions. An often encountered problem during xylose fermentation is considerable xylitol production that occurs due to metabolic redox imbalance. However, in our work this redox imbalance was counteracted by the detoxification reactions...

  16. Biochemical changes during the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for ogiri-okpei production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odibo, F J C; Ezeaku, E O; Ogbo, F C

    2008-09-01

    Biochemical changes during fermentation of seeds of Prosopis africana for production of ogiri-okpei, a food condiment popular among people of West Africa were studied. Fermentation resulted in a net increase in concentrations of total soluble sugars and free amino acids, both reaching a peak after 72 h of fermentation but declining thereafter. Corresponding increases were observed in amylase and protease activities, respectively. Lipase activity was observed to be very strong, increasing throughout the duration of fermentation. Analyses of amino and fatty acid composition using an amino acid analyzer and gas liquid chromatography, respectively, revealed a wide variety of amino acids including glutamine > cystine > arginine and the fatty acids stearic > Arachidic > linolenic > linoleic in the unfermented seed in the highest concentrations. Fluctuations in the concentrations of these compounds were observed during the fermentation. At the end of 96 h fermentation, glutamine > cystine > lysine and an unidentified fatty acid > arachidic > linolenic acids were found in the highest concentrations. Marked increases in composition with increasing period of fermentation were observed for Ca, P, K, Mn, and Z. Transformations of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals during the fermentation of this seed revealed during this study will contribute towards the development of an industrial process for ogiri-okpei as well as an understanding of its contribution to the nutrition of its consumers.

  17. Removal of the Fermentation Inhibitor, Furfural, Using Activated Carbon in Cellulosic-Ethanol Production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kuang

    2011-12-21

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation; however, some byproducts from lignocellulosics, such as furfural compounds, are highly inhibitory to the fermentation and can substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. In this study, commercial and polymer-derived activated carbons were utilized to selectively remove the model fermentation inhibitor, furfural, from water solution during bioethanol production. The oxygen functional groups on the carbon surface were found to influence the selectivity of sorbents between inhibitors and sugars during the separation. After inhibitors were selectively removed from the broth, the cell growth and ethanol production efficiency was recovered noticeably in the fermentation. A sorption/desorption cycle was designed, and the sorbents were regenerated in a fixed-bed column system using ethanol-containing standard solution. Dynamic mass balance was obtained after running four or five cycles, and regeneration results were stable even after twenty cycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  19. Enhancing Production of Alkaline Polygalacturonate Lyase from Bacillus subtilis by Fed-Batch Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mouyong; Guo, Fenfen; Li, Xuezhi; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Yinbo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL, EC 4.2.2.2) is an enzyme used in many industries. We developed a fed-batch fermentation process that combines the enzymatic pretreatment of the carbon source with controlling the pH of the fermentative broth to enhance the PGL production from Bacillus subtilis 7-3-3 to decrease the production cost. Maintaining the fermentation broth at pH 6.5 prior to feeding with ammonia and at pH 6.0 after feeding significantly improved PGL activity (743.5 U mL−1) compared with the control (202.5 U mL−1). The average PGL productivity reached 19.6 U mL−1 h−1 after 38 h of fermentation. The crude PGL was suitable for environmentally friendly ramie enzymatic degumming. PMID:24603713

  20. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors.

  1. Production of fermentable sugars from corn fiber using soaking in aqueous ammonia (saa) pretreatment and fermentation to succinic acid by Escherichia coli afp184

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of corn fiber (CF), a by-product from the corn-to-ethanol conversion process, into fermentable sugar and succinic acid was investigated using soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment followed by biological conversions including enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation using genetically ...

  2. Effect of inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the diet on fermentation end-product profile in feces of weanling piglets1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.; Williams, B.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to monitor the changes in fermentation end products in the feces of weaning piglets due to the inclusion of selected fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. The experiment involved 3 groups of 16 piglets each. Specially raised piglets (neither antibiotics nor creep

  3. Omega-3 production by fermentation of Yarrowia lipolytica: From fed-batch to continuous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Miller, Edward; Sharpe, Pamela; Jackson, Ethel; Zhu, Quinn

    2017-04-01

    The omega-3 fatty acid, cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) has wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, and mental health. A sustainable source of EPA production through fermentation of metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica has been developed. In this paper, key fed-batch fermentation conditions were identified to achieve 25% EPA in the yeast biomass, which is so far the highest EPA titer reported in the literature. Dynamic models of the EPA fermentation process were established for analyzing, optimizing, and scaling up the fermentation process. In addition, model simulations were used to develop a two-stage continuous process and compare to single-stage continuous and fed- batch processes. The two stage continuous process, which is equipped with a smaller growth fermentor (Stage 1) and a larger production fermentor (Stage 2), was found to be a superior process to achieve high titer, rate, and yield of EPA. A two-stage continuous fermentation experiment with Y. lipolytica strain Z7334 was designed using the model simulation and then tested in a 2 L and 5 L fermentation system for 1,008 h. Compared with the standard 2 L fed-batch process, the two-stage continuous fermentation process improved the overall EPA productivity by 80% and EPA concentration in the fermenter by 40% while achieving comparable EPA titer in biomass and similar conversion yield from glucose. During the long-term experiment it was also found that the Y. lipolytica strain evolved to reduce byproduct and increase lipid production. This is one of the few continuous fermentation examples that demonstrated improved productivity and concentration of a final product with similar conversion yield compared with a fed-batch process. This paper suggests the two-stage continuous fermentation could be an effective process to achieve improved production of omega-3 and other fermentation products where non-growth or partially growth associated kinetics

  4. Optimisation of fermentation conditions for gluconic acid production by a mutant of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, O V; Sharma, A; Singh, R P

    2001-11-01

    Aspergillus niger ORS-4, isolated from the sugarcane industry waste materials was found to produce notable level of gluconic acid. From this strain, a mutant Aspergillus niger ORS-4.410 having remarkable increase in gluconic acid production was isolated and compared for fermentation properties. Among the various substrates used, glucose resulted into maximum production of gluconic acid (78.04 g/L). 12% concentration led to maximum production. Effect of spore age and inoculum level on fermentation indicated an inoculum level of 2% of the 4-7 days old spores were best suited for gluconic acid production. Maximum gluconate production could be achieved after 10-12 days of the fermentation at 30 degrees C and at a pH of 5.5. Kinetic analysis of production indicated that growth of the mutant was favoured during initial stages of the fermentation (4-8 days) and production increased during the subsequent 8-12 days of the fermentation. CaCO3 and varying concentrations of different nutrients affected the production of gluconic acid. Analysis of variance for the factors evaluated the significant difference in the production levels.

  5. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture.

  6. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  7. Assessment of Monacolin in the Fermented Products Using Monascus purpureus FTC5391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.

  8. Assessment of monacolin in the fermented products using Monascus purpureus FTC5391.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Zahra; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul Manan, Musalbakri; Hamid, Muhajir; Mohamad, Rosfarizan; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2011-01-01

    Monacolins, as natural statins, form a class of fungal secondary metabolites and act as the specific inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. The interest in using the fermented products as the natural source of monacolins, instead of statin drugs, is increasing enormously with its increasing demand. In this study, the fermented products were produced by Monascus purpureus FTC5391 using submerged and solid state fermentations. Two commercial Monascus-fermented products were also evaluated for comparison. Improved methods of monacolins extraction and identification were developed for the assessment of monacolins in the fermented products. Methanol and ethanol were found to be the most favorable solvents for monacolins extraction due to their ability to extract higher amount of monacolin K and higher numbers of monacolin derivatives. Problem related to false-positive results during monacolins identification was solved by adding monacolin lactonization step in the assessment method. Using this improved method, monacolin derivatives were not detected in all Monascus-fermented products tested in this study, suggesting that their hypocholesterolemic effects may be due to other compounds other than monacolins.

  9. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

  10. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  11. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Widianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and FS902 cultivars, were achieved by OUT7903, OUT7913, OUT7903, and OUT7027 yeast strains, respectively. However, the best specific CO2 evolution rate of the yeast strain during fermentation of the juices was achieved by OUT7027 yeast strains. The highest ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and sugar conversion efficiency (SCE were obtained by strain OUT7921 when it was employed to ferment sweet-stem sorghum juice of FS902 cultivar. It was also observed that the juice extracted from sweet-stalk sorghum of FS902 cultivar is the most suitable medium for all yeast strains to achieve their best fermentation abilities. Thus, it is likely that the growth and ethanol production ability of a yeast strain in sweet-stalk sorghum juice depend on the physiological responses of the yeasts to nutrientcomposition of the sorghum juice and the sorghum cultivar from which the juice was extracted.Key words : Sweet-stalk sorghum juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast

  12. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  13. Occurrence of Disease Causing Organisms Including Bacteriophages in Indigenous Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.S.Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to focus on such microbial changes, which are a consequence of unhygienic practices during production, incomplete fermentation and poor storage conditions. In India different fermented products are prepared from milk. These products are mostly intended primarily to conserve the nutritional values of milk. However, since most of these products are flavored and sweetened, these are mostly consumed during festival seasons. Like m ilk these products not only provide nutrients, but also are excellent media for the growth of microorganisms. Microbial growth is seen in the results, which involves successive changes with enteric or food related factors leading to incidence of food poisoning and deterioration of product. Isolation of coliphages is an indication of presence of other phages which could be aetiology of certain improper fermentation due to lack of proper inoculum.

  14. Fermentation of de-oiled algal biomass by Lactobacillus casei for production of lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Tom; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    De-oiled algal biomass (algal cake) generated as waste byproduct during algal biodiesel production is a promising fermentable substrate for co-production of value-added chemicals in biorefinery systems. We explored the ability of Lactobacillus casei 12A to ferment algal cake for co-production of lactic acid. Carbohydrate and amino acid availability were determined to be limiting nutritional requirements for growth and lactic acid production by L. casei. These nutritional requirements were effectively addressed through enzymatic hydrolysis of the algal cake material using α-amylase, cellulase (endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase), and pepsin. Results confirm fermentation of algal cake for production of value-added chemicals is a promising avenue for increasing the overall cost competiveness of the algal biodiesel production process.

  15. Ethanol Production by Fermentation of Various Sweet-Stalk Sorghum Juices Using Various Yeast Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Donny Widianto; Akbar Arofatullah; Triwibowo Yuwono; Irfan Dwidya Prijambada

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol production by fermentation of sweet-stalk sorghum juice is affected by the juice composition and the capability of the yeast strain to ferment it. Eight yeast strains were tested on their growth and ethanol fermentation abilities in sweet-stalk sorghum juices extracted from three cultivars of sweet sorghum. The best specific growth rate of the yeast strains grown aerobically in the yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) broth and the sweet-stalk sorghum juices of KCS105, FS501, and...

  16. Medium Optimization for Improved Ethanol Production in Very High Gravity Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纯铿; 秦晴; 高培培

    2011-01-01

    An optimal medium (300 g·L^-1 initial glucose) comprising 6.3 mmol·L^-1 Mg2+, 5.0 mmol·L^-1 Ca2+, 15.0 g·L^-1 peptone and 21.5 g·L^-1 yeast extract was determined by uniform design to improve very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation, showing over 30% increase in final ethanol (from 13.1% to 17.1%, by volume), 29% decrease in fermentation time (from 84 to 60 h), 80% increase in biomass formation and 26% increase in glucose utilization. Experiments also revealed physiological aspects linked to the fermentation enhancements. Compared to the control, trehalose in the cells grown in optimal fermentation medium increased 17.9-, 2.8-, 1.9-, 1.8- and 1.9-fold at the fermentation time of 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 h, respectively. Its sharp rise at the early stage of fermentation when there was a considerable osmotic stress suggested that trehalose played an important role in promoting fermentation. Meanwhile, at the identical five fermentation time, the plasma membrane ATPase activity of the cells grown in optimal medium was 2.3, 1.8, 1.6, 1.5 and 1.3 times that of the control, respectively. Their disparities in enzymatic activity became wider when the glucose levels were dramatically changed for ethanol production, suggesting this enzyme also contributed to the fermentation improvements. Thus, medium optimization for VHG ethanol fermentation was found to trigger the increased yeast trehalose accumulation and plasma membrane ATPase activity.

  17. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zetang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2003-04-05

    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant contained in a hollow-fiber membrane extractor for selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The extractant was simultaneously regenerated by stripping with NaOH in a second membrane extractor. The fermentation pH was self-regulated by a balance between acid production and removal by extraction, and was kept at approximately pH 5.5 throughout the study. Compared with conventional fermentation, extractive fermentation resulted in a much higher product concentration (>300 g/L) and product purity (91%). It also resulted in higher reactor productivity (7.37 g/L. h) and butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g). Without on-line extraction to remove the acid products, at the optimal pH of 6.0, the final butyric acid concentration was only approximately 43.4 g/L, butyric acid yield was 0.423 g/g, and reactor productivity was 6.77 g/L. h. These values were much lower at pH 5.5: 20.4 g/L, 0.38 g/g, and 5.11 g/L. h, respectively. The improved performance for extractive fermentation can be attributed to the reduced product inhibition by selective removal of butyric acid from the fermentation broth. The solvent was found to be toxic to free cells in suspension, but not harmful to cells immobilized in the fibrous bed. The process was stable and provided consistent long-term performance for the entire 2-week period of study.

  18. [Drug development from natural fermentation products: establishing a manufacturing process which maximizes the potential of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Koji; Ueda, Satoshi; Kanda, Munekazu; Oohata, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Michio; Hino, Motohiro

    2010-11-01

    Natural fermentation products have long been studied as attractive targets for drug discovery due to their amazing diverse, complex chemical structures and biological activities. As such, a number of revolutionary drugs developed from natural fermentation products have contributed to global human health. To commercialize a drug derived from natural fermentation products, an effective chemical entity must be identified and thoroughly researched, and an effective manufacturing process to prepare a commercial supply must be developed. To construct such a manufacturing process for tacrolimus and micafungin, the following studies were conducted: first, we focused on controlling the production of the tacrolimus-related compound FR900525, a fermentation by-product of tacrolimus which was critical for quality assurance of the drug substance. FR900525 production was reduced by using a mutant strain which produced more pipecolic acid, the biosynthesis material of tacrolimus, than the original strain. Then, to optimize the fermentation process of FR901379, an intermediate of micafungin, a fed-batch culture was adopted to increase FR901379 productivity. Additionally, FULLZONE(TM) impeller was installed into the scaled-up fermenter, reducing the agitation-induced damage to the mycelium. As a result, the mycelial form changed from filamentous to pellet-shaped, and the air uptake rate during fermentation was drastically improved. Finally, we conducted screening for FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms, as FR901379 acylase is necessary to manufacture micafungin. We were able to easily discover FR901379 acylase-producing microorganisms in soil samples using our novel, convenient screening method, which involves comparing the difference in antibiotic activity between FR901379 and its deacylated product.

  19. Alkaline protease production by solid state fermentation on polyurethane foam

    OpenAIRE

    Hongzhang, Chen; Hui, Wang; Aijun, Zhang; Zuohu, Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the process of solid state fermentation (SSF) using PUF (polyurethane foam) as inert solid support to produce alkaline protease. Maximal enzyme activity was 2185U/ml at pH 9.0, incubation temperature 32 0C inoculum amount of 1.0 % (v/v) , nutrient solution3.75 ml/g PUF, incubation time for 2 h and 15.0 mM of added CaCl2. Under the same conditions, the yield of alkaline protease produced by SSF using PUF as support is higher than that by submerged fermentation (SMF).

  20. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  1. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of propolis on ruminal fermentation, reproductive and productive performance of Santa Inês ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Salah Morsy Amine Selem

    2012-01-01

    Propolis as natural dietary additive can be used to manipulate rumen fermentation towards less methane (CH4) and it may affect animal reproductive and productive performance. To study the application of propolis, three studies were conducted. The first study aimed to evaluate the in vitro nutritive value of two types of propolis (Brazilian red propolis (BRP) and Egyptian brown propolis (EBP) for their anti-methanogenic activity, ruminal fermentation and degradability. Propolis extracts were p...

  3. Antigenotoxic activity of lactic acid bacteria, prebiotics, and products of their fermentation against selected mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Dietary components such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and prebiotics can modulate the intestinal microbiota and are thought to be involved in the reduction of colorectal cancer risk. The presented study measured, using the comet assay, the antigenotoxic activity of both probiotic and non-probiotic LAB, as well as some prebiotics and the end-products of their fermentation, against fecal water (FW). The production of short chain fatty acids by the bacteria was quantified using HPLC. Seven out of the ten tested viable strains significantly decreased DNA damage induced by FW. The most effective of them were Lactobacillus mucosae 0988 and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12, leading to a 76% and 80% decrease in genotoxicity, respectively. The end-products of fermentation of seven prebiotics by Lactobacillus casei DN 114-001 exhibited the strongest antigenotoxic activity against FW, with fermented inulin reducing genotoxicity by 75%. Among the tested bacteria, this strain produced the highest amounts of butyrate in the process of prebiotic fermentation, and especially from resistant dextrin (4.09 μM/mL). Fermented resistant dextrin improved DNA repair by 78% in cells pre-treated with 6.8 μM methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Fermented inulin induced stronger DNA repair in cells pre-treated with mutagens (FW, 25 μM hydrogen peroxide, or MNNG) than non-fermented inulin, and the efficiency of DNA repair after 120 min of incubation decreased by 71%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The different degrees of genotoxicity inhibition observed for the various combinations of bacteria and prebiotics suggest that this effect may be attributable to carbohydrate type, SCFA yield, and the ratio of the end-products of prebiotic fermentation.

  4. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat Pérez, Neus; Cháfer Nácher, María Teresa; Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo; González Martínez, María Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    A new fermented almond milk that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulat...

  5. Utilization of damaged sorghum and rice grains for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.; Kiran Sree, N.; Venkateswer Rao, L. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Microbiology

    1999-06-01

    The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of damaged grains of sorghum and rice was carried out using Aspergillus niger (NCIM 1248) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae VSJ1. More ethanol was produced from the damaged sorghum (2.90% v/v) than damaged rice (2.09% v/v) under optimal fermentation conditions. This study reveals that damaged grains can be utilized efficiently by an SSF process for the production of ethanol. (Author)

  6. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important c...

  7. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  8. Valorization of By-Products from Palm Oil Mills for the Production of Generic Fermentation Media for Microbial Oil Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dos Santos, Anderson Fragoso; do Nascimento Vitorino Lima, Maria Eduarda; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-04-01

    This study demonstrates the production of a generic nutrient-rich feedstock using by-product streams from palm oil production that could be used as a substitute for commercial fermentation supplements. Solid-state fermentations of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) were conducted in tray bioreactors and a rotating drum bioreactor by the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae for the production of crude enzymes. The production of protease was optimized (319.3 U/g) at an initial moisture content of 55 %, when PKC was used as the sole substrate. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) production (5.6 mg/g) obtained via PKC hydrolysis using the crude enzymes produced via solid-state fermentation was achieved at 50 °C. Three initial PKC concentrations (48.7, 73.7, and 98.7 g/L) were tested in hydrolysis experiments, leading to total Kjeldahl nitrogen to FAN conversion yields up to 27.9 %. Sequential solid-state fermentation followed by hydrolysis was carried out in the same rotating drum bioreactor, leading to the production of 136.7 U/g of protease activity during fermentation and 196.5 mg/L of FAN during hydrolysis. Microbial oil production was successfully achieved with the oleaginous yeast strain Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 cultivated on the produced PKC hydrolysate mixed with commercial carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose.

  9. Rumen fermentation and acetogen population changes in response to an exogenous acetogen TWA4 strain and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-lei; Guan, Le-luo; Liu, Jian-xin; Wang, Jia-kun

    2015-08-01

    The presence of yeast cells could stimulate hydrogen utilization of acetogens and enhance acetogenesis. To understand the roles of acetogens in rumen fermentation, an in vitro rumen fermentation experiment was conducted with addition of acetogen strain (TWA4) and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (XP). A 2×2 factorial design with two levels of TWA4 (0 or 2×10(7) cells/ml) and XP (0 or 2 g/L) was performed. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were increased (P<0.05) in XP and TWA4XP, while methane was increased only in TWA4XP (P<0.05). The increase rate of microorganisms with formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, especially acetogens, was higher than that of methanogens under all treatments. Lachnospiraceae was predominant in all acetogen communities, but without close acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS) amino acid sequences from cultured isolates. Low-Acetitomaculum ruminis-like ACS was predominant in all acetogen communities, while four unique phylotypes in XP treatment were all amino acid identified low-Eubacterium limosum-like acetogens. It differs to XP treatment that more low-A. ruminis-like and less low-E. limosum-like sequences were identified in TWA4 and TWA4XP treatments. Enhancing acetogenesis by supplementation with an acetogen strain and/or yeast cells may be an approach to mitigate methane, by targeting proper acetogens such as uncultured low-E. limosum-like acetogens.

  10. Selection of Type I and Type II Methanotrophic Proteobacteria in a Fluidized Bed Reactor under Non-Sterile Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Selection of Type I and Type II methanotrophic proteobacteria in a fluidized bed reactor under...laboratory- scale fluidized bed reactor was initially inoculated with a Type II Methylocystis-like dominated culture. At elevated levels of dissolved...personal copy Selection of Type I and Type II methanotrophic proteobacteria in a fluidized bed reactor under non-sterile conditions Andrew R. Pfluger a, Wei

  11. Modeling of fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract based on modified ADM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The Anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) framework can be used to predict fermentative hydrogen production, since the latter is directly related to the acidogenic stage of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the ADM1 model framework was used to simulate and predict the process...... used for kinetic parameter validation. Since the ADM1 does not account for metabolic products such as lactic acid and ethanol that are crucial during the fermentative hydrogen production process, the structure of the model was modified to include lactate and ethanol among the metabolites and to improve...... of fermentative hydrogen production from the extractable sugars of sweet sorghum biomass. Kinetic parameters for sugars’ consumption and yield coefficients of acetic, propionic and butyric acid production were estimated using the experimental data obtained from the steady states of a CSTR. Batch experiments were...

  12. Solid state fermentation of food waste mixtures for single cell protein, aroma volatiles and fat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Katsieris, Konstantinos; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Banat, Ibrahim M; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2014-02-15

    Growth of selected microorganisms of industrial interest (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus and kefir) by solid state fermentation (SSF) of various food industry waste mixtures was studied. The fermented products were analysed for protein, and nutrient minerals content, as well as for aroma volatile compounds by GC/MS. The substrate fermented by K. marxianus contained the highest sum of fat and protein concentration (59.2% w/w dm) and therefore it could be considered for utilisation of its fat content and for livestock feed enrichment. Regarding volatiles, the formation of high amounts of ε-pinene was observed only in the SSF product of kefir at a yield estimated to be 4 kg/tn of SSF product. A preliminary design of a biorefinery-type process flow sheet and its economic analysis, indicated potential production of products (enriched livestock feed, fat and ε-pinene) of significant added value.

  13. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  14. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina;

    2012-01-01

    Since the approval of recombinant insulin from Escherichia coli for its clinical use in the early 1980s, the amount of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins obtained by microbial fermentations has significantly increased. The recent advances in genomics together with high throughput analysis...... techniques (the so-called—omics approaches) and integrative approaches (systems biology) allow the development of novel microbial cell factories as valuable platforms for large scale production of therapeutic proteins. This review summarizes the main achievements and the current situation in the field...

  15. In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Murphy, Michael R; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2009-02-25

    It is of interest to benefit from the positive intestinal health outcomes of prebiotic consumption but with minimal gas production. This study examined gas production potential, fermentation profile, and microbial modulation properties of several types of oligosaccharides. Substrates studied included short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, and polydextrose. Each substrate was fermented in vitro using human fecal inoculum, and fermentation characteristics were quantified at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h. Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chain oligosaccharides were more rapidly fermented and produced more SCFA and gas than substrates with greater degrees of polymerization. Lactobacilli increased similarly among substrates. Short-chain oligosaccharides fermentation resulted in the greatest increase in bifidobacteria concentrations. Mixing short- and long-chain oligosaccharides attenuated short-chain oligosaccharide fermentation rate and extent. This study provides new information on the fermentation characteristics of some oligosaccharides used in human nutrition.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  17. Bioethanol production from date palm fruit waste fermentation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    2016-07-27

    Jul 27, 2016 ... and is significant for industrial development, investment, and use. ... Actually, due to modern biotechnologies, it is possible to valorise the ... Keywords: Algerian Sahara, bioethanol, dates-palms waste valorization, distillation, fermentation, solar .... with the solar water heater, in order to reduce the energy.

  18. Fermentation characteristics of different grain legumes cultivars with the in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Isabella Cutrignelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present trial the fermentation characteristics of some grain legumes were studied using the in vitro gas production technique with a view to using them as an alternative protein source to soybean in animal feeding. Three cultivars of lupine, six cultivars of faba bean and seven cultivars of peas were incubated at 39°C with buffalo rumen fluid for 96h. OM degradability and fermentation kinetics were studied. Few differences in fermentation characteristics were observed among the cultivars for each legumes grains. “Scuro di Torre Lama” showed significantly (P<0.01 lower values of dOM and OMCV than the other 5 faba bean cultivars; “Lublanc” had lower (P<0.01 OMCV than the other 2 lupine cultivars and “Spirale” produced less gas and showed a faster kinetics than the other 6 peas cultivars. In vitro fermentation characteristics of the tested grain legumes were comparable to that obtained from soybean meal in our previous in vitro study. The pooled peas showed the significantly (P<0.01 higher gas production (OMCV: 394 ml/g and faster fermentation kinetics (Rmax: 12.6 ml/h; the pooled lupine showed the lowest gas production (OMCV: 284 ml/g and the slowest fermentation process (Rmax: 7.42 ml/h.

  19. Metabolic engineering of the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae away from glycerol formation towards alternative products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Jain, V.; Divol, B.; Prior, B.; Franz Bauer, F. [Stellenbosch Univ., (South Africa). Inst. for Wine Biotechnology

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the commercial advantage of eliminating glycerol from the ethanol fermentation process and possible replacement with other value products. Under fermentative conditions yeast re-oxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Deletion of these two genes renders the cells incapable of maintaining fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. This study examined the feasibility of converting this excess NADH to Nad by transforming a glycerol synthesizing double mutant with genes that could restore the redox balance in the yeast. The study showed that although glycerol formation can be eliminated during fermentation, no alternative redox balancing pathway is as efficient at the glycerol pathway in maintaining fermentation. Alternative products such as sorbitol and 1,2propanediol can be produced instead of glycerol, but these genetic manipulations were shown to have negative effects on fermentative ability. Ethanol yields, but not concentrations, were improved in mutants. Significant amounts of acetate were also produced. This paper discussed the metabolic and biotechnological implications of these findings. tabs., figs.

  20. Food Grade Ehanol Production With Fermentation And Distillation Process Using Stem Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Setyowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10% -12% of sugar in its stem which is the optimum sugar concentration in fermentation process for bioethanol production. Sorghum has a high potential to be developed as a raw material for food-grade ethanol production which can be used to support food-grade ethanol demand in Indonesia through a fermentation process. This research focused on the effect of microorganism varieties in the fermentation process which are mutant Zymomonas mobilis (A3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis mixture. The Research for purification process are separated into two parts, distillation with steel wool structured packing and dehydration process using molecular sieve and eliminating impurities using activated carbon. The research can be concluded that the best productivity shown in continuous fermentation in the amount of 84.049 (g / L.hr using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest percentage of ethanol yield produced in batch fermentation using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis that is equal to 51.269%. And for the adsorption, the best result shown in continuous fermentation by using Zymomonas Mobilis of 88.374%..

  1. Microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpiye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, O K

    1992-10-01

    Okpiye is a food condiment prepared by the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds. The traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the condiment were investigated. During laboratory fermentation that lasted 96 h, the mesquite seeds underwent a natural fermentation that was characterised by the growth of microorganisms to 10(6)-10(8) cfu/g. Several species of bacteria especially B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp were found to be the most actively involved organisms. However, significant contributions to the microbial ecology were made by Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Lactobacillus spp were present in low numbers towards the end of the fermentation. The presence of Proteus and Pseudomonas spp in traditional fermented samples demonstrate the variability which may exist in the microflora of individual fermented samples. Variations in the important microbial groups show that Bacillus spp were the most prevalent species and occurred until the end of fermentation. Temperature, pH and titratable acidity varied with time and were influenced by the metabolic activities of the microorganisms.

  2. Production of benzoic acid as a natural compound in fermented skim milk using commercial cheese starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the production of natural benzoic acid (BA) in skim milk fermentation by 5 kinds of commercial cheese starters. Five kinds of starter were inoculated into 10% reconstituted skim milk, and then the culture was incubated at 2-h intervals for 10 h at 30, 35, and 40°C. In fermentation by MW 046 N+LH 13, the starter for making raclette, BA was highly detected after 8 h at 30 and 35°C. In fermentation by LH 13, the starter for making berg, BA steadily increased and was highly detected at 40°C. In fermentation by TCC-3+TCC-4, the starter for making Caciocavallo and mozzarella, BA was detected after 2 h at 40°C. Also, BA was detected after 4 and 8 h at 35 and 30°C, respectively. In fermentation by Flora-Danica, the starter for making Gouda, BA was increased until 6 h and decreased after 6 h at all temperatures. Among the 5 kinds of fermentation, the level of BA was the highest in fermentation by Flora-Danica at 6 h at 35°C, at 14.55 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced submerged Aspergillus ficuum phytase production by implementation of fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Phytase is an important feed and food additive, which is both used in animal and human diets. Phytase has been used to increase the absorption of several divalent ions, amino acids, and proteins in the bodies and to decrease the excessive phosphorus release in the manure to prevent negative effects on the environment. To date, microbial phytase has been mostly produced in solid-state fermentations with insignificant production volumes. There are only a few studies in the literature that phytase productions were performed in submerged bench-top reactor scale. In our previous studies, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) and important fermentation medium ingredients (glucose, Na-phytate, and CaSO4) were optimized. This study was undertaken for further enhancement of phytase production with Aspergillus ficuum in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch fermentations. The results showed that addition of 60 g of glucose and 10 g of Na-phytate at 96 h of fermentation increased phytase activity to 3.84 and 4.82 U/ml, respectively. Therefore, the maximum phytase activity was further enhanced with addition of glucose and Na-phytate by 11 and 40 %, respectively, as compared to batch phytase fermentations. It was also reported that phytase activity increased higher in early log stage additions than late log stage additions because of higher microbial activity. In addition, the phytase activity in fed-batch fermentation did not drop significantly as compared to the batch fermentation. Overall, this study shows that fungal phytase can be successfully produced in submerged fed-batch fermentations.

  4. Fermentation of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production: comparison of fermentative microorganisms and process configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abelairas, María; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2013-08-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi to produce bioethanol is an environmentally friendly alternative to the commonly used physico-chemical processes. After biological pretreatment, a solid substrate composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, the two latter with a composition lower than that of the initial substrate, is obtained. In this study, six microorganisms and four process configurations were utilised to ferment a hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus. To enhance total sugars utilisation, five of these microorganisms are able to metabolise, in addition to glucose, most of the pentoses obtained after the hydrolysis of wheat straw by the application of a mixture of hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic enzymes. The highest overall ethanol yield was obtained with the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus. Its application in combination with the best process configuration yielded 163 mg ethanol per gram of raw wheat straw, which was between 23 and 35 % greater than the yields typically obtained with a conventional bioethanol process, in which wheat straw is pretreated using steam explosion and fermented with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Ethanol production from hot-water sugar maple wood extract hydrolyzate: fermentation media optimization for Escherichia coli FBWHR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang Wang; Chenhui Liang; Shijie Liu

    2015-01-01

    .... Response surface methodology was employed to investigate the effect of fermentation media on the ethanol production from concentrated hot-water sugar maple hemicellulosic wood extract hydrolyzate...

  6. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  7. Biomass, strain engineering, and fermentation processes for butanol production by solventogenic clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-10-01

    Butanol is considered an attractive biofuel and a commercially important bulk chemical. However, economical production of butanol by solventogenic clostridia, e.g., via fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), is hampered by low fermentation performance, mainly as a result of toxicity of butanol to microorganisms and high substrate costs. Recently, sugars from marine macroalgae and syngas were recognized as potent carbon sources in biomass feedstocks that are abundant and do not compete for arable land with edible crops. With the aid of systems metabolic engineering, many researchers have developed clostridial strains with improved performance on fermentation of these substrates. Alternatively, fermentation strategies integrated with butanol recovery processes such as adsorption, gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation have been designed to increase the overall titer of butanol and volumetric productivity. Nevertheless, for economically feasible production of butanol, innovative strategies based on recent research should be implemented. This review describes and discusses recent advances in the development of biomass feedstocks, microbial strains, and fermentation processes for butanol production.

  8. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgura, E.; Afsar, N.; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Yucel, M.; Gunduz, U. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP) hydrolysate and molasses was investigated in indoor, batch operated bioreactors. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the dark fermentation step, and Rhodobacter capsulatus (DSM1710) was used in the photofermentation step. Addition of buffer, Fe and Mo to dark fermentor effluents (DFEs) improved the overall efficiency of hydrogen production. The initial acetate concentration in the DFE needed to be adjusted to 30-40 mM by dilution to increase the yield of hydrogen in batch light-supported fermentations. The thermophilic DFEs are suitable for photofermentative hydrogen production, provided that they are supplemented with buffer and nutrients. The overall hydrogen yield of the two-step fermentations was higher than the yield of single step dark fermentations.

  9. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced.

  10. ISOFLAVONES SUPPLEMENTATION OF A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED SOY PRODUCT: EFFECTS ON QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ISOFLAVONES PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino CAVALLINI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of isofl avones supplementation of a fermented soy product on its sensory acceptance, physicochemical properties and probiotic cell viable count. Additionally we also investigated the ability of the mixed starter cultures (Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 to modify the isofl avones profi le of soy product during the fermentation process. Three products were analysed: soy product fermented with E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus 416, isofl avonessupplemented soy product (fermented with E. faecium CRL 183 and L. helveticus 416; 50 mg/100g, Isofl avin®, Galena, Brazil and unfermented soy product. A panel of judges evaluated the acceptability of the samples on a nine point structured hedonic scale. The chemical composition namely fat, protein, ash and total carbohydrate contents, pH, enumeration of viable Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and quantifi cation of isofl avones using HPLC were investigated. All determinations were conducted after 7 days storage at 10°C. The sensorial acceptance was reduced in the isofl avones-supplemented soy product, but this effect was not signifi cant compared to the sample without isofl avones addition. Chemical composition did not differ (p<0.05 among the samples. Cell viable counts were reduced and total fermentation time was longer in the isofl avonessupplemented soy product, suggesting that the isofl avone addition could inhibit the starter cultures. However, all the products may be considered probiotic since they exhibited lactic acid bacterial populations varying from 2.3 x 109 up to 1.22 x 1010 CFU/mL. Fermentation of soymilk did not change the isofl avones profi le. In conclusion, it was possible to obtain a fermented soy product containing a high isofl avones concentration, adequate sensory and chemical characteristics and lactic acid bacterial viability suffi ciently high to characterize

  11. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p......H decreased to 4.5 in 2 days, but omitting garlic resulted in a lack of acidification. LAB were predominant and approximately one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lact. plantarum...... AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  12. Effect of biosurfactants on laccase production and phenol biodegradation in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Fang; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Li, Hui; Jiang, Li-Li; Zeng, Guang-Ming

    2011-05-01

    The effects of two biosurfactants, tea saponin (TS) and rhamnolipid (RL), on the production of laccase and the degradation of phenol by P. simplicissimum were investigated in solid-state fermentation consisting of rice straw, rice bran, and sawdust. Firstly, the effects of phenol on the fermentation process were studied in the absence of surfactants. Then, a phenol concentration of 3 mg/g in the fermentation was selected for detailed research with the addition of biosurfactants. The results showed that TS and RL at different concentrations had stimulative effects on the enzyme activity of laccase. The highest laccase activities during the fermentation were enhanced by 163.7%, 68.2%, and 23.3% by TS at concentrations of 0.02%, 0.06%, and 0.10%, respectively. As a result of the enhanced laccase activity, the efficiency of phenol degradation was also improved by both biosurfactants. RL caused a significant increase of fungal biomass in the early stage of the fermentation, while TS had an inhibitory effect in the whole process. These results indicated that RL could mitigate the negative effects of phenol on fungal growth and consequently improve laccase production and phenol degradation. TS was potentially applicable to phenol-polluted solid-state fermentation.

  13. Improving ethanol productivity through self-cycling fermentation of yeast: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chae, Michael; Sauvageau, Dominic; Bressler, David C

    2017-01-01

    The cellulosic ethanol industry has developed efficient strategies for converting sugars obtained from various cellulosic feedstocks to bioethanol. However, any further major improvements in ethanol productivity will require development of novel and innovative fermentation strategies that enhance incumbent technologies in a cost-effective manner. The present study investigates the feasibility of applying self-cycling fermentation (SCF) to cellulosic ethanol production to elevate productivity. SCF is a semi-continuous cycling process that employs the following strategy: once the onset of stationary phase is detected, half of the broth volume is automatically harvested and replaced with fresh medium to initiate the next cycle. SCF has been shown to increase product yield and/or productivity in many types of microbial cultivation. To test whether this cycling process could increase productivity during ethanol fermentations, we mimicked the process by manually cycling the fermentation for five cycles in shake flasks, and then compared the results to batch operation. Mimicking SCF for five cycles resulted in regular patterns with regards to glucose consumption, ethanol titer, pH, and biomass production. Compared to batch fermentation, our cycling strategy displayed improved ethanol volumetric productivity (the titer of ethanol produced in a given cycle per corresponding cycle time) and specific productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per cellular biomass) by 43.1 ± 11.6 and 42.7 ± 9.8%, respectively. Five successive cycles contributed to an improvement of overall productivity (the aggregate amount of ethanol produced at the end of a given cycle per total processing time) and the estimated annual ethanol productivity (the amount of ethanol produced per year) by 64.4 ± 3.3 and 33.1 ± 7.2%, respectively. This study provides proof of concept that applying SCF to ethanol production could significantly increase productivities, which will help strengthen the

  14. Production of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru alcohol no seizoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagashima (Japan))

    1994-01-11

    This invention aims to present a production method of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method in which each batch fermentation is performed rapidly with high concentration of yeast to overcome weak points of conventional procedures and the end point of the fermentation is determined accurately and quickly to switch to the next batch with long-term stability. This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol with repetitive batch fermentation by use of carbohydrate and starchy raw materials, in which a gas flow meter to measure velocity water head is equipped and the end point of the fermentation is judged when the flow rate of fermentation exhaust gas is 0.35-0.1 m[sup 3]/kl[center dot]hr or under. This invention produces ethyl alcohol effectively from raw materials and enables efficient repetitive batch fermentation with less damage of the yeast. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass. Phase II (FY 1981) annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A. A.; Wene, E. G.

    1981-10-01

    This program has as its main goal the isolation and development of Fusarium strains that can efficiently and economically decompose plant polysaccharides to pentoses and hexoses and ferment them to ethanol for fuel purposes. During Phase II (FY 1981) of this program, more than 800 new Fusarium isolates were isolated and screened. All showed cellulolytic activity. The Fusarium mutant ANL 3-72181 (derived after uv exposure of ANL 22 isolate) produced 2.45 iu cellulase after 14 days. This cellulase activity was achieved in the presence of 0.7 mg/mL extracellular protein. In separate tests, the use of both proteose peptone and yeast extract with 1% cellulose increased the production of extracellular protein three times over that on cellulose alone. Initial fermentation by Fusarium strains on 1% glucose produced up to 4.2 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. All Fusarium isolates and mutants found during this period were screened for xylose fermentation. Ethanol production during early experimentation required from 120 to 144 hours to yield 4.0 to 4.5 mg/mL ethanol from 1% xylose solutions. Through continuous selection of isolates, this time was reduced to 66 hours. By recycling Fusarium cell mass, fermentations of 1% xylose yielded 4.0 to 4.3 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Consecutive fermentations of 2% xylose produced an average of 8.1 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Fermentation of a 4.5% xylose + 2% glucose solution produced 21 mg/mL ethanol and 0.8 mg/mL acetic acid, while fermentation of a 7% xylose + 2% glucose solution yielded 25.5 mg/mL ethanol and 0.85 mg/mL acetic acid; these fermentations were aerated at a rate of 0.03 v/v-min.

  16. Fermentative biohydrogen production by a new chemoheterotrophic bacterium Citrobacter sp. Y19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youkwan Oh; Sunghoon Park [Changjeon Univ., Pusan (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry; Eunhee Seol [Changjeon Univ., Pusan (Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Jung Rae Kim [Pusan National Univ. (Korea). Inst. for Environmental Technology and Industry

    2003-12-01

    A newly isolated Citrobacter sp. Y19 for CO-dependent H{sub 2} production was studied for its capability of fermentative H{sub 2} production in batch cultivation. When glucose was used as carbon source, the pH of the culture medium significantly decreased as fermentation proceeded and H{sub 2} production was seriously inhibited. The use of fortified phosphate at 60-180 mM alleviated this inhibition. By increasing culture temperatures (25-36{sup o}C), faster cell growth and higher initial H{sub 2} production rates were observed but final H{sub 2} production and yield were almost constant irrespective of temperature. Optimal specific H{sub 2} production activity was observed at 36{sup o}C and pH 6-7. The increase of glucose concentration (1-20 g/l) in the culture medium resulted in higher H{sub 2} production, but the yield of H{sub 2} production (mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose) gradually decreased with increasing glucose concentration. Carbon mass balance showed that, in addition to cell mass, ethanol, acetate and CO{sub 2} were the major fermentation products and comprised more than 70% of the carbon consumed. The maximal H{sub 2} yield and H{sub 2} production rate were estimated to be 2.49 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 32.3 mmol H{sub 2}/gcellh, respectively. The overall performance of Y19 in fermentative H{sub 2} production is quite similar to that of most H{sub 2}-producing bacteria previously studied, especially to that of Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4, and this indicates that the attempt to find an outstanding bacterial strain for fermentative H{sub 2} production might be very difficult if not impossible. (author)

  17. Application of a packed bed reactor for the production of hydrogen from cheese whey permeate: effect of organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Camino; Carracedo, Begoña; Martínez, Elia Judith; Gómez, Xiomar; Morán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The production of H2 was studied using a packed bed reactor with polyurethane foam acting as support material. Experiments were performed using mixed microflora under non sterile conditions. The system was initially operated with synthetic wastewater as the sole substrate. Subsequently, cheese whey permeate was added to the system at varying organic loading rates (OLR). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by applying a continuous decrease in OLR. As a result, a significant decrease in H2 yields (HY) was observed with the decrease in OLR from 18.8 to 6.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L d. Microbial analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of non-hydrogen producers, Sporolactobacillus sp. and Prevotella, was the main reason for low HYs obtained. This behavior indicates that the fermentation under non-sterile conditions was favored by high concentrations of substrate by creating an adverse environment for nonhydrogen producer organisms.

  18. Bioethanol production by solid state fermentation from cheese whey mixed with brewer’s spent grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi COMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Food by-products, whey mixed with spent grains are renewable resources which can be used as fermentation susbtrates for bioethanol production using selected Kluyveromyces spp. yeast strains. These food by-products have extensive results as wastes in food industry, are cheap and readily available sources and their use has also important benefit for the environmental protection. The ability of some Kluyveromyces spp. yeast strains (commercial starter culture and wild culture to ferment the carbohydrates mixture from a complex fermentation substrate based on hydrolyzed brewer’s spent grains and cheese whey was analyzed. Three brewer’s spent grains (hydrolyzed and cheese whey (heat treated ratios (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were considered in the study. Studies have shown that using an optimum combination of fermentation substrate, respectively hydrolyzed brewer’s spent grains and heat treated cheese whey in ratio of 1:2 have influence on yeast fermentation behavior and yield ethanol production.

  19. Developments in the Fermentation Process and Quality Improvement Strategies for Mead Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Iglesias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads’ quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies.

  20. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  1. Developments in the fermentation process and quality improvement strategies for mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antonio; Pascoal, Ananias; Choupina, Altino Branco; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-08-19

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic drink derived from the fermentation of diluted honey in the presence of appropriate yeast. Its modern production, in general terms, involves the addition of nutrients to initial diluted honey, pasteurization, yeast inoculation, fermentation and removal of impurities. Undesirable events along the process have been reported; among them, we highlight: delayed or arrested fermentations, modified and unpleasant sensory and quality parameters of the final product. These problems have been linked to the inability of yeasts to accomplish their role in extreme growth conditions. Emphasis has also been placed on the long fermentation times required, ranging from weeks to months, particularly when traditional procedures are applied and when the honey concentration is low. A series of alterations to the must and technological changes have been proposed in order to optimize the mead production process. In this context, this review examines the evidence that aims to improve meads' quality and make the production process easier and more efficient, by clarifying the source of unexpected events, describing the implementation of different fermentative microorganisms and using new methodologies.

  2. Effect of submerged and solid-state fermentation on pigment and citrinin production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Zhiqiang; Dai, Bing; Zhang, Wenxue; Yuan, Yongjun

    2013-09-01

    Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.

  3. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Kachrimanidou, Vasiliki; Dorado, Maria Pilar; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2014-05-01

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement.

  5. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  6. Microbial Community Structure of Three Traditional Zambian Fermented Products: Mabisi, Chibwantu and Munkoyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoustra, S.E.; Kasase, C.; Toarta, C.; Kassen, R.; Poulain, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provi

  7. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng;

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  8. Modeling of fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract based on modified ADM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    of fermentative hydrogen production from the extractable sugars of sweet sorghum biomass. Kinetic parameters for sugars’ consumption and yield coefficients of acetic, propionic and butyric acid production were estimated using the experimental data obtained from the steady states of a CSTR. Batch experiments were...

  9. Production of volatile fatty acids from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and alkaline fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khiewwijit, R.; Temmink, B.G.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Keesman, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the potential of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from sewage by a combined high-loaded membrane bioreactor and sequencing batch fermenter. VFA production was optimized with respect to SRT and alkaline pH (pH 8–10). Application of pH shock to a value of 9 at the start of a s

  10. Long-term dietary pattern of fecal donor correlates with butyrate production and markers of protein fermentation during in vitro fecal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Rose, Devin J

    2014-09-01

    Diet influences gut microbiota composition. Therefore, we hypothesized that diet would impact the extent of dietary fiber utilization and the types of metabolic end-products produced by the microbiota during in vitro fecal fermentation. By obtaining long-term dietary records from fecal donors, we aimed to determine the correlations between dietary intake variables and dietary fiber degradation and short-/branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) and ammonia production during in vitro fecal fermentation. Eighteen subjects completed 1-year diet history questionnaires and provided fecal samples that were used for in vitro fermentation of a whole wheat substrate. The percentage of dietary fiber fermented was not correlated with nutrient intakes; however, butyrate production was correlated with fecal donor intake of many nutrients of which principal component analysis revealed were mostly contributed by grain-, nut-, and vegetable-based foods. Negative correlations were found for propionate with intake of total carbohydrate, added sugar, and sucrose and for ammonia and BCFA production with intake of unsaturated fats. Thus, our analysis did not support our first hypothesis: the percentage of dietary fiber fermented during in vitro fermentation was not correlated with dietary records. However, production of butyrate; BCFA; ammonia; and, to a lesser extent, propionate was correlated with the diet records of fecal donors, thus supporting our second hypothesis. These results suggest that diets high in plant-based foods and high in unsaturated fats are associated with microbial metabolism that is consistent with host health.

  11. Optimization of Amylase Production from B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270) Using Solid State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Koel; Maity, Sujan; Roy, Sudeshna; Pahan, Koustav; Pathak, Rishija; Majumdar, Susmita; Gupta, Suvroma

    2014-01-01

    Demand for microbial amylase production persists because of its immense importance in wide spectrum industries. The present work has been initiated with a goal of optimization of solid state fermentation condition for amylase using agroindustrial waste and microbial strain like B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270). In an aim to improve the productivity of amylase, fermentation has been carried out in the presence of calcium (Ca(+2)), Nitrate (NO3 (-)), and chloride ions (Cl(-)) as well as in the presence of D-inositol and mannitol. Amylase needs calcium ion for the preservation of its structure, activity and stability that proves beneficial also for amylase production using solid state fermentation. The inclusion of ions and sugars in the SSF media is promising which can be explained by the protection offered by them against thermal decay of amylase at various incubation periods at 37°C.

  12. Optimization of Amylase Production from B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for microbial amylase production persists because of its immense importance in wide spectrum industries. The present work has been initiated with a goal of optimization of solid state fermentation condition for amylase using agroindustrial waste and microbial strain like B. amyloliquefaciens (MTCC 1270. In an aim to improve the productivity of amylase, fermentation has been carried out in the presence of calcium (Ca+2, Nitrate (NO3−, and chloride ions (Cl− as well as in the presence of D-inositol and mannitol. Amylase needs calcium ion for the preservation of its structure, activity and stability that proves beneficial also for amylase production using solid state fermentation. The inclusion of ions and sugars in the SSF media is promising which can be explained by the protection offered by them against thermal decay of amylase at various incubation periods at 37°C.

  13. Monitoring of recombinant protein production using bioluminescence in a semiautomated fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezzani, I; Nadri, M; Dorel, C; Lejeune, P; Bellalou, J; Lieto, J; Hammouri, H; Longin, R; Dhurjati, P

    2003-01-01

    On-line optimization of fermentation processes can be greatly aided by the availability of information on the physiological state of the cell. The goal of our "BioLux" research project was to design a recombinant cell capable of intracellular monitoring of product synthesis and to use it as part of an automated fermentation system. A recombinant plasmid was constructed containing an inducible promoter that controls the gene coding for a model protein and the genes necessary for bioluminescence. The cells were cultured in microfermenters equipped with an on-line turbidity sensor and a specially designed on-line light sensor capable of continuous measurement of bioluminescence. Initial studies were done under simple culture conditions, and a linear correlation between luminescence and protein production was obtained. Such specially designed recombinant bioluminescent cells can potentially be applied for model-based inference of intracellular product formation, as well as for optimization and control of recombinant fermentation processes.

  14. Effect of fermentation conditions on biohydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hai M.; Le, Kien A.; Tran, An T.; Le, Phung K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a series of batch tests were conducted to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, fermentation time, and inoculums ratio to hydrogen production using cassava starch as a substrate. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. It was fouund that the suitable fermentation conditions of biohydrogen production should be at temperature 40 ° C; pH 6.5, inoculums to medium ratio 10 % and COD operation at 4800 g/mL. The maximum value of hydrogen volume produced was 76.22 mL. These affected has been evaluated and the result can be used as an reference for the pilot or industrial biohydrogen production.

  15. Process parameters affecting the sustainability of fermentative hydrogen production: A short-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dinamarca, Rune Bakke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation is regarded as the least energy intensive method for H2 production. Extensive literature on experimental attempts to achieve the highest possible theoretical yield (e.g. 4 mol H2/mol glucose is available. All published steady state, mixed culture studies show yields much lower than the theoretical maximums for the substrates applied. This article summarizes the influence of key process parameters (pH and buffer systems, temperature, H2 partial pressure, feed stock, and reactor configuration on fermentative hydrogen production. The following three requirements for successful Bio-H2 fermentation in mixed cultures are identified: (1 Maintain environmental conditions for the formation of oxidized products; (2 Optimize the relationship between biomass and hydrogen yields; and (3 Maintain unfavorable conditions for hydrogen consuming organisms. Fulfilling these requirements has not yet been achieved in stable continuous cultures, and it may not be achievable do to some fundamental limitation.

  16. Optimized Production of Xylitol from Xylose Using a Hyper-Acidophilic Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida tropicalis DSM 7524 produces xylitol, a natural, low-calorie sweetener, by fermentation of xylose. In order to increase xylitol production rate during the submerged fermentation process, some parameters-substrate (xylose concentration, pH, aeration rate, temperature and fermentation strategy-have been optimized. The maximum xylitol yield reached at 60–80 g/L initial xylose concentration, pH 5.5 at 37 °C was 83.66% (w/w on consumed xylose in microaerophilic conditions (kLa = 2·h−1. Scaling up on 3 L fermenter, with a fed-batch strategy, the best xylitol yield was 86.84% (w/w, against a 90% of theoretical yield. The hyper-acidophilic behaviour of C. tropicalis makes this strain particularly promising for industrial application, due to the possibility to work in non-sterile conditions.

  17. Fermentation guide for potatoes. A step-by-step procedure for small-scale ethanol fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This guide describes the steps involved in the successful batch starch conversion and fermentation of potatoes for the production of fuel grade ethanol. The first part of this manual provides an overview of ethanol production from feedstock to fermentation. The second part of the manual is a recipe section that gives step-by-step procedures necessary for successful fermentation. Chapter titles are: major steps in ethanol production; equipment and chemicals; water testing and treatment; feedstock cleaning and crushing; precooking; hydration and dextrinization; cooking; choosing the best enzymes; fermentation; core and cleaning, step-by-step procedure; refinements; and supplies. (DMC)

  18. Metabolic flux network analysis of fermentative hydrogen production: using Clostridium tyrobutyricum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Lin, Che-An; Liu, I-Chun; Wu, Chao-Wei

    2013-08-01

    This study applies metabolic flux network analysis (MFA) to evaluate the metabolic flux of fermentative hydrogen production (FHP) with the use of Clostridium tyrobutyricum fed with either glucose or lactate/acetate as substrates. The MFA results suggest that hydraulic retention time (HRT) presents significant impact on hydrogen production from glucose. At HRT between 4 and 18 h, increase of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production, while at HRT below 4 h decrease of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production. The flux for lactate, butyrate and acetate seemed to affect H₂ production, due presumably to their impacts on the balance of NADH, ferredoxin and ATP. It is suggested that the MFA can be a useful tool to provide valuable information for optimization and design of the fermentative hydrogen production process.

  19. Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-03-01

    The concept of utilizing excess biomass or wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial residues to produce energy, feeds or foods, and other useful products is not necessarily new. Recently, fermentation of biomass has gained considerable attention due to the forthcoming scarcity of fossil fuels and also due to the necessity of increasing world food and feed supplies. A cost-effective viable process for lactic acid production has to be developed for which several attempts have been initiated. Fermentation techniques result in the production of either D: (-) or L: (+) lactic acid, or a racemic mixture of both, depending on the type of organism used. The interest in the fermentative production of lactic acid has increased due to the prospects of environmental friendliness and of using renewable resources instead of petrochemicals. Amylolytic bacteria Lactobacillus amylovorus ATCC 33622 is reported to have the efficiency of full conversion of liquefied cornstarch to lactic acid with a productivity of 20 g l(-1) h(-1). A maximum of 35 g l(-1) h(-1) was reported using a high cell density of L. helveticus (27 g l(-1)) with a complete conversion of 55- to 60-g l(-1) lactose present in whey. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is proved to be best in the sense of high substrate concentration in lower reactor volume and low fermentation cost. In this review, a survey has been made to see how effectively the fermentation technology explored and exploited the cheaply available source materials for value addition with special emphasis on lactic acid production.

  20. Influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and glucobrassicin degradation products in sauerkraut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palani, Kalpana; Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Meske, Diana; Keppler, Julia Katharina; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Heller, Knut J; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-01-01

    A systematic investigation was carried out on the influence of fermentation on glucosinolates and their degradation products from fresh raw cabbage, throughout fermentation at 20 °C and storage at 4 °C. Glucosinolates were degraded dramatically between Day 2 and 5 of fermentation and by Day 7 there was no detectable amount of glucosinolates left. Fermentation led to formation of potential bioactive compounds ascorbigen (13.0 μmol/100 g FW) and indole-3-carbinol (4.52 μmol/100g FW) with their higher concentrations from Day 5 to Day 9. However, during storage indole-3-carbinol slowly degraded to 0.68 μmol/100 g FW, while ascorbigen was relatively stable from Week 4 until Week 8 at 6.78 μmol/100 g FW. In contrast, the content of indole-3-acetonitrile decreased rapidly during fermentation from 3.6 to 0.14 μmol/100 g FW. The results imply a maximum of health beneficial compounds after fermentation (7-9 days) in contrast to raw cabbage or stored sauerkraut.

  1. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  2. Ammonium acetate enhances solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018 using cassava as a fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Hu, Shiyuan; Chen, Jun; Shao, Lijun; He, Huiqi; Yang, Yunliu; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2009-09-01

    Cassava, due to its high starch content and low cost, is a promising candidate substrate for large-scale fermentation processes aimed at producing the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). However, the solvent yield from the fermentation of cassava reaches only 60% of that achieved by fermenting corn. We have found that the addition of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4)) to the cassava medium significantly promotes solvent production from cassava fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018, a mutant with a high butanol ratio. When cassava medium was supplemented with 30 mM ammonium acetate, the acetone, butanol and total solvent production reached 5.0, 13.0 and 19.4 g/l, respectively, after 48 h of fermentation. This level of solvent production is comparable to that obtained from corn medium. Both ammonium (NH(4) (+)) and acetate (CH(3)COO(-)) were required for increased solvent synthesis. We also demonstrated substantially increased acetic and butyric acid accumulation during the acidogenesis phase as well as greater acid re-assimilation during the solventogenesis period in ammonium acetate-supplemented cassava medium. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcription of several genes encoding enzymes related to acidogenesis and solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 were enhanced by the addition of ammonium acetate to the cassava medium.

  3. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) Using Solid State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raul, Dibyangana; Biswas, Tania; Mukhopadhyay, Suchita; Kumar Das, Shrayan; Gupta, Suvroma

    2014-01-01

    Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF) for α -amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF) due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30-70% (NH4)2SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  4. Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case-control study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Veer, P; Dekker, J M; Lamers, J W; Kok, F J; Schouten, E G; Brants, H A; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1989-07-15

    In a case-control study in The Netherlands, we observed a significantly lower consumption of fermented milk products (predominantly yogurt and buttermilk) among 133 incident breast cancer cases as compared to 289 population controls (mean +/- SD among users only, 116 +/- 100 versus 157 +/- 144 g/day; P less than 0.01). The age-adjusted odds ratio of daily consumption of 1.5 glasses (greater than or equal to 225 g) of fermented milk versus none was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.08). When fermented milk was entered as a continuous variable (per g) in either age-adjusted or multivariate analysis, the odds ratio expressed per 225 g was 0.63 (multivariate-adjusted 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96). After multivariate adjustment for intake of fat and other confounders, a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer risk was also observed for increasing intake of Gouda cheese. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio expressed per 60 g of this fermented product was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.95). For daily intake of milk, no statistically significant differences were observed between cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that high consumption of fermented milk products may protect against breast cancer.

  5. High-Gravity Brewing: Effects of Nutrition on Yeast Composition, Fermentative Ability, and Alcohol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Gregory P.; Magnus, Carol A.; Ingledew, W M

    1984-01-01

    A number of economic and product quality advantages exist in brewing when high-gravity worts of 16 to 18% dissolved solids are fermented. Above this level, production problems such as slow or stuck fermentations and poor yeast viability occur. Ethanol toxicity has been cited as the main cause, as brewers' yeasts are reported to tolerate only 7 to 9% (vol/vol) ethanol. The inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure has also been implicated. In this report, it is demonstrated that the factor li...

  6. Fermentation product and method for its manufacture. Fermentationsprodukt und Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Y.

    1979-01-08

    The invention relates to lactic acid fermentation of the aqueous extract of tear gas whereby a curd-like product of good flavour and high nutritional value is obtained. The concentration of usable constituents of tear gas extracted can be increased through the addition of starch hydrolases. The aqueous extract contains at least 10 wt.% of solid matter. The extraction temperature lies between 60/sup 0/C and the boiling point of the system. The fermentation product can either be used as such, or can be added to other foodstuffs to maintain good health.

  7. AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation holds tremendous potentials for the production of the enzyme amylase by Aspergillus niger. Different solid substrates like rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, coconut oil cake, gingely oil cake and groundnut oil cake are rich in starch. These agro industrial residues are cheap raw materials for amylase production. Aspergillus niger BAN3E was identified to be the best producer of amylase. When A. niger BAN3E was incubated for 6 days at 37°C it showed high yield of amylase in groundnut oil cake substratein solid state fermentation. Sucrose and nitrogen improved the yield in the same medium.

  8. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters for natural indigo production during fermentation of Indigofera plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saikat; Roychoudhary, Sampurna; Sarangi, Bijaya Ketan

    2017-10-01

    Natural indigo production from Indigofera plant biomass requires fermentation of biomass, oxidation of fermented broth, settling of oxidized product (indigo), filtration and recovery. In this study, we have investigated roles of physico-chemical parameters during fermentation with respect to product yield. The study showed that water-to-biomass ratio (1:10), fermentation duration (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 h), pH (6-7.5), dissolved oxygen concentration; DO (0.5-3 mg ml(-1)), oxidation reduction potential ORP (+50 to -300 mV) and temperature (25-40 °C) during fermentation, oxidation and dye recovery from the broth are directly or indirectly related to indigo yield. Biomass fermentation for 12 h at 40 °C incubation temperature yields the highest biogenic indigo (2.84 mg g(-1)) out of the different experimental conditions.

  9. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  10. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  11. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health. PMID:25839033

  12. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in order to establish an efficient bioethanol production. In this work, no harsh pre-treatment steps were applied and also use a simple one-vat reactor without the risk of losing liberated carbohydrate. The first step in using rice straw for bioethanol production is size reduction through milling and sieving process prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Direct saccharification and fermentation (DSF of Indica IR.64 rice straw was examined and compared with two type of control (systems devoid of yeast and enzyme. The experiment were carried out under anaerobic condition, where the cellulase crude enzyme and cellulosic substrates (rice straw produced glucose from the cellulose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly assimilated the glucose to bioethanol. The faster rate of bioethanol production during DSF by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained within the first 12h. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and theoretical ethanol yield of untreated rice straw were 0.25 g/L, 10 and 14.88%, respectively. Nevertheless, the direct saccharification and fermentation shows the potential for lower cost and higher efficiency for bioethanol production.

  13. In vitro fermentation studies for selection and evaluation of Bacillus strains as starter cultures for the production of okpehe, a traditional African fermented condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Sanni, Abiodun I; Franz, Charles M A P; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2007-01-25

    Selected Bacillus and Enterococcus strains, isolated from traditional okpehe fermentations, were studied for their suitability as starter cultures in laboratory-scale fermentations of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpehe, a traditional fermented vegetable product of Nigeria. The strains were selected on the basis of highest proteolytic activity, as determined with the APIZYM (BioMerieux) test. The choice of starter strains was narrowed to Bacillus subtilis strains BFE 5301 and BFE 5372. These were determined as the best starter combination because of rapid growth, high amylolytic and proteolytic activities, high levels of polyglutamic acid production by strain BFE 5372, as well as bacteriocin production by strain BFE 5301. Other mixed culture fermentations did not yield sensorically acceptable products. Although a monoculture fermentation, using only B. subtilis strain BFE 5372, produced okpehe with very good sensory characteristics, the growth of B. cereus could be detected after 48 h fermentation, indicating that this starter did not sufficiently contribute to product safety. Mixed culture fermentation with the combination of bacteriocin-producing starter B. subtilis BFE 5301 and the non-bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis BFE 5372, produced a product with good sensory characteristics, in which growth of B. cereus was delayed. The bacteriocin produced by B. subtilis strain BFE 5301 was identified as subtilisin, using subtilisin-specific primers and PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene. The bacteriocin was heat-stable at 100 degrees C for 10 min and exhibited highest activity at pH values lower or equal to pH 6.0. The bacteriocin was sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin at concentrations of 10 mg/ml.

  14. Lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Hailing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    This work focused on the lactic acid production from acidogenic fermentation of fruit and vegetable wastes treatment. A long term completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) lasting for 50 days was operated at organic loading rate (OLR) of 11 gVS/(L d) and sludge retention time (SRT) of 3 days with pH controlled at 4.0 (1-24 day) and 5.0 (25-50 day). The results indicated that high amount of approximately 10-20 g/L lactic acid was produced at pH of 4.0 and the fermentation type converted from coexistence of homofermentation and heterofermentation into heterofermentation. At pH of 5.0, the hydrolysis reaction was improved and the total concentration of fermentation products increased up to 29.5 g COD/L. The heterofermentation was maintained, however, bifidus pathway by Bifidobacterium played an important role.

  15. Solid-state fermentation for the production of Monascus pigments from jackfruit seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babitha, Sumathy; Soccol, Carlos R; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of jackfruit seed powder as a substrate for the production of pigments by Monascus purpureus in solid-state fermentation (SSF). A pigment yield of 25ODUnits/g dry fermented substrate was achieved by employing jackfruit seed powder with optimized process parameters such as 50% initial moisture content, incubation temperature 30 degrees C, 9x10(4)spores/g dry substrate inoculum and an incubation period of seven days. The color of the pigments was stable over a wide range of pH, apparently due to the buffering nature of the substrate, which could be a significant point for its scope in food applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on pigment production using jackfruit seed powder in solid-state fermentation (SSF).

  16. Cellulase production through solid-state tray fermentation, and its use for bioethanol from sorghum stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ayman Salih Omer; Pandey, Ashok; Rao, S S; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2017-10-01

    The production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran and cellulose was optimized employing a two stage statistical design of experiments. Optimization of process parameters resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in CMCase production to 959.53IU/gDS. The process was evaluated at pilot scale in tray fermenters and yielded 457IU/gDS using the lab conditions and indicating possibility for further improvement. The cellulase could effectively hydrolyze alkali pretreated sorghum stover and addition of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase improved the hydrolytic efficiency 174%, indicating the potential to use this blend for effective saccharification of sorghum stover biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum stover was fermented to ethanol with ∼80% efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Electrochemically active microorganisms and electrolytically assisted fermentative hydrogen production--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianchang; Zhang, Wudi; Yin, Fang; Xu, Rui; Chen, Yubao

    2009-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production can be improved by electrolysis and electrochemically active microorganisms which are capable of using an electrode as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter, in particular, volatile acids produced after fermentation. Firstly volatile acids can be completely converted into CO2, electrons and protons on the surface of anode. Then the electrons flow to cathode through anode and wires, and at the same time the protons move to cathode through cation membrane between anode chamber and cathode chamber. Finally the electrons and the protons combine into hydrogen when they meet at the surface of cathode. In such a process, the fermentation barrier and the product inhibition can be avoided to improve the conversion of hydrogen. 8-9 mol H2/mol glucose of hydrogen potential can be obtained when glucose is used as substrate. This technology is very likely to be applied to produce hydrogen high efficiently from any energy crops, organic waste and wastewater.

  18. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  19. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  20. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 using fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, and has several well-known physiological functions. Lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. Therefore, using lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid production is a fascinating project and opens up a vast range of prospects for making use of GABA and LAB. We previously screened a high GABA-producer Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 and optimized its fermentation medium composition. The results indicated that the strain showed potential in large-scale fermentation for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. To increase the yielding of GABA, further study on the fermentation process is needed before the industrial application in the future. In this article we investigated the impacts of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, pH, temperature and initial glutamate concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 in flask cultures. According to the data obtained in the above, a simple and effective fed-batch fermentation method was developed to highly efficiently convert glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Results Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate did not affect the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. Temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration had significant effects on the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. The optimal temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were 30-35°C, 5.0 and 250-500 mM. In the following fed-batch fermentations, temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were fixed as 32°C, 5.0 and 400 mM. 280.70 g (1.5 mol and 224.56 g (1.2 mol glutamate were supplemented into the bioreactor at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Under the selected fermentation conditions, gamma-aminobutyric acid was rapidly produced at the first 36 h and almost not

  1. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate.

  2. Evaluation of Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Single and Mixed Fruit Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Akinbomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic viability of employing dark fermentative hydrogen from whole fruit wastes as a green alternative to fossil fuels is limited by low hydrogen yield due to the inhibitory effect of some metabolites in the fermentation medium. In exploring means of increasing hydrogen production from fruit wastes, including orange, apple, banana, grape and melon, the present study assessed the hydrogen production potential of singly-fermented fruits as compared to the fermentation of mixed fruits. The fruit feedstock was subjected to varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs in a continuous fermentation process at 55 °C for 47 days. The weight distributions of the first, second and third fruit mixtures were 70%, 50% and 20% orange share, respectively, while the residual weight was shared equally by the other fruits. The results indicated that there was an improvement in cumulative hydrogen yield from all of the feedstock when the HRT was five days. Based on the results obtained, apple as a single fruit and a fruit mixture with 20% orange share have the most improved cumulative hydrogen yields of 504 (29.5% of theoretical yield and 513 mL/g volatile solid (VS (30% of theoretical yield , respectively, when compared to other fruits.

  3. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  4. Tarhana as a traditional Turkish fermented cereal food. Its recipe, production and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglioglu, O

    2000-04-01

    As a fermented product tarhana is the dry form of yogurt-cereal mixture and represents an important part of the diets of many people in Turkey. It is prepared by mixing wheat flour, yogurt, yeast and a variety of cooked vegetables (tomatoes, onions, green pepper etc.), salt, and spices (mint, paprika) followed by fermentation for one to seven days. Generally one part yogurt is mixed with two parts of wheat flour (w/w). In commercial production there are two methods for tarhana making. First method is called straight method and ingredients in the recipe is mixed and kneaded, fermented, dried and finally sieved. Second method is called sour dough method that contains three steps, each one has a different recipe. Throughout fermentation lactic acid bacteria and yeast give the characteristic taste and flavour of tarhana by producing lactic acid, ethanol, carbondioxide and some other organic compounds. Organic acids composed in fermentation period lower the pH (3.4-4.2), and low moisture content (6-10%) is a poor medium for pathogens and spoilage organisms. The nutrient content of tarhana depends upon yogurt and flour ratios as well as some other ingredients, and it is also considered to be a useful high-protein dietary supplement with average 15% protein content. Addition of set yogurt due to high dry matter content and baker's yeast increase protein content and enhances it's amino acid composition.

  5. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  6. Fermentative production of biohydrogen from biogenic raw materials and residues; Fermentative Produktion von Biowasserstoff aus biogenen Roh- und Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Rechtenbach, D.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer AbfallRessourcenWirtschaft

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is regarded as an energy resource of the future. Thermophilic laboratory studies were carried out on the fermentative production of biohydrogen in three test systems (500 ml Sensomat System, 6 l ATS and 30 l agitated reactor) at 60 C in batch or discontinuous operation using glucose and agricultural products as substrates. Fully digested, heat-pretreated sewage sludge, taken to represent a natural mixed culture, was used as inoculating agent. The highest specific hydrogen production rate was achieved in the agitated reactor with glucose at 5.5 pH, reaching 280 Nml H{sub 2}/ g ODM (112% conversion rate). Maize and potato starch reached 211 Nml H{sub 2}/ g ODM (75% conversion rate) and 123 Nml H{sub 2}/ g ODM (45% conversion rate). The two agricultural products sugar beet (192 Nml H{sub 2}/ g ODM (70% conversion rate) and fodder beet (185 Nml H{sub 2}/ g ODM (65% conversion rate) showed a high potential for biological hydrogen production. Potato, swede and maize and potato peel as a biowaste are also all promising hydrogen producers, reaching degradation rates of 60%, 50%, 49% and 30%, respectively. In discontinuous operation hydrogen production rates reached 0.6 Nl/(I{sub R})xd) to 1.3 Nl/(I{sub R})xd) and yields ranging from 83 to 445 Nml H{sub 2}/ g DM.

  7. Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Bacillus cereus IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (p < 0.05. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0 and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.

  8. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date.

  9. Hydrogen production potentials and fermentative characteristics of various substrates with different heat-pretreated natural microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yohei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Yeol [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Li, Yu-You [Department of Environmental Science, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Jinjinggonglu 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Noike, Tatsuya [Advanced Research Institute for the Sciences and Humanities, Nihon University, 2-1 Kudan-kita 4-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0073 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Batch tests were carried out to investigate the effects of heat-pretreated inocula on the fermentative hydrogen production characteristics of various types of substrates. A total of 8 different inocula and 4 different substrates (starch, glycerol, oil and peptone) were used. Heat pretreatment of the inocula was conducted in order to harvest spore-forming clostridial bacteria. Significant hydrogen production potentials were observed from starch (20.5-174.4 ml H{sub 2}/g-COD{sub starch}) and glycerol (11.5-38.1 ml H{sub 2}/g-COD{sub glycerol}); however, almost no hydrogen was produced from oil and peptone. When starch was used as a substrate, two different fermentation patterns were observed, according to the inocula: butyric acid-type and ethanol-type fermentation. Polymerase chain reaction combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis was conducted to compare the bacterial structures cultivated on the starch medium. Different species of clostridial bacteria were observed between the butyric acid-type and ethanol-type fermentation cultures. When glycerol was used as a substrate, 1,3-propanediol was the main by-product with each inoculum. The results of the present study suggest that simultaneous production of ethanol or 1,3-propanediol in addition to hydrogen is a more promising strategy than conventional hydrogen production in acidogenesis. (author)

  10. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products.

  11. Effect of ammonia concentration on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of ammonia concentration ranging from 0 to 10 g N/L on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate at 35 degrees C and initial pH 7.0. The experimental results showed that during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency increased with increasing ammonia concentration from 0 to 0.01 g N/L. The hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and average hydrogen production rate increased with increasing ammonia concentration from 0 to 0.1g N/L. The maximum hydrogen production potential of 291.4 mL, maximum hydrogen yield of 298.8 mL/g glucose and maximum average hydrogen production rate of 8.5 mL/h were all obtained at the ammonia concentration of 0.1g N/L.

  12. Effect of substrate loading on hydrogen production during anaerobic fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum 27405.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rumana; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David

    2006-09-01

    We have investigated hydrogen (H2) production by the cellulose-degrading anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum. In the following experiments, batch-fermentations were carried out with cellobiose at three different substrate concentrations to observe the effects of carbon-limited or carbon-excess conditions on the carbon flow, H2-production, and synthesis of other fermentation end products, such as ethanol and organic acids. Rates of cell growth were unaffected by different substrate concentrations. H2, carbon dioxide (CO2), acetate, and ethanol were the main products of fermentation. Other significant end products detected were formate and lactate. In cultures where cell growth was severely limited due to low initial substrate concentrations, hydrogen yields of 1 mol H2/mol of glucose were obtained. In the cultures where growth ceased due to carbon depletion, lactate and formate represented a small fraction of the total end products produced, which consisted mainly of H2, CO2, acetate, and ethanol throughout growth. In cultures with high initial substrate concentrations, cellobiose consumption was incomplete and cell growth was limited by factors other than carbon availability. H2-production continued even in stationary phase and H2/CO2 ratios were consistently greater than 1 with a maximum of 1.2 at the stationary phase. A maximum specific H2 production rate of 14.6 mmol g dry cell(-1) h(-1) was observed. As cells entered stationary phase, extracellular pyruvate production was observed in high substrate concentration cultures and lactate became a major end product.

  13. Molecular characterization and fermentative hydrogen production of a wild anaerobe in clostridium genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongfeng; REN Nanqi; YANG Chuanping; LI Jianzheng; LI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic process of biohydrogen production is developed in this paper.The isolation and identification of high efficient biohydrogen production anaerobic bacteria are the important foundations for the fermented biohydrogen production process by anaerobic digesting organic wastewater.Taking the physiological and biochemical traits,the morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence into consideration,the isolate Rennanqilyf33 is a new species.

  14. Metabolic energy-based modelling explains product yielding in anaerobic mixed culture fermentations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca González-Cabaleiro

    Full Text Available The fermentation of glucose using microbial mixed cultures is of great interest given its potential to convert wastes into valuable products at low cost, however, the difficulties associated with the control of the process still pose important challenges for its industrial implementation. A deeper understanding of the fermentation process involving metabolic and biochemical principles is very necessary to overcome these difficulties. In this work a novel metabolic energy based model is presented that accurately predicts for the first time the experimentally observed changes in product spectrum with pH. The model predicts the observed shift towards formate production at high pH, accompanied with ethanol and acetate production. Acetate (accompanied with a more reduced product and butyrate are predicted main products at low pH. The production of propionate between pH 6 and 8 is also predicted. These results are mechanistically explained for the first time considering the impact that variable proton motive potential and active transport energy costs have in terms of energy harvest over different products yielding. The model results, in line with numerous reported experiments, validate the mechanistic and bioenergetics hypotheses that fermentative mixed cultures products yielding appears to be controlled by the principle of maximum energy harvest and the necessity of balancing the redox equivalents in absence of external electron acceptors.

  15. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  16. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose......-containing material by enzymatically sulfating the phenolic inhibitors and toxins using aryl sulfotranseferases....

  17. Effects of dietary starch content and rate of fermentation on methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Laar, van H.; Pellikaan, W.F.; St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of starch varying in rate of fermentation and level of inclusion in the diet in exchange for fiber on methane (CH4) production of dairy cows. Forty Holstein-Friesian lactating dairy cows of which 16 were rumen cannulated were grouped in 10 b

  18. Use of magnetic nanoparticles to enhance bioethanol production in syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kee; Lee, Haryeong

    2016-03-01

    The effect of two types of nanoparticles on the enhancement of bioethanol production in syngas fermentation by Clostridium ljungdahlii was examined. Methyl-functionalized silica and methyl-functionalized cobalt ferrite-silica (CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3) nanoparticles were used to improve syngas-water mass transfer. Of these, CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles showed better enhancement of syngas mass transfer. The nanoparticles were recovered using a magnet and reused five times to evaluate reusability, and it was confirmed that their capability for mass transfer enhancement was maintained. Both types of nanoparticles were applied to syngas fermentation, and production of biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid was enhanced. CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles were more efficient for the productivity of syngas fermentation due to improved syngas mass transfer. The biomass, ethanol, and acetic acid production compared to a control were increased by 227.6%, 213.5%, and 59.6%, respectively by addition of CoFe2O4@SiO2-CH3 nanoparticles. The reusability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by reuse of recovered nanoparticles for fermentation.

  19. Fungal biopesticide production by solid-state fermentation : Growth and sporulation of coniothyrium minitans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijkaas, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of an inert carrier impregnated with a chemically defined medium might be attractive in industrial processes. This system can be used as alternative for agricultural substrates such as grains in solid-state fermentation for the production of fungal biopesticides. During recent years, the use

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  1. Measuring and modelling in-vitro gas production kinetics to evaluate ruminal fermentation of feedstuffs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuvink, J.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of kinetic gas production measurements for the evaluation of ruminant feedstuffs have been examined. Present in-vitro methods were mostly end- point methods. There was a need for a kinetic in-vitro method that described ruminal fermentation, due to new techniques in

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-09-15

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%.

  3. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  4. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  5. Lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production using cellobiose fermenting yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50464

    Science.gov (United States)

    For ethanol production from cellulosic materials, there are generally two major steps needed including enzymatic hydrolysis to break down biomass sugars and microbial fermentation to convert available simple sugars into ethanol. It often requires two different kinds of microorganisms since ethanolog...

  6. Production and partial characterisation of feruloyl esterase by Sporotrichum thermophile in solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Kalogeris, E.; Kekos, D.;

    2003-01-01

    A number of factors affecting production of feruloyl esterase an enzyme that hydrolyse ester linkages of ferulic acid (FA) in plant cell walls, by the thermophylic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile under solid state fermentation (SSF) were investigated. Initial moisture content and type of carbon...

  7. Effect of food to microorganism ratio on biohydrogen production from food waste via anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jinming [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong; Sun, Huawei [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El-Mashad, Hamed M. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Agricultural Engineering, Mansoura University, El-Mansoura (Egypt); Ying, Yibin [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The effect of different food to microorganism ratios (F/M) (1-10) on the hydrogen production from the anaerobic batch fermentation of mixed food waste was studied at two temperatures, 35 {+-} 2 C and 50 {+-} 2 C. Anaerobic sludge taken from anaerobic reactors was used as inoculum. It was found that hydrogen was produced mainly during the first 44 h of fermentation. The F/M between 7 and 10 was found to be appropriate for hydrogen production via thermophilic fermentation with the highest yield of 57 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at an F/M of 7. Under mesophilic conditions, hydrogen was produced at a lower level and in a narrower range of F/Ms, with the highest yield of 39 ml-H{sub 2}/g VS at the F/M of 6. A modified Gompertz equation adequately (R{sup 2} > 0.946) described the cumulative hydrogen production yields. This study provides a novel strategy for controlling the conditions for production of hydrogen from food waste via anaerobic fermentation. (author)

  8. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gioannis, G., E-mail: degioan@unica.it [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Muntoni, A. [DICAAR – Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); IGAG-CNR, Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of the National Research Council (Italy); Polettini, A.; Pomi, R. [Department of Hydraulics, Transportation and Roads, University of Rome “La Sapienza” (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ► Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ► More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ► Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ► For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is

  9. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale.

  11. Improving hydrogen production from cassava starch by combination of dark and photo fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huibo; Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-02-15

    The combination of dark and photo fermentation was studied with cassava starch as the substrate to increase the hydrogen yield and alleviate the environmental pollution. The different raw cassava starch concentrations of 10-25 g/l give different hydrogen yields in the dark fermentation inoculated with the mixed hydrogen-producing bacteria derived from the preheated activated sludge. The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch is obtained at the starch concentration of 10 g/l and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 84.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h is obtained at the starch concentration of 25 g/l. When the cassava starch, which is gelatinized by heating or hydrolyzed with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, is used as the substrate to produce hydrogen, the maximum HY respectively increases to 258.5 and 276.1 ml H{sub 2}/g starch, and the maximum HPR respectively increases to 172 and 262.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h. Meanwhile, the lag time ({lambda}) for hydrogen production decreases from 11 h to 8 h and 5 h respectively, and the fermentation duration decreases from 75-110 h to 44-68 h. The metabolite byproducts in the dark fermentation, which are mainly acetate and butyrate, are reused as the substrates in the photo fermentation inoculated with the Rhodopseudomonas palustris bacteria. The maximum HY and HPR are respectively 131.9 ml H{sub 2}/g starch and 16.4 ml H{sub 2}/l/h in the photo fermentation, and the highest utilization ratios of acetate and butyrate are respectively 89.3% and 98.5%. The maximum HY dramatically increases from 240.4 ml H{sub 2}/g starch only in the dark fermentation to 402.3 ml H{sub 2}/g starch in the combined dark and photo fermentation, while the energy conversion efficiency increases from 17.5-18.6% to 26.4-27.1% if only the heat value of cassava starch is considered as the input energy. When the input light energy in the photo fermentation is also taken into account, the whole energy conversion efficiency is 4.46-6.04%. (author)

  12. Isolation and Quantification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Traditional Fermented Products in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Tchekessi, C.K.C.; Bokossa, I.Y; Azokpota, P.; Agbangla, C.; Daube, Georges; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas; Angelov, A.

    2014-01-01

    In Africa, fermented food products are particularly used as weaning foods for young children, pregnant women and the seniors. In Benin, most of these cereals-based foods are manufactured and sold around the streets. These are ablo, dèguè, akpan, abotin, gowé etc ... This study focused on the isolation and enumeration of bacteria and yeast from twenty six (26) samples of traditional African fermented foods. Decimal dilution method allowed us to isolate a total of 42 different st...

  13. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  14. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  15. High-efficiency l-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae using a novel modified one-step fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using the two different fermentation strategies of one-step fermentation (OSF) and conventional fermentation (CF). Compared to CF, OSF reduced the demurrage of the production process and increased the production of lactic acid. However, the qp was significantly lower than during CF. Based on analysis of μ, qs and qp, a novel modified OSF strategy was proposed. This strategy aimed to achieve a high final concentration of lactic acid, and a high qp by R. oryzae. In this strategy, the maximum lactic acid concentration and productivity of the lactic acid production stage reached 158g/l and 5.45g/(lh), which were 177% and 366% higher, respectively, than the best results from CF. Importantly, the qp and yield did not decrease. This strategy is a convenient and economical method for l-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae.

  16. Methane production and diurnal variation measured in dairy cows and predicted from fermentation pattern and nutrient or carbon flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2015-01-01

    Many feeding trials have been conducted to quantify enteric methane (CH(4)) production in ruminants. Although a relationship between diet composition, rumen fermentation and CH(4) production is generally accepted, the efforts to quantify this relationship within the same experiment remain scarce....... In the present study, a data set was compiled from the results of three intensive respiration chamber trials with lactating rumen and intestinal fistulated Holstein cows, including measurements of rumen and intestinal digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and CH(4) production. Two approaches were used...... for endogenous matter, and contribution of fermentation in the large intestine was accounted for. Hydrogen (H(2)) arising from fermentation was calculated using the fermentation pattern measured in rumen fluid. CH(4) was calculated from H(2) production corrected for H(2) use with biohydrogenation of fatty acids...

  17. Microbial community structure of three traditional zambian fermented products: mabisi, chibwantu and munkoyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoustra, Sijmen E; Kasase, Chitundu; Toarta, Cristian; Kassen, Rees; Poulain, Alexandre J

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes) are important in shaping the microbial community structures.

  18. Microbial community structure of three traditional zambian fermented products: mabisi, chibwantu and munkoyo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen E Schoustra

    Full Text Available Around the world, raw materials are converted into fermented food products through microbial and enzymatic activity. Products are typically produced using a process known as batch culture, where small volumes of an old culture are used to initiate a fresh culture. Repeated over many years, and provided samples are not shared among producers, batch culture techniques allow for the natural evolution of independent microbial ecosystems. While these products form an important part of the diets of many people because of their nutritional, organoleptic and food safety properties, for many traditional African fermented products the microbial communities responsible for fermentation are largely unknown. Here we describe the microbial composition of three traditional fermented non-alcoholic beverages that are widely consumed across Zambia: the milk based product Mabisi and the cereal based products Munkoyo and Chibwantu. Using culture and non-culture based techniques, we found that six to eight lactic acid bacteria predominate in all products. We then used this data to investigate in more detail the factors affecting community structure. We found that products made from similar raw materials do not harbor microbial communities that are more similar to each other than those made from different raw materials. We also found that samples from the same product taken at the same location were as different from each other in terms of microbial community structure and composition, as those from geographically very distant locations. These results suggest that microbial community structure in these products is neither a simple consequence of the raw materials used, nor the particular suite of microbes available in the environment but that anthropogenic variables (e.g., competition among sellers or organoleptic preferences by different tribes are important in shaping the microbial community structures.

  19. Biochemical kinetics of fermentative hydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum W5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Monis, P.T. [Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water, Bolivar, SA 5110 (Australia); Saint, C.P.; Jin, B. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)]|[Australian Water Quality Centre, SA Water, Bolivar, SA 5110 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The fermentation process for hydrogen production has been widely reported. However, there is lack of information related to detailed kinetic studies. The aim of this work was to investigate biochemical kinetics of fermentative hydrogen production by a newly isolated strain of Clostridium butyricum W5. The research objectives were to clarify relationships between hydrogen fermentation and biochemical parameters and hydrogenases, and consequently to seek an index for hydrogen production. Time profiles of hydrogen production, cell growth, volatile fatty acid accumulation and [FeFe]hydrogenase expression level were described. The amount of hydrogen produced in a laboratory batch process was 45.45 mmol/L at 10 h and peak production rate was 7.61 mmol/l/h at 9 h. Cell growth rate peaked at 8 h. Lactic acid was a main by-product, followed by butyric acid and acetic acid. Quantification of [FeFe]hydrogenase mRNA was optimized by a real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. Statistical analysis showed that [FeFe]hydrogenase mRNA levels peak earlier than hydrogen production rate, and cell growth has a linear positive relationship with hydrogen production. (author)

  20. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria.

  1. Development of a simple bio-hydrogen production system through dark fermentation by using unique microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Akihiro; Bando, Yukiko; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu [Department of Fermentation Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1 Sakuragaoka 1-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    In order to ensure efficient functioning of hydrogen fermentation systems that use Clostridium as the dominant hydrogen producer, energy-intensive process such as heat pretreatment of inoculum and/or substrate, continuous injection, and control of anaerobic conditions are required. Here, we describe a simple hydrogen fermentation system designed using microflora from leaf-litter cattle-waste compost. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production was measured at various hydraulic retention times, and bacterial genera were determined by PCR amplification and sequencing. Although hydrogen fermentation yield was approximately one-third of values reported in previous studies, this system requires no additional treatment and thus may be advantageous in terms of cost and operational control. Interestingly, Clostridium was absent from this system. Instead, Megasphaera elsdenii was the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were prevalent. This study is the first to characterize M. elsdenii as a useful hydrogen producer in hydrogen fermentation systems. These results demonstrate that pretreatment is not necessary for stable hydrogen fermentation using food waste. (author)

  2. Inhibition of microbial xylitol production by acetic acid and its relation with fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, T A; Silva, S S

    2000-01-01

    Precipitated sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing acetic acid was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI20037 under different operational conditions (pH 4.0 and 7.0, three aeration rates). At pH 7.0 and kLa of 10 (0.75 vvm) and 22.5/h (3.0 vvm) the acetic acid had not been consumed until the end of the fermentations, whereas at the same pH and kLa of 35/h (4.5 vvm) the acid was rapidly consumed and acetic acid inhibition was not important. On the other hand, fermentations at an initial pH of 4.0 and kLa of 22.5 and 35/h required less time for the acid uptake than fermentations at kLa of 10/h. The acetic acid assimilation by the yeast indicates the ability of this strain to ferment in partially detoxified medium, making possible the utilization of the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate in this bio-process. The effects on xylitol yield and production are reported.

  3. OPTIMATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUBSTANCE PRODUCTION IN CELL FREE EXTRACT FROM THERMOPHYLIC BACTERIA FERMENTATION AFTER MERAPI ERRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Yulianti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to investigate the effect of medium with different pH (6,7,9, salt concentration (0,5; 1; 2 % and fermentation periode (24 and 48 hr to the antimicrobial activity of cell free extract to three pathogens, Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albican. This study consists of antimicrobial compounds production with different medium and continued by antimicrobial tested to fungi and bacterial pathogens Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albican by Kirby Bauer  method with paper disk. Different salt concentration, pH and fermentation periode affected the  antimicrobial activity potency of cell free extract yielded by thermophylic bacteria. Treatment which yielded CFE with the best antimicrobial activity was treatment with 24 hr fermentation, pH 7 and salt concentration 2% to S aureus and pH 6 salt concentration 1% to E coli. Cell free extract had no potency as antifungi to Candida albicans except CFE yielded by thermophylic bacteria fermented in medium with pH 7 and salt concentration 1% in 24 hr with inhibition zone index 1,17.   Keywords: cell free extract, antimicrobial, pH, salt concentration, fermentation period

  4. Production of biofuels from pretreated microalgae biomass by anaerobic fermentation with immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, E N; Nikolskaya, A B; Lyagin, I V; Senko, O V; Makhlis, T A; Stepanov, N A; Maslova, O V; Mamedova, F; Varfolomeev, S D

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the possible use of pretreated biomass of various microalgae and cyanobacteria as substrates for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum cells immobilized into poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel. To this end, the biochemical composition of photosynthetic microorganisms cultivated under various conditions was studied. The most efficient technique for pretreating microalgal biomass for its subsequent conversion into biofuels appeared to be thermal decomposition at 108 °C. For the first time the maximum productivity of the ABE fermentation in terms of hydrogen (8.5 mmol/L medium/day) was obtained using pretreated biomass of Nannochloropsis sp. Maximum yields of butanol and ethanol were observed with Arthrospira platensis biomass used as the substrate. Immobilized Clostridium cells were demonstrated to be suitable for multiple reuses (for a minimum of five cycles) in ABE fermentation for producing biofuels from pretreated microalgal biomass.

  5. Trash to treasure: production of biofuels and commodity chemicals via syngas fermenting microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Haythem; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Nielsen, Alex T; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-06-01

    Fermentation of syngas is a means through which unutilized organic waste streams can be converted biologically into biofuels and commodity chemicals. Despite recent advances, several issues remain which limit implementation of industrial-scale syngas fermentation processes. At the cellular level, the energy conservation mechanism of syngas fermenting microorganisms has not yet been entirely elucidated. Furthermore, there was a lack of genetic tools to study and ultimately enhance their metabolic capabilities. Recently, substantial progress has been made in understanding the intricate energy conservation mechanisms of these microorganisms. Given the complex relationship between energy conservation and metabolism, strain design greatly benefits from systems-level approaches. Numerous genetic manipulation tools have also been developed, paving the way for the use of metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches. Rational strain designs can now be deployed resulting in desirable phenotypic traits for large-scale production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of fungal protein by solid substrate fermentation of cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises A. Oliveira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes from cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica were investigated for protein production by solid substrate fermentation. Firstly, the polyelectrolytes were extracted and used in water cleaning as auxiliary of flocculation and coagulation. The remaining fibrous material and peels were used as substrate for fermentation with Aspergillus niger. Glucoamylase and cellulase were the main enzymes produced. Amino acids were determined by HPLC and protein by Lowry's method. After 120 hours of fermentation the protein increased by 12.8%. Aspartic acid (1.27%, threonine (0.97%, glutamic acid (0.88%, valine (0.70%, serine (0.68%, arginine (0.82%, and phenylalanine (0.51% were the principal amino acids produced.

  7. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  8. 发酵抑制物对葡萄糖发酵产乙醇的影响%Effects of fermentation inhibitors on ethanol production of glucose fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 费本华; 江泽慧

    2015-01-01

    在纤维素乙醇研究中,木质纤维原料在酸性预处理过程中会产生甲酸、乙酸、乙酰丙酸、糠醛和5-羟甲基糠醛等发酵抑制物,这些发酵抑制物会影响葡萄糖发酵生产乙醇的收率。本文考察了发酵液中各种发酵抑制物含量对高温超级酿酒酵母发酵乙醇收率的影响。研究结果表明,多种发酵抑制物的协同作用对乙醇发酵的影响要高于单一种类发酵抑制物对乙醇发酵的影响。发酵液中发酵抑制物总量一般控制在3.0g/L以内时,对葡萄糖发酵生产乙醇的抑制作用不明显。%In pretreatments of lignocellulosic materials for bioethanol production,certain amount of sugars was degraded as fermentation inhibitors,and the degradation was much more severe in the acidic pretreatment.Theses fermentations inhibitors including formic acid, acetic acid, levulinic acid,furfural,and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)which affect the conversion yield of ethanol from glucose fermentation.This paper examined the effect of the five fermentation inhibitors concentration on the ethanol yield of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucose fermentation. The results show that, synergistic effect of various fermentation inhibitors on ethanol fermentation was higher than single fermentation inhibitor on ethanol fermentation.The total fermentation inhibitors in fermentation solutions generally controlled within 3.0g/L,which inhibitory effect on glucose fermentation for ethanol is not obvious.

  9. Production of an exopolysaccharide-containing whey protein concentrate by fermentation of whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briczinski, E P; Roberts, R F

    2002-12-01

    Using whey as a fermentation medium presents the opportunity to create value-added products. Conditions were developed to partially hydrolyze whey proteins and then ferment partially hydrolyzed whey with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR (RR; an EPS-producing bacterium). In preliminary experiments, pasteurized Cheddar cheese whey was treated with Flavourzyme to partially hydrolyze the protein (2 to 13% hydrolyzed). Fermentation (2 L, 38 degrees C, pH 5.0) with RR resulted in EPS levels ranging from 95 to 110 mg of EPS per liter of hydrolyzed whey. There were no significant differences in the amount of EPS produced during fermentations of whey hydrolyzed to varying degrees. Since a high level of hydrolysis was not necessary for increased EPS production, a low level of hydrolysis (2 to 4%) was selected for future work. In scale up experiments, whey was separated and pasteurized, then treated with Flavourzyme to hydrolyze 2 to 4% of the protein. Following protease inactivation, 60 L of partially hydrolyzed whey was fermented at 38 degrees C and pH 5.0. After fermentation, the broth was pasteurized, and bacterial cells were removed using a Sharples continuous centrifuge. The whey was then ultrafiltered and diafiltered to remove lactose and salts, freeze-dried, and milled to a powder. Unfermented hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed whey controls were processed in the same manner. The EPS-WPC ingredients contained approximately 72% protein and 6% EPS, but they exhibited low protein solubility (65%, pH 7.0; 58%, pH 3.0).

  10. Comparative Ethanol Productivities of Two Different Recombinant Fermenting Strains on Source-Separated Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Bekmuradov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuel such as ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is a beneficial way to meet sustainability and energy security in the future. The main challenge in bioethanol conversion is the high cost of processing, in which enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation are the major steps. Among the strategies to lower processing costs are utilizing both glucose and xylose sugars present in biomass for conversion. An approach featuring enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation steps, identified as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF was used in this work. Proposed solution is to use "pre-processing" technologies, including the thermal screw press (TSP and cellulose-organic-solvent based lignocellulose fractionation (COSLIF pretreatments. Such treatments were conducted on a widely available feedstock such as source separated organic waste (SSO to liberate all sugars to be used in the fermentation process. Enzymatic hydrolysis was featured with addition of commercial available enzyme, Accellerase 1500, to mediate enzymatic hydrolysis process. On average, the sugar yield from the TSP and COSLIF pretreatments followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was remarkable at 90%. In this work, evaluation of the SSO hydrolysate obtained from COSLIF and enzymatic hydrolysis pretreaments on ethanol yields was compared by fermentation results with two different recombinant strains: Zymomonas mobilis 8b and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DA2416. At 48 hours of fermentation, ethanol yield was equivalent to 0.48g of ethanol produced per gram of SSO biomass by Z.mobilis 8b and 0.50g of ethanol produced per gram of SSO biomass by S. cerevisiae DA2416. This study provides important insights for investigation of the source-separated organic (SSO waste on ethanol production by different strains and becomes a useful tool to facilitate future process optimization for pilot scale facilities.

  11. Innovations in the production of kenkey, a traditional fermented maize product of Ghana - nutritional, physical and safety aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nche, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    Kenkey is traditionally made from a dough obtained by soaking maize (1-2 days, room temperature), milling and then fermenting naturally for 2-4 days. This thesis was aimed at improving not only the nutritional quality of kenkey, but also the production process. The traditional method for making kenk

  12. Innovations in the production of kenkey, a traditional fermented maize product of Ghana : nutritional, physical and safety aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nche, P.F.

    1995-01-01

    Kenkey is traditionally made from a dough obtained by soaking maize (1-2 days, room temperature), milling and then fermenting naturally for 2-4 days. This thesis was aimed at improving not only the nutritional quality of kenkey, but also the production process. The traditional method for

  13. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus

    1996-01-01

    Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both...... productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation....

  14. Biohydrogen production from dual digestion pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge by anaerobic self-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittijunda, Sureewan [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); O-thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    Poultry slaughterhouse sludge from chicken processing wastewater treatment plant was tested for their suitability as a substrate and inoculum source for fermentation hydrogen production. Dual digestion of poultry slaughterhouse sludge was employed to produce hydrogen by batch anaerobic self-fermentation without any extra-seeds. The sludge (5% TS) was dual digested by aerobic thermophilic digestion at 55 C with the varying retention time before using as substrate in anaerobic self-fermentation. The best digestion time for enriching hydrogen-producing seeds was 48 h as it completely repressed methanogenic activity and gave the maximum hydrogen yield of 136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS with a hydrogen production rate of 2.56 mL H{sub 2}/L/h. The hydrogen production of treated sludge at 48 h (136.9 mL H{sub 2}/g TS) was 15 times higher than that of the raw sludge (8.83 mL H{sub 2}/g TS). With this fermentation process, tCOD value in the activated sludge could be reduced up to 30%. (author)

  15. Exo-polygalacturonase production by Penicillium roqueforti on pumpkin oil cake in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peričin Draginja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using pumpkin oil cake (PuOC, individual and in combination with wheat bran (WB, as substrate for the production of Exo-polygalacturonase (Exo-p by starter culture Penicillium roqueforti in solid state fermentation (SSF has been evaluated. The kinetics of enzyme production was investigated using PuOC alone in the range from 13 to 168 h, with moisture contents varying from 44% the ability to grow and produce Exo-p activity on this substrate, reaching a maximum value of 1451.75 U/g.d.w PuOC by the 5th day of fermentation. Fermentation experiments indicated that the water activity (aw influenced the enzyme production. A medium with aw 0.932 and the fermentation time of 5 days were selected, as these conditions resulted in the highest pectolytic activity and were used for further investigation. A next step in this research was to examine the effect of the substrate combination, PuOC with wheat bran (WB, in different ratios. The addition of WB as carbon sources was found to have a significant influence on the enzymes yields. Exo-p activities were the highest with initial water activity of a w 0.932 and PuOC supplementation with WB (1:0.67.

  16. Online recovery of nisin during fermentation and its effect on nisin production in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongtharangku, Thunyarat; Demirci, Ali

    2007-03-01

    An online removal of nisin by silicic acid coupled with a micro-filter module was proposed as an alternative to reduce detrimental effects caused by adsorption of nisin onto producer, enzymatic degradation by protease, and product inhibition during fermentation. In this study, silicic acid was successfully used to recover nisin from the fermentation broth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NIZO 22186. The effect of pH (at 6.8 and 3.0) during adsorption process and several eluents (deionized water, 20% ethanol, 1 M NaCl, and 1 M NaCl + 20% ethanol) for desorption were evaluated in a small batch scale. Higher nisin adsorption onto silicic acid was achieved when the adsorption was carried out at pH 6.8 (67% adsorption) than at pH 3.0 (54% adsorption). The maximum recovery was achieved (47% of nisin was harvested) when the adsorption was carried out at pH 6.8 and 1 M NaCl + 20% ethanol was used as an eluent for desorption. Most importantly, nisin production was significantly enhanced (7,445 IU/ml) when compared with the batch fermentation without the online recovery (1,897 IU/ml). This may possibly be attributed to preventing the loss of nisin due the detrimental effects and a higher biomass density achieved during online recovery process, which stimulated production of nisin during fermentation.

  17. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  18. Prediction of rabbit caecal fermentation characteristics from faeces by in vitro gas production technique: roughages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Calabrò, S; Cutrignelli, M I; Infascelli, F; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Tudisco, R; Nizza, A

    2008-06-01

    To find equations able to estimate the fermentation characteristics of the caecum from that of faeces, caecal content and faeces of 10 hybrid Hyla rabbits were used as inocula for an in vitro gas production trial. About 1 g of 12 roughages, 11 hays (ryegrass, alfalfa, sulla, oat, vetch, sulla-lolium, vetch-oat, sulla-oat, clover, ryegrass-clover, sulla-vetch-oat) and a wheat straw, was weighed, in triplicate per inoculum, in 120-ml flasks; 75 ml of anaerobic medium and 4 ml of reducing solution were added and the flasks were placed at 39 degrees C. Caecal content and faeces were diluted respectively 1:2 (CI) and 1:8 (FI) with anaerobic medium and were introduced into their respective flasks (10 ml). Gas production was recorded 20 times at 2-24 h intervals throughout fermentation (120 h). The fermentation characteristics (i.e. degraded organic matter, OMd; potential gas production, A; maximum fermentation rate, R(max); volatile fatty acid, VFA; ammonia, NH(3)) were studied by inocula and substrates. The two inocula did not differ in OMd but CI produced significantly higher gas (A, 213.1 vs. 199.4 ml/g, respectively, for CI and FI, p 0.8828) and reliable (CV < 10.78%) suggesting that faeces can be successfully used for the estimation of these parameters.

  19. Effects of different fermentation methods on bacterial cellulose and acid production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus in Cantonese-style rice vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Chen, Siqian; Yi, Jiulong; Hou, Zongxia

    2014-07-01

    A strain of acidogenic bacterium was isolated from the fermentation liquid of Cantonese-style rice vinegar produced by traditional surface fermentation. 16S rDNA identification confirmed the bacterium as Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which synthesizes bacterial cellulose, and the acid productivity of the strain was investigated. In the study, the effects of the membrane integrity and the comparison of the air-liquid interface membrane with immerged membrane on total acidity, cellulose production, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and number of bacteria were investigated. The cellulose membrane and the bacteria were observed under SEM for discussing their relationship. The correlations between oxygen consumption and total acid production rate were compared in surface and shake flask fermentation. The results showed the average acid productivity of the strain was 0.02g/(100mL/h), and the integrity of cellulose membrane in surface fermentation had an important effect on total acidity and cellulose production. With a higher membrane integrity, the total acidity after 144 h of fermentation was 3.75 g/100 mL, and the cellulose production was 1.71 g/100 mL after 360 h of fermentation. However, when the membrane was crushed by mechanical force, the total acidity and the cellulose production were as low as 0.36 g/100 mL and 0.14 g/100 mL, respectively. When the cellulose membrane was forced under the surface of fermentation liquid, the total acid production rate was extremely low, but the activity of ADH in the cellulose membrane was basically the same with the one above the liquid surface. The bacteria were mainly distributed in the cellulose membrane during the fermentation. The bacterial counts in surface fermentation were more than in the shake flask fermentation and G. xylinus consumed the substrate faster, in surface fermentation than in shake flask fermentation. The oxygen consumption rate and total acid production rate of surface fermentation were respectively 26

  20. [Fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    Microbial catalase is an important industrial enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This enzyme has great potential of application in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries. The production of microbial catalase has been significantly improved thanks to advances in bioprocess engineering and genetic engineering. In this paper, we review the progresses in fermentation production of microbial catalase and its application in textile industry. Among these progresses, we will highlight strain isolation, substrate and environment optimization, enzyme induction, construction of engineering strains and application process optimization. Meanwhile, we also address future research trends for microbial catalase production and its application in textile industry. Molecular modification (site-directed mutagenesis and directed revolution) will endue catalase with high pH and temperature stabilities. Improvement of catalase production, based on the understanding of induction mechanism and the process control of recombinant stain fermentation, will further accelerate the application of catalase in textile industry.

  1. Semi-solid-state fermentation: a promising alternative for neomycin production by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isabel; Teixeira, José A; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2013-06-10

    The production of neomycin by the actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae, under semi-solid-state fermentation conditions was the main subject of this study. Two supports (nylon sponge and orange peelings) were tested in order to determine the most suitable one for the production of neomycin by the above-mentioned microorganism. Nylon sponge led to the highest neomycin production, reaching a maximum value of 13,903 μg/mL on the 10th day of cultivation. As a control, the same experiment was performed under submerged fermentation (SmF) conditions, without solid support. Here the production of neomycin by S. fradiae was about 55-fold lower (i.e. 250 μg/mL) than that obtained for SSF.

  2. Direct product sequestration of a recombinant cutinase from batch fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, C R; Hamilton, G E; Cabral, J M; Fonseca, L P; Lyddiatt, A

    2001-01-01

    The recovery of cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in a fluidised bed adsorption system directly integrated with a productive fermenter (so-called direct product sequestration; DPS). The relative efficiency of this system was compared with the one of a conventional purification process by discrete sequences of fermentation, broth clarification, ultrafiltration and fixed bed anion exchange chromatography. By direct product sequestration of the extracellular heterologous cutinase it was possible, through only one unit operation: (i) to perform broth clarification, (ii) to obtain a high cutinase concentration factor, and (iii) to recover cutinase with a specific activity that equalled that obtained with the conventional purification process. It was also possible (iv) to substantially reduce the total process time, (v) to improve the overall yield, and (vi) to increase cutinase productivity. Furthermore, the procedure outlined is suitable for large scale bioprocess exploitation.

  3. Fermentation conditions that affect clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooi-Leng eSer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g. olive oil, corn oil could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.. Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus.

  4. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus.

  5. Determination of Microbial Gas Production, Fermentation Kinetics and Digestibility of Alternative Crop Silages

    OpenAIRE

    AKYOL, İsmail; ÖZKÖSE, Emin; EKİNCİ, Mehmet Sait

    2014-01-01

    Microbial gas production (MGP), fermentation kinetics and DM loss of crop silages made from 7 different plant families (barley/pea, clover, grass, kale, lotus, lucerne, sainfoin) and 10 different refusals were determined. The pressure transducer technique (PTT) was used to measure the microbial gas production of fresh and ground silages and refusal samples at regular intervals throughout the 120 h incubation. The MGP of fresh and ground silages were similar (r2 = 0.90). The maximum gas produc...

  6. Effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on penicillin fermentations: mycelial growth and penicillin production. [Penicillium chrysogenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.S.; Smith, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate of Penicillium chrysogenum was examined experimentally. The dissolved carbon dioxide was found to inhibit the specific growth rate and the penicillin production rate when the aerated submerged penicillin fermentation was exposed to influent gases of 12.6 and 20% carbon dioxide, respectively. Upon exposure to influent gases of 3 and 5% carbon dioxide, no pronounced metabolic inhibition was noted.

  7. The inclusion of fermented dairy products in the diet of secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    VOLMANOVÁ, Miloslava

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical section of the Bachelor Paper deals with the production of milk, kinds of milk and the processes applied to produce milk. Special attention is paid to the Fermented Milk Products (further only FMP), their types and processes of manufacture. The practical section surveys the consumption of milk and FMP, paying also attention to the general awareness of FMP among secondary-school students within the Czech Republic. The last section concentrates on the physiology of digestive tra...

  8. Hydrogen evolution by fermentation using seaweed as substrates and the contribution to the clean energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Suganuma, T.; Yamaguchi, A. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2001-07-01

    It is an important theme in Japan to use the sea for energy production, because Japan is surrounded by seas on all sides. Brown algae such as Laminaria have high value as the substrate of fermentative hydrogen production, since they have very high growth rate and also have high ability on the productivity of mannitol. I would like to present about the affection of salt concentration on the hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes, and also the contribution on clean energy production by the seaweed cultivation in Japan. (orig.)

  9. Fermentation of maize (Zea mays L.) meal or mawe production in Benin : physical, chemical and microbiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hounhouigan, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Mawè is a sour dough made from partially dehulled maize meal, which has undergone natural fermentation for 1 to 3 days.

    In this thesis, the processing methods, the characteristics of the products and the physical, chemical and microbiological changes during natural fermentation of

  10. Enhanced production of Monacolin K by addition of precursors and surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus 9901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuan-Long; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The main problem in Monacolin K (MK) production by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus is low productivity. In this study, on one hand, addition of precursors was used to activate the biosynthesis of MK. When 4.0 g/L of sodium citrate was supplemented at the 48th H of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 1,658.9 ± 28.5 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 52.6% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, addition of surfactants could increase the permeability of cell membrane, thus driving more intracellular metabolites secreted into the fermentation broth and alleviating the product inhibition. When 40.0 g/L of Triton X-100 was added at the beginning of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 2,026.0 ± 30.4 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 84.9% compared with that of the control. These results are helpful to provide some new insights into the biosynthetic regulation on MK production; the approach can be applied to other fungal fermentation processes for enhancing production of useful metabolites.

  11. Effects of a ferment soy product on the adipocyte area reduction and dyslipidemia control in hypercholesterolemic adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iracilda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data on the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on circulating lipids and adiposity are not completely settled. This study aimed to observe the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on central obesity and dyslipidemia control in Wistar adult male rats. Methods Over a period of 8 weeks, animals had "ad libitum" food intake and water consumption as well as body weight and food consumption was monitored. The animals were assigned to four different experimental groups: Control Group (C; Control + Fermented Product Group (CPF; Hypercholesterolemic diet group (H; and Hypercholesterolemic + Fermented Product Group (HPF. The HPF and CPF groups received an intragastric administration of 1 ml of fermented product daily. After the experimental period the animals were killed by decapitation, blood was collected to measure cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration. Adipocyte circumference, lipolysis and lipogenis rates were measures using epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues. Results The results demonstrated that 1 ml/day/rat of the fermented soy product promoted important benefits such as reduced cholesterolemia in hypercholesterolemic diet group and the adipocyte circumference in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet group. Conclusion The fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti decreased circulating lipids levels and reduced adipocyte area in rats.

  12. Novel monosaccharide fermentation products in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus identified using NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isern, Nancy G.; Xue, Junfeng; Rao, Jaya V.; Cort, John R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2013-04-03

    Profiles of metabolites produced by the thermophilic obligately anaerobic cellulose-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 strain following growth on different monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, L-fucose, and D-fucose) as carbon sources revealed several unexpected fermentation products, suggesting novel metabolic capacities and unexplored metabolic pathways in this organism. Both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to determine intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles. Metabolite profiles were determined from 1-D 1H NMR spectra by curve fitting against spectral libraries provided in Chenomx software. To reduce uncertainties due to unassigned, overlapping, or poorly-resolved peaks, metabolite identifications were confirmed with 2-D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments. In addition to expected metabolites such as acetate, lactate, glycerol, and ethanol, several novel fermentation products were identified: ethylene glycol (from growth on D-arabinose, though not L-arabinose), acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (from D-glucose and L-arabinose), and hydroxyacetone (from D-mannose and L-arabinose). Production of ethylene glycol from D-arabinose was particularly notable, with around 10% of the substrate carbon converted into this uncommon fermentation product. The novel products have not previously been reported to be produced by C. saccharolyticus, nor would they be easily predicted from the current genome annotation, and show new potentials for using this strain for production of bioproducts.

  13. Estimation of hydrogen production in genetically modified E. coli fermentations using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; De Leon Rodriguez, Antonio [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Garcia, Raul Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an active research area due to the importance of this gas as an energy carrier and the advantages of using biological systems to produce it. A cheap and practical on-line hydrogen determination is desired in those processes. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to estimate the hydrogen production in fermentative processes. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) of one hidden layer with 12 nodes was selected. The BPNN training was done using the conjugated gradient algorithm and on-line measurements of dissolved CO{sub 2}, pH and oxidation-reduction potential during the fermentations of cheese whey by Escherichia coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI (WDHL) strain with or without pH control. The correlation coefficient between the hydrogen production determined by gas chromatography and the hydrogen production estimated by the BPNN was 0.955. Results showed that the BPNN successfully estimated the hydrogen production using only on-line parameters in genetically modified E. coli fermentations either with or without pH control. This approach could be used for other hydrogen production systems. (author)

  14. Whey fermentation by anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelov; Datta; Jain; Zeikus

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO2, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO2, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO2, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  15. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Lü, F-X; Lu, Z-X; Bie, X-M; Jiao, Y; Sun, L-J; Yu, B

    2008-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has several well-known physiological functions and has been applied to the production of many drugs and functional foods. The technology of GABA production via submerged fermentation by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 was investigated in this paper. It indicated that the GABA production was related to the biochemical characteristics of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2. After 24 h of fermentation at 37 degrees C, which is the suitable culture conditions for GAD-production, then the culture condition were adjusted to the optimal temperature (40 degrees C) and pH (4.5) for the GAD reaction activity in biotransformation of cells and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (0.02 mmol/l) were added to the broth at the 48 h, the GABA production was increased up to 1.76-fold, reaching 7984.75 +/- 293.33 mg/l. The strain shows great potential use as a starter for GABA-containing yoghurt, cheese and other functional fermented food productions.

  16. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum strains with disrupted fermentation end-product pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Veen, Douwe [ORNL; Lo, Jonathan [Dartmouth College; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Van den Berg, Robert A [Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium; Argyros, Aaron [Mascoma Corporation; Caiazza, Nicky [Mascoma Corporation; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe that is a candidate microorganism for industrial biofuels production. Strains with mutations in genes associated with production of L-lactate (Dldh) and/or acetate (Dpta) were characterized to gain insight into the intracellular processes that convert cellobiose to ethanol and other fermentation end-products. Cellobiose-grown cultures of the Dldh strain had identical biomass accumulation, fermentation end-products, transcription profile, and intracellular metabolite concentrations compared to its parent strain (DSM1313 Dhpt Dspo0A). The Dpta-deficient strain grew slower and had 30 % lower final biomass concentration compared to the parent strain, yet produced 75% more ethanol. A Dldh Dpta double-mutant strain evolved for faster growth had a growth rate and ethanol yield comparable to the parent strain, whereas its biomass accumulation was comparable to Dpta. Free amino acids were secreted by all examined strains, with both Dpta strains secreting higher amounts of alanine, valine, isoleucine, proline, glutamine, and threonine. Valine concentration for Dldh Dpta reached 5 mM by the end of growth, or 2.7 % of the substrate carbon utilized. These secreted amino acid concentrations correlate with increased intracellular pyruvate concentrations, up to sixfold in the Dpta and 16-fold in the Dldh Dpta strain. We hypothesize that the deletions in fermentation end-product pathways result in an intracellular redox imbalance, which the organism attempts to relieve, in part by recycling NADP* through increased production of amino acids.

  17. Characterization of Clostridium thermocellum strains with disrupted fermentation end product pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Der Veen, Douwe [ORNL; Lo, Jonathan [Dartmouth College; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Johnson, Courtney M [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Argyros, Aaron [Mascoma Corporation; Van den Berg, Robert A [Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium; Caiazza, Nicky [Mascoma Corporation; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe that is a candidate microorganism for industrial biofuels production. Strains with mutations in genes associated with production of Llactate ( ldh) and/or acetate ( pta) were characterized to gain insight into the intracellular processes that convert cellobiose to ethanol and other fermentation end products. Cellobiose-grown cultures of the ldh strain had identical biomass accumulation, fermentation end products, transcription profile and intracellular metabolite concentrations compared to its parent strain (DSM1313 hpt spo0A). The pta-deficient strain grew slower and had 30% lower final biomass concentration compared to the parent strain, yet produced 75% more ethanol. A ldh pta double mutant strain evolved for faster growth had growth rate and ethanol yield comparable to the parent strain, whereas its biomass accumulation was comparable to pta. Free amino acids were secreted by all examined strains, with both pta strains secreting higher amounts of alanine, valine, isoleucine, proline, glutamine, and threonine. Valine concentration for ldh pta reached 5 mM by the end of growth, or 2.7% of the substrate carbon utilized. These secreted amino acid concentrations correlate with increased intracellular pyruvate concentrations, up to 6-fold in the pta and 16-fold in the ldh pta strain. We hypothesize that the deletions in fermentation end product pathways result in an intracellular redox imbalance, which the organism attempts to relieve, in part by recycling NADP+ through increased production of amino acids.

  18. High-yield Bacillus subtilis protease production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Valeria F; Castilho, Leda R; Bon, Elba P S; Freire, Denise M G

    2005-01-01

    A Bacillus subtilis isolate was shown to be able to produce extracellular protease in solid-state fermentations (SSF) using soy cake as culture medium. A significant effect of inoculum concentration and physiological age on pro tease production was observed. Maximum activities were obtained for inocula consisting of exponentially growing cells at inoculum concentrations in the range of 0.7-2.0 mg g(-1). A comparative study on the influence of cultivation temperature and initial medium pH on protease production in SSF and in submerged fermentation (SF) revealed that in SSF a broader pH range (5-10), but the same optimum temperature (37 degrees C), is obtained when compared to SF. A kinetic study showed that enzyme production is associated with bacterial growth and that enzyme inactivation begins before biomass reaches a maximum level for both SF and SSF. Maximum protease activity and productivity were 960 U g(-1) and 15.4 U g-1 h-1 for SSF, and 12 U mL-1 and 1.3 U mL-1 h-1 for SF. When SSF protease activity was expressed by volume of enzyme extract, the enzyme level was 10-fold higher and the enzyme productivity 45% higher than in SF. These results indicate that this bacterial strain shows a high biotechnological potential for protease production in solid-state fermentation.

  19. Monitoring a mixed starter of Hanseniaspora vineae-Saccharomyces cerevisiae in natural must: impact on 2-phenylethyl acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Fernando; Belloch, Carmela; Vallés, Salvador; Manzanares, Paloma

    2011-12-02

    The effect of simultaneous or sequential inoculation of Hanseniaspora vineae CECT 1471 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73 in non-sterile must on 2-phenylethyl acetate production has been examined. In both treatments tested, no significant differences in Saccharomyces yeast growth were found, whereas non-Saccharomyces yeast growth was significantly different during all days of fermentation. Independently of the type of inoculation, S. cerevisiae was the predominant species from day 3 till the end of the fermentation. The dynamics of indigenous and inoculated yeast populations showed H. vineae to be the predominant non-Saccharomyces species at the beginning of fermentation in sequentially inoculated wines, whereas the simultaneous inoculation of S. cerevisiae did not permit any non-Saccharomyces species to become predominant. Differences found in non-Saccharomyces yeast growth in both fermentations influenced the analytical profiles of final wines and specifically 2-phenylethyl acetate concentration which was two-fold increased in sequentially inoculated wines in comparison to those co-inoculated. In conclusion we have shown that H. vineae inoculated as part of a sequential mixed starter is able to compete with native yeasts present in non-sterile must and modify the wine aroma profile.

  20. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  1. Evaluating the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C; Yang, X-Y; Xiong, L; Guo, H-J; Luo, J; Wang, B; Zhang, H-R; Lin, X-Q; Chen, X-D

    2015-05-01

    To reduce the cost of bacterial cellulose (BC) production, the possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater with high COD value (18 050 mg l(-1) ) for BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated. After 7 days of fermentation, the highest BC yield (1·34 g l(-1) ) was obtained. The carbon sources including sugars (glucose and xylose), organic acids (acetic acid and butyric acid) and alcohol compounds (ethanol and butanol) were utilized by G. xylinus simultaneously during fermentation. Although the COD decrease ratio (about 14·7%) was low, the highest BC yield on COD consumption (56·2%, g g(-1) ) was relatively high and the remaining wastewater could be used for further BC fermentation. Besides, the environment of ABE fermentation wastewater showed small influence on the BC structure by comparison with the BC products obtained in traditional HS medium using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Overall, ABE fermentation wastewater is one promising substrate for BC production. The possibility of using acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation wastewater for bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was evaluated in this study. This is the first time that ABE fermentation wastewater was used as substrate for BC fermentation. The results provide detail information of metabolism of G. xylinus in ABE fermentation wastewater and the influence of wastewater environment on the structure of BC samples. Overall, this bioconversion could reduce the cost of BC production greatly. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  3. Investigation of newly developed solid state fermenter on carboxymethyl cellulase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enzyme (cellulase contributes 10% to overall cost in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This means that the cost for bioethanol production will be reduced if cellulase can be produced using cheaper method. Compared with submerged fermentation, it is recognized that the cost for cellulase production using solid state fermentation (SSF process is much cheaper. The present study aimed to optimize cellulase production via SSF process using agro-industrial residual as substrate.Methodology and result: Newly developed solid state bioreactor, FERMSOSTAT had been evaluated in cellulase production using local isolate Aspergillus niger USM AI 1 grown on sugarcane baggase and palm kernel cake as substrates at 1:1 (w/w ratio. Under optimized SSF conditions of 0.5 kg substrate; 70% (w/w moisture content; 30 °C; aeration at 4 L/h.g fermented substrate for 5 min and mixing at 0.5 rpm for 5 min, about 62.6 U/g of CMCase activity obtained. At the same time, comparative studies of the enzyme production under the same SSF conditions indicated that CMCase produced by Trichoderma reesei was about 9% lower compared with A. niger USM AI 1.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: It can be concluded that the performance of newly developed SSF fermenter is good since it can used to produce CMCase enzyme with reasonable good title (863% increased in CMCase production after optimization. Thus, this newly developed SSF bioreactor has highly potential be used as prototype for larger scale bioreactor design.

  4. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  5. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of a thermotolerant fermentative Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, I.M. [Univ. of the United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Biolology; Singh, D. [Haryana Agriculture Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Marchant, R. [Ulster Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1996-12-31

    An investigation was carried out on the growth and ethanol production of a novel thermotolerant ethanol-producing Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain. It grew aerobically on glucose, lactose, cellobiose, xylose and whey permeate and fermented all the above carbon sources to ethanol at 45 C. This strain was capable of growing under anaerobic chemostat fermentation conditions at 45 C and a dilution rate of 0.15 h{sup -1} and produced {<=}0.9 g/l biomass and 1.8% (v/v) ethanol. An increase in biomass (up to 10.0 g/l) and ethanol (up to 4.3% v/v at 45 C and 7.7% v/v at 40 C) were achieved by applying a continuous two-stage fermentation in sequence (one aerobic and one anerobic stage) or a two-stage anaerobic fermentation with cell recycling. Potential applications, involving alcohol production systems, for use in dairy and wood related industries, were discussed. (orig.)

  8. High-cell-density fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A P; Mendes-Ferreira, A; Oliveira, J M; Estevinho, L M; Mendes-Faia, A

    2013-02-01

    Mead is a traditional drink that contains 8%-18% (v/v) of ethanol, resulting from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey by yeasts. Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process and the quality of the final product is highly variable. Therefore, the present investigation had two main objectives: first, to determine the adequate inoculum size of two commercial wine-making strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the optimisation of mead fermentation; and second, to determine if an increase in yeast pitching rates in batch fermentations altered the resulting aroma profiles. Minor differences were detected in the growth kinetics between the two strains at the lowest pitching rate. With increasing pitching rates net growth of the strain ICV D47 progressively decreased, whereas for the QA23 the increasing inoculum size had no influence on its net growth. The time required to reach the same stage of fermentation ranged from 24 to 96 h depending on the inoculum size. The final aroma composition was dependent on the yeast strain and inoculum size. Fourteen of the twenty-seven volatile compounds quantified could contribute to mead aroma and flavour because their concentrations rose above their respective thresholds. The formation of these compounds was particularly pronounced at low pitching rates, except in mead fermented by strain ICV D47, at 10(6) CFUs/mL. The esters isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl hexanoate were the major powerful odourants found in the meads. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that yeast strain and inoculum size can favourably impact mead's flavour and aroma profiles.

  9. Polymalic acid fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans for malic acid production from soybean hull and soy molasses: Fermentation kinetics and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi; Zhou, Yipin; Lin, Meng; Wei, Peilian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 from soybean hull hydrolysate supplemented with corn steep liquor (CSL) gave a malic acid yield of ∼0.4g/g at a productivity of ∼0.5g/L·h. ZX-10 can also ferment soy molasses, converting all carbohydrates including the raffinose family oligosaccharides to PMA, giving a high titer (71.9g/L) and yield (0.69g/g) at a productivity of 0.29g/L·h in fed-batch fermentation under nitrogen limitation. A higher productivity of 0.64g/L·h was obtained in repeated batch fermentation with cell recycle and CSL supplementation. Cost analysis for a 5000 MT plant shows that malic acid can be produced at $1.10/kg from soy molasses, $1.37/kg from corn, and $1.74/kg from soybean hull. At the market price of $1.75/kg, malic acid production from soy molasses via PMA fermentation offers an economically competitive process for industrial production of bio-based malic acid.

  10. Succinic acid production from corn stover by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pu; Fang, Lin; Xu, Yan; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhi-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique was applied for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with corn stover as the raw material. The process parameters of SSF, including corn stover pretreatment condition, substrate concentration, enzyme loading and fermentation temperature were investigated. Results indicated that pretreating corn stover with diluted alkaline was beneficial for the succinic acid production, and succinic acid yield could be significantly increased when adding the cellulase supplemented with cellobiase. The maximal succinic acid concentration and yield could reach 47.4 g/l and 0.72 g/g-substrate, respectively. The corresponding operation conditions were summarized as follows: SSF operation at 38 °C for 48 h, diluted alkaline pretreated corn stover as substrate with concentration of 70 g/l, enzyme loading of 20FPU cellulase and 10 U cellobiase per gram substrate. This result suggested an industrial potential of succinic acid production by using SSF and corn stover.

  11. A Comparative Study of New Aspergillus Strains for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Ezequiel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the proteolytic enzymes production using twelve Aspergillus strains previously unused for this purpose was performed by solid state fermentation. A semiquantitative and quantitative evaluation of proteolytic activity were carried out using crude enzymatic extracts obtained from the fermentation cultures, finding seven strains with high and intermediate level of protease activity. Biochemical, thermodynamics, and kinetics features such as optimum pH and temperature values, thermal stability, activation energy (Ea, quotient energy (Q10, Km, and Vmax were studied in four enzymatic extracts from the selected strains that showed the highest productivity. Additionally, these strains were evaluated by zymogram analysis obtaining protease profiles with a wide range of molecular weight for each sample. From these four strains with the highest productivity, the proteolytic extract of A. sojae ATCC 20235 was shown to be an appropriate biocatalyst for hydrolysis of casein and gelatin substrates, increasing its antioxidant activities in 35% and 125%, respectively.

  12. Optimal substrate feeding policy for a fed batch fermentation with substrate and product inhibition kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J

    1986-09-01

    The optimal substrate feeding policy for the fed batch fermentation which is governed by product and substrate inhibited kinetics is presented. The conjunction point between nonsingular and singular arcs and the feeding policy along the singular arc are derived analytically in terms of the concentrations of substrate and product and the liquid volume. Thus, it is possible to determine the feeding rate by monitoring the state variables (i.e., closed loop control). As a specific example, an optimization study of the fed batch fermentation for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. It is shown that the optimal feeding patterns are heavily dependent upon the initial conditions. The point selectivity provides the guideline for predicting the optimal feeding patterns and explaining the results of rigorous mathematical analysis.

  13. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  14. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation, it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose. Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.

  15. Extracellular methionine amino peptidase (MAP production by Streptomyces gedanensis in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rahulan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioprocess was developed for extracellular MAP production from Streptomyces gedanensis by solid-state fermentation. Response surface methodology of Box Behken Design was performed to evaluate the interaction effects of most significant variables {inoculum size, (NH42SO4 concentration, MgSO4.7H2O and tryptone on MAP production after the single parameter optimization and it resulted a maximum MAP production of 55.26 IU/g PUF after 120 h of fermentation. The concentrated crude MAP displayed a pH and temperature optimum of 8.5 and 50°C. By analyzing the thermal stability, the MAP was found to be stable in a temperature range of 50 to 55°C but lost about 50% of its activity at 65°C after 30 min. This is a first report of this kind of study for MAP.

  16. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed.

  17. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  18. Direct Succinic Acid Production from Minimally Pretreated Biomass Using Sequential Solid-State and Slurry Fermentation with Mixed Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerico Alcantara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bio-based succinic acid production involves anaerobic bacterial fermentation of pure sugars. This study explored a new route for directly producing succinic acid from minimally-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass via a consolidated bioprocessing technology employing a mixed lignocellulolytic and acidogenic fungal co-culture. The process involved a solid-state pre-fermentation stage followed by a two-phase slurry fermentation stage. During the solid-state pre-fermentation stage, Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were co-cultured in a nitrogen-rich substrate (e.g., soybean hull to induce cellulolytic enzyme activity. The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown separately on carbon-rich birch wood chips to induce ligninolytic enzymes, rendering the biomass more susceptible to cellulase attack. The solid-state pre-cultures were then combined in a slurry fermentation culture to achieve simultaneous enzymatic cellulolysis and succinic acid production. This approach generated succinic acid at maximum titers of 32.43 g/L after 72 h of batch slurry fermentation (~10 g/L production, and 61.12 g/L after 36 h of addition of fresh birch wood chips at the onset of the slurry fermentation stage (~26 g/L production. Based on this result, this approach is a promising alternative to current bacterial succinic acid production due to its minimal substrate pretreatment requirements, which could reduce production costs.

  19. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  20. [Optimization of the fermentation conditions for 5-keto-D-gluconic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyi; Pan, Haifeng; Sun, Weirong; Cheng, Yongqing; Xie, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-09-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans converts glucose to gluconic acid and subsequently to 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5-KGA), a precursor of industrially important L(+)-tartaric acid. To increase the yield of 5-KGA, fermentation conditions of 5-KGA production was optimized. Under the optimum medium and culture conditions in the shake flask, the highest 5-KGA production reached 19.7 g/L, increased by 43.8% after optimization. In a 5-L bioreactor, the pH was controlled at 5.5 and dissolved oxygen (DO) at 15%, 5-KGA production reached 46.0 g/L, raised at least 1.3 times than in the shake flask. Glucose feeding fermentation process was further developed, and the highest 5-KGA production of 75.5 g/L with 70% of yield was obtained, 32.0% higher than the highest reported value. Therefore, this newly developed fermentation process provided a practical and effective alternative for the commercial production of 5-KGA, and further of L(+)-tartaric acid.

  1. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established.

  2. In vivo instability of chorismate causes substrate loss during fermentative production of aromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gal; Averesch, Nils J H; Nunez-Bernal, Dariela; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic engineering of microbial strains to produce aromatic compounds deriving from the shikimate pathway is of great interest to the chemical industry as a more sustainable alternative for feedstock production. Chorismate is a significant intermediate in the shikimate pathway. In this study, the formation of phenylalanine and phenylpyruvate as by-products in strains engineered downstream of the chorismate node for increased aromatic production was explored in yeast fermentations. Tracer experiments showed that these compounds are synthesized de novo during fermentation, under conditions in which their synthesis was genetically blocked. Chorismate stability evaluation, as well as deletion mutation analysis throughout the phenylalanine biosynthesis pathway, suggested that this synthesis was a result of intracellular, non-enzymatic rearrangement of chorismate to phenylpyruvate via prephenate, which was followed by enzymatic transamination of phenylpyruvate to form phenylalanine. These results not only aid in the development of strain-engineering strategies to avoid the accumulation of by-products during fermentations aimed at increased aromatics production, but also deepen our understanding of yeast metabolism.

  3. Enhanced production of lovastatin by Omphalotus olearius (DC.) Singer in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı, Burcu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Yıldız, Zeki; Isikhuemnen, Omoanghe S

    2015-01-01

    Although lovastatin production has been reported for different microorganism species, there is limited information about lovastatin production by basidiomycetes. The optimization of culture parameters that enhances lovastatin production by Omphalotus olearius OBCC 2002 was investigated, using statistically based experimental designs under solid state fermentation. The Plackett Burman design was used in the first step to test the relative importance of the variables affecting production of lovastatin. Amount and particle size of barley were identified as efficient variables. In the latter step, the interactive effects of selected efficient variables were studied with a full factorial design. A maximum lovastatin yield of 139.47mg/g substrate was achieved by the fermentation of 5g of barley, 1-2mm particle diam., at 28°C. This study showed that O. olearius OBCC 2002 has a high capacity for lovastatin production which could be enhanced by using solid state fermentation with novel and cost-effective substrates, such as barley. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. An experimental study on fermentative H₂ production from food waste as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Friargiu, M; Massi, E; Muntoni, A; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Spiga, D

    2014-08-01

    Batch dark fermentation experiments were performed on food waste and mixtures of food waste and wastewater activated sludge to evaluate the influence of pH on biological H2 production and compare the process performance with and without inoculum addition. The effect of a preliminary thermal shock treatment of the inoculum was also investigated as a means to harvest the hydrogenogenic biomass. The best performance in terms of both H2 generation potential and process kinetics was observed at pH=6.5 under all experimental conditions (no inoculum, and untreated or thermally treated inoculum added). H2 production from food waste was found to be feasible even without inoculum addition, although thermal pre-treatment of the inoculum notably increased the maximum production and reduced the lag phase duration. The analysis of the fermentation products indicated that the biological hydrogen production could be mainly ascribed to a mixed acetate/butyrate-type fermentation. However, the presence of additional metabolites in the digestate, including propionate and ethanol, also indicated that other metabolic pathways were active during the process, reducing substrate conversion into hydrogen. The plateau in H2 generation was found to mirror the condition at which soluble carbohydrates were depleted. Beyond this condition, homoacetogenesis probably started to play a role in the degradation process.

  5. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    methane production (P 0.05) by either seaweed species or the collection season. Higher final pH (P production, ammonia...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...... by collecting season (P = 0.208–0.341). The TEP values ranged from 1.46 to 50.3 mg/g dry matter (DM), and differed (P production parameters for a rumen passage...

  6. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  7. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  8. Solid-state fermentation of Acanthogobius hastaprocessing by-products for the production of antioxidant protein hydrolysates with Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowei Fang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties and antioxidative activity of a protein hydrolysate prepared from Acanthogobius hasta processing by-product protein during solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus oryzae were investigated. Overall, protease activity increased with the degree of hydrolysis (DH decreased during solid-state fermentation. All the protein hydrolysate had excellent solubility, possessed interfacial properties, and varying degrees of antioxidant activity which were governed by their concentrations and DH, molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition. After 5 days fermentation, the DH of the protein hydrolysate was 31.23%. The protein hydrolysate had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content, the highest DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, and the chelating activity. The radical-scavenging activity of the hydrolysates at 6 mg/mL was 78.6%. The reducing power of protein hydrolysate at the range of 0-6 mg/mL was lower than that of BHA at the range of 0-60 µg/mL, while the chelating activity of APs was similar to that of BHA at the range of 0-60 µg/mL. Moreover, the protein hydrolysate showed good emulsifying and foaming properties over a wide pH range from 2 to 12. Therefore, solid state fermentation provided a suitable and low-cost method for converting Acanthogobius hasta processing by-product protein into antioxidant protein hydrolysates.

  9. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed.

  10. Production of ethanol from mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.] pods mash by Zymomonas mobilis in submerged fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Celiane Gomes Maia da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Domesticas; Andrade, Samara Alvachian Cardoso; Schuler, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Evandro Leite de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao; Stamford, Tania Lucia Montenegro [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Nutricao], E-mail: tlmstamford@yahoo.com.br

    2011-01-15

    Mesquite [Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C.], a perennial tropical plant commonly found in Brazilian semi-arid region, is a viable raw material for fermentative processes because of its low cost and production of pods with high content of hydrolyzable sugars which generate many compounds, including ethanol. This study aimed to evaluate the use of mesquite pods as substrate for ethanol production by Z. mobilis UFPEDA- 205 in a submerged fermentation. The fermentation was assessed for rate of substrate yield to ethanol, rate of ethanol production and efficiency of fermentation. The very close theoretical (170 g L{sup -1}) and experimental (165 g L{sup -1}) maximum ethanol yields were achieved at 36 h of fermentation. The highest counts of Z. mobilis UFEPEDA-205 (both close to 6 Log cfu mL{sup -1}) were also noted at 36 h. Highest rates of substrate yield to ethanol (0.44 g ethanol g glucose{sup -1}), of ethanol production (4.69 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and of efficiency of fermentation (86.81%) were found after 30 h. These findings suggest mesquite pods as an interesting substrate for ethanol production using submerged fermentation by Z. mobilis. (author)

  11. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  12. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  13. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  14. Dark fermentation of ground wheat starch for bio-hydrogen production by fed-batch operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargi, Fikret; Pamukoglu, M. Yunus [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Ground wheat solution was used for bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation using heat-treated anaerobic sludge in a completely mixed fermenter operating in fed-batch mode. The feed wheat powder (WP) solution was fed to the anaerobic fermenter with a constant flow rate of 8.33 mL h{sup -1} (200 mL d{sup -1}). Cumulative hydrogen production, starch utilization and hydrogen yields were determined at three different WP loading rates corresponding to the feed WP concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 g L{sup -1}. The residual starch (substrate) concentration in the fermenter decreased with operation time while starch consumption was increasing. The highest cumulative hydrogen production (3600 mL), hydrogen yield (465 mL H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch or 3.1 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose) and hydrogen production rate (864 mL H{sub 2} d{sup -1}) were obtained after 4 days of fed-batch operation with the 20 g L{sup -1} feed WP concentration corresponding to a WP loading rate of 4 g WP d{sup -1}. Low feed WP concentrations (10 g L{sup -1}) resulted in low hydrogen yields and rates due to substrate limitations. High feed WP concentrations (30 g L{sup -1}) resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in high concentrations causing inhibition on the rate and yield of hydrogen production. (author)

  15. Enhancement of fermentative hydrogen production from green algal biomass of Thermotoga neapolitana by various pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tam-Anh D.; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Sim, Sang Jun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Sun [Bioenergy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donhue [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Dongyang Mirae College, Seoul 152-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Biomass of the green algae has been recently an attractive feedstock source for bio-fuel production because the algal carbohydrates can be derived from atmospheric CO{sub 2} and their harvesting methods are simple. We utilized the accumulated starch in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the sole substrate for fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production by the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. Because of possessing amylase activity, the bacterium could directly ferment H{sub 2} from algal starch with H{sub 2} yield of 1.8-2.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and the total accumulated H{sub 2} level from 43 to 49% (v/v) of the gas headspace in the closed culture bottle depending on various algal cell-wall disruption methods concluding sonication or methanol exposure. Attempting to enhance the H{sub 2} production, two pretreatment methods using the heat-HCl treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were applied on algal biomass before using it as substrate for H{sub 2} fermentation. Cultivation with starch pretreated by 1.5% HCl at 121 C for 20 min showed the total accumulative H{sub 2} yield of 58% (v/v). In other approach, enzymatic digestion of starch by thermostable {alpha}-amylase (Termamyl) applied in the SHF process significantly enhanced the H{sub 2} productivity of the bacterium to 64% (v/v) of total accumulated H{sub 2} level and a H{sub 2} yield of 2.5 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. Our results demonstrated that direct H{sub 2} fermentation from algal biomass is more desirably potential because one bacterial cultivation step was required that meets the cost-savings, environmental friendly and simplicity of H{sub 2} production. (author)

  16. Biohydrogen production from cheese processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Peilin [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Zhang, Ruihong [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McGarvey, Jeffery A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Benemann, John R. [Benemann Associates, Walnut Creek, CA 94595 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H{sub 2} fermentation experiments H{sub 2} yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. Butyric, acetic, propionic, and valeric acids were the major volatile fatty acids (VFA) produced in the fermentation process. Continuous H{sub 2} fermentation experiments were also performed using a completely mixed reactor (CSTR). The pH of the bioreactor was controlled in a range of 4.0-5.0 by addition of carbonate in the feed material. Maximum H{sub 2} yields were between 1.8 and 2.3 mM/g COD fed for the loading rates (LRs) tested with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Occasionally CH{sub 4} was produced in the biogas with concurrent reductions in H{sub 2} production; however, continuous H{sub 2} production was achieved for over 3 weeks at each LR. The 16S rDNA analysis of DNA extracted from the bioreactors during periods of high H{sub 2} production revealed that more than 50% of the bacteria present were members of the genus Lactobacillus and about 5% were Clostridia. When H{sub 2} production in the bioreactors decreased concurrent reductions in the genus Lactobacillus were also observed. Therefore, the microbial populations in the bioreactors were closely related to the conditions and performance of the bioreactors. (author)

  17. Effect of primary degradation-reaction products from Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-treated corn stover on the growth and fermentation of Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming W; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-10-01

    The primary degradation-reaction products (DRP) identified in Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover are acetate, lactate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4HBD) and acetamide. The effects of these products at a broad concentration range were tested on Escherichia coli KO11, a strain engineered for cellulosic ethanol production. Fermentations using glucose or xylose as the sole carbohydrate source and a sugar mixture of glucose and xylose were conducted to determine how these products and sugar selection affected fermentation performance. Co-fermentation of the sugar mixture exhibited the lowest overall ethanol productivity compared to single-sugar fermentations and was more susceptible to inhibition. Metabolic ethanol yield increased with the increasing initial concentration of acetate. Although these degradation-reaction products (with exception of acetamide) are generally perceived to be inhibitory, organic acids and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde at low levels stimulated fermentation. Adaptation of cells to these products prior to fermentation increased overall fermentation rate.

  18. Achieving ethanol-type fermentation for hydrogen production in a granular sludge system by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Liu, Min; Chen, Ying; Pan, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of aeration on hydrogen-producing granular system, experiments were performed in two laboratory-scale anaerobic internal circulation hydrogen production (AICHP) reactors. The preliminary experiment of Reactor 1 showed that direct aeration was beneficial to enhancing hydrogen production. After the direct aeration was implied in Reactor 2, hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen content were increased by 100% and 60%, respectively. In addition, mixed-acid fermentation was transformed into typical ethanol-type fermentation (ETF). Illumina MiSeq sequencing shows that the direct aeration did not change the species of hydrogen-producing bacteria but altered their abundance. Hydrogen-producing bacteria and ethanol-type fermentative bacteria were increased by 24.5% and 146.3%, respectively. Ethanoligenens sp. sharply increased by 162.2% and turned into predominant bacteria in the system. These findings indicated that appropriate direct aeration might be a novel and promising way to obtain ETF and enhance hydrogen production in practical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of encapsulation of microorganisms on product formation during microbial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments in microbial products by encapsulated microorganisms in a liquid core surrounded by natural or synthetic membranes. Cells can be encapsulated in one or several steps using liquid droplet formation, pregel dissolving, coacervation, and interfacial polymerization. The use of encapsulated yeast and bacteria for fermentative production of ethanol, lactic acid, biogas, L-phenylacetylcarbinol, 1,3-propanediol, and riboflavin has been investigated. Encapsulated cells have furthermore been used for the biocatalytic conversion of chemicals. Fermentation, using encapsulated cells, offers various advantages compared to traditional cultivations, e.g., higher cell density, faster fermentation, improved tolerance of the cells to toxic media and high temperatures, and selective exclusion of toxic hydrophobic substances. However, mass transfer through the capsule membrane as well as the robustness of the capsules still challenge the utilization of encapsulated cells. The history and the current state of applying microbial encapsulation for production processes, along with the benefits and drawbacks concerning productivity and general physiology of the encapsulated cells, are discussed.

  20. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts.

  1. Boosting dark fermentation with co-cultures of extreme thermophiles for biohythane production from garden waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Angela A; Tavares, Fábio; Alves, Maria Madalena; Pereira, Maria Alcina

    2016-11-01

    Proof of principle of biohythane and potential energy production from garden waste (GW) is demonstrated in this study in a two-step process coupling dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The synergistic effect of using co-cultures of extreme thermophiles to intensify biohydrogen dark fermentation is demonstrated using xylose, cellobiose and GW. Co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga maritima showed higher hydrogen production yields from xylose (2.7±0.1molmol(-1) total sugar) and cellobiose (4.8±0.3molmol(-1) total sugar) compared to individual cultures. Co-culture of extreme thermophiles C. saccharolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii increased synergistically the hydrogen production yield from GW (98.3±6.9Lkg(-1) (VS)) compared to individual cultures and co-culture of T. maritima and C. saccharolyticus. The biochemical methane potential of the fermentation end-products was 322±10Lkg(-1) (CODt). Biohythane, a biogas enriched with 15% hydrogen could be obtained from GW, yielding a potential energy generation of 22.2MJkg(-1) (VS).

  2. Enzymatical hydrolysis of food waste and ethanol production from the hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao; Yao, Jianming [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jun; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao; Ye, Jianfeng [Hefei Research Center of Ion Beam Engineering and Technology, Hefei 230088 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of present paper was to investigate the prospect for the use of food waste, an important municipal waste, as a potential substrate to generate hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production. The critical variables that affected reducing sugar production from food waste were identified by Plackett-Burman design (glucoamylase loud, time, temperature and pH) and further optimized by using a four factor central composite design of response surface methodology. According to the results of response surface analysis, the optimum conditions for reducing sugar production were determined to be glucoamylase loud of 142.2 u/g, saccharification pH of 4.82, enzyme reaction temperature of 55 C, enzyme reaction time of 2.48 h. Reducing sugar production (164.8 g/L) in the optimized condition was in good agreement with the value predicted by the quadratic model (164.3 g/L), thereby confirming its validity. Furthermore, the obtained liquid phase of food waste hydrolysate was utilized for production of ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058 fermentation. In order to develop an economical process for transforming food waste hydrolysates to ethanol, non-sterilized and sterilized processes were compared in the experiments. The result shows non-sterilized fermentation without undergoing heat treatment was better due to the unspoiled nutrients inside. These results helped to find the effective strategies to utilize food waste for ethanol production. (author)

  3. Solid state fermentation studies of citric acid production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... India. Accepted 27 November, 2007. Treated sugarcane bagasse supplemented with sucrose medium was found 1.7 fold (citric acid based ..... Academic Press. ... Relation between citric acid production and respiration rate of.

  4. Optimization of fermentation medium for nisin production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    production from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis using ... the optimal medium obtained by ANN-GA was located at the verge of the test region, a further Box- ...... Lactococcus lactis in fed-batch culture. Appl. Microbiol. Biot. 68: 322-. 326.

  5. Influence of Process Parameters on the Production of Metabolites in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation (SSF involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free water. This low moisture content makes the SSF different from submerged fermentation. Unlike the situation in submerged fermentation there is no systematic study guiding the design and operation of large scale SSF with propercontrols. The understanding and modeling of microbial growth kinetics and transport phenomena play important roles in the SSF. The design of bioreactors from tray type to stirred tank is discussed. The packed bed, rotating drum, rocking drum, fluidized bed and stirred tank reactors are used in SSF with and without modifications. The parameters like pH, temperature, agitation and aeration also need to be controlled. There is a large gradient of temperature throughout thetrays. By manipulating the nitrogen source requirement, the pH of the system is generally controlled. The different factors that control the agitation and aeration in the SSF are discussed. Finally the advantages and disadvantages of SSF compared to submerged fermentation were mentioned. Moreover, such understanding is very much required in the design, scale up and process control in SSF. This paper deals with the influence of environmental parameters such as airflow rate, temperature, pH, substrate concentration and other physico-chemical parameters on the production of specific metabolites.

  6. Production of Extracellular Lipase from Aspergillus niger by Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janny Coca Armas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production in Aspergillus niger J-1 was tested using both submerged fermentation (SmF and solid-state fermentation (SSF on a mineral culture medium and wheat bran, respectively. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for both SmF and SSF. The maximum lipase activity, 1.46 IU/mL, was obtained during the submerged fermentation in a medium containing glucose at 2 % and olive oil at 2 % under conditions of 1 vvm and 450 m–1. However, 9.14 IU/g of dry solid substrate equivalent to 4.8 IU/mL of lipase activity was reached using solid-state fermentation process with a medium containing 0.75 % of ammonium sulphate and 0.34 % of urea. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic activity were pH=6 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme also exhibited 80 % of its initial activity in neutral and mildly acid media and at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C for a period of 24 hours.

  7. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vasques Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 °C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  9. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL(-1), reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  10. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported.

  11. Evaluation of sourdoughs for the production of bread using spontaneous fermentation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed three sourdoughs using sugarcane, apple and grape as substrate. The fermentative activity and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the sourdoughs and breads were evaluated. Among the breads that were prepared using different sourdoughs, that which was made from grape sourdough presented high pH (4.30 and less acidity (2.99 mL 0.1N 100 g-1. The grape sourdough was selected for research because it presented the highest fermentation volume and because it was the most preferred in the sensory analysis. The aerobic lactic acid bacteria count at 30°C was 7.52 log CFU g-1 and yeast count was 7.62 log CFU g-1. After one year of cultivation, the aerobic lactic acid bacteria increased by 1.34 logarithmic cycles at a temperature of30°C and the yeasts were reduced by 0.61 logarithmic cycles. The results of this study indicate that the use of different substrates in the preparation of sourdoughs provides breads with different sensory characteristics. Although it is an old process, the application of the spontaneous fermentation technique in bread making is still much used in view of the demand for products with the specific characteristics of this type of fermentation.

  12. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  13. Lactic acid production from date juice using lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 in batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaavessina Mujtahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 was employed as a fermentative organism to convert sugars from date juice into lactic acid. Both glucose and fructose in date juice were fermented directly without any pretreatment. The influences of supplementation of yeast extract and date juice concentration on some fermentation parameters, such as: cell growth rate, sugar conversion, productivity and yield, were investigated using this bacterium in batch fermentation. The results showed that by adding yeast extract about 20g/l in a date juice medium, the maximum specific growth rate of bacteria (μm enhanced from 0.1229 to 0.1819 g/l. Meanwhile, increasing date juice concentration from 86.6942 to 158.9181 and 229.5367 g/l enhanced the μm from 0.1819 to 0.2107 and 0.1916 g/l, respectively. It indicated that the optimum value for μm is 0.2107 g/l in this concentration range. In the date juice concentration of 158.9181 g/l, the optimum lactic acid can be produced is 117.8301 g/l with yield of 92.685% for 48 h.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Biomass Degradation Products on Ethanol Fermentation and a Strategy to Overcome Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of buffers, as well as inhibitors such as formic acid, furfural, HMF, guaiacol, and vanillin, on ethanol formation was investigated. Compared to phosphoric buffer, the acetic and citric buffers were less inhibitory on ethanol fermentation. The addition of formic acid (2.5 g/L to the buffer reduced the ethanol yield by 8%. Guaiacol (3 g/L and vanillin (2.5 g/L decreased ethanol production by 50% and 20%, respectively. Furfural and HMF delayed the yeast fermentation without reducing the total yield. The fermentation was seriously inhibited by the mixture of furfural (1 g/L, HMF (1 g/L, formic acid (1 g/L, vanillin (1 g/L, and guaiacol (1 g/L. The ethanol yield of the fermentation based on enzymatic hydrolyzate from treated biomass was 82%. The addition of 1 g/L MgSO4 as a shielding protector rehabilitated nearly 100% of the total yield.

  15. Production of D-lactic acid by bacterial fermentation of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuki; Sogo, Kazuaki; Miura, Shigenobu; Kimura, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-20

    D-Lactic acid was synthesized by the fermentation of rice starch using microorganisms. Two species: Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Sporolactobacillus inulinus were found to be active in producing D-lactic acid of high optical purity after an intensive screening test for D-lactic acid bacteria using glucose as substrate. Rice powder used as the starch source was hydrolyzed with a combination of enzymes: alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to obtain rice saccharificate consisting of maltose as the main component. Its average gross yield was 82.5%. Of the discovered D-lactic acid bacteria, only Lactobacillus delbrueckii could ferment both maltose and the rice saccharificate. After optimizing the fermentation of the rice saccharificate using this bacterium, pilot scale fermentation was conducted to convert the rice saccharificate into D-lactic acid with a D-content higher than 97.5% in a yield of 70%. With this yield, the total yield of D-lactic acid from brown rice was estimated to be 47%, which is almost equal to the L-lactic acid yield from corn. The efficient synthesis of D-lactic acid can open a way to the large scale application of high-melting poly(lactic acid) that is a stereocomplex of poly(L-lactide) and poly(D-lactide). Schematic representation of the production of D-lactic acid starting from brown rice as described here.

  16. Bioethanol Production from Paper Fibre Residue Using Diluted Alkali Hydrolysis and the Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathya Geetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of art for the bioethanol production from paper fibre residue using diluted alkali hydrolysis and fermentation processes was evaluated. Hydrolysis of paper fibre residue with diluted sodium hydroxide at various time period, temperature and concentration were investigated. The paper fibre residue was pre-steamed, impregnated with diluted NaOH (0 to 25% and subsequently hydrolyzed in a reactor at temperatures that ranged between 30 to 50 oC, for reaction time between 30 minutes to 150 minutes. The highest yield of monosaccharide (indicating the efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemi cellulose was found at a temperature of 35 oC for a reaction time of 90 minutes. Fermentability of hemicelluloses hydrolysate was tested using monosaccharide fermenting microorganism Penicillium chrysogenum and Saccharomyces cereviacea. The fermentability of the hydrolysate decreased strongly for hydrolysate produced at temperature higher than 50 oC. The ethanol concentration of monosaccharide hydrolysate was found to be 34.06 g/L and the ethanol yield was 0.097 g/g.

  17. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anker, Yaakov; Nakonechny, Faina; Niazov, Betty; Lugovskoy, Svetlana; Nisnevitch, Marina

    2016-01-01

    While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel...

  18. Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in yoghurt and in commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brandt, L; Coudijzer, K; Herman, L; Michiels, C; Hendrickx, M; Vlaemynck, G

    2011-05-01

    To assess the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in yoghurt and commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic strains. Whole and skimmed UHT milk artificially inoculated with MAP were used to manufacture yoghurt, using two different yoghurt starter cultures. Five commercial fermented milk products were inoculated with MAP. Two different MAP strains were studied. The survival of MAP in all products was monitored by culture over a 6-week storage period at 6°C. In yoghurt, MAP counts did not change appreciably during the storage period. Fat content and type of yoghurt starter culture had no consistent effect on the survival of MAP. In the fermented milk products, survival patterns varied but resulted in a 1·5 to ≥3·8 log reduction for the Niebüll strain and a 1·2-2·2 log reduction for the NIZO strain after 6 weeks, depending on the probiotic starters present in the product. MAP easily survived in yoghurt but MAP numbers decreased in fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. The results contribute to the lack of knowledge on the behaviour of MAP in yoghurt and fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. This knowledge is valuable in the context of the risk of MAP transmission to humans via yoghurt and the possible contribution of probiotic fermented milk products to the elimination of MAP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Effect of Radioactivity of Technetium-99m on the Autosterilization Process of non-sterile Tetrofosmin Kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti Widyastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceutical is commonly used in nuclear medicines as a diagnostic agent, by mixing the sterile kit with Tc-99m. Manufacturing of kits requires an aseptic facility which need to be well designed and maintained according to cGMP, since mostly kits can not be terminally sterilized. Radiopharmaceuticals as pharmaceuticals containing radionuclide is assumed to have an autosterilization property, but correlation between radioactivity and capability of killing microorganisms has to be studied so far. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of radioactivity on the autosterilization process of radiopharmaceuticals. The study was carried out by adding Tc-99m of various radioactivity into non-sterile tetrofosmin kits, then the samples were tested for sterility. Sterile tetrofosmin kit and non-sterile kit with no Tc-99m added will be used as a negative control and positive control respectively. The sterility was tested using standard direct inoculation method, by inoculating samples in culture media for both bacteria and fungi and observing qualitatively within 14 days. The results showed that the samples with radioactivity of 1, 3 and 5 mCi changed the clarity of the media to turbid, conformed with the performance of positive controls but samples with radioactivity of 10 mCi and 20 mCi did not change the clarity of the media, conformed with the performance of negative control, indicating neither growth of bacteria nor fungi. It is concluded that Tc-99m behaves as an autosterilizing agent at certain radioactivity. Therefore the preparation of Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical can be considered as terminal sterilization rather than aseptic preparation.

  20. The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation for exopolysaccharide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF was studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. RBF was optimised for time to replace and volume to replace. G. lucidum mycelium showed the ability to self-immobilise and exhibited high stability for repeated use in RBF with engulfed pellets. Furthermore, the ovoid and starburst-like pellet morphology was disposed to EPS production in the shake flask and bioreactor, respectively. Seven RBF could be carried out in 500 mL flasks, and five repeated batches were performed in a 2 L bioreactor. Under RBF conditions, autolysis of pellet core in the shake flask and shaving off of the outer hairy region in the bioreactor were observed at the later stages of RBF (R4 for the shake flask and R6 for the bioreactor. The proposed strategy showed that the morphology of G. lucidum mycelium can withstand extended fermentation cycles.