WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-steady state multi-phase

  1. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  2. Non-steady state modeling of wheel-rail contact problem

    OpenAIRE

    Guiral, A.; Alonso, A.; Baeza González, Luis Miguel; Giménez, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Among all the algorithms to solve the wheel–rail contact problem, Kalker's FastSim has become the most useful computation tool since it combines a low computational cost and enough precision for most of the typical railway dynamics problems. However, some types of dynamic problems require the use of a non-steady state analysis. Alonso and Giménez developed a non-stationary method based on FastSim, which provides both, sufficiently accurate results and a low computational cost. However, it pre...

  3. Non-steady state modelling of wheel-rail contact problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiral, A.; Alonso, A.; Baeza, L.; Giménez, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Among all the algorithms to solve the wheel-rail contact problem, Kalker's FastSim has become the most useful computation tool since it combines a low computational cost and enough precision for most of the typical railway dynamics problems. However, some types of dynamic problems require the use of a non-steady state analysis. Alonso and Giménez developed a non-stationary method based on FastSim, which provides both, sufficiently accurate results and a low computational cost. However, it presents some limitations; the method is developed for one time-dependent creepage and its accuracy for varying normal forces has not been checked. This article presents the required changes in order to deal with both problems and compares its results with those given by Kalker's Variational Method for rolling contact.

  4. Differential equation methods for simulation of GFP kinetics in non-steady state experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Robert D

    2018-03-15

    Genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, combined with fluorescence microscopy, are widely used in cell biology to collect kinetic data on intracellular trafficking. Methods for extraction of quantitative information from these data are based on the mathematics of diffusion and tracer kinetics. Current methods, although useful and powerful, depend on the assumption that the cellular system being studied is in a steady state, that is, the assumption that all the molecular concentrations and fluxes are constant for the duration of the experiment. Here, we derive new tracer kinetic analytical methods for non-steady state biological systems by constructing mechanistic nonlinear differential equation models of the underlying cell biological processes and linking them to a separate set of differential equations governing the kinetics of the fluorescent tracer. Linking the two sets of equations is based on a new application of the fundamental tracer principle of indistinguishability and, unlike current methods, supports correct dependence of tracer kinetics on cellular dynamics. This approach thus provides a general mathematical framework for applications of GFP fluorescence microscopy (including photobleaching [FRAP, FLIP] and photoactivation to frequently encountered experimental protocols involving physiological or pharmacological perturbations (e.g., growth factors, neurotransmitters, acute knockouts, inhibitors, hormones, cytokines, and metabolites) that initiate mechanistically informative intracellular transients. When a new steady state is achieved, these methods automatically reduce to classical steady state tracer kinetic analysis. © 2018 Phair. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. The non-steady state oceanic CO2 signal: its importance, magnitude and a novel way to detect it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. McNeil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the ocean has been pivotal in modulating rising atmospheric CO2 levels since the industrial revolution, sequestering nearly half of all fossil-fuel derived CO2 emissions. Net oceanic uptake of CO2 has roughly doubled between the 1960s (~1 Pg C yr−1 and 2000s (~2 Pg C yr−1, with expectations that it will continue to absorb even more CO2 with rising future atmospheric CO2 levels. However, recent CO2 observational analyses along with numerous model predictions suggest the rate of oceanic CO2 uptake is already slowing, largely as a result of a natural decadal-scale outgassing signal. This recent CO2 outgassing signal represents a significant shift in our understanding of the oceans role in modulating atmospheric CO2. Current tracer-based estimates for the ocean storage of anthropogenic CO2 assume the ocean circulation and biology is in steady state, thereby missing the new and potentially important "non-steady state" CO2 outgassing signal. By combining data-based techniques that assume the ocean is in a steady state, with techniques that constrain the net oceanic CO2 uptake signal, we show how to extract the non-steady state CO2 signal from observations. Over the entire industrial era, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~13 ± 10 Pg C is estimated to represent about 9% of the total net CO2 inventory change (~142 Pg C. However, between 1989 and 2007, the non-steady state CO2 outgassing signal (~6.3 Pg C has likely increased to be ~18% of net oceanic CO2 storage over that period (~36 Pg C. The present uncertainty of our data-based techniques for oceanic CO2 uptake limit our capacity to quantify the non-steady state CO2 signal, however with more data and better certainty estimates across a range of diverse methods, this important and growing CO2 signal could be better constrained in the future.

  6. Contribution of exogenous substrates to acetyl coenzyme A: Measurement by 13C NMR under non-steady-state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.R.; Jeffrey, F.M.H.; Thompson, J.R.; Sherry, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    A method is presented for the rapid determination of substrate selection in a manner that is not restricted to conditions of metabolic and isotopic steady state. Competition between several substrates can be assessed directly and continuously in a single experiment, allowing the effect of interventions to be studied. It is shown that a single proton-decoupled 13 C NMR spectrum of glutamate provides a direct measure of the contribution of exogenous 13 C-labeled substrates to acetyl-CoA without measurement of oxygen consumption and that steady-state conditions need not apply. Two sets of experiments were performed: one in which a metabolic steady state but a non-steady-state 13 C distribution was achieved and another in which both metabolism and labeling were not at steady state. In the first group, isolated rat hearts were supplied with [1,2- 13 C]acetate, [3- 13 C]lactate, and unlabeled glucose. 13 C NMR spectra of extracts from hearts perfused under identical conditions for 5 or 30 min were compared. In spite of significant differences in the spectra, the measured contributions of acetate, lactate, and unlabeled sources to acetyl-CoA were the same. In the second set of experiments, the same group of labeled substrates was used in a regional ischemia model in isolated rabbit hearts to show regional differences in substrate utilization under both metabolic and isotopic non steady state. The time resolution of these measurements may not be limited by technical contraints but by the rate of carbon flux in the citric acid cycle. Although this technique is demonstrated for the heart, it is applicable to all tissues

  7. The Completion of Non-Steady-State Queue Model on The Queue System in Dr. Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi Manggala Putri, Arum; Subekti, Retno; Binatari, Nikenasih

    2017-06-01

    Dr Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta is one of the most popular reference eye hospitals in Yogyakarta. There are so many patients coming from other cities and many of them are BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial, Social Security Administrative Bodies) patients. Therefore, it causes numerous BPJS patients were in long queue at counter C of the registration section so that it needs to be analysed using queue system. Queue system analysis aims to give queue model overview and determine its effectiveness measure. The data collecting technique used in this research are by interview and observation. After getting the arrival data and the service data of BPJS patients per 5 minutes, the next steps are investigating steady-state condition, examining the Poisson distribution, determining queue models, and counting the effectiveness measure. Based on the result of data observation on Tuesday, February 16th, 2016, it shows that the queue system at counter C has (M/M/1):(GD/∞/∞) queue model. The analysis result in counter C shows that the queue system is a non-steady-state condition. Three ways to cope a non-steady-state problem on queue system are proposed in this research such as bounding the capacity of queue system, adding the servers, and doing Monte Carlo simulation. The queue system in counter C will reach steady-state if the capacity of patients is not more than 52 BPJS patients or adding one more server. By using Monte Carlo simulation, it shows that the effectiveness measure of the average waiting time for BPJS patients in counter C is 36 minutes 65 seconds. In addition, the average queue length of BPJS patients is 11 patients.

  8. Influence of non-steady state during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in hypertension. A LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Andersen, U B; Wachtell, K

    1999-01-01

    We wanted to investigate whether time to steady state was reached within 2 h of insulin infusion during isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, comparing the glucose uptake index (M/IG) with Bergman's insulin sensitivity index (Sip). We performed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and a 3-h isoglycemic....... Because the 2-h M/IG correlated strongly with the 3-h Sip with relatively narrow limits of agreement, it is a good measure of insulin sensitivity. However, a 2-h clamp results in lower insulin sensitivity values in elderly, hypertensive patients due to the fact that steady state is not reached...

  9. Seasonal variations in ectotherm growth rates: Quantifying growth as an intermittent non steady state compensatory process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, J.-M.; Chauvaud, Laurent; Cloern, J.E.; Clavier, J.; Coston-Guarini, J.; Patry, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, growth rates of living organisms are considered to be at steady state, varying only under environmental forcing factors. For example, these rates may be described as a function of light for plants or organic food resources for animals and these could be regulated (or not) by temperature or other conditions. But, what are the consequences for an individual's growth (and also for the population growth) if growth rate variations are themselves dynamic and not steady state? For organisms presenting phases of dormancy or long periods of stress, this is a crucial question. A dynamic perspective for quantifying short-term growth was explored using the daily growth record of the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). This species is a good biological model for ectotherm growth because the shell records growth striae daily. Independently, a generic mathematical function representing the dynamics of mean daily growth rate (MDGR) was implemented to simulate a diverse set of growth patterns. Once the function was calibrated with the striae patterns, the growth rate dynamics appeared as a forced damped oscillation during the growth period having a basic periodicity during two transitory phases (mean duration 43. days) and appearing at both growth start and growth end. This phase is most likely due to the internal dynamics of energy transfer within the organism rather than to external forcing factors. After growth restart, the transitory regime represents successive phases of over-growth and regulation. This pattern corresponds to a typical representation of compensatory growth, which from an evolutionary perspective can be interpreted as an adaptive strategy to coping with a fluctuating environment. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling non-steady-state isotope enrichment of leaf water in a gas-exchange cuvette environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Simonin, Kevin A; Loucos, Karen E; Barbour, Margaret M

    2015-12-01

    The combined use of a gas-exchange system and laser-based isotope measurement is a tool of growing interest in plant ecophysiological studies, owing to its relevance for assessing isotopic variability in leaf water and/or transpiration under non-steady-state (NSS) conditions. However, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model, originally developed for open-field scenarios, is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment where isotope composition of water vapour (δv ) is intrinsically linked to that of transpiration (δE ). Here, we modified the F&C model to make it directly compatible with the δv -δE dynamic characteristic of a typical cuvette setting. The resultant new model suggests a role of 'net-flux' (rather than 'gross-flux' as suggested by the original F&C model)-based leaf water turnover rate in controlling the time constant (τ) for the approach to steady sate. The validity of the new model was subsequently confirmed in a cuvette experiment involving cotton leaves, for which we demonstrated close agreement between τ values predicted from the model and those measured from NSS variations in isotope enrichment of transpiration. Hence, we recommend that our new model be incorporated into future isotope studies involving a cuvette condition where the transpiration flux directly influences δv . There is an increasing popularity among plant ecophysiologists to use a gas-exchange system coupled to laser-based isotope measurement for investigating non-steady state (NSS) isotopic variability in leaf water (and/or transpiration); however, the current Farquhar & Cernusak (F&C) NSS leaf water model is unsuited for use in a gas-exchange cuvette environment due to its implicit assumption of isotope composition of water vapor (δv ) being constant and independent of that of transpiration (δE ). In the present study, we modified the F&C model to make it compatible with the dynamic relationship between δv and δE as is typically associated

  11. Non steady-state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, M; Lieckfeldt, R; Wittum, G; Mazurkevich, G; Lee, G

    1996-03-01

    The diffusion equation should be solved for the non-steady-state problem of drug diffusion within a two-dimensional, biphasic stratum corneum membrane having homogeneous lipid and corneocyte phases. A numerical method was developed for a brick-and-mortar SC-geometry, enabling an explicit solution for time-dependent drug concentration within both phases. The lag time and permeability were calculated. It is shown how the barrier property of this model membrane depends on relative phase permeability, corneocyte alignment, and corneocyte-lipid partition coefficient. Additionally, the time-dependent drug concentration profiles within the membrane can be observed during the lag and steady-state phases. The model SC-membrane predicts, from purely morphological principles, lag times and permeabilities that are in good agreement with experimental values. The long lag times and very small permeabilities reported for human SC can only be predicted for a highly-staggered corneocyte geometry and corneocytes that are 1000 times less permeable than the lipid phase. Although the former conclusion is reasonable, the latter is questionable. The elongated, flattened corneocyte shape renders lag time and permeability insensitive to large changes in their alignment within the SC. Corneocyte/lipid partitioning is found to be fundamentally different to SC/donor partitioning, since increasing drug lipophilicity always reduces both lag time and permeability.

  12. A Multi-Phase Equation of State and Strength Model for Tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-phase equation of state and a multi-phase strength model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. At a phase transition there are changes in volume, energy, and properties of a material that should be included in an accurate model. The strength model will also be affected by a solid-solid phase transition. For many materials there is a lack of experimental data for strength at high pressures making the derivation of strength parameters for some phases difficult. In the case of tin there are longitudinal sound speed data on the Hugoniot available that have been used here in conjunction with a multi-phase equation of state to derive strength parameters for the γ phase, a phase which does not exist at room temperature and pressure

  13. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    oxidation tests. In a second step, in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations from basic models, a non-steady state numerical model able to take into account several elementary steps is built. The aim is to get a more reliable tool to describe mechanisms that control oxide scale growth in this specific low temperature range. The paper has the following contains: Experimental results; Growth kinetics; Scale morphology; A basic model for kinetics of oxidation; Conclusion of the experimental study; EKINOX: Estimation KINetics OXidation: an advanced model; General description; Equations in the model; Results; Future developments; Conclusion. To summarize, the basic model consists in some extrapolations of available experimental data in the temperature range of interest following simple analytical laws deduced from classical oxidation theories. This leads to a very small oxide scale and thus to the loss of very small amounts of metal even for extrapolations to over 100 years. However, the reliability of this kind of basic models is very poor since it is based on the assumption that a single elementary process controls the oxidation rate. Indeed in the temperature range concerned by long term interim deposit of waste containers, several mechanisms can control the oxidation rate. A numerical model able to take in consideration several growth mechanisms is now in progress. At this stage of development, the originality of the proposed advanced model consists in explicitly calculating the vacancy profiles and treating these as non-conservative species. It is based on an original numerical treatment to correctly and easily describe elimination of vacancies at the metal/oxide interface and thus relative motion between the substrate lattice and the oxide one, even for non-stationary states. It can treat Wagner's model but without the quasi-steady state 'hypothesis or also take into account a partial control of the oxidation process by interfacial reaction. In

  14. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  15. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    evolution of actinolite to more stable aluminous compositions. This is modelled by a non-steady-state modification of the theory, retaining local equilibrium in grain boundaries while relatively steep zoning profiles develop in grain interiors through slow intracrystalline diffusion. Replacement of actinolite by hornblende does not require a change in P- T conditions if actinolite is a kinetically determined, non-equilibrium product. The common preservation of a sharp contact between hornblende and actionolite layers may be explained by ineffectiveness of intracrystalline diffusion: according to the theory, given sufficient grain-boundary Al flux, a metastable actinolite + quartz layer in contact with hornblende may be diffusionally stable and may continue to grow in a steady state.

  16. A multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead. The thermodynamically consistent equation of state is constructed by calculating separate equations of state for the solid and liquid phases. The melt curve is the curve in the pressure, temperature plane where the Gibb's free energy of the solid and liquid phases are equal. In each phase a complete equation of state is obtained using the assumptions that the specific heat capacity is constant and that the Grueneisen parameter is proportional to the specific volume. The parameters for the equation of state are obtained from experimental data. In particular they are chosen to match melt curve and principal Hugoniot data. Predictions are made for the shock pressure required for melt to occur on shock and release

  17. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, T.L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S.J.; Murrell, M.T.; Chu, W.L.; Dobson, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234 U/ 238 U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234 U/ 238 U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234 U/ 238 U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  18. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  19. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone - A case study using uranium isotopes at Peña Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and 234U/ 238U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and α-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Peña Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced 234U/ 238U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using 234U/ 238U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  20. A multi-phase ferrofluid flow model with equation of state for thermomagnetic pumping and heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aursand, Eskil, E-mail: eskil.aursand@sintef.no; Gjennestad, Magnus Aa.; Yngve Lervåg, Karl; Lund, Halvor

    2016-03-15

    A one-dimensional multi-phase flow model for thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid with heat transfer is proposed. The thermodynamic model is a combination of a simplified particle model and thermodynamic equations of state for the base fluid. The magnetization model is based on statistical mechanics, taking into account non-uniform particle size distributions. An implementation of the proposed model is validated against experiments from the literature, and found to give good predictions for the thermomagnetic pumping performance. However, the results reveal a very large sensitivity to uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient predictions. - Highlights: • A multi-phase flow model for thermomagnetically pumped ferrofluid is proposed. • An implementation is validated against experiments from the literature. • Predicted thermomagnetic pumping effect agrees with experiments. • However, a very large sensitivity to heat transfer coefficient is revealed.

  1. Iron and Sulfur Species and Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Authigenic Pyrite in Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin (ODP Leg 204): A Proposal of Conceptual Models to Indicate the Non-Steady State Depositional and Diagenetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, S. Y.; Su, X.

    2017-12-01

    Two accretionary sediment sequences from Sites 1245 and 1252 recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin were investigated to explore the non-steady state depositional and diagenetic history. Five iron species and three sulfur species were chemically extracted, and their concentrations and the sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite were determined. After the mineral recognitions of these species and detailed comparative analyses, the aerobic history of bottom seawater has been determined. The formation of pyrite is thought to be controlled by the limited production of hydrogen sulfide relative to the supply of reactive iron. Also, the intrusion of oxygen by bioturbation would oxidize the reduced sulfur species and further suppress pyritization. To explain the geochemical relationship between pyrite and siderite and the sulfur isotope characteristics of pyrite, we propose seven conceptual models based on the variations in depositional rate and methane flux, and the models succeed in explaining the geochemical results and are validated by the observed non-steady state events. These models may contribute to the reconstruction of the non-steady state processes in other research areas in the future.

  2. Workshop `Measurement technology for steady state and transient multi phase flows`; Workshop `Messtechnik fuer stationaere und transiente Mehrphasenstroemungen`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. [ed.

    1997-12-01

    There is hardly another area of physics which has a comparable multiplicity of phenomena, like flow in multi-phase mixtures. The wishes of experimenters regarding measurement technique are correspondingly great: Apart from the conventional parameters of pressure, temperature and speed of flow, as great a collection with resolution of the instantaneous phase distribution is required. Also, the phases themselves frequently consists of several components, whose concentration should also be measured. The enormous progress which has recently been made with laser optics and tomographic processes, must be compared with a long list of unsolved problems, above all where non-contact measurement is concerned. The attempts at solutions are multifarious, the need for the exchange of experience is great and the comparson of measurement processes with one another must be strengthened. The workshop has set itself these targets. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es gibt kaum ein anderes Gebiet der Physik, das eine vergleichbare Vielfalt der Erscheinungen aufweist wie Stroemungen von Mehrphasengemischen. Entsprechend gross sind die Wuensche der Experimentatoren hinsichtlich der Messtechnik: Neben den klassischen Parametern Druck, Temperatur und Stroemungsgeschwindigkeit wird eine moeglichst hoch aufloesende Erfassung der momentanen Phasenverteilung benoetigt. Ausserdem bestehen die Phasen selbst haeufig aus mehreren Komponenten, deren Konzentration ebenfalls gemessen werden soll. Den enormen Fortschritten, ie mit laseroptischen und tomographischen Verfahren in letzter Zeit gemacht wurden, steht nach wie vor eine lange Liste bisher ungeloester Aufgaben gegenueber, vor allen Dingen, wenn beruehrungslos gemessen werden soll. Die Loesungsansaetze sind vielfaeltig, der Bedarf an Erfahrungsaustausch ist gross, der Vergleich der Messverfahren untereinander muss verstaerkt werden. Diesen Zielen hatte sich der Workshop ``Messtechnik fuer tationaere und transiente Mehrphasenstroemungen`` verschrieben.

  3. Advantages of forced non-steady operated trickle-bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Trickle-bed reactors are usually operated in the steady state trickle flow regime. Uneven liquid distribution and the formation of hot spots are the most serious problems experienced during trickle flow operation. In this paper, we advocate the use of non-steady state operation of trickle-bed

  4. Implementation of a complex multi-phase equation of state for cerium and its correlation with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherne, Frank J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elkin, Vyacheslav M [VNIITF

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of cerium combined with its interesting material properties makes it a desirable material to examine dynamically. Characteristics such as the softening of the material before the phase change, low pressure solid-solid phase change, predicted low pressure melt boundary, and the solid-solid critical point add complexity to the construction of its equation of state. Currently, we are incorporating a feedback loop between a theoretical understanding of the material and an experimental understanding. Using a model equation of state for cerium we compare calculated wave profiles with experimental wave profiles for a number of front surface impact (cerium impacting a plated window) experiments. Using the calculated release isentrope we predict the temperature of the observed rarefaction shock. These experiments showed that the release state occurs at different magnitudes, thus allowing us to infer where dynamic {gamma} - {alpha} phase boundary is.

  5. Multi-phase imaging of intermittency at steady state using differential imaging method by X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Lin, Q.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    To observe intermittency in consolidated rock, we image a steady state flow of brine and decane in Bentheimer sandstone. We devise an experimental method based on X-ray differential imaging method to examine how changes in flow rate impact the pore-scale distribution of fluids during co-injection flow under dynamic flow conditions at steady state. This helps us elucidate the diverse flow regimes (connected, intermittent break-up, or continual break-up of the non-wetting phase pathways) for two capillary numbers. Also, relative permeability curves under both capillary and viscous limited conditions could be measured. We have performed imbibition sample floods using oil-brine and measured steady state relative permeability on a sandstone rock core in order to fully characterize the flow behaviour at low and high Ca. Two sets of experiments at high and low flow rates are provided to explore the time-evolution of the non-wetting phase clusters distribution under different flow conditions. The high flow rate is 0.5 mL/min, whose corresponding capillary number is 7.7×10-6. The low flow rate is 0.02 mL/min, whose capillary number is 3.1×10-7. A procedure based on using high-salinity brine as the contrast phase and applying differential imaging between the dry scan and that of the sample saturation with a 30 wt% Potassium iodide (KI) doped brine help to make sure there is no non-wetting phase in micro-pores. Then the intermittent phase in multiphase flow image at high Ca can be quantified by obtaining the differential image between the 30 wt% KI brine image and the scans that taken at each fixed fractional flow. By using the grey scale histogram distribution of the raw images at each condition, the oil proportion in the intermittent phase can be calculated. The pressure drops at each fractional flow at low and high Ca can be measured by high-precision pressure differential sensors and utilized to calculate to the relative permeability at pore scale. The relative

  6. Modeling Non-Steady Isotopologue and Isotopomer Speciation and Fractionation during Denitrification in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, F.; Riley, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    The composition and location of 15N atoms on N2O isotopomers and isotopologues during isotope speciation has been used to characterize soil biological N cycling and N2O surface emissions. Although there exist few experimental observations, no attempt has been made to model N2O isotopomer speciation. The mathematical treatment of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications normally makes use of first-order and quasi steady-state complexation assumptions without taking into account changes in enzyme concentration, reaction stoichiometry, and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. When multiatomic isotopically-labeled reactants are used in a multi-molecurar reaction, these assumptions may fail since they always lead to a constant fractionation factor and cannot describe speciation of isotopologues and isotopomers. We have developed a mathematical framework that is capable of describing isotopologue and isotopmer speciation and fractionation under the assumption of non-steady complexation during biological kinetic reactions that overcome the limitations mentioned above. This framework was applied to a case study of non-steady (variable and inverse) isotopic effects observed during N2O production and consumption in soils. Our mathematical treatment has led to generalized kinetic equations which replicate experimental observations with high accuracy and help interpret non-steady isotopic effects and isotopologue and isotopomer speciation. The kinetic equations introduced and applied here have general validity in describing isotopic effects in any biochemical reactions by considering: changing enzyme concentrations, mass and isotope conservation, and reaction stoichiometry. The equations also describe speciation of any isotopologue and isotopomer product from any isotopologue and isotopmer reactant.

  7. Multi-phase-field method for surface tension induced elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedung, Raphael; Steinbach, Ingo; Varnik, Fathollah

    2018-01-01

    A method, based on the multi-phase-field framework, is proposed that adequately accounts for the effects of a coupling between surface free energy and elastic deformation in solids. The method is validated via a number of analytically solvable problems. In addition to stress states at mechanical equilibrium in complex geometries, the underlying multi-phase-field framework naturally allows us to account for the influence of surface energy induced stresses on phase transformation kinetics. This issue, which is of fundamental importance on the nanoscale, is demonstrated in the limit of fast diffusion for a solid sphere, which melts due to the well-known Gibbs-Thompson effect. This melting process is slowed down when coupled to surface energy induced elastic deformation.

  8. Effects of non-steady irradiation conditions on fusion materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, H.; Fukumoto, K.; Nagumo, T.; Nita, N.

    2001-01-01

    During startup of fusion reactors, materials are exposed to neutron irradiation under non-steady temperature condition. Since the temperature of irradiation has decisive effects on the microstructural evolution, the non-steady temperature will have important consequences in the performance of fusion reactor materials. In the present study, a series of vanadium based alloys have been irradiated with neutrons in a temperature cycling condition. It has been found from this study that cavity number density is much greater in temperature cycled specimens than in steady temperature irradiation. Keeping the upper temperature constant, cavity number density is greater for smaller difference between the upper and the lower temperature. It follows that relatively small temperature excursions may have rather significant effects on the fusion material performance in service. (author)

  9. Multi-phase chemistry in process simulation - MASIT04 (VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, A.; Li Bingzhi; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi University, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)) (and others)

    2008-07-01

    A new generation of process models has been developed by using advanced multi-phase thermochemistry. The generality of the thermodynamic free energy concept enables use of common software tools for high and low temperature processes. Reactive multi-phase phenomena are integrated to advanced simulation procedures by using local equilibrium or constrained state free energy computation. The high-temperature applications include a process model for the heat recovery of copper flash smelting and coupled models for converter and bloom casting operations in steel-making. Wet suspension models are developed for boiler and desalination water chemistry, flash evaporation of black liquor and for selected fibre-line and paper-making processes. The simulation combines quantitative physical and chemical data from reactive flows to form their visual images, thus providing efficient tools for engineering design and industrial decision-making. Economic impacts are seen as both better process operations and improved end products. The software tools developed are internationally commercialised and being used to support Finnish process technology exports. (orig.)

  10. Identification of Steady and Non-Steady Gait of Humanexoskeleton Walking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żur, K. K.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper a method of analysis of exoskeleton multistep locomotion was presented by using a computer with the preinstalled DChC program. The paper also presents a way to analytically calculate the ",motion indicator", as well as the algorithm calculating its two derivatives. The algorithm developed by the author processes data collected from the investigation and then a program presents the obtained final results. Research into steady and non-steady multistep locomotion can be used to design two-legged robots of DAR type and exoskeleton control system

  11. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    of the induction motor is set up. The model is able to calculate dynamical electric, magnetic and mechanic state variables, but initially it is used to calculate static characteristics in motors with different number of phases and different voltage supply shapes. This analysis show i.e. that the efficiency....... The multi-phase motor is selected for further analysis. The project is limited to examine if increasing the number of phases can improve the characteristics for induction motor drives. In the literature it is demonstrated that torque production in a six-phase motor can be increased, if a 3rd harmonic......This PhD project commences in modulation of motor drives, i.e. having the advantage of reducing the number of variants and improves the system reliability at error situations. Four different motor drive topologies with modular construction as common denominator are compared on a general level...

  12. Industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.; Chewter, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    To reveal trends in the design and operation of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors, this paper describes, in historical sequence, three industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors developed and operated by Shell Chemicals during the last five decades. For each case, we

  13. Fast simulation of non-steady state emission problems in energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, P.A.J.; Wolff, E.H.P.; Verheijen, P.J.T.; Van den Bleek, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Application of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to the inversion of Laplace transforms is a recent development in the solution of the equations describing the behavior of chemical reactors. Chen and Hsu (1987) used the Fast Fourier Transform for the prediction of breakthrough curves of an isothermal

  14. Some Considerations on the Problem of Non-Steady State Traffic Flow Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Poor traffic signal timing accounts for an estimated 10 percent of all traffic delay about 300 million vehicle-hours on major roadways alone. Americans agree that this is a problem: one U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) survey found tha...

  15. Experimental study of non-steady state moisture diffusional flow in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayensu, A.

    1992-10-01

    Experiments have been conducted to verify the suitability of Fick's second law to describe moisture flow in wood. The moisture content change with time were plotted for absorption and desorption, and it was observed that these variations follow the same trend as modelled on the computer. The mean integral diffusion coefficient D-bar for the wood species were calculated on the basis of Boltzmann's solution of Fick's second law, D-bar ranges from 2.0 x 10 -3 cm 2 /s to 4.2 x 10 -3 cm 2 /s for both absorption and desorption. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Quantifying measurement uncertainties in ADCP measurements in non-steady, inhomogeneous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The author presents a laboratory study of fixed-platform four-beam ADCP and three-beam ADV measurements in the tailrace of a micro hydro power setup with a 35kW Kaplan-turbine and 2.5m head. The datasets discussed quantify measurement uncertainties of the ADCP measurement technique coming from non-steady, inhomogeneous flow. For constant discharge of 1.5m3/s, two different flow scenarios were investigated: one being the regular tailrace flow downstream the draft tube and the second being a straightened, less inhomogeneous flow, which was generated by the use of a flow straightening device: A rack of diameter 40mm pipe sections was mounted right behind the draft tube. ADCP measurements (sampling rate 1.35Hz) were conducted in three distances behind the draft tube and compared bin-wise to measurements of three simultaneously measuring ADV probes (sampling rate 64Hz). The ADV probes were aligned horizontally and the ADV bins were placed in the centers of two facing ADCP bins and in the vertical under the ADCP probe of the corresponding depth. Rotating the ADV probes by 90° allowed for measurements of the other two facing ADCP bins. For reasons of mutual probe interaction, ADCP and ADV measurements were not conducted at the same time. The datasets were evaluated by using mean and fluctuation velocities. Turbulence parameters were calculated and compared as far as applicable. Uncertainties coming from non-steady flow were estimated with the normalized mean square error und evaluated by comparing long-term measurements of 60 minutes to shorter measurement intervals. Uncertainties coming from inhomogeneous flow were evaluated by comparison of ADCP with ADV data along the ADCP beams where ADCP data were effectively measured and in the vertical under the ADCP probe where velocities of the ADCP measurements were displayed. Errors coming from non-steady flow could be compensated through sufficiently long measurement intervals with high enough sampling rates depending on the

  17. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to quantify multi-phase flow patterns and transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Lafi, A.Y.; Saloner, D.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional measurement techniques have given limited insights into the complex structure of multi-phase flows. This has led to highly subjective flow pattern classifications which have been cast in terms of flow regime maps. Rather than using static flow regime maps, some of the next generation of multi-phase flow analysis codes will implement interfacial area transport equations that would calculate the flow patterns that evolve spatially and temporally. To assess these new codes, a large data base needs to be established to quantify the essential characteristics of multi-phase flow structure. One such characteristic is the interfacial area concentration. In this paper, we discuss the current benefits and limitations of using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to examine multi- phase flow patterns and transitions. Of particular interest, are the MRI measurements of interfacial area concentration for slug flow in an air-water system. These tests were performed at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine MRI Center as a collaborative research effort with Oregon State University (OSU). The special scanning sequences designed by UCSF were capable of imaging at repetition intervals as fast as 7 milliseconds. (author)

  18. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to quantify multi-phase flow patterns and transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Jr, J N; Lafi, A Y [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Saloner, D [University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Conventional measurement techniques have given limited insights into the complex structure of multi-phase flows. This has led to highly subjective flow pattern classifications which have been cast in terms of flow regime maps. Rather than using static flow regime maps, some of the next generation of multi-phase flow analysis codes will implement interfacial area transport equations that would calculate the flow patterns that evolve spatially and temporally. To assess these new codes, a large data base needs to be established to quantify the essential characteristics of multi-phase flow structure. One such characteristic is the interfacial area concentration. In this paper, we discuss the current benefits and limitations of using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to examine multi- phase flow patterns and transitions. Of particular interest, are the MRI measurements of interfacial area concentration for slug flow in an air-water system. These tests were performed at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine MRI Center as a collaborative research effort with Oregon State University (OSU). The special scanning sequences designed by UCSF were capable of imaging at repetition intervals as fast as 7 milliseconds. (author)

  19. Multi-phase alternative current machine winding design | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... single-phase to 18-phase excitation. Experimental results of a five-phase induction machine supplied from a static five-phase supply are provided to support the proposed design. Keywords: AC machine, Multi-phase machine, Stator winding, Five-phase. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  20. Multi-phase reactive transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtner, P.C.

    1995-07-01

    Physicochemical processes in the near-field region of a high-level waste repository may involve a diverse set of phenomena including flow of liquid and gas, gaseous diffusion, and chemical reaction of the host rock with aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. This report develops some of the formalism for describing simultaneous multicomponent solute and heat transport in a two-phase system for partially saturated porous media. Diffusion of gaseous species is described using the Dusty Gas Model which provides for simultaneous Knudsen and Fickian diffusion in addition to Darcy flow. A new form of the Dusty Gas Model equations is derived for binary diffusion which separates the total diffusive flux into segregative and nonsegregative components. Migration of a wetting front is analyzed using the quasi-stationary state approximation to the Richards' equation. Heat-pipe phenomena are investigated for both gravity- and capillary-driven reflux of liquid water. An expression for the burnout permeability is derived for a gravity-driven heat-pipe. Finally an estimate is given for the change in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution which could occur in the region of condensate formation in a heat-pipe

  1. Is it possible to design universal multi-phase flow analyzer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov Kolev, N.

    2005-01-01

    Transient 3D-multiphase flows consisting of many chemical constituents in nature and technology (Figs. 1 and 2) are the common case of flows. In many technical applications we have to do with particular realization of the multi-phase flows like steady state flows, or single component flows or single phase flows etc. Engineers and scientists created hundreds of computer codes for description of more or less specific realizations of multi-phase flows. If one compares the structure of these codes one is astonished by the waste of the human resources for programming repeating model elements like equations of state, friction lows in variety of geometry, heat transfer coefficients, mathematical equation solvers, data handling procedures, graphical environment etc. It is hardly to expect, that the best solution for the specific sub-phenomenon is available in all codes. Looking in other branches of the technology like computer chips production we realize that the revolutionary idea of having common ''chips'' within complex applications is very far from its practical realization in the computational multi-phase flow dynamics. Following this line of arguments I expressed several times in my publications explicitly or implicitly the idea, that it is possible to create a universal multi-phase flow analyzer in the sense of computer architecture, that is capable to absorb the adequate multi-phase knowledge data base specified in Appendix 1. The subject of this paper is to summarize some of the main ideas, some of them already realized by this author, on the way of creating such computer code architecture, to illustrate haw they work, and to make an outlook regarding what are the challenges in the future developments. We confine deliberately our attention to the solution of the so called local volume and time averaged system of PDE's for a simple reason: Direct numerical resolution of interacting fluids is possible as demonstrated for small scales by many researchers, but for

  2. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K.T. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  3. Energy-dissipation-model for metallurgical multi-phase-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrommatis, K T [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Entropy production in real processes is directly associated with the dissipation of energy. Both are potential measures for the proceed of irreversible processes taking place in metallurgical systems. Many of these processes in multi-phase-systems could then be modelled on the basis of the energy-dissipation associated with. As this entity can often be estimated using very simple assumptions from first principles, the evolution of an overall measure of systems behaviour can be studied constructing an energy-dissipation -based model of the system. In this work a formulation of this concept, the Energy-Dissipation-Model (EDM), for metallurgical multi-phase-systems is given. Special examples are studied to illustrate the concept, and benefits as well as the range of validity are shown. This concept might be understood as complement to usual CFD-modelling of complex systems on a more abstract level but reproducing essential attributes of complex metallurgical systems. (author)

  4. A Novel Multi-Phase Stochastic Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries’ Degradation with Regeneration Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A lithium-Ion battery is a typical degradation product, and its performance will deteriorate over time. In its degradation process, regeneration phenomena have been frequently encountered, which affect both the degradation state and rate. In this paper, we focus on how to build the degradation model and estimate the lifetime. Toward this end, we first propose a multi-phase stochastic degradation model with random jumps based on the Wiener process, where the multi-phase model and random jumps at the changing point are used to describe the variation of degradation rate and state caused by regeneration phenomena accordingly. Owing to the complex structure and random variables, the traditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE is not suitable for the proposed model. In this case, we treat these random variables as latent parameters, and then develop an approach for model identification based on expectation conditional maximum (ECM algorithm. Moreover, depending on the proposed model, how to estimate the lifetime with fixed changing point is presented via the time-space transformation technique, and the approximate analytical solution is derived. Finally, a numerical simulation and a practical case are provided for illustration.

  5. Numerical simulation of complex multi-phase fluid of casting process and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Li-liang

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid of casting process is a typical kind of multi-phase flow. Actually, many casting phenomena have close relationship with the multi-phase flow, such as molten metal filling process, air entrapment, slag movement, venting process of die casting, gas escaping of lost foam casting and so on. Obviously, in order to analyze these phenomena accurately, numerical simulation of the multi-phase fluid is necessary. Unfortunately, so far, most of the commercial casting simulation systems do not have the ability of multi-phase flow modeling due to the difficulty in the multi-phase flow calculation. In the paper, Finite Different Method (FDM technique was adopt to solve the multi-phase fluid model. And a simple object of the muiti-phase fluid was analyzed to obtain the fluid rates of the liquid phase and the entrapped air phase.

  6. Design of multi-phase dynamic chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenrui; Tan, Junjun; Hsieh, Ming-Chien; Pan, Ting; Goodwin, Jay T.; Mehta, Anil K.; Grover, Martha A.; Lynn, David G.

    2017-08-01

    Template-directed polymerization reactions enable the accurate storage and processing of nature's biopolymer information. This mutualistic relationship of nucleic acids and proteins, a network known as life's central dogma, is now marvellously complex, and the progressive steps necessary for creating the initial sequence and chain-length-specific polymer templates are lost to time. Here we design and construct dynamic polymerization networks that exploit metastable prion cross-β phases. Mixed-phase environments have been used for constructing synthetic polymers, but these dynamic phases emerge naturally from the growing peptide oligomers and create environments suitable both to nucleate assembly and select for ordered templates. The resulting templates direct the amplification of a phase containing only chain-length-specific peptide-like oligomers. Such multi-phase biopolymer dynamics reveal pathways for the emergence, self-selection and amplification of chain-length- and possibly sequence-specific biopolymers.

  7. Universality Results for Multi-phase Hele-Shaw Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2013-03-01

    Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface separating two immiscible fluids. We study linear stability of displacement processes in a Hele-Shaw cell involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases. This is a problem involving many interfaces. Universal stability results have been obtained for this multi-phase immiscible flow in the sense that the results hold for arbitrary number of interfaces. These stability results have been applied to design displacement processes that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we derive universal formula which gives specific values of the viscosities of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Other similar universal results will also be presented. The talk is based on the following paper. This work was supported by the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  8. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  9. Microstructural modelling of nuclear graphite using multi-phase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berre, C.; Fok, S.L.; Marsden, B.J.; Mummery, P.M.; Marrow, T.J.; Neighbour, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new modelling technique using three-dimensional multi-phase finite element models in which meshes representing the microstructure of thermally oxidised nuclear graphite were generated from X-ray micro-tomography images. The density of the material was related to the image greyscale using Beer-Lambert's law, and multiple phases could thus be defined. The local elastic and non-linear properties of each phase were defined as a function of density and changes in Young's modulus, tensile and compressive strength with thermal oxidation were calculated. Numerical predictions compared well with experimental data and with other numerical results obtained using two-phase models. These models were found to be more representative of the actual microstructure of the scanned material than two-phase models and, possibly because of pore closure occurring during compression, compressive tests were also predicted to be less sensitive to the microstructure geometry than tensile tests

  10. Solution of non-steady-state substrate concentration in the action of biosensor response at mixed enzyme kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai, R.; Jana Ranjani, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics and diffusion limitation in the case of substrate inhibition has been developed. The model is based on time dependent reaction diffusion equation containing a non -linear term related to non -Michaelis - Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Solution for the concentration of the substrate has been derived for all values of parameters using the homotopy perturbation method. All the approximate analytic expressions of substrate concentration are compared with simulation results using Scilab/Matlab program. Finally, we have given a satisfactory agreement between them.

  11. Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.

  12. Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Luo, Jing; Guo, Dan; Wen, Shizhu

    2015-01-01

    Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.

  13. Computer Based Porosity Design by Multi Phase Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burblies, Andreas; Busse, Matthias

    2008-02-01

    A numerical simulation technique called Multi Phase Topology Optimization (MPTO) based on finite element method has been developed and refined by Fraunhofer IFAM during the last five years. MPTO is able to determine the optimum distribution of two or more different materials in components under thermal and mechanical loads. The objective of optimization is to minimize the component's elastic energy. Conventional topology optimization methods which simulate adaptive bone mineralization have got the disadvantage that there is a continuous change of mass by growth processes. MPTO keeps all initial material concentrations and uses methods adapted from molecular dynamics to find energy minimum. Applying MPTO to mechanically loaded components with a high number of different material densities, the optimization results show graded and sometimes anisotropic porosity distributions which are very similar to natural bone structures. Now it is possible to design the macro- and microstructure of a mechanical component in one step. Computer based porosity design structures can be manufactured by new Rapid Prototyping technologies. Fraunhofer IFAM has applied successfully 3D-Printing and Selective Laser Sintering methods in order to produce very stiff light weight components with graded porosities calculated by MPTO.

  14. Non-steady experimental investigation on an integrated thermal management system for power battery with phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Shang; Xie, Yongqi; Li, Ming; Yuan, Yanping; Yu, Jianzu; Wu, Hongwei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated thermal management system for power battery is designed. • The battery temperature rise is a non-steady process for charge and discharge. • A mathematical model can accurately represent temperature rise characteristics. • The heat generation power of the battery is calculated theoretically. • The excess temperatures and thermal resistances affect the system performance. - Abstract: A large amount of heat inside the power battery must be dissipated to maintain the temperature in a safe range for the hybrid power train during high-current charging/discharging processes. In this article, a combined experimental and theoretical study has been conducted to investigate a newly designed thermal management system integrating phase change material with air cooling. An unsteady mathematical model was developed for the battery with the integrated thermal management system. Meanwhile, the heat generation power, thermal resistance, and time constant were calculated. The effect of several control parameters, such as thermal resistance, initial temperature, melting temperature and ambient temperature, on the performance of the integrated thermal management system were analyzed. The results indicated that: (1) the calculated temperature rise of the battery was in good agreement with the experimental data. The appropriate operation temperature of the battery was attained by the action of the phase change storage energy unit which is composed of copper foam and n-Eicosane, (2) the remarkable decrease of the battery temperature can be achieved by reducing the convection thermal resistance or increasing the conductivity of the phase change storage energy unit, where the latter could be the better option due to no additional energy consumption. When convective resistance and thermal resistance between the battery surface and the phase change storage energy unit are less than 2.03 K/W and 1.85 K/W, respectively, the battery will not exceed the

  15. Multi-Phase Equilibrium and Solubilities of Aromatic Compounds and Inorganic Compounds in Sub- and Supercritical Water: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinli; Ding, Xin; Du, Bowen; Fang, Tao

    2017-11-02

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated. This paper also lists the existing problems of multi-phase equilibria and solubility studies on aromatic compounds and inorganic compounds in sub- and supercritical water.

  16. Novel image reconstruction algorithm for multi-phase flow tomography system using γ ray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Kuihong; Wang Huaxiang; Gao Mei

    2007-01-01

    After analyzing the reason of image reconstructed algorithm by using the conventional back projection (IBP) is prone to produce spurious line, and considering the characteristic of multi-phase flow tomography, a novel image reconstruction algorithm is proposed, which carries out the intersection calculation using back projection data. This algorithm can obtain a perfect system point spread function, and can eliminate spurious line better. Simulating results show that the algorithm is effective for identifying multi-phase flow pattern. (authors)

  17. Multi-phase flow monitoring with electrical impedance tomography using level set based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LSM has been used for shape reconstruction to monitor multi-phase flow using EIT. • Multi-phase level set model for conductivity is represented by two level set functions. • LSM handles topological merging and breaking naturally during evolution process. • To reduce the computational time, a narrowband technique was applied. • Use of narrowband and optimization approach results in efficient and fast method. - Abstract: In this paper, a level set-based reconstruction scheme is applied to multi-phase flow monitoring using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The proposed scheme involves applying a narrowband level set method to solve the inverse problem of finding the interface between the regions having different conductivity values. The multi-phase level set model for the conductivity distribution inside the domain is represented by two level set functions. The key principle of the level set-based method is to implicitly represent the shape of interface as the zero level set of higher dimensional function and then solve a set of partial differential equations. The level set-based scheme handles topological merging and breaking naturally during the evolution process. It also offers several advantages compared to traditional pixel-based approach. Level set-based method for multi-phase flow is tested with numerical and experimental data. It is found that level set-based method has better reconstruction performance when compared to pixel-based method

  18. Modelling and simulation of multi-phase effects on X-ray elasticity constants

    CERN Document Server

    Freour, S; Guillen, R; François, M X

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculation of X-ray Elasticity Constants (XEC) of phases embedded in multi-phase polycrystals. A three scales (macroscopic, pseudo-macroscopic, mesoscopic) model based on the classical self-consistent formalism is developed in order to analyse multi-phase effects on XEC values. Simulations are performed for cubic or hexagonal crystallographic structure phases embedded in several two-phases materials. In fact, it is demonstrated that XEC vary with the macroscopic stiffness of the whole polycrystal. In consequence, the constants of one particular phase depend on the elastic behaviour and the volume fraction of all the phases constituting the material. Now, XEC play a leading role in pseudo-macroscopic stresses determination by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. In this work, a quantitative analysis of the multi-phase effects on stresses determination by XRD methods was performed. Numerical results will be compared and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Application of the level set method for multi-phase flow computation in fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X-Y.; Ni, M-J.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of multi-phase flow is essential to evaluate the feasibility of a liquid protection scheme for the power plant chamber. The level set method is one of the best methods for computing and analyzing the motion of interface among the multi-phase flow. This paper presents a general formula for the second-order projection method combined with the level set method to simulate unsteady incompressible multi-phase flow with/out phase change flow encountered in fusion science and engineering. The third-order ENO scheme and second-order semi-implicit Crank-Nicholson scheme is used to update the convective and diffusion term. The numerical results show this method can handle the complex deformation of the interface and the effect of liquid-vapor phase change will be included in the future work

  20. Robust second-order scheme for multi-phase flow computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Khosro

    2017-06-01

    A robust high-order scheme for the multi-phase flow computations featuring jumps and discontinuities due to shock waves and phase interfaces is presented. The scheme is based on high-order weighted-essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume schemes and high-order limiters to ensure the maximum principle or positivity of the various field variables including the density, pressure, and order parameters identifying each phase. The two-phase flow model considered besides the Euler equations of gas dynamics consists of advection of two parameters of the stiffened-gas equation of states, characterizing each phase. The design of the high-order limiter is guided by the findings of Zhang and Shu (2011) [36], and is based on limiting the quadrature values of the density, pressure and order parameters reconstructed using a high-order WENO scheme. The proof of positivity-preserving and accuracy is given, and the convergence and the robustness of the scheme are illustrated using the smooth isentropic vortex problem with very small density and pressure. The effectiveness and robustness of the scheme in computing the challenging problem of shock wave interaction with a cluster of tightly packed air or helium bubbles placed in a body of liquid water is also demonstrated. The superior performance of the high-order schemes over the first-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for computations of shock-bubble interaction is also shown. The scheme is implemented in two-dimensional space on parallel computers using message passing interface (MPI). The proposed scheme with limiter features approximately 50% higher number of inter-processor message communications compared to the corresponding scheme without limiter, but with only 10% higher total CPU time. The scheme is provably second-order accurate in regions requiring positivity enforcement and higher order in the rest of domain.

  1. Non-isothermal effects on multi-phase flow in porous medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Wang, W; Park, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a ppT -formulation for non-isothermal multi-phase flow is given including diffusion and latent heat effects. Temperature and pressure dependencies of governing parameters are considered, in particular surface tension variation on phase interfaces along with temperature changes. A we...

  2. Optimization of multi-phase compressible lattice Boltzmann codes on massively parallel multi-core systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Mantovani, F.; Pivanti, M.; Pozzati, F.; Sbragaglia, M.; Schifano, S.F.; Toschi, F.; Tripiccione, R.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a Lattice Boltzmann code for computational fluid-dynamics and optimize it for massively parallel systems based on multi-core processors. Our code describes 2D multi-phase compressible flows. We analyze the performance bottlenecks that we find as we gradually expose a larger fraction of

  3. Multi-phase flow modeling of soil contamination and soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van M.I.J.

    1997-01-01


    In this thesis multi-phase flow models are used to study the flow behavior of liquid contaminants in aquifers and of gases that are injected below the groundwater table for remediation purposes. Considered problems are redistribution of a lens of light nonaqueous phase

  4. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  5. Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    October 2008 - December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows...influence cavity hysteresis behavior. These observations are used to guide improved supercavitating -vehicle analyses including numerical predictions...experiments, and modeling 15. SUBJECT TERMS supercavitation , computational fluid dynamics, multiphase flow 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  6. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  7. Comparison of structure, morphology, and leach characteristics of multi-phase ceramics produced via melt processing and hot isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandeneau, Christopher S.; Hong, Tao; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Vance, Eric R.; Amoroso, Jake W.

    2018-04-01

    Melt processing of multi-phase ceramic waste forms offers potential advantages over traditional solid-state synthesis methods given both the prevalence of melters currently in use and the ability to reduce the possibility of airborne radionuclide contamination. In this work, multi-phase ceramics with a targeted hollandite composition of Ba1.0Cs0.3Cr1.0Al0.3Fe1.0Ti5.7O16 were fabricated by melt processing at 1675 °C and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1250 and 1300 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed hollandite as the major phase in all specimens. Zirconolite/pyrochlore peaks and weaker perovskite reflections were observed after melt processing, while HIP samples displayed prominent perovskite peaks and low-intensity zirconolite reflections. Melt processing produced specimens with large (>50 μm) well-defined hollandite grains, while HIP yielded samples with a more fine-grained morphology. Elemental analysis showed "islands" rich in Cs and Ti across the surface of the 1300 °C HIP sample, suggesting partial melting and partitioning of Cs into multiple phases. Photoemission data revealed multiple Cs 3d spin-orbit pairs for the HIP samples, with the lower binding energy doublets likely corresponding to Cs located in more leachable phases. Among all specimens examined, the melt-processed sample exhibited the lowest fractional release rates for Rb and Cs. However, the retention of Sr and Mo was greater in the HIP specimens.

  8. Speed-sensorless control strategy for multi-phase induction generator in wind energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumnić Boris P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources, especially wind energy conversion systems (WECS, exhibit constant growth. Increase in power and installed capacity led to advances in WECS topologies. Multi-phase approach presents a new development direction, with several key advantages over three-phase systems. Paired with a sensorless control strategy, multi-phase machines are expected to take primacy over standard solutions. This paper presents speed sensorless vector control of an asymmetrical six-phase induction generator based on a model reference adaptive system (MRAS. Suggested topology and developed control algorithm show that sensorless control can yield appropriate dynamic characteristics for the use in WECS with increase in reliability and robustness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 042004: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  9. Experimental analysis of influence of different lubricants types on the multi-phase ironing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LUBRICANTS TYPES ON THE MULTI-PHASE IRONING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Djordjević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting results of an experimental analysis of the different types of lubricants influence on the multi-phase ironing process. Based on sliding of the metal strip between the two contact elements a special tribological model was adopted. The subject of experimental investigations was variations of the drawing force, contact pressure and the friction coefficient for each type of the applied lubricants. The ironing process was conducted in three-phases at the constant sliding velocity. The objective of this analysis was to compare all the applied lubricants in order to estimate their quality from the point of view of their applicability in the multi-phase ironing process.

  11. Well-posedness and stability characteristics of multi-phase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The ill-posed characteristic associated with the basic two-fluid model for multi-phase flow is a natural consequence of the idealized physical model and the mean flow modeling approach. Two approaches are discussed whereby including added physics of the flow results in a well-posed system of partial differential equations. These models offer the possibility of improved accuracy and numerical efficiency compared to the numerical models used in the existing light water reactor safety analysis codes

  12. Generalized modeling of multi-component vaporization/condensation phenomena for multi-phase-flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Fukuda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Suzuki, T.; Maschek, W.

    2003-01-01

    A new multi-component vaporization/condensation (V/C) model was developed to provide a generalized model for safety analysis codes of liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs). These codes simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena of multi-phase, multi-component flows, which is essential to investigate core disruptive accidents of LMRs such as fast breeder reactors and accelerator driven systems. The developed model characterizes the V/C processes associated with phase transition by employing heat transfer and mass-diffusion limited models for analyses of relatively short-time-scale multi-phase, multi-component hydraulic problems, among which vaporization and condensation, or simultaneous heat and mass transfer, play an important role. The heat transfer limited model describes the non-equilibrium phase transition processes occurring at interfaces, while the mass-diffusion limited model is employed to represent effects of non-condensable gases and multi-component mixture on V/C processes. Verification of the model and method employed in the multi-component V/C model of a multi-phase flow code was performed successfully by analyzing a series of multi-bubble condensation experiments. The applicability of the model to the accident analysis of LMRs is also discussed by comparison between steam and metallic vapor systems. (orig.)

  13. The comparison of MSCT multi-phase scan features between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingang; Wang Xizhen; Niu Qingliang; Lu Hongkai; Wang Bin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the multi-phase contrast-enhanced features of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: Thirty-five BPH and twenty- seven PCa were examined with multi-phase contrast-enhanced MSCT scan. The peak time, maximum attenuation value (MAV) and time density curve (TDC) were recorded, and the slope of the contrast media uptake curve was calculated. Result: Significant differences between BPH and PCa in the type of the curves and the peak time were observed (P<0.01). The slopes of BPH and PCa were 0.45+0.25 and 0.7 6+0.34 respectively, the slope of PCa was higher than that of BPH (P<0.05). MAVs of BPH and PCa were (44.057±10.261) HU and (46.778±11.140) HU respectively, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Conclusion: The multi-phase MSCT scan can reflect the blood supply and enhancement characters of BPH and PCa, which are important in detection and differential diagnosis of the prostate diseases. (authors)

  14. Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehun [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.

  15. On the extension of multi-phase models to sub-residual saturations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingineni, S.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the limitations of applying multi-phase flow and transport models to simulate the hydrothermal processes occurring when the liquid saturation falls below residual levels. A typical scenario of a heat-generating high-level waste package emplaced in a backfilled drift of a waste repository is presented. The hydrothermal conditions in the vicinity of the waste package as well as in the far-field are determined using multi-phase, non-isothermal codes such as TOUGH2 and FEHM. As the waste package temperature increases, heat-pipe effects are created and water is driven away from the package into colder regions where it condenses. The variations in the liquid saturations close to the waste package are determined using these models with extended capillary pressure-saturations relationships to sub-residual regime. The predictions indicate even at elevated temperatures, waste package surroundings are not completely dry. However, if transport based modeling is used to represent liquid saturation variations in the sub-residual regime, then complete dry conditions are predicted within the backfill for extended periods of time. The relative humidity conditions near the waste package are also found to be sensitive to the representation of capillary pressure-saturation relationship used for sub-residual regime. An experimental investigation is carried out to study the variations in liquid saturations and relative humidity conditions in sub-residual regimes. Experimental results indicated that extended multi-phase models without interphase transport can not predict dry-out conditions and the simulations underpredict the humidity conditions near the waste package

  16. Antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic crossover in UO2-TiOx multi-phase systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akio; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Yoshii, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    An antiferromagnetic (AF)-weakly ferromagnetic (WF) crossover has been found for UO 2 -TiO x multi-phase systems, (1-y)UO 2 +yTiO x (y=0.05-0.72, x=0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0), when these mixtures are heat treated at high temperature in vacuum. From the powder X-ray diffraction and electron-microprobe analyses, their phase assemblies were as follows: for x=0, 1.0 and 1.5, a heterogeneous two-phase mixture of UO 2 +TiO x ; for x=2.0, that of UO 2 +UTi 2 O 6 for y 0.67 that of UTi 2 O 6 +TiO 2 (plus residual minor UO 2 ). Magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the present UO 2 powder was confirmed to exhibit an antiferromagnetic sharp drop at T N (=30.5 K). In contrast, χ of these multi-phase systems was found to exhibit a sharp upturn at the respective T N , while their T N values remained almost constant with varying y. This χ upturn at T N is most pronounced for UO 2 +Ti-oxide (titania) systems (x=1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) over the wide mixture ratio above y∼0.10. These observations indicate that an AF-WF crossover is induced for these multi-phase systems, plausibly due to the interfacial magnetic modification of UO 2 in contact with the oxide partners

  17. A novel deconvolution method for modeling UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthetic pathways based on 13C mass isotopologue profiles under non-steady-state conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belshoff Alex C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracing is a powerful technique for following the fate of individual atoms through metabolic pathways. Measuring isotopic enrichment in metabolites provides quantitative insights into the biosynthetic network and enables flux analysis as a function of external perturbations. NMR and mass spectrometry are the techniques of choice for global profiling of stable isotope labeling patterns in cellular metabolites. However, meaningful biochemical interpretation of the labeling data requires both quantitative analysis and complex modeling. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach that involved acquiring and modeling the timecourses of 13C isotopologue data for UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc synthesized from [U-13C]-glucose in human prostate cancer LnCaP-LN3 cells. UDP-GlcNAc is an activated building block for protein glycosylation, which is an important regulatory mechanism in the development of many prominent human diseases including cancer and diabetes. Results We utilized a stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM approach to determine the timecourse of 13C incorporation from [U-13C]-glucose into UDP-GlcNAc in LnCaP-LN3 cells. 13C Positional isotopomers and isotopologues of UDP-GlcNAc were determined by high resolution NMR and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. A novel simulated annealing/genetic algorithm, called 'Genetic Algorithm for Isotopologues in Metabolic Systems' (GAIMS was developed to find the optimal solutions to a set of simultaneous equations that represent the isotopologue compositions, which is a mixture of isotopomer species. The best model was selected based on information theory. The output comprises the timecourse of the individual labeled species, which was deconvoluted into labeled metabolic units, namely glucose, ribose, acetyl and uracil. The performance of the algorithm was demonstrated by validating the computed fractional 13C enrichment in these subunits against experimental data. The reproducibility and robustness of the deconvolution were verified by replicate experiments, extensive statistical analyses, and cross-validation against NMR data. Conclusions This computational approach revealed the relative fluxes through the different biosynthetic pathways of UDP-GlcNAc, which comprises simultaneous sequential and parallel reactions, providing new insight into the regulation of UDP-GlcNAc levels and O-linked protein glycosylation. This is the first such analysis of UDP-GlcNAc dynamics, and the approach is generally applicable to other complex metabolites comprising distinct metabolic subunits, where sufficient numbers of isotopologues can be unambiguously resolved and accurately measured.

  18. Sampling device for withdrawing a representative sample from single and multi-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Walter J.; Cliff, William C.; Creer, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid stream sampling device has been developed for the purpose of obtaining a representative sample from a single or multi-phase fluid flow. This objective is carried out by means of a probe which may be inserted into the fluid stream. Individual samples are withdrawn from the fluid flow by sampling ports with particular spacings, and the sampling parts are coupled to various analytical systems for characterization of the physical, thermal, and chemical properties of the fluid flow as a whole and also individually.

  19. Multi-phase physicochemical modeling of soil-cementitious material interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakarai, Kenichiro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-phase physicochemical modeling based on thermodynamic approach is studied on gel and capillary pores of nano-micrometers and large voids of micro-millimeters among soil foundation. A computational method about transportation of moisture and ions in pore structure for simulating concrete performance was extended for predicting time-dependent material properties of cemented soil. The proposed model was verified with experimental results of cement hydration, change of relative humidity and leaching of calcium ion from cement hydrate to underground water. (author)

  20. Multi-phase induced inflation in theories with non-minimal coupling to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artymowski, Michał [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek, E-mail: Michal.Artymowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl, E-mail: Marek.Lewicki@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw ul. Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the induced inflation with two flat regions: one Starobinsky-like plateau in strong coupling regime and one shorter plateau around the saddle point of the Einstein frame potential. This multi-phase inflationary scenario can be used to solve problems of classical cosmology as well as the problem of initial conditions for inflation. The inflation at the saddle-point plateau is consistent with the data and can have arbitrarily low scale. The results can be useful in the context of the Higgs-Axion relaxation and in a certain limit they are equivalent to the α-attractors.

  1. Robust iterative learning control for multi-phase batch processes: an average dwell-time method with 2D convergence indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Shen, Yiteng; Yu, Jingxian; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ridong; Gao, Furong

    2018-01-01

    In order to cope with system disturbances in multi-phase batch processes with different dimensions, a hybrid robust control scheme of iterative learning control combined with feedback control is proposed in this paper. First, with a hybrid iterative learning control law designed by introducing the state error, the tracking error and the extended information, the multi-phase batch process is converted into a two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchesini (2D-FM) switched system with different dimensions. Second, a switching signal is designed using the average dwell-time method integrated with the related switching conditions to give sufficient conditions ensuring stable running for the system. Finally, the minimum running time of the subsystems and the control law gains are calculated by solving the linear matrix inequalities. Meanwhile, a compound 2D controller with robust performance is obtained, which includes a robust extended feedback control for ensuring the steady-state tracking error to converge rapidly. The application on an injection molding process displays the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy.

  2. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Boztas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design and analysis of multi-phase brushless direct current (BLDC motor for electric vehicles (EV. In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compare their performances at the same load conditions. The same rotor geometry has been utilized for the motors. However, slot numbers and dimensions of the stator have been determined by considering the motor phase number. Performance curves of phase-currents, output powers, torques, efficiencies and power factors have been presented for these motors at the same operating conditions. It can be possible to use lower power switches in motor drive system thanks to the phase current reduction since the phase currents decrease proportionally to motor phase number. This work shows that the multi-phase BLDC motors are a good alternative in order to obtain lower torque and lower power inverter structure than the 3-phase BLDC motors which are used as standard.

  3. Advanced high speed X-ray CT scanner for measurement and visualization of multi-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Keiichi; Fujimoto, Tetsuro; Kawanishi, Kohei; Nishikawa, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    The development of an ultra-fast X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner has been performed. The object of interest is in a transient or unsettled state, which makes the conventional CT scanner inappropriate. A concept of electrical switching of electron beam of X-ray generation unit is adopted to reduce the scanning time instead of a mechanical motion adopted by a conventional CT scanner. The mechanical motion is a major obstacle to improve the scanning speed. A prototype system with a scanning time of 3.6 milliseconds was developed at first. And, the feasibility was confirmed to measure the dynamic events of two-phase flow. However, faster scanning speed is generally required for the practical use in the thermalhydraulics research field. Therefore, the development of advanced type has been performed. This advanced type can operate under the scanning time of 0.5 milliseconds and is applicable for the measurement of the multi-phase flow with velocity up to 4-5 m/s. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation of 3-D incompressible, multi-phase flows over cavitating projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owis, F.M.; Nayfeh, A.H. [Blacksburg State University, Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, VA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    The hydrodynamic cavitation over axisymmetric projectiles is computed using the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for multi-fluid elements. The governing equations are discretized on a structured grid using an upwind difference scheme with flux limits. A preconditioning dual-time stepping method is used for the unsteady computations. The Eigen-system is derived for the Jacobian matrices. This Eigen-system is suitable for high-density ratio multi-fluid flows and it provides high numerical stability and fast convergence. This method can be used to compute single- as well as multi-phase flows. Cavitating flows over projectiles with different geometries are computed and the results are in good agreement with available experimental data and other published computations. (authors)

  5. Application of PNA-technique for the measurement of multi-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevhoeiden, G.; Andersen, E.; Garder, K.; Rambaek, J.P.

    1986-09-01

    The pulsed neutron activation (PNA) technique is proposed for multi-phase flow monitoring of hydrocarbons. The reactions 12 C(n,p) 12 B and 12 C(n,n') 12 C both yeld 4.4 MeV in the form of gamma radiation as a measure of carbon content. Intensity measurement of the 4.4 MeV gamma line gives a measure of the carbon content in the irradiation zone. By use of a pulsed neutron source, an estimation of the carbon content time variation is possible. In the presence of sulphur in petroleum, the reaction 34 S(n,p) 34 P offers a better possibility for flow rate determination

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in Multi-Phase Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Khalek, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for computing Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically

  7. Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    A method for computing numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.

  8. Energetics of the multi-phase fluid flow in a narrow kerf in laser cutting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyshev, A. A.; Orishich, A. M.; Shulyatyev, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    The energy balance of the multi-phase medium flow is studied experimentally under the laser cutting. Experimental data are generalized due to the condition of minimal roughness of the created surface used as a quality criterion of the melt flow, and also due to the application of dimensionless parameters: Peclet number and dimensionless absorbed laser power. For the first time ever it is found that, regardless the assistant gas (oxygen or nitrogen), laser type (the fiber one with the wavelength of 1.07 µm or CO2-laser with the wavelength of 10.6 µm), the minimal roughness is provided at a certain energy input in a melt unit, about 26 J/mm3. With oxygen, 50% of this input is provided by the radiation, the other 50% - by the exothermic reaction of iron oxidation.

  9. A Fourier Collocation Approach for Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeter Under Multi-Phase Flow Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej; Lassen, Benny; Duggen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for a clamp-on transit-time ultrasonic flowmeter (TTUF) under multi-phase flow conditions is presented. The method solves equations of linear elasticity for isotropic heterogeneous materials with background flow where acoustic media are modeled by setting shear modulus to zero....... Spatial derivatives are calculated by a Fourier collocation method allowing the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and time derivatives are approximated by a finite difference (FD) scheme. This approach is sometimes referred to as a pseudospectral time-domain method. Perfectly matched layers (PML......) are used to avoid wave-wrapping and staggered grids are implemented to improve stability and efficiency. The method is verified against exact analytical solutions and the effect of the time-staggering and associated lowest number of points per minimum wavelengths value is discussed. The method...

  10. Annealing treatments for producing cold-rolled low-silicon multi-phase steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieze, J.; Vortrefflich, W.; Winter, L. de [Applied Physical Metallurgy, Hoogovens Research and Development, Ijmuiden (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory simulations of a hot-dip galvanizing line have been carried out on a 0.16%C-1.5%Mn-0.4%Si steel. It has been demonstrated that based on this steel composition materials with typical multi-phase properties can be produced on hot-dip galvanizing lines. By varying the process conditions a tensile strength between 570 and 650 MPa has been obtained. In addition, tensile tests at high strain rates have been carried out and the results have been compared with those of other non-multi-phase steel grades. (orig.)

  11. Single-step reinitialization and extending algorithms for level-set based multi-phase flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-12-01

    We propose efficient single-step formulations for reinitialization and extending algorithms, which are critical components of level-set based interface-tracking methods. The level-set field is reinitialized with a single-step (non iterative) "forward tracing" algorithm. A minimum set of cells is defined that describes the interface, and reinitialization employs only data from these cells. Fluid states are extrapolated or extended across the interface by a single-step "backward tracing" algorithm. Both algorithms, which are motivated by analogy to ray-tracing, avoid multiple block-boundary data exchanges that are inevitable for iterative reinitialization and extending approaches within a parallel-computing environment. The single-step algorithms are combined with a multi-resolution conservative sharp-interface method and validated by a wide range of benchmark test cases. We demonstrate that the proposed reinitialization method achieves second-order accuracy in conserving the volume of each phase. The interface location is invariant to reapplication of the single-step reinitialization. Generally, we observe smaller absolute errors than for standard iterative reinitialization on the same grid. The computational efficiency is higher than for the standard and typical high-order iterative reinitialization methods. We observe a 2- to 6-times efficiency improvement over the standard method for serial execution. The proposed single-step extending algorithm, which is commonly employed for assigning data to ghost cells with ghost-fluid or conservative interface interaction methods, shows about 10-times efficiency improvement over the standard method while maintaining same accuracy. Despite their simplicity, the proposed algorithms offer an efficient and robust alternative to iterative reinitialization and extending methods for level-set based multi-phase simulations.

  12. Multi-Phase Sub-Sampling Fractional-N PLL with soft loop switching for fast robust locking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Dongyi; Dai, FA Foster; Nauta, Bram; Klumperink, Eric A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low phase noise sub-sampling PLL (SSPLL) with multi-phase outputs. Automatic soft switching between the sub-sampling phase loop and frequency loop is proposed to improve robustness against perturbations and interferences that may cause a traditional SSPLL to lose lock. A

  13. From damage to fracture, from micro to macro : a systematic study of ductile fracture in multi-phase microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, T.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-phase materials are of great importance for engineering applications, because of their favorable combination of strength and ductility. This unique combination of properties enables lightweight yet safe design for instance in the automotive industry. The in-depth understanding of the

  14. Numerical modeling of experimental observations on gas formation and multi-phase flow of carbon dioxide in subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.; Dash, Z.; Sakaki, T.; Plampin, M. R.; Lassen, R. N.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2011-12-01

    One of the concerns related to geologic CO2 sequestration is potential leakage of CO2 and its subsequent migration to shallow groundwater resources leading to geochemical impacts. Developing approaches to monitor CO2 migration in shallow aquifer and mitigate leakage impacts will require improving our understanding of gas phase formation and multi-phase flow subsequent to CO2 leakage in shallow aquifers. We are utilizing an integrated approach combining laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to characterize the multi-phase flow of CO2 in shallow aquifers. The laboratory experiments involve a series of highly controlled experiments in which CO2 dissolved water is injected in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil columns and tanks. The experimental results are used to study the effects of soil properties, temperature, pressure gradients and heterogeneities on gas formation and migration. We utilize the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) simulator (Zyvoloski et al, 2010) to numerically model the experimental results. The numerical models capture the physics of CO2 exsolution, multi-phase fluid flow as well as sand heterogeneity. Experimental observations of pressure, temperature and gas saturations are used to develop and constrain conceptual models for CO2 gas-phase formation and multi-phase CO2 flow in porous media. This talk will provide details of development of conceptual models based on experimental observation, development of numerical models for laboratory experiments and modelling results.

  15. Multi-Phase Modular Drive System: A Case Study in Electrical Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onambele

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an advanced multiphase modular power drive prototype is developed for More Electric Aircraft (MEA. The proposed drive is designed to supply a multi-phase permanent magnet (PM motor rating 120 kW with 24 slots and 11 pole pairs. The power converter of the drive system is based on Silicon Carbide Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (SiC MOSFET technology to operate at high voltage, high frequency and low reverse recovery current. Firstly, an experimental characterization test is performed for the selected SiC power module in harsh conditions to evaluate the switching energy losses. Secondly, a finite element thermal analysis based on Ansys-Icepak is accomplished to validate the selected cooling system for the power converter. Thirdly, a co-simulation model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and LTspice® to evaluate the SiC power module impact on the performance of a multiphase drive system at different operating conditions. The results obtained show that the dynamic performance and efficiency of the power drive are significantly improved, which makes the proposed system an excellent candidate for future aircraft applications.

  16. A Multi-Phase Based Fluid-Structure-Microfluidic interaction sensor for Aerodynamic Shear Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher; Dutta, Diganta; Bashirzadeh, Yashar; Ahmed, Kareem; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-11-01

    A novel innovative microfluidic shear stress sensor is developed for measuring shear stress through multi-phase fluid-structure-microfluidic interaction. The device is composed of a microfluidic cavity filled with an electrolyte liquid. Inside the cavity, two electrodes make electrochemical velocimetry measurements of the induced convection. The cavity is sealed with a flexible superhydrophobic membrane. The membrane will dynamically stretch and flex as a result of direct shear cross-flow interaction with the seal structure, forming instability wave modes and inducing fluid motion within the microfluidic cavity. The shear stress on the membrane is measured by sensing the induced convection generated by membrane deflections. The advantages of the sensor over current MEMS based shear stress sensor technology are: a simplified design with no moving parts, optimum relationship between size and sensitivity, no gaps such as those created by micromachining sensors in MEMS processes. We present the findings of a feasibility study of the proposed sensor including wind-tunnel tests, microPIV measurements, electrochemical velocimetry, and simulation data results. The study investigates the sensor in the supersonic and subsonic flow regimes. Supported by a NASA SBIR phase 1 contract.

  17. Multifocus microscopy with precise color multi-phase diffractive optics applied in functional neuronal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Sara; Ilic, Rob; Wisniewski, Jan; Mehl, Brian; Yu, Liya; Chen, Lei; Davanco, Marcelo; Oudjedi, Laura; Fiche, Jean-Bernard; Hajj, Bassam; Jin, Xin; Pulupa, Joan; Cho, Christine; Mir, Mustafa; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Darzacq, Xavier; Nollmann, Marcelo; Dahan, Maxime; Wu, Carl; Lionnet, Timothée; Liddle, J Alexander; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-03-01

    Multifocus microscopy (MFM) allows high-resolution instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) imaging and has been applied to study biological specimens ranging from single molecules inside cells nuclei to entire embryos. We here describe pattern designs and nanofabrication methods for diffractive optics that optimize the light-efficiency of the central optical component of MFM: the diffractive multifocus grating (MFG). We also implement a "precise color" MFM layout with MFGs tailored to individual fluorophores in separate optical arms. The reported advancements enable faster and brighter volumetric time-lapse imaging of biological samples. In live microscopy applications, photon budget is a critical parameter and light-efficiency must be optimized to obtain the fastest possible frame rate while minimizing photodamage. We provide comprehensive descriptions and code for designing diffractive optical devices, and a detailed methods description for nanofabrication of devices. Theoretical efficiencies of reported designs is ≈90% and we have obtained efficiencies of > 80% in MFGs of our own manufacture. We demonstrate the performance of a multi-phase MFG in 3D functional neuronal imaging in living C. elegans.

  18. Third harmonic current injection into highly saturated multi-phase machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klute Felix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One advantage of multi-phase machines is the possibility to use the third harmonic of the rotor flux for additional torque generation. This effect can be maximised for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM with a high third harmonic content in the magnet flux. This paper discusses the effects of third harmonic current injection (THCI on a five-phase PMSM with a conventional magnet shape depending on saturation. The effects of THCI in five-phase machines are shown in a 2D FEM model in Ansys Maxwell verified by measurement results. The results of the FEM model are analytically analysed using the Park model. It is shown in simulation and measurement that the torque improvement by THCI increases significantly with the saturation level, as the amplitude of the third harmonic flux linkage increases with the saturation level but the phase shift of the rotor flux linkage has to be considered. This paper gives a detailed analysis of saturation mechanisms of PMSM, which can be used for optimizing the efficiency in operating points of high saturations, without using special magnet shapes.

  19. New systematic methodology for incorporating dynamic heat transfer modelling in multi-phase biochemical reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new modelling methodology for dynamically predicting the heat produced or consumed in the transformations of any biological reactor using Hess's law. Starting from a complete description of model components stoichiometry and formation enthalpies, the proposed modelling methodology has integrated successfully the simultaneous calculation of both the conventional mass balances and the enthalpy change of reaction in an expandable multi-phase matrix structure, which facilitates a detailed prediction of the main heat fluxes in the biochemical reactors. The methodology has been implemented in a plant-wide modelling methodology in order to facilitate the dynamic description of mass and heat throughout the plant. After validation with literature data, as illustrative examples of the capability of the methodology, two case studies have been described. In the first one, a predenitrification-nitrification dynamic process has been analysed, with the aim of demonstrating the easy integration of the methodology in any system. In the second case study, the simulation of a thermal model for an ATAD has shown the potential of the proposed methodology for analysing the effect of ventilation and influent characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-phase model development to assess RCIC system capabilities under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Karen Vierow [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beeny, Bradley [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Luthman, Nicholas [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Strater, Zachary [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-23

    The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is a safety-related system that provides makeup water for core cooling of some Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) with a Mark I containment. The RCIC System consists of a steam-driven Terry turbine that powers a centrifugal, multi-stage pump for providing water to the reactor pressure vessel. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accidents demonstrated that the RCIC System can play an important role under accident conditions in removing core decay heat. The unexpectedly sustained, good performance of the RCIC System in the Fukushima reactor demonstrates, firstly, that its capabilities are not well understood, and secondly, that the system has high potential for extended core cooling in accident scenarios. Better understanding and analysis tools would allow for more options to cope with a severe accident situation and to reduce the consequences. The objectives of this project were to develop physics-based models of the RCIC System, incorporate them into a multi-phase code and validate the models. This Final Technical Report details the progress throughout the project duration and the accomplishments.

  1. Modelling multi-phase liquid-sediment scour and resuspension induced by rapid flows using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) accelerated with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.

  2. Segmentation of hepatic artery in multi-phase liver CT using directional dilation and connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Schnurr, Alena-Kathrin; Zidowitz, Stephan; Georgii, Joachim; Zhao, Yue; Razavi, Mohammad; Schwier, Michael; Hahn, Horst K.; Hansen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Segmentation of hepatic arteries in multi-phase computed tomography (CT) images is indispensable in liver surgery planning. During image acquisition, the hepatic artery is enhanced by the injection of contrast agent. The enhanced signals are often not stably acquired due to non-optimal contrast timing. Other vascular structure, such as hepatic vein or portal vein, can be enhanced as well in the arterial phase, which can adversely affect the segmentation results. Furthermore, the arteries might suffer from partial volume effects due to their small diameter. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a framework for robust hepatic artery segmentation requiring a minimal amount of user interaction. First, an efficient multi-scale Hessian-based vesselness filter is applied on the artery phase CT image, aiming to enhance vessel structures with specified diameter range. Second, the vesselness response is processed using a Bayesian classifier to identify the most probable vessel structures. Considering the vesselness filter normally performs not ideally on the vessel bifurcations or the segments corrupted by noise, two vessel-reconnection techniques are proposed. The first technique uses a directional morphological operator to dilate vessel segments along their centerline directions, attempting to fill the gap between broken vascular segments. The second technique analyzes the connectivity of vessel segments and reconnects disconnected segments and branches. Finally, a 3D vessel tree is reconstructed. The algorithm has been evaluated using 18 CT images of the liver. To quantitatively measure the similarities between segmented and reference vessel trees, the skeleton coverage and mean symmetric distance are calculated to quantify the agreement between reference and segmented vessel skeletons, resulting in an average of 0:55+/-0:27 and 12:7+/-7:9 mm (mean standard deviation), respectively.

  3. Modeling of multi-phase interactions of reactive nitrogen between snow and air in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystall, M.; Chan, H. G. V.; Frey, M. M.; King, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    In polar and snow-covered regions, the snowpack is an important link between atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic systems. Trace gases, including nitrogen oxides, produced via photochemical reactions in snow are partially released to the lower atmosphere with considerable impact on its composition. However, the post-depositional processes that change the chemical composition and physical properties of the snowpack are still poorly understood. Most current snow chemistry models oversimplify as they assume air-liquid interactions and aqueous phase chemistry taking place at the interface between the snow grain and air. Here, we develop a novel temperature dependent multi-phase (gas-liquid-ice) physical exchange model for reactive nitrogen. The model is validated with existing year-round observations of nitrate in the top 0.5-2 cm of snow and the overlying atmosphere at two very different Antarctic locations: Dome C on the East Antarctic Plateau with very low annual mean temperature (-54ºC) and accumulation rate (rate and high background level of sea salt aerosol. We find that below the eutectic temperature of the H2O/dominant ion mixture the surface snow nitrate is controlled by kinetic adsorption onto the surface of snow grains followed by grain diffusion. Above the eutectic temperature, in addition to the former two processes, thermodynamic equilibrium of HNO3 between interstitial air and liquid water pockets, possibly present at triple junctions or grooves at grain boundaries, greatly enhances the nitrate uptake by snow in agreement with the concentration peak observed in summer.

  4. The experimental study on bowel ischemia in closed loop obstruction by using multi-phase spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoming; Yang Hanfeng; Huang Xiaohua; Tang Xianying; Jian Pu; Yang Zhengwei; Zhou Jiyong; Zhao Zongwen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bowel ischemia in experimental closed loop obstruction by using multi-phase spiral CT. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits of both sexes (mean age, 4 months, and mean body weight, 2.5-3.0 kg) were divided randomly into three groups with each group containing 8 rabbits. After clamping 10-15 cm segments of small bowel and their veins for 0.5 hours (Group A), 1-2 hours (Group B), and 3-5 hours (Group C), respectively, multi-phase spiral CT was performed at baseline, and at arterial, venous, and delayed phases after intravenous contrast administration. Then the rabbits were sacrificed to observe their surgical and histological changes. Two radiologists, blinded to the animal model classification and their histological results, individually reviewed the CT images to observe the CT appearances of the closed loop. Statistical significance criteria was determined by P 0.05) at baseline, however, they were significantly different (P<0.05) at all phases after enhancement. Among rabbits without necrotic closed loop, 11 of 13 had continuous enhancement at all phases, while only 1 of 11 rabbits with necrotic closed loop showed continuous enhancement (P<0.05). Conclusion: The ischemia of bowel wall in different phases after clamping small bowel and their veins can be evaluated by using enhanced multi-phase spiral CT. Continuous enhancement of bowel wall in multi-phase spiral CT can be seen prominently in the early bowel ischemia, but necrotic bowel shows no enhancement. (authors)

  5. Multi-phase classification by a least-squares support vector machine approach in tomography images of geological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal; Enzmann, Frieder; Kersten, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Image processing of X-ray-computed polychromatic cone-beam micro-tomography (μXCT) data of geological samples mainly involves artefact reduction and phase segmentation. For the former, the main beam-hardening (BH) artefact is removed by applying a best-fit quadratic surface algorithm to a given image data set (reconstructed slice), which minimizes the BH offsets of the attenuation data points from that surface. A Matlab code for this approach is provided in the Appendix. The final BH-corrected image is extracted from the residual data or from the difference between the surface elevation values and the original grey-scale values. For the segmentation, we propose a novel least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM, an algorithm for pixel-based multi-phase classification) approach. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed on BH-corrected and uncorrected samples to show that BH correction is in fact an important prerequisite for accurate multi-phase classification. The combination of the two approaches was thus used to classify successfully three different more or less complex multi-phase rock core samples.

  6. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microstructure characterization of multi-phase composites and utilization of phase change materials and recycled rubbers in cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshgin, Pania

    2011-12-01

    This research focuses on two important subjects: (1) Characterization of heterogeneous microstructure of multi-phase composites and the effect of microstructural features on effective properties of the material. (2) Utilizations of phase change materials and recycled rubber particles from waste tires to improve thermal properties of insulation materials used in building envelopes. Spatial pattern of multi-phase and multidimensional internal structures of most composite materials are highly random. Quantitative description of the spatial distribution should be developed based on proper statistical models, which characterize the morphological features. For a composite material with multi-phases, the volume fraction of the phases as well as the morphological parameters of the phases have very strong influences on the effective property of the composite. These morphological parameters depend on the microstructure of each phase. This study intends to include the effect of higher order morphological details of the microstructure in the composite models. The higher order statistics, called two-point correlation functions characterize various behaviors of the composite at any two points in a stochastic field. Specifically, correlation functions of mosaic patterns are used in the study for characterizing transport properties of composite materials. One of the most effective methods to improve energy efficiency of buildings is to enhance thermal properties of insulation materials. The idea of using phase change materials and recycled rubber particles such as scrap tires in insulation materials for building envelopes has been studied.

  8. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains non-steady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, F.M.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications often assume first-order or Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics under the quasi-steady-state assumption to simplify the system kinetics. However, isotopic e ects have the same order of magnitude as the potential error introduced by these simpli cations. Both formulations lead to a constant fractionation factor which may yield incorrect estimations of the isotopic effect and a misleading interpretation of the isotopic signature of a reaction. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitri cation in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate [2006], where high {sup 15}N{sub 2}O enrichment during N{sub 2}O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N{sub 2}O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics. When the quasi-steady-state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observations and aided in interpretation of experimental isotopic signatures. These results may imply a substantial revision in using the Rayleigh equation for interpretation of isotopic signatures and in modeling biological kinetic isotope fractionation with first-order kinetics or quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics.

  9. Micro-Ct Imaging of Multi-Phase Flow in Carbonates and Sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most important mechanisms that limits the escape of CO2 when injected into the subsurface for the purposes of carbon storage is capillary trapping, where CO2 is stranded as pore-scale droplets (ganglia). Prospective storage sites are aquifers or reservoirs that tend to be at conditions where CO2 will reside as a super-critical phase. In order to fully describe physical mechanisms characterising multi-phase flow during and post CO2 injection, experiments need to be conducted at these elevated aquifer/reservoir conditions - this poses a considerable experimental challenge. A novel experimental apparatus has been developed which uses μCT scanning for the non-invasive imaging of the distribution of CO2 in the pore space of rock with resolutions of 7μm at temperatures and pressures representative of the conditions present in prospective saline aquifer CO2 storage sites. The fluids are kept in chemical equilibrium with one-another and with the rock into which they are injected. This is done to prevent the dissolution of the CO2 in the brine to form carbonic acid, which can then react with the rock, particularly carbonates. By eliminating reaction we study the fundamental mechanisms of capillary trapping for an unchanging pore structure. In this study we present a suite of results from three carbonate and two sandstone rock types, showing that, for both cases the CO2 acts as the non-wetting phase and significant quantities of CO2 is trapped. The carbonate examined represent a wide variety of pore topologies with one rock with a very well connected, high porosity pore space (Mt Gambier), one with a lower porosity, poorly connected pore space (Estaillades) and one with a cemented bead pack type pore space (Ketton). Both sandstones (Doddington and Bentheimer) were high permeability granular quartzites. CO2 was injected into each rock, followed by brine injection. After brine injection the entire length of the rock core was scanned, processed and segmented into

  10. Choice ofoptimal phase for liver angiography and multi-phase scanning with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hong; Song Yunlong; Bi Yongmin; Wang Dong; Shi Huiping; Zhang Wanshi; Zhu Hongxian; Yang Hua; Ji Xudong; Fan Hongxia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of test bolus technique with multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) for determining the optimal scan delay time in CT Hepatic artery (HA)-portal vein (PV) angiography and multi-phase scanning. Methods: MSCT liver angiography and multi-phase scanning were performed in 187 patients divided randomly into two groups. In group A (n=59), the scan delay time was set according to the subjective experiences of operators; in group B (n=128), the scan delay time was determined by test bolus technique. Abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric, vein were selected as target blood vessels, and 50 HU was set as enhancement threshold value. 20 ml contrast agent was injected intravenously and time-density curve of target blood vessels were obtained, then HA-PV scanning delay time were calculated respectively. The quality of CTA images obtained by using these 2 methods were compared and statistically analysed using Chi-square criterion. Results: For hepatic artery phase, the images of group A are: excellent in 34 (58%), good in 17 (29%), and poor in 8 (13%), while those of group B are excellent in 128(100%), good in 0(0%), and poor in 0(0%). For portal vein phase, the images of group A are: excellent in 23 (39%), good in 27 (46%), and poor in 9 (15%), while those of group B are excellent in 96 (75%), good in 28 (22%), and poor in 4 (3%) respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the ratios of image quality in group A and group B (χ 2 =14.97, 9.18, P< 0.05). Conclusion: Accurate scan delay time was best determined by using test bolus technique, which can improve the image quality of liver angiography and multi-phase scanning. (authors)

  11. Pore-scale Simulation and Imaging of Multi-phase Flow and Transport in Porous Media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, J.; Welch, N.; Daher, I.; Yang, J.; Shah, S.; Grey, F.; Boek, E.

    2013-12-01

    We combine multi-scale imaging and computer simulation of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in rock samples to enhance our fundamental understanding of long term CO2 storage in rock formations. The imaging techniques include Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), micro-CT and medical CT scanning, with spatial resolutions ranging from sub-micron to mm respectively. First, we report a new sample preparation technique to study micro-porosity in carbonates using CLSM in 3 dimensions. Second, we use micro-CT scanning to generate high resolution 3D pore space images of carbonate and cap rock samples. In addition, we employ micro-CT to image the processes of evaporation in fractures and cap rock degradation due to exposure to CO2 flow. Third, we use medical CT scanning to image spontaneous imbibition in carbonate rock samples. Our imaging studies are complemented by computer simulations of multi-phase flow and transport, using the 3D pore space images obtained from the scanning experiments. We have developed a massively parallel lattice-Boltzmann (LB) code to calculate the single phase flow field in these pore space images. The resulting flow fields are then used to calculate hydrodynamic dispersion using a novel scheme to predict probability distributions for molecular displacements using the LB method and a streamline algorithm, modified for optimal solid boundary conditions. We calculate solute transport on pore-space images of rock cores with increasing degree of heterogeneity: a bead pack, Bentheimer sandstone and Portland carbonate. We observe that for homogeneous rock samples, such as bead packs, the displacement distribution remains Gaussian with time increasing. In the more heterogeneous rocks, on the other hand, the displacement distribution develops a stagnant part. We observe that the fraction of trapped solute increases from the beadpack (0 %) to Bentheimer sandstone (1.5 %) to Portland carbonate (8.1 %), in excellent agreement with PFG

  12. A multi-phase algorithm for a joint lot-sizing and pricing problem with stochastic demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenny Li, Hongyan; Thorstenson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    to a practically viable approach to decision-making. In addition to incorporating market uncertainty and pricing decisions in the traditional production and inventory planning process, our approach also accommodates the complexity of time-varying cost and capacity constraints. Finally, our numerical results show......Stochastic lot-sizing problems have been addressed quite extensively, but relatively few studies also consider marketing factors, such as pricing. In this paper, we address a joint stochastic lot-sizing and pricing problem with capacity constraints and backlogging for a firm that produces a single...... that the multi-phase heuristic algorithm solves the example problems effectively....

  13. Clean Grain Boundary Found in C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc solid-solution, metal hydride (MH alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures. This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system.

  14. Time-resolved computed tomography of the liver: retrospective, multi-phase image reconstruction derived from volumetric perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael A.; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Aspelin, Peter; Albiin, Nils; Brismar, Torkel B. [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Leidner, Bertil; Svensson, Anders [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-15

    To assess feasibility and image quality (IQ) of a new post-processing algorithm for retrospective extraction of an optimised multi-phase CT (time-resolved CT) of the liver from volumetric perfusion imaging. Sixteen patients underwent clinically indicated perfusion CT using 4D spiral mode of dual-source 128-slice CT. Three image sets were reconstructed: motion-corrected and noise-reduced (MCNR) images derived from 4D raw data; maximum and average intensity projections (time MIP/AVG) of the arterial/portal/portal-venous phases and all phases (total MIP/ AVG) derived from retrospective fusion of dedicated MCNR split series. Two readers assessed the IQ, detection rate and evaluation time; one reader assessed image noise and lesion-to-liver contrast. Time-resolved CT was feasible in all patients. Each post-processing step yielded a significant reduction of image noise and evaluation time, maintaining lesion-to-liver contrast. Time MIPs/AVGs showed the highest overall IQ without relevant motion artefacts and best depiction of arterial and portal/portal-venous phases respectively. Time MIPs demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate for arterialised liver lesions than total MIPs/AVGs and the raw data series. Time-resolved CT allows data from volumetric perfusion imaging to be condensed into an optimised multi-phase liver CT, yielding a superior IQ and higher detection rate for arterialised liver lesions than the raw data series. (orig.)

  15. High-Speed Visualization of Evaporation Phenomena from Tungsten Based Electrode in Multi-Phase AC Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Hashizume, Taro; Imatsuji, Tomoyuki; Nawata, Yushi; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    A multi-phase AC arc has been developed for applications in various fields of engineering because it possesses unique advantages such as high energy efficiency. However, understanding of fundamental phenomena in the multi-phase AC arc is still insufficient for practical use. Purpose of this study is to investigate electrode erosion mechanism by high-speed visualization of the electrode metal vapor in the arc. Results indicated that the electrode mainly evaporated at anodic period, leading to the arc constriction. Moreover, evaporation of W electrode with 2wt% La2O3 at the anodic period was much higher than that with 2wt% ThO2. This can be explained by different properties of these oxide additives. Evaporation of the oxide additive resulted in the arc constriction, which accelerated the evaporation of W electrode. Therefore, addition of La2O3 with lower melting and boiling point than ThO2 lead to stronger arc constriction, resulting in severer evaporation of W electrode.

  16. Stability of retained austenite in multi-phase microstructure during austempering and its effect on the ductility of a low carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J.; Ren, Y.Q.; Zhou, W.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Yang, J.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Center for Structural and Functional Materials, Institute for Material Research and Innovation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, P.O. Box 44130, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of multi-phase microstructure and retained austenite on mechanical properties of austempered and intercritical annealed Fe–0.23C–1.8Mn–1.35Si (wt%) steel was studied. The multi-phase microstructure comprised of intercritical ferrite (IF), bainite/martensite, and retained austenite. During austempering, the retained austenite was stabilized, which was studied using a combination of experimental (XRD, TEM) and thermodynamic analysis. The termination of bainitic transformation combined with carbon rejection into residual austenite during the second step austempering treatment is believed to be the underlying basis for stabilization of retained austenite. This led to significant increase in uniform and total elongation (25% and 36%, respectively) and the product of tensile strength and % elongation was 33 GPa%. The work hardening behavior of retained austenite exhibited a three-stage process such that necking was delayed. The increased work hardening rate is attributed to the multi-phase microstructure and TRIP effect.

  17. Contribution of the study of thermal interaction: modelling of a thermal blast in a multi-phase medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Edouard

    1978-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the safety of nuclear facilities by reporting the study of the interaction between nuclear fuel and coolant in simplified conditions. It focuses on the thermal aspect of this interaction between a very hot body and an easily vaporized cold body, which could produce a blast. Thus, this author addresses the field of existence of a thermal blast, and reports the development of a hydrodynamic model which takes the heterogeneous nature of the interacting medium into account, in order to precisely describe the conditions of fuel fragmentation. This model includes the propagation of a shock in a mixture, and the calculation of a multi-phase flow in the reaction zone, and proposes criteria for a self-sustained shock wave propagation in the reactive medium. Results are compared with those obtained with the Bankoff model [fr

  18. Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neugebauer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elasticresponse of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of(i parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability andsingle-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii homogenization schemes developed forpolycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guidedbottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidatesfor biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i show an excellent agreementwith experimental data and (ii reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character ofthe polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows thatthe results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level canbe directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping severalorders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.

  19. A new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarralde, I; Fernández-Arévalo, T; Brouckaert, C; Vanrolleghem, P; Ikumi, D S; Ekama, G A; Ayesa, E; Grau, P

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a new general methodology for incorporating physico-chemical and chemical transformations into multi-phase wastewater treatment process models in a systematic and rigorous way under a Plant-Wide modelling (PWM) framework. The methodology presented in this paper requires the selection of the relevant biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical transformations taking place and the definition of the mass transport for the co-existing phases. As an example a mathematical model has been constructed to describe a system for biological COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, liquid-gas transfer, precipitation processes, and chemical reactions. The capability of the model has been tested by comparing simulated and experimental results for a nutrient removal system with sludge digestion. Finally, a scenario analysis has been undertaken to show the potential of the obtained mathematical model to study phosphorus recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A parallel solution-adaptive scheme for predicting multi-phase core flows in solid propellant rocket motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, J.S.; Groth, C.P.T.; Gottlieb, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) scheme is described for solving the governing equations for multi-phase (gas-particle) core flows in solid propellant rocket motors (SRM). An Eulerian formulation is used to described the coupled motion between the gas and particle phases. A cell-centred upwind finite-volume discretization and the use of limited solution reconstruction, Riemann solver based flux functions for the gas and particle phases, and explicit multi-stage time-stepping allows for high solution accuracy and computational robustness. A Riemann problem is formulated for prescribing boundary data at the burning surface. Efficient and scalable parallel implementations are achieved with domain decomposition on distributed memory multiprocessor architectures. Numerical results are described to demonstrate the capabilities of the approach for predicting SRM core flows. (author)

  1. Modeling of Multi Phase Flow in Porous Media: Operator Splitting, Front Tracking, Interfacial Area and Network Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaug, Hans Fredrik

    2001-07-01

    In reservoir problems we consider some or all of the following phases: Oil, gas, water and solid. The solid phase is normally assumed to be immobile and non-deforming, but in general this does not need to be the case. By multi phase flow we will mean the flow of oil, gas and water. The phases are categorized according to their different physical quantities. A hydrocarbon phase, may consist of different hydrocarbon components, e.g., the oil phase can contain several oil and gas types. In this work the components are neglected and only the phases are considered. A porous medium is any solid phase, e.g. sand stone, that is permeable. The flow in a porous medium takes place through connected pores in the rock. Regions on a larger scale that contain oil or gas are called reservoirs. The typical size of a reservoir is kilometers in each direction while the pore scale size is millimeters or less. Solving the Navier-Stokes equation at the pore scale to obtain the transport on a larger scale is not numerically feasible because of the huge difference in scales. Therefore, some averaging is necessary to go from the pore scale (micro scale) to the reservoir scale (macro scale). In this process the Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by macro scale equations that are solved for macro scale variables. The papers presented herein cover several topics in multi phase flow in porous media, and they address some central problems both on the micro scale as well as on the macro scale. In addition, operator splitting techniques have been developed for convection dominated non-linear transport equations.

  2. Ensemble averaged multi-phase Eulerian model for columnar/equiaxed solidification of a binary alloy: II. Simulation of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanas, A I; Fautrelle, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-phase Eulerian model for the columnar and equiaxed dendritic solidification has been developed. In this paper we first focus on the numerical simulation of quasi-steady solidification experiments in order to obtain corresponding CET maps. We have identified three main zones on the CET map: the pure columnar, the pure equiaxed zone and finally the mixed columnar+equiaxed zone. The mixed c/e zone was further quantified by means of a columnar fraction ε c which quantifies in a rigorous way the two coexisting structures. Since it intrinsically includes the solutal and the mechanical blocking effects, the new ensemble model unifies the semi-empirical Hunt's approach (pure mechanical blocking mechanism) and the Martorano et al approach (pure solutal blocking mechanism). Secondly the present model was used to simulate unidirectional solidification experiments. It was found that the columnar front evolved in a quasi-steady state until a time very close to the critical CET moment. It is also found that the equiaxed nucleation undercooling is close to the maximum columnar dendrite tip undercooling and that the CET is virtually independent of the equiaxed zone ahead of the columnar front. If the equiaxed zone is not taken into account it is observed that the columnar front velocity exhibits a sudden increase at the beginning of the solidification followed by a quasi-plateau corresponding to a quasi-state at the columnar tips and finally, above a critical time, an oscillatory evolution. The beginning of the oscillatory evolution of the columnar front was well correlated with the CET position measured in the experiments. We also find that this oscillatory evolution of the columnar front is very favourable for the fragmentation of the columnar dendrites and thus for the CET. In this respect, it seems that the unsteady regime of the columnar front with respect to the local cooling conditions represents the main cause for the CET phenomena, at least for the non

  3. Synchronization of multi-phase oscillators: an Axelrod-inspired model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, M. N.; Zanette, D. H.

    2009-07-01

    Inspired by Axelrod’s model of culture dissemination, we introduce and analyze a model for a population of coupled oscillators where different levels of synchronization can be assimilated to different degrees of cultural organization. The state of each oscillator is represented by a set of phases, and the interaction - which occurs between homologous phases - is weighted by a decreasing function of the distance between individual states. Both ordered arrays and random networks are considered. We find that the transition between synchronization and incoherent behaviour is mediated by a clustering regime with rich organizational structure, where any two oscillators can be synchronized in some of their phases, while their remain unsynchronized in the others.

  4. Advances in Highly Constrained Multi-Phase Trajectory Generation using the General Pseudospectral Optimization Software (GPOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    discontinuities in mass. The dry mass of the stage was ejected after stage burnout resulting in a discontinuity in the state of mass necessitating a...seconds after liftoff to avoid numerical difficulties in the equations of motion at zero velocity and ends at stage 1 burnout ; as the booster vehicle...0.6 0.8 1 0 0.5 1 S ca le V el o ci ty 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.5 1 S ca le γ Scale Time Original GPOPS Figure 5. Booster Velocity and Flight Path

  5. Practical aspects and applications of the biological effective dose three-dimensional calculation for multi-phase radiotherapy treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauweloa, Kevin Ikaika

    The approximate BED (BEDA) is calculated for multi-phase cases due to current treatment planning systems (TPSs) being incapable of performing BED calculations. There has been no study on the mathematical accuracy and precision of BEDA relative to the true BED (BEDT), and how that might negatively impact patient care. The purpose of the first aim was to study the mathematical accuracy and precision in both hypothetical and clinical situations, while the next two aims were to create multi-phase BED optimization ideas for both multi-target liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases, and gynecological cases where patients are treated with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy along with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). MATLAB algorithms created for this work were used to mathematically analyze the accuracy and precision of BEDA relative to BEDT in both hypothetical and clinical situations on a 3D basis. The organs-at-risk (OARs) of ten head & neck and ten prostate cancer patients were studied for the clinical situations. The accuracy of BEDA was shown to vary between OARs as well as between patients. The percentage of patients with an overall BEDA percent error less than 1% were, 50% for the Optic Chiasm and Brainstem, 70% for the Left and Right Optic Nerves, as well as the Rectum and Bladder, and 80% for the Normal Brain and Spinal Cord. As seen for each OAR among different patients, there were always cases where the percent error was greater than 1%. This is a cause for concern since the goal of radiation therapy is to reduce the overall uncertainty of treatment, and calculating BEDA distributions increases the treatment uncertainty with percent errors greater than 1%. The revealed inaccuracy and imprecision of BEDA supports the argument to use BEDT. The multi-target liver study involved applying BEDT in order to reduce the number of dose limits to one rather than have one for each fractionation scheme in multi-target liver SBRT treatments. A BEDT limit

  6. Predictions of wet natural gases condensation rates via multi-component and multi-phase simulation of supersonic separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shooshtari, Seyed Heydar Rajaee; Shahsavand, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Proper correction of water and heavy hydrocarbon dew points of sweet natural gases is essential from various technical and economical standpoints. Supersonic separators (3S) are proved to be capable of achieving these tasks with maximum reliability and minimal expenses. The majority of the previous articles have focused on the flow behavior of pure fluids across a 3S unit. Multicomponent fluid flow inside 3S accompanied with condensation phenomenon will drastically increase the complexity of the simulation process. We tackle this issue by considering a proper combination of fundamental governing equations and phase equilibrium calculations to predict various operating conditions and composition profiles across two multi-component and multi-phase 3S units. Various Iranian sweet gases are used as real case studies to demonstrate the importance of 3S unit practical applications. Simulation results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of 3S units for faithful dehydration of various natural gases, while successfully controlling its dew point, suitable for any practical applications. Conventional HYSYS simulation software is used to validate the simulation results

  7. A variational approach to multi-phase motion of gas, liquid and solid based on the level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Kensuke

    2009-07-01

    We propose a simple and robust numerical algorithm to deal with multi-phase motion of gas, liquid and solid based on the level set method [S. Osher, J.A. Sethian, Front propagating with curvature-dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, J. Comput. Phys. 79 (1988) 12; M. Sussman, P. Smereka, S. Osher, A level set approach for capturing solution to incompressible two-phase flow, J. Comput. Phys. 114 (1994) 146; J.A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, 1999; S. Osher, R. Fedkiw, Level Set Methods and Dynamics Implicit Surface, Applied Mathematical Sciences, vol. 153, Springer, 2003]. In Eulerian framework, to simulate interaction between a moving solid object and an interfacial flow, we need to define at least two functions (level set functions) to distinguish three materials. In such simulations, in general two functions overlap and/or disagree due to numerical errors such as numerical diffusion. In this paper, we resolved the problem using the idea of the active contour model [M. Kass, A. Witkin, D. Terzopoulos, Snakes: active contour models, International Journal of Computer Vision 1 (1988) 321; V. Caselles, R. Kimmel, G. Sapiro, Geodesic active contours, International Journal of Computer Vision 22 (1997) 61; G. Sapiro, Geometric Partial Differential Equations and Image Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2001; R. Kimmel, Numerical Geometry of Images: Theory, Algorithms, and Applications, Springer-Verlag, 2003] introduced in the field of image processing.

  8. Multi-organ segmentation from multi-phase abdominal CT via 4D graphs using enhancement, shape and location optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Pura, John A; Chowdhury, Ananda S; Summers, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) applications. Diagnosis also relies on the comprehensive analysis of multiple organs and quantitative measures of soft tissue. An automated method optimized for medical image data is presented for the simultaneous segmentation of four abdominal organs from 4D CT data using graph cuts. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained at two phases: non-contrast and portal venous. Intra-patient data were spatially normalized by non-linear registration. Then 4D erosion using population historic information of contrast-enhanced liver, spleen, and kidneys was applied to multi-phase data to initialize the 4D graph and adapt to patient specific data. CT enhancement information and constraints on shape, from Parzen windows, and location, from a probabilistic atlas, were input into a new formulation of a 4D graph. Comparative results demonstrate the effects of appearance and enhancement, and shape and location on organ segmentation.

  9. Análise comparativa de envoltórios para drenos tubulares em condições de fluxo não-permanente Comparative analysis of envelopes for tubular drains under non-steady state flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M. de Almeida

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de envoltórios em drenos tubulares sob condições de fluxo não-permanente; para tanto, foram utilizados, em tanques de alvenaria, os envoltórios de geotêxteis XT-4, XT-2, bidim OP-30 e bidim OP-20, envelopes de brita no 1, com espessuras de 0,05, 0,10 e 0,15 m, além de um tratamento com ausência de envoltório. As variáveis-resposta utilizadas para se testar os tratamentos consistiram da lâmina drenada num tempo de 30 min, da massa de areia carreada após este tempo de drenagem e do desempenho hidráulico dos drenos, com base no cálculo da resistência de entrada ao fluxo e da relação entre vazão e carga hidráulica a 0,55 m da interface solo-dreno. As lâminas drenadas não diferiram estatisticamente a nível de 5% de probabilidade; no entanto, os geotêxteis bidim OP-20 e XT-4 mostraram-se, nesta ordem, como as melhores opções, face à análise de desempenho e se considerando os aspectos custo e facilidade de instalação. Quanto à análise da variável carreamento de areia, verificou-se a influência da espessura do envoltório ao se analisar os tratamentos com brita, além da opção das mantas, como excelente filtro. Os dados de resistência de entrada demonstraram a importância do uso de envoltórios ao se comparar o tratamento sem envoltório (r ent = 0,0102 d m-1 com o tratamento brita 0,15m (r ent = 0,0032 d m-1 cuja redução foi de 68,7%.The aim of the research was to evaluate the performance of eight types of envelopes installed around tubular drains in a horizontal tank model, with the treatments bidim OP-20, bidim OP-30, XT-2 and XT-4, 0.15, 0.10 and 0.05 m thick gravel and the treatment drain without a wrapper. The response-variables for the treatments used consisted of the depth of water drained in thirty minutes, the mass of sediment transported by the water during this same time interval and the hydraulic performance of the drains based on the entrance resistance of the flow and relation between the flowrate and the hydraulic head at 0.55 m drain-soil. The depth of water drained did not show significant difference at 5% probability level; however, the geotextile bidim OP-20 and XT-4 showed the best performance taking into account costs and instalation suitability. In relation to the sediment mass transported, the influence of the wrapper thickness using gravel was observed besides the option of geotextile as excelent filter. The importance of using drain wrappers was demonstrated by comparing the entrance resistance data for the treatments without wrapper (r ent = 0.0102 d m-1 and the 0.15 m gravel treatment (r ent = 0.0032 d m-1, allowing a 68.7% reduction.

  10. Multi-phase partitioning, ecological risk and fate of acidic pharmaceuticals in a wastewater receiving river: The role of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yan-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Ke, Run-Hui; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of five pharmaceutical compounds were investigated in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving river by analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediment, particulate matter, conventional dissolved phase (> 0.7 μm), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 0.7 μm), and truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa) water. Diclofenac was found in all samples, followed by clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen with the decreasing detection frequency. All targets in WWTP outfall site were higher than those in the upstream and downstream, indicating that the WWTP is an important input source of pharmaceuticals in the river. The colloidal phase contributed 10–14% of ketoprofen, 8–26% of naproxen, 17–36% of clofibric acid, 22–33% of diclofenac, and 9–28% of ibuprofen in the aquatic system, suggesting the colloids will play an important role as carrier to contaminants in the aquatic environment. Based on truly dissolved concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water, only the risk quotient (RQ) value for diclofenac towards fish was higher than 1, indicating it poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Finally, a Level III fugacity model was used to further assess the environmental fate of the selected pharmaceuticals (exemplified for clofibric acid and diclofenac). Both clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment with the percentage of 99.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Advection in river is a significant loss process for clofibric acid (56.4%) and diclofenac (54.4%). - Highlights: ► WWTP is the main source of pharmaceuticals to the receiving river in Shanghai. ► The colloids contribute 9–36% to the total pharmaceutical concentration in water. ► Truly dissolved diclofenac poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. ► Clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment

  11. Violent flows in aqueous foams III: physical multi-phase model comparison with aqueous foam shock tube experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, J. A.; Ghidaglia, J.-M.; Faure, S.

    2018-06-01

    Mitigation of blast waves in aqueous foams is a problem that has a strong dependence on multi-phase effects. Here, a simplified model is developed from the previous articles treating violent flows (D'Alesio et al. in Eur J Mech B Fluids 54:105-124, 2015; Faure and Ghidaglia in Eur J Mech B Fluids 30:341-359, 2011) to capture the essential phenomena. The key is to have two fluids with separate velocities to represent the liquid and gas phases. This allows for the interaction between the two phases, which may include terms for drag, heat transfer, mass transfer due to phase change, added mass effects, to be included explicitly in the model. A good test for the proposed model is provided by two experimental data sets that use a specially designed shock tube. The first experiment has a test section filled with spray droplets, and the second has a range of aqueous foams in the test section. A substantial attenuation of the shock wave is seen in both cases, but a large difference is observed in the sound speeds. The droplets cause no observable change from the air sound speed, while the foams have a reduced sound speed of approximately 50-75 m/s . In the model given here, an added mass term is introduced in the governing equations to capture the low sound speed. The match between simulation and experiment is found to be satisfactory for both droplets and the foam. This is especially good when considering the complexity of the physics and the effects that are unaccounted for, such as three-dimensionality and droplet atomisation. The resulting statistics illuminate the processes occurring in such flows.

  12. Multi-phase partitioning, ecological risk and fate of acidic pharmaceuticals in a wastewater receiving river: The role of colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yan-Ping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Xiang-Zhou, E-mail: xzmeng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wen, Zhi-Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ke, Run-Hui [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing 100027 (China); Chen, Ling [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence and multi-phase distribution of five pharmaceutical compounds were investigated in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) receiving river by analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediment, particulate matter, conventional dissolved phase (> 0.7 μm), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 0.7 μm), and truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa) water. Diclofenac was found in all samples, followed by clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen with the decreasing detection frequency. All targets in WWTP outfall site were higher than those in the upstream and downstream, indicating that the WWTP is an important input source of pharmaceuticals in the river. The colloidal phase contributed 10–14% of ketoprofen, 8–26% of naproxen, 17–36% of clofibric acid, 22–33% of diclofenac, and 9–28% of ibuprofen in the aquatic system, suggesting the colloids will play an important role as carrier to contaminants in the aquatic environment. Based on truly dissolved concentrations of pharmaceuticals in water, only the risk quotient (RQ) value for diclofenac towards fish was higher than 1, indicating it poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Finally, a Level III fugacity model was used to further assess the environmental fate of the selected pharmaceuticals (exemplified for clofibric acid and diclofenac). Both clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment with the percentage of 99.7% and 60.6%, respectively. Advection in river is a significant loss process for clofibric acid (56.4%) and diclofenac (54.4%). - Highlights: ► WWTP is the main source of pharmaceuticals to the receiving river in Shanghai. ► The colloids contribute 9–36% to the total pharmaceutical concentration in water. ► Truly dissolved diclofenac poses a potential risk to aquatic organisms. ► Clofibric acid and diclofenac tend to accumulate in water compartment.

  13. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies: multi-phase description of the interstellar medium, star formation, and energy feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Modelling the gaseous component of the interstellar medium (ISM) by Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics in N-Body simulations (NB-TSPH) is still very crude when compared to the complex real situation. In the real ISM, many different and almost physically decoupled components (phases) coexist for long periods of time, and since they spread over wide ranges of density and temperature, they cannot be correctly represented by a unique continuous fluid. This would influence star formation which is thought to take place in clumps of cold, dense, molecular clouds, embedded in a warmer, neutral medium, that are almost freely moving throughout the tenuous hot ISM. Therefore, assuming that star formation is simply related to the gas content without specifying the component in which this is both observed and expected to occur may not be physically sound. Aims: We consider a multi-phase representation of the ISM in NB-TSPH simulations of galaxy formation and evolution with particular attention to the case of early-type galaxies. Methods: Cold gas clouds are described by the so-called sticky particles algorithm. They can freely move throughout the hot ISM medium; stars form within these clouds and the mass exchange among the three baryonic phases (hot gas, cold clouds, stars) is governed by radiative and Compton cooling and energy feedback by supernova (SN) explosions, stellar winds, and UV radiation. We also consider thermal conduction, cloud-cloud collisions, and chemical enrichment. Results: Our model agrees with and improves upon previous studies on the same subject. The results for the star formation rate agree with recent observational data on early-type galaxies. Conclusions: These models lend further support to the revised monolithic scheme of galaxy formation, which has recently been strengthened by high redshift data leading to the so-called downsizing and top-down scenarios.

  14. Modeling the Physical Multi-Phase Interactions of HNO3 Between Snow and Air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C) and coast (Halley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Ga; Frey, Markus M.; King, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from nitrate (NO3-) photolysis in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of the high latitudes with low pollution levels. The porous structure of snowpack allows the exchange of gases with the atmosphere driven by physicochemical processes, and hence, snow can act as both source and sink of atmospheric chemical trace gases. Current models are limited by poor process understanding and often require tuning parameters. Here, two multi-phase physical models were developed from first principles constrained by observed atmospheric nitrate, HNO3, to describe the air-snow interaction of nitrate. Similar to most of the previous approaches, the first model assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air-snow grain interface is pure ice and above To, a disordered interface (DI) emerges assumed to be covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that Air-Ice interactions dominate over the entire temperature range below melting and that only above the eutectic temperature, liquid is present in the form of micropockets in grooves. The models are validated with available year-round observations of nitrate in snow and air at a cold site on the Antarctica Plateau (Dome C, 75°06'S, 123°33'E, 3233 m a.s.l.) and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctica coast (Halley, 75°35'S, 26°39'E, 35 m a.s.l). The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE) = 1.34), but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE) = 89.28) while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites without any tuning (Cv(RMSE) = 0.84 at both sites). It is therefore suggested that air-snow interactions of nitrate in the winter are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain. In summer, however, the air-snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid

  15. Energy and Resource Saving of Steelmaking Process: Utilization of Innovative Multi-phase Flux During Dephosphorization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Hamano, Tasuku; Zhong, Ming; Gao, Xu; Yang, Xiao; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-09-01

    An increase in the utilization efficiency of CaO, one of the major fluxing agents used in various steelmaking processes, is required to reduce the amount of discharged slag and energy consumption of the process. The authors have intensively focused on the development of innovative dephosphorization process by using so called "multi-phase flux" composed of solid and liquid phases. This article summarizes the research on the above topic done by the authors, in which the formation mechanisms of P2O5-containing phase during CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 dissolution into molten slag, the phase relationship between solid and liquid phases at equilibrium, and thermodynamic properties of P2O5-containing phase have been clarified. The reactions between solid CaO or 2CaO·SiO2 and molten CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 slag were observed by dipping solid specimen in the synthesized slag at 1573 K or 1673 K. The formation of the CaO-FeO layer and dual-phase layer of solid 2CaO·SiO2 and FeO x -rich liquid phase was observed around the interface from the solid CaO side toward the bulk slag phase side. Condensation of P2O5 into 2CaO·SiO2 phase as 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution was observed in both cases of CaO and 2CaO·SiO2 as solid specimens. Measurement of the phase relationship for the CaO-FeO x -SiO2-P2O5 system confirmed the condensation of P2O5 in solid phase at low oxygen partial pressure. The thermodynamics of 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution are to be clarified to quantitatively simulate the dephosphorization process, and the current results are also introduced. Based on the above results, the reduction of CaO consumption, the discharged slag curtailment, and energy-saving effects have been discussed.

  16. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel.schwaighofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Lindemann, Janny [Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); GfE Fremat GmbH, Lessingstr. 41, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayer, Svea [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-09-22

    deformation within the (α+β) phase field region, leading to refined and nearly texture-free α/α{sub 2}-grains. In conclusion, robust deformation parameters for the refinement of critical microstructural defects could be defined for the investigated multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy.

  17. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel; Clemens, Helmut; Lindemann, Janny; Stark, Andreas; Mayer, Svea

    2014-01-01

    the (α+β) phase field region, leading to refined and nearly texture-free α/α 2 -grains. In conclusion, robust deformation parameters for the refinement of critical microstructural defects could be defined for the investigated multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

  18. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges [AREVA NC (France)

    2012-07-01

    operation results to date. AREVA's response to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi crisis was multi-phased: emergency aid and relief supply was sent within days after the accident; AREVA-Veolia engineering teams designed and implemented a water treatment solution in record time, only 3 months; and AREVA continues to support TEPCO and propose solutions for waste management, soil remediation and decontamination of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site. Despite the huge challenges, the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad project has been a success: the water treatment unit started on time and performed as expected. The performance is the result of many key elements: AREVA expertise in radioactive effluents decontamination, Veolia know-how in water treatment equipments in crisis environment, and of course AREVA and Veolia teams' creativity. The project success is also due to AREVA and Veolia teams' reactivity and high level of commitment with engineering teams working 24/7 in Japan, France and Germany. AREVA and Veolia deep knowledge of the Japanese industry ensured that the multi-cultural exchanges were not an issue. Finally the excellent overall project management and execution by TEPCO and other Japanese stakeholders was very efficient. The emergency water treatment was a key step of the roadmap towards restoration from the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi that TEPCO designed and keeps executing with success. (authors)

  19. Trade-off analysis of discharge-desiltation-turbidity and ANN analysis on sedimentation of a combined reservoir-reach system under multi-phase and multi-layer conjunctive releasing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Wei, Chih-Chiang; Yao, Chun-Hao

    2017-10-01

    Multi-objective reservoir operation considering the trade-off of discharge-desiltation-turbidity during typhoons and sediment concentration (SC) simulation modeling are the vital components for sustainable reservoir management. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the multi-layer release trade-offs between reservoir desiltation and intake turbidity of downstream purification plants and thus propose a superior conjunctive operation strategy and (2) to develop ANFIS-based (adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system) and RTRLNN-based (real-time recurrent learning neural networks) substitute SC simulation models. To this end, this study proposed a methodology to develop (1) a series of multi-phase and multi-layer sediment-flood conjunctive release modes and (2) a specialized SC numerical model for a combined reservoir-reach system. The conjunctive release modes involve (1) an optimization model where the decision variables are multi-phase reduction/scaling ratios and the timings to generate a superior total release hydrograph for flood control (Phase I: phase prior to flood arrival, Phase II/III: phase prior to/subsequent to peak flow) and (2) a combination method with physical limitations regarding separation of the singular hydrograph into multi-layer release hydrographs for sediment control. This study employed the featured signals obtained from statistical quartiles/sediment duration curve in mesh segmentation, and an iterative optimization model with a sediment unit response matrix and corresponding geophysical-based acceleration factors, for efficient parameter calibration. This research applied the developed methodology to the Shihmen Reservoir basin in Taiwan. The trade-off analytical results using Typhoons Sinlaku and Jangmi as case examples revealed that owing to gravity current and re-suspension effects, Phase I + II can de-silt safely without violating the intake's turbidity limitation before reservoir discharge reaches 2238 m3/s; however

  20. Multi-phase simulation of fast ion profile flattening due to Alfvén eigenmodes in a DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todo, Y.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Bierwage, A.; Heidbrink, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-phase simulation that is a combination of classical simulation and hybrid simulation for energetic particles interacting with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamics on the slowing down time scale of the energetic particles. The hybrid simulation code is extended with realistic beam deposition profile, collisions and losses, and is used for both the classical and hybrid phases. The code is run without MHD perturbations in the classical phase, while the interaction between the energetic particles and the MHD fluid is simulated in the hybrid phase. In a multi-phase simulation of DIII-D discharge #142111, the stored beam ion energy is saturated due to Alfvén eigenmodes (AE modes) at a level lower than in the classical simulation. After the stored fast ion energy is saturated, the hybrid simulation is run continuously. It is demonstrated that the fast ion spatial profile is significantly flattened due to the interaction with the multiple AE modes with amplitude v/v A  ∼ δB/B ∼ O(10 −4 ). The dominant AE modes are toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE modes), which is consistent with the experimental observation at the simulated moment. The amplitude of the temperature fluctuations brought about by the TAE modes is of the order of 1% of the equilibrium temperature. This is also comparable with electron cyclotron emission measurements in the experiment. (paper)

  1. A graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit for the calculation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-phase biological effective dose (BED) distributions including statistical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauweloa, Kevin I; Gutierrez, Alonso N; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Niko; Mavroidis, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    A toolkit has been developed for calculating the 3-dimensional biological effective dose (BED) distributions in multi-phase, external beam radiotherapy treatments such as those applied in liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and in multi-prescription treatments. This toolkit also provides a wide range of statistical results related to dose and BED distributions. MATLAB 2010a, version 7.10 was used to create this GUI toolkit. The input data consist of the dose distribution matrices, organ contour coordinates, and treatment planning parameters from the treatment planning system (TPS). The toolkit has the capability of calculating the multi-phase BED distributions using different formulas (denoted as true and approximate). Following the calculations of the BED distributions, the dose and BED distributions can be viewed in different projections (e.g. coronal, sagittal and transverse). The different elements of this toolkit are presented and the important steps for the execution of its calculations are illustrated. The toolkit is applied on brain, head & neck and prostate cancer patients, who received primary and boost phases in order to demonstrate its capability in calculating BED distributions, as well as measuring the inaccuracy and imprecision of the approximate BED distributions. Finally, the clinical situations in which the use of the present toolkit would have a significant clinical impact are indicated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical study of Tallinn storm-water system flooding conditions using CFD simulations of multi-phase flow in a large-scale inverted siphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, K.; Laanearu, J.; Annus, I.

    2017-10-01

    The numerical experiments are carried out for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of a multi-phase flow processes associated with malfunctioning of the Tallinn storm-water system during rain storms. The investigations are focused on the single-line inverted siphon, which is used as under-road connection of pipes of the storm-water system under interest. A multi-phase flow solver of Computational Fluid Dynamics software OpenFOAM is used for simulating the three-phase flow dynamics in the hydraulic system. The CFD simulations are performed with different inflow rates under same initial conditions. The computational results are compared essentially in two cases 1) design flow rate and 2) larger flow rate, for emptying the initially filled inverted siphon from a slurry-fluid. The larger flow-rate situations are under particular interest to detected possible flooding. In this regard, it is anticipated that the CFD solutions provide an important insight to functioning of inverted siphon under a restricted water-flow conditions at simultaneous presence of air and slurry-fluid.

  3. A study of multi-phase flow through the cathode side of an interdigitated flow field using a multi-fluid model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a study of multi-phase flow through the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing an interdigitated flow field plate. A previously published model has been extended in order to account for phase change kinetics, and a comparison between the interdigitated...... flow field design and a conventional straight channel design has been conducted. It is found that the parasitic pressure drop in the interdigitated design is in the range of a few thousand Pa and could be reduced to a few hundred Pa by choosing diffusion media with high in-plane permeability....... In the interdigitated design more product water is carried out of the cell in the vapor phase compared to the straight channel design which indicates that liquid water management might be less problematic. This effect also leads to the finding that in the interdigitated design more waste heat is carried out of the cell...

  4. Beyond the Black Box: Coupling x-ray tomographic imaging of multi-phase flow processes to numerical models and traditional laboratory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Porter, M.L.; Schaap, M.G.

    Quantitative non-invasive imaging has evolved rapidly in the last decade, and is now being used to assess a variety of problems in vadose zone research, including unsaturated flow and transport of water and contaminants, macropore-dominated processes, soil-water-root interactions, more recent work...... on colloidal processes, and significant work on NAPL-water interactions . We are now able to use non-invasive imaging to probe processes that could not previously be quantified because of lack of opacity, resolution, or accurate techniques for quantitative measurement. This work presents an overview of recent...... advances in x-ray microtomography techniques that can generate high-resolution image-based data for (1) validation of pore-scale multi-phase flow models such as the lattice-Boltzmann technique and pore network models (with respect to fluid saturations, fluid distribution, and relationships among capillary...

  5. Towards a Usability and Error "Safety Net": A Multi-Phased Multi-Method Approach to Ensuring System Usability and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Senathirajah, Yalini; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The usability and safety of health information systems have become major issues in the design and implementation of useful healthcare IT. In this paper we describe a multi-phased multi-method approach to integrating usability engineering methods into system testing to ensure both usability and safety of healthcare IT upon widespread deployment. The approach involves usability testing followed by clinical simulation (conducted in-situ) and "near-live" recording of user interactions with systems. At key stages in this process, usability problems are identified and rectified forming a usability and technology-induced error "safety net" that catches different types of usability and safety problems prior to releasing systems widely in healthcare settings.

  6. Is hepatotropic contrast enhanced MR a more effective method in differential diagnosis of hemangioma than multi-phase CT and unenhanced MR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiet Karolina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cavernous hemangiomas are the most frequent neoplasms of the liver and in routine clinical practice they often need to be differentiated from malignant tumors and other benign focal lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of hepatic hemangiomas, showing atypical pattern on US, improves with the use of Gd-BOPTA in comparison with contrast-enhanced multi-phase computed tomography (CT. Methods 178 consecutive patients with ambiguous hepatic masses showing atypical hyperechoic pattern on grey-scale US, underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced multi-phase multi-detector CT and MR (1.5T with the use of liver-specific contrast medium gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA. After intravenous contrast administration arterial (HAP, venous-portal (PVP, equilibrium phases (EP both in CT and MR and additionally hepatobiliary phase (HBP in MR were obtained. 398 lesions have been detected including 99 hemangiomas and 299 other lesions. Results In non-enhanced MDCT examination detection of hemangiomas was characterized by sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 90%, PPV of 71%, NPV of 92% and accuracy of 86%. Non-enhanced MR examination showed sensitivity of 98%, specificity of 99%, PPV of 99%, NPV of 99% and accuracy of 99%. After intravenous administration of contrast medium in MR the mentioned above parameters did not increase significantly. Conclusion Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR in comparison with unenhanced MRI does not improve diagnostic accuracy in discriminating hemangiomas that show non-specific appearance in ultrasound examination. Unenhanced MR as a method of choice should directly follow US in course of diagnostic algorithm in differentiation of hemangiomas from other liver tumors.

  7. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of multi-component and multi-phase nuclear fuels by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the shape and distribution state of voids on the thermal conductivity of UO 2 , and the temperature distribution and heat flow within the irradiated MOX fuel were evaluated by finite element analysis. Although the work is still in progress, some preliminary results are presented. (author)

  8. Modeling optimizes PEM fuel cell durability using three-dimensional multi-phase computational fluid dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the damage mechanisms in the membrane and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be ...

  9. The Markov multi-phase transferable belief model: A data fusion theory for enhancing cyber situational awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. eXfiltration Advanced Persistent Threats (XAPTs) increasingly account for incidents concerned with critical information exfiltration from High Valued Targets (HVT's) by terrorists, cyber criminals or enemy states. Existing Cyber Defence frameworks and data fusion models do not adequately address (i) the multi-stage nature of XAPTs and (ii) the uncertainty and conflicting...

  10. Thermodynamic Modeling of Multi-phase Solid–Liquid Equilibria in Industrial-Grade Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard; Miller, Rasmus L.; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Compositional thermodynamic phase separation is investigated for industrial-grade vegetable oils with complex compositions. Solid–liquid equilibria have been calculated by utilizing the Margules 2-suffix activity-coefficient model in combination with minimization of the Gibb’s free energy...... of the system. On the basis of quasi-equilibrium solid-fat content (SFC) measurements, a new approach to the estimation of the interaction parameters, needed for the activity-coefficient model, has been developed. The parameters are fitted by matching the SFC of two oils at various degrees of dilution...... and isothermal temperatures. Subsequently, the parameters are successfully validated against three oils, rich in asymmetric and symmetric triacylglycerols (TAG), respectively. The new approach developed is shown to be very flexible, allowing incorporation of additional TAG and polymorphic states. It thereby...

  11. Circumnuclear Multi-phase Gas in the Circinus Galaxy. I. Non-LTE Calculations of CO Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiichi; Fukushige, Ryosuke; Izumi, Takuma; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the line emissions from cold molecular gas based on our previous “radiation-driven fountain model,” which reliably explains the spectral energy distribution of the nearest type 2 Seyfert galaxy, the Circinus galaxy. Using a snapshot of the best-fit radiation-hydrodynamic model for the central r≤slant 16 pc, in which non-equilibrium X-ray-dominated region chemistry is solved, we conduct post-processed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation transfer simulations for the CO lines. We obtain a spectral line energy distribution with a peak around J≃ 6, and its distribution suggests that the lines are not thermalized. However, for a given line of sight, the optical depth distribution is highly non-uniform between {τ }ν \\ll 1 and {τ }ν \\gg 1. The CO-to-H2 conversion factor ({X}{CO}), which can be directly obtained from the results and is not a constant, depends strongly on the integrated intensity and differs from the fiducial value for local objects. {X}{CO} exhibits a large dispersion of more than one order of magnitude, reflecting the non-uniform internal structure of a “torus.” In addition, we found that the physical conditions differ between grid cells on a scale of a few parsecs along the observed lines of sight; therefore, a specific observed line ratio does not necessarily represent a single physical state of the interstellar medium.

  12. Formation mechanism of channel segregation in carbon steels by inclusion flotation: X-ray microtomography characterization and multi-phase flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yan Fei; Chen, Yun; Li, Dian Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental dissections of steel ingots and multi-scale simulations have led to the discovery of a potential driving force for channel segregation: the flotation of oxide-based inclusion (D. Li et al., Nat. Commun. 5:5572 (2014)). Further experimental analysis and numerical modeling are necessary to clarify this mechanism in detail. In this work, the inclusions in a carbon steel ingot that exhibits severe channel segregations were characterized by the 3D X-ray microtomography, which revealed a significant enrichment and growth of inclusions in the channels. Based on above microtomography characterization, a 2D macrosegregation model encompassing the inclusion flotation was established. In the model, the motions of solid inclusions and liquid were described using the multi-phase flow scheme within the Euler-Lagrange framework. The benchmark simulations showed that sufficient inclusion populations with appropriate sizes are capable of altering the local flow patterns and destabilize the mushy zone, initiating the subsequent channel segregation. The continuous interplay between melt convection, inclusion flotation and solidification eventually causes the formation of macroscale channel. The predicted sizes and volume fraction of inclusions that are able to trigger the channel segregation effectively are consistent with the data obtained via microtomography characterization. The macrosegregation model was then applied to predict the channel segregations in an industrial carbon steel ingot. A rather good agreement of A-segregates was achieved between the simulation and the dissected ingot.

  13. A new technique for noise reduction at coronary CT angiography with multi-phase data-averaging and non-rigid image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Nakamura, Yuko; Yamagami, Takuji; Date, Shuji; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of a newly developed noise reduction technique at coronary CT angiography (CTA) that uses multi-phase data-averaging and non-rigid image registration. Sixty-five patients underwent coronary CTA with prospective ECG-triggering. The range of the phase window was set at 70-80 % of the R-R interval. First, three sets of consecutive volume data at 70 %, 75 % and 80 % of the R-R interval were prepared. Second, we applied non-rigid registration to align the 70 % and 80 % images to the 75 % image. Finally, we performed weighted averaging of the three images and generated a de-noised image. The image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal coronary arteries between the conventional 75 % and the de-noised images were compared. Two radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point scale (1, poor; 5, excellent). On de-noised images, mean image noise was significantly lower than on conventional 75 % images (18.3 HU ± 2.6 vs. 23.0 HU ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and the CNR was significantly higher (P < 0.01). The mean image quality score for conventional 75 % and de-noised images was 3.9 and 4.4, respectively (P < 0.01). Our method reduces image noise and improves image quality at coronary CTA. (orig.)

  14. AOI 1— COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  15. Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der

    1992-01-01

    Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock have....... Further, for the non-stationary term, the virtual mass coefficient will be derived....

  16. Initiating the Validation of CCIM Processability for Multi-phase all Ceramic (SYNROC) HLW Form: Plan for Test BFY14CCIM-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This plan covers test BFY14CCIM-C which will be a first–of–its-kind demonstration for the complete non-radioactive surrogate production of multi-phase ceramic (SYNROC) High Level Waste Forms (HLW) using Cold Crucible Induction Melting (CCIM) Technology. The test will occur in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) CCIM Pilot Plant and is tentatively scheduled for the week of September 15, 2014. The purpose of the test is to begin collecting qualitative data for validating the ceramic HLW form processability advantages using CCIM technology- as opposed to existing ceramic–lined Joule Heated Melters (JHM) currently producing BSG HLW forms. The major objectives of BFY14CCIM-C are to complete crystalline melt initiation with a new joule-heated resistive starter ring, sustain inductive melting at temperatures between 1600 to 1700°C for two different relatively high conductive materials representative of the SYNROC ceramic formation inclusive of a HLW surrogate, complete melter tapping and pouring of molten ceramic material in to a preheated 4 inch graphite canister and a similar canister at room temperature. Other goals include assessing the performance of a new crucible specially designed to accommodate the tapping and pouring of pure crystalline forms in contrast to less recalcitrant amorphous glass, assessing the overall operational effectiveness of melt initiation using a resistive starter ring with a dedicated power source, and observing the tapped molten flow and subsequent relatively quick crystallization behavior in pans with areas identical to standard HLW disposal canisters. Surrogate waste compositions with ceramic SYNROC forming additives and their measured properties for inductive melting, testing parameters, pre-test conditions and modifications, data collection requirements, and sampling/post-demonstration analysis requirements for the produced forms are provided and defined.

  17. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically resolved model (BAMS1) to soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-07-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth system models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed an SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic matter (DOM) stocks and fluxes, lignin content, and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and Δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM consisting of carbon compounds with relatively fast reaction rates, vertical aqueous transport, and dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  18. New insights on lithofacies architecture, sedimentological characteristics and volcanological evolution of pre-caldera (> 22 ka), multi-phase, scoria- and spatter-cones at Somma-Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparice, Domenico; Scarpati, Claudio; Perrotta, Annamaria; Mazzeo, Fabio Carmine; Calvert, Andrew T.; Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2017-11-01

    Pre-caldera (> 22 ka) lateral activity at Somma-Vesuvius is related to scoria- and spatter-cone forming events of monogenetic or polygenetic nature. A new stratigraphic, sedimentological, textural and lithofacies investigation was performed on five parasitic cones (Pollena cones, Traianello cone, S. Maria a Castello cone and the recently found Terzigno cone) occurring below the Pomici di Base (22 ka) Plinian products emplaced during the first caldera collapse at Somma-Vesuvius. A new Ar/Ar age of 23.6 ± 0.3 ka obtained for the Traianello cone as well as the absence of a paleosol or reworked material between the S. Maria a Castello cone and the Pomici di Base deposits suggest that such cone-forming eruptions occurred near the upper limit of the pre-caldera period (22-39 ky). The stratigraphy of three of these eccentric cones (Pollena cones and Traianello cone) exhibits erosion surfaces, exotic tephras, volcaniclastic layers, paleosols, unconformity and paraconformity between superimposed eruptive units revealing their multi-phase, polygenetic evolution related to activation of separate vents and periods of quiescence. Such eccentric cones have been described as composed of scoria deposits and pure effusive lavas by previous authors. Lavas are here re-interpreted as welded horizons (lava-like) composed of coalesced spatter fragments whose pyroclastic nature is locally revealed by relicts of original fragments and remnants of clast outlines. These welded horizons show, locally, rheomorphic structures allowing to define them as emplaced as clastogenic lava flows. The lava-like facies is transitional, upward and downward, to less welded facies composed of agglutinated to unwelded spatter horizons in which clasts outlines are increasingly discernible. Such textural characteristics and facies variation are consistent with a continuous fall deposition of Hawaiian fire-fountains episodes alternated with Strombolian phases emplacing loose scoria deposits. High enrichment

  19. Multi-phase distribution and comprehensive ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollutants in a river affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianbo; Ru, Xuan; Xie, Binbin; Zhang, Wanhui; Wu, Haizhen; Wu, Chaofei; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-07-01

    To date, there is a lack of a comprehensive research on heavy metals detection and ecological risk assessment in river water, sediments, pore water (PW) and suspended solids (SS). Here, the concentrations of heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, and their distribution between the four phases was studied. Samples for analysis were taken from twelve sites of the Hengshi River, Guangdong Province, China, during the rainy and dry seasons. A new comprehensive ecological risk index (CERI) based on considering metal contents, pollution indices, toxicity coefficients and water categories is offered for prediction of potential risk on aquatic organisms. The results of comprehensive analysis showed that the highest concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn of 6.42, 87.17 and 98.74mg/L, respectively, in PW were comparable with those in water, while concentrations of Cd, Pb and As of 609.5, 2757 and 96.38μg/L, respectively, were 2-5 times higher. The sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions of target metals in sediments followed the order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. The distribution of heavy metals in phases followed the order of sediment > SS > water > PW, having the sum content in water and PW lower than 2% of total. The elevated ecological risk for a single metal and the phase were 34,585 for Cd and 1160 for water, respectively, implied Cd as a priority pollutant in the considered area. According to the CERI, the maximum risk value of 769.3 was smaller than 1160 in water, but higher than those in other phases. Out of considering the water categories and contribution coefficients, the CERI was proved to be more reliable for assessing the pollution of rivers with heavy metals. These results imply that the CERI has a potential of adequate assessment of multi-phase composite metals pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Early Childhood Professional Development for Providers and Recipients in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.; Rembert, Kellye; Simpson, Amber; Ramey, M. Deanna

    2016-01-01

    This multi-phase mixed-methods study explores provider and recipient perceptions of the current state of early childhood professional development in a southeastern area of the United States. Professional development for the early childhood workforce has been shown to positively influence the quality of early childhood classrooms. This study…

  1. Using pore-scale imaging and modeling to provide new insights in multi-phase flow, transport and reaction phenomena in porous media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead

  2. The multi-phase winds of Markarian 231: from the hot, nuclear, ultra-fast wind to the galaxy-scale, molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Carniani, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Zappacosta, L.; Bongiorno, A.; Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Menci, N.; Puccetti, S.; Veilleux, S.

    2015-11-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby ultra-luminous IR galaxy exhibiting a kpc-scale, multi-phase AGN-driven outflow. This galaxy represents the best target to investigate in detail the morphology and energetics of powerful outflows, as well as their still poorly-understood expansion mechanism and impact on the host galaxy. In this work, we present the best sensitivity and angular resolution maps of the molecular disk and outflow of Mrk 231, as traced by CO(2-1) and (3-2) observations obtained with the IRAM/PdBI. In addition, we analyze archival deep Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray observations. We use this unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength data sets to constrain the physical properties of both the molecular disk and outflow, the presence of a highly-ionized ultra-fast nuclear wind, and their connection. The molecular CO(2-1) outflow has a size of 1 kpc, and extends in all directions around the nucleus, being more prominent along the south-west to north-east direction, suggesting a wide-angle biconical geometry. The maximum projected velocity of the outflow is nearly constant out to 1 kpc, thus implying that the density of the outflowing material must decrease from the nucleus outwards as r-2. This suggests that either a large part of the gas leaves the flow during its expansion or that the bulk of the outflow has not yet reached out to 1 kpc, thus implying a limit on its age of 1 Myr. Mapping the mass and energy rates of the molecular outflow yields dot {M} OF = [500-1000] M⊙ yr-1 and Ėkin,OF = [7-10] × 1043 erg s-1. The total kinetic energy of the outflow is Ekin,OF is of the same order of the total energy of the molecular disk, Edisk. Remarkably, our analysis of the X-ray data reveals a nuclear ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with velocity -20 000 km s-1, dot {M}UFO = [0.3-2.1] M⊙ yr-1, and momentum load dot {P}UFO/ dot {P}rad = [0.2-1.6]. We find Ėkin,UFO Ėkin,OF as predicted for outflows undergoing an energy conserving expansion. This suggests that most of the UFO

  3. HAI: A novel airborne multi-channel hygrometer for fast multi-phase H2O quantification: Performance of the HAI instrument during the first flights on the German HALO aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Kraemer, M.; Afchine, A.

    2014-12-01

    Common gas phase H2O measurements on fast airborne platforms e.g. using backward facing or "Rosemount"-inlets can lead to a high risk of ice and droplets contamination. In addition, currently no single hygrometer exists that allows a simultaneous, high-speed measurement of all phases (gas, liquid, ice) with the same detection principle. In the rare occasions multi-phase measurements are realized, gas-and condensed-phase observations rely on different methods, instruments and calibration strategies so that precision and accuracy levels are quite difficult to quantify. This is effectively avoided by the novel TDLAS instrument, HAI, Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigation, which allows a simultaneous, high speed, multi-phase detection without any sensor calibration in a unique "2+2" channel concept. Hai combines two independent wavelength channels, at 1.4 µm and at 2.6 µm, for a wide dynamic range from 1 to 30 000 ppmv, with a simultaneous closed path (extractive) and open path detection. Thus, "Total", i.e. gas-phase plus condensed-phase water is measured by sampling via a forward facing inlet into "closed-path" extractive cells. A selective, sampling-free, high speed gas phase detection is realized via a dual-wavelength "open-path" cell placed outside of the aircraft fuselage. All channels can be sampled with 120 Hz (measurement cycle time Dt=1.6 ms) allowing an unprecedented spatial resolution of 30 cm at 900 km/h. The evaluation of the individual multi-channel raw-data is done post flight, without any channel interdependencies, in calibration-free mode, thus allowing fast, accurate and precise multi-phase water detection in flight. The performance could be shown in more than 200 net flights hours in three scientific flight campaigns (TACTS, ESMVal, ML-CIRRUS) on the new German HALO aircraft. In addition the level of the accuracy of the calibration free evaluation was evaluated at the German national primary water vapor standard.

  4. Study of retained austenite and nano-scale precipitation and their effects on properties of a low alloyed multi-phase steel by the two-step intercritical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J.; Han, G., E-mail: hangang@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhou, W.H.; Zeng, C.Y.; Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Microstructure evolution and properties were studied in a low carbon low alloyed hot-rolled bainitic steel by annealing and annealing plus tempering. Microstructure of the hot-rolled steel consists of lath bainite and martensite. By annealing at 720 °C for 30 min and water quenching, multi-phase microstructure consisting of intercritical ferrite, tempered bainite/martensite, retained austenite and fresh martensite was obtained. With increasing annealing temperature to 760 °C, microstructure of the steel consisted of intercritical ferrite, fresh martensite without retained austenite. After the second step of tempering at 680 °C for samples annealed both at 720 °C and 760 °C, ~ 8–9% volume fraction of retained austenite was obtained in the multi-phase microstructure. Moreover, fine precipitates of VC with size smaller than 10 nm and copper precipitates with size of ~ 10–50 nm were obtained after tempering. Results from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) give evidence to support that the partitioning of Mn, Ni and Cu is of significance for retained austenite stabilization. Due to the combined contribution of multiphase microstructure, the transformation-induced-plasticity effect of retained austenite and strengthening effect of nanometer-sized precipitates, yield strength greater than 800 MPa, yield to tensile ratio of 0.9, uniform elongation of ~ 9% and good low temperature impact toughness of 147 J at − 40 °C were achieved. - Highlights: • Stable retained austenite was produced in a low alloyed steel. • Partition of Mn, Ni and Cu was confirmed by STEM for austenite stabilization. • Nano-sized VC and Cu precipitates were achieved by second tempering. • High strength–high toughness with low Y/T ratio was obtained.

  5. Enhancing evidence-based diabetes and chronic disease control among local health departments: a multi-phase dissemination study with a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Renee G; Tabak, Rachel G; Allen, Peg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Stamatakis, Katherine A; Poehler, Allison R; Yan, Yan; Chin, Marshall H; Harris, Jenine K; Dobbins, Maureen; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-10-18

    The rates of diabetes and prediabetes in the USA are growing, significantly impacting the quality and length of life of those diagnosed and financially burdening society. Premature death and disability can be prevented through implementation of evidence-based programs and policies (EBPPs). Local health departments (LHDs) are uniquely positioned to implement diabetes control EBPPs because of their knowledge of, and focus on, community-level needs, contexts, and resources. There is a significant gap, however, between known diabetes control EBPPs and actual diabetes control activities conducted by LHDs. The purpose of this study is to determine how best to support the use of evidence-based public health for diabetes (and related chronic diseases) control among local-level public health practitioners. This paper describes the methods for a two-phase study with a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial that will evaluate dissemination strategies to increase the uptake of public health knowledge and EBPPs for diabetes control among LHDs. Phase 1 includes development of measures to assess practitioner views on and organizational supports for evidence-based public health, data collection using a national online survey of LHD chronic disease practitioners, and a needs assessment of factors influencing the uptake of diabetes control EBPPs among LHDs within one state in the USA. Phase 2 involves conducting a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial to assess effectiveness of dissemination strategies with local-level practitioners at LHDs to enhance capacity and organizational support for evidence-based diabetes prevention and control. Twelve LHDs will be selected and randomly assigned to one of the three groups that cross over from usual practice to receive the intervention (dissemination) strategies at 8-month intervals; the intervention duration for groups ranges from 8 to 24 months. Intervention (dissemination) strategies may include multi-day in-person workshops, electronic

  6. A Study on the Role of Reaction Modeling in Multi-phase CFD-based Simulations of Chemical Looping Combustion; Impact du modele de reaction sur les simulations CFD de la combustion en boucle chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruggel-Emden, H.; Stepanek, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Kruggel-Emden, H.; Munjiza, A. [Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Chemical Looping Combustion is an energy efficient combustion technology for the inherent separation of carbon dioxide for both gaseous and solid fuels. For scale up and further development of this process multi-phase CFD-based simulations have a strong potential which rely on kinetic models for the solid/gaseous reactions. Reaction models are usually simple in structure in order to keep the computational cost low. They are commonly derived from thermogravimetric experiments. With only few CFD-based simulations performed on chemical looping combustion, there is a lack in understanding of the role and of the sensitivity of the applied chemical reaction model on the outcome of a simulation. The aim of this investigation is therefore the study of three different carrier materials CaSO{sub 4}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiO with the gaseous fuels H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in a batch type reaction vessel. Four reaction models namely the linear shrinking core, the spherical shrinking core, the Avrami-Erofeev and a recently proposed multi parameter model are applied and compared on a case by case basis. (authors)

  7. Energy cost of walking: solving the paradox of steady state in the presence of variable walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasschaert, Frank; Jones, Kim; Forward, Malcolm

    2009-02-01

    Measurement of the energy cost of walking in children with cerebral palsy is used for baseline and outcome assessment. However, such testing relies on the establishment of steady state that is deemed present when oxygen consumption is stable. This is often assumed when walking speed is constant but in practice, speed can and does vary naturally. Whilst constant speed is achievable on a treadmill, this is often impractical clinically, thus rendering an energy cost test to an element of subjectivity. This paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new method for calculating energy cost of walking that automatically applies a mathematically defined threshold for steady state within a (non-treadmill) walking trial and then strips out all of the non-steady state events within that trial. The method is compared with a generic approach that does not remove non-steady state data but rather uses an average value over a complete walking trial as is often used in the clinical environment. Both methods were applied to the calculation of several energy cost of walking parameters of self-selected walking speed in a cohort of unimpaired subjects and children with cerebral palsy. The results revealed that both methods were strongly correlated for each parameter but showed systematic significant differences. It is suggested that these differences are introduced by the rejection of non-steady state data that would otherwise have incorrectly been incorporated into the calculation of the energy cost of walking indices during self-selected walking with its inherent speed variation.

  8. Uncertainty Quantification of Multi-Phase Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-27

    In the ensemble-averaged dispersed phase formulation used for CFD of multiphase ows in nuclear reactor thermohydraulics, closures of interphase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy constitute, by far, the biggest source of error and uncertainty. Reliable estimators of this source of error and uncertainty are currently non-existent. Here, we report on how modern Validation and Uncertainty Quanti cation (VUQ) techniques can be leveraged to not only quantify such errors and uncertainties, but also to uncover (unintended) interactions between closures of di erent phenomena. As such this approach serves as a valuable aide in the research and development of multiphase closures. The joint modeling of lift, drag, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion|forces that lead to tranfer of momentum between the liquid and gas phases|is examined in the frame- work of validation of the adiabatic but turbulent experiments of Liu and Banko , 1993. An extensive calibration study is undertaken with a popular combination of closure relations and the popular k-ϵ turbulence model in a Bayesian framework. When a wide range of super cial liquid and gas velocities and void fractions is considered, it is found that this set of closures can be validated against the experimental data only by allowing large variations in the coe cients associated with the closures. We argue that such an extent of variation is a measure of uncertainty induced by the chosen set of closures. We also nd that while mean uid velocity and void fraction pro les are properly t, uctuating uid velocity may or may not be properly t. This aspect needs to be investigated further. The popular set of closures considered contains ad-hoc components and are undesirable from a predictive modeling point of view. Consequently, we next consider improvements that are being developed by the MIT group under CASL and which remove the ad-hoc elements. We use non-intrusive methodologies for sensitivity analysis and calibration (using Dakota) to study sensitivities of the CFD representation (STARCCM+) of uid velocity pro les and void fraction pro les in the context of Shaver and Podowski, 2015 correction to lift, and the Lubchenko et al., 2017 formulation of wall lubrication.

  9. Heat transfer in multi-phase materials

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a profound understanding, which physical processes and mechanisms cause the heat transfer in composite and cellular materials. It shows models for all important classes of composite materials and introduces into the latest advances. In three parts, the book covers Composite Materials (Part A), Porous and Cellular Materials (Part B) and the appearance of a conjoint solid phase and fluid aggregate (Part C).

  10. Long residence times of rapidly decomposable soil organic matter: application of a multi-phase, multi-component, and vertically-resolved model (TOUGHREACTv1) to soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Maggi, F. M.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M. S.; Tang, J. Y.; Dwivedi, D.; Guerry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate representation of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in Earth System Models is critical for future climate prediction, yet large uncertainties exist regarding how, and to what extent, the suite of proposed relevant mechanisms should be included. To investigate how various mechanisms interact to influence SOM storage and dynamics, we developed a SOM reaction network integrated in a one-dimensional, multi-phase, and multi-component reactive transport solver. The model includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, multiple archetypal polymeric and monomeric carbon substrate groups, aqueous chemistry, aqueous advection and diffusion, gaseous diffusion, and adsorption (and protection) and desorption from the soil mineral phase. The model predictions reasonably matched observed depth-resolved SOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stocks in grassland ecosystems as well as lignin content and fungi to aerobic bacteria ratios. We performed a suite of sensitivity analyses under equilibrium and dynamic conditions to examine the role of dynamic sorption, microbial assimilation rates, and carbon inputs. To our knowledge, observations do not exist to fully test such a complicated model structure or to test the hypotheses used to explain observations of substantial storage of very old SOM below the rooting depth. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that a reasonable combination of sorption parameters, microbial biomass and necromass dynamics, and advective transport can match observations without resorting to an arbitrary depth-dependent decline in SOM turnover rates, as is often done. We conclude that, contrary to assertions derived from existing turnover time based model formulations, observed carbon content and δ14C vertical profiles are consistent with a representation of SOM dynamics consisting of (1) carbon compounds without designated intrinsic turnover times, (2) vertical aqueous transport, and (3) dynamic protection on mineral surfaces.

  11. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  12. State-age-dependent maintenance policies for deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates state-age-dependent maintenance policies for multistate deteriorating systems with Erlang sojourn time distributions. Since Erlang distributions are serial combinations of exponential phases, the deteriorating process can be modeled by a multi-phase Markovian model and hence easily analyzed. Based on the Markovian model, the optimal phase-dependent inspection and replacement policy can be obtained by using a policy improvement algorithm. However, since phases are fictitious and can not be identified by inspections, two procedures are developed to construct state-age-dependent policies based on the optimal phase-dependent policy. The properties of the constructed state-age-dependent policies are further investigated and the performance of the policy is evaluated through a numerical example

  13. Mathematical modelling of ultrasound propagation in multi-phase flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simurda, Matej

    violates the repeatability of the measurements and thus impairs the device accuracy. Development of new flow meter designs for these conditions based on a purely experimental approach is expensive both in terms of time and economy. An attractive alternative is the employment of a mathematical model...

  14. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  15. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Glenn Michael; Ideker, Virgene Linda; Siegwarth, James David

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  16. Microgravity Multi-Phase Flow Experiment for Suborbital Testing (MFEST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to conduct a pathfinder, suborbital flight experiment for two-phase fluid flow and separator operations.The primary purpose of this test...

  17. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multi-Phase Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Kenneth Kuan-yun

    2012-01-01

    Detailed coverage of advanced combustion topics from the author of Principles of Combustion, Second Edition Turbulence, turbulent combustion, and multiphase reacting flows have become major research topics in recent decades due to their application across diverse fields, including energy, environment, propulsion, transportation, industrial safety, and nanotechnology. Most of the knowledge accumulated from this research has never been published in book form-until now. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion presents up-to-date, integrated coverage of the fundamentals of turbulence

  18. Multi-phase Volume Segmentation with Tetrahedral Mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Trung, Tuan; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Volume segmentation is efficient for reconstructing material structure, which is important for several analyses, e.g. simulation with finite element method, measurement of quantitative information like surface area, surface curvature, volume, etc. We are concerned about the representations of the 3......D volumes, which can be categorized into two groups: fixed voxel grids [1] and unstructured meshes [2]. Among these two representations, the voxel grids are more popular since manipulating a fixed grid is easier than an unstructured mesh, but they are less efficient for quantitative measurements....... In many cases, the voxel grids are converted to explicit meshes, however the conversion may reduce the accuracy of the segmentations, and the effort for meshing is also not trivial. On the other side, methods using unstructured meshes have difficulty in handling topology changes. To reduce the complexity...

  19. Development of the Multi-Phase/Multi-Dimensional Code BUBBLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Kim, Shin Whan; Kim, Eun Kee

    2005-01-01

    A test version of the two-fluid program has been developed by extending the PISO algorithm. Unlike the conventional industry two-fluid codes, such as, RELAP5 and TRAC, this scheme does not need to develop a pressure matrix. Instead, it adopts the iterative procedure to implement the implicitness of the pressure. In this paper, a brief introduction to the numerical scheme will be presented. Then, its application to bubble column simulation will be described. Some concluding remarks will be followed

  20. Stochastic Rotation Dynamics simulations of wetting multi-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Thomas; Sanchez de La Lama, Marta; Brinkmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Multi-color Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRDmc) has been introduced by Inoue et al. [1,2] as a particle based simulation method to study the flow of emulsion droplets in non-wetting microchannels. In this work, we extend the multi-color method to also account for different wetting conditions. This is achieved by assigning the color information not only to fluid particles but also to virtual wall particles that are required to enforce proper no-slip boundary conditions. To extend the scope of the original SRDmc algorithm to e.g. immiscible two-phase flow with viscosity contrast we implement an angular momentum conserving scheme (SRD+mc). We perform extensive benchmark simulations to show that a mono-phase SRDmc fluid exhibits bulk properties identical to a standard SRD fluid and that SRDmc fluids are applicable to a wide range of immiscible two-phase flows. To quantify the adhesion of a SRD+mc fluid in contact to the walls we measure the apparent contact angle from sessile droplets in mechanical equilibrium. For a further verification of our wettability implementation we compare the dewetting of a liquid film from a wetting stripe to experimental and numerical studies of interfacial morphologies on chemically structured surfaces.

  1. Crustal Viscosity Structure Estimated from Multi-Phase Mixing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinevar, W. J.; Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of lower crustal viscosity are typically constrained by analyses of isostatic rebound, post seismic creep, and laboratory-derived flow laws for crustal rocks and minerals. Here we follow a new approach for calculating the viscosity structure of the lower continental crust. We use Perple_X to calculate mineral assemblages for different crustal compositions. Effective viscosity is then calculated using the rheologic mixing model of Huet et al. (2014) incorporating flow laws for each mineral phase. Calculations are performed along geotherms appropriate for the Basin and Range, Tibetan Plateau, Colorado Plateau, and the San Andreas Fault. To assess the role of crustal composition on viscosity, we examined two compositional gradients extending from an upper crust with ~67 wt% SiO2 to a lower crust that is either: (i) basaltic with ~53 wt% SiO2 (Rudnick and Gao, 2003), or (ii) andesitic with ~64% SiO2 (Hacker et al., 2011). In all cases, the middle continental crust has a viscosity that is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than that inferred for wet quartz, a common proxy for mid-crustal viscosities. An andesitic lower crust results in viscosities of 1020-1021 Pa-s and 1021-1022 Pa-s for hotter and colder crustal geotherms, respectively. A mafic lower crust predicts viscosities that are an order of magnitude higher for the same geotherm. In all cases, the viscosity calculated from the mixing model decreases less with depth compared to single-phase estimates. Lastly, for anhydrous conditions in which alpha quartz is stable, we find that there is a strong correlation between Vp/Vs and bulk viscosity; in contrast, little to no correlation exists for hydrous conditions.

  2. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  3. Non-steady homogeneous deformations: Computational techniques using Lie theory, and application to ellipsoidal markers in naturally deformed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua R.; Titus, Sarah J.; Horsman, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic theory of deformable ellipsoidal inclusions in slow viscous flows was worked out by J.D. Eshelby in the 1950s, and further developed and applied by various authors. We describe three approaches to computing Eshelby's ellipsoid dynamics and other homogeneous deformations. The most sophisticated of our methods uses differential-geometric techniques on Lie groups. This Lie group method is faster and more precise than earlier methods, and perfectly preserves certain geometric properties of the ellipsoids, including volume. We apply our method to the analysis of naturally deformed clasts from the Gem Lake shear zone in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. This application demonstrates how, given three-dimensional strain data, we can solve simultaneously for best-fit bulk kinematics of the shear zone, as well as relative viscosities of clasts and matrix rocks.

  4. Non-steady peristaltic propulsion with exponential variable viscosity: a study of transport through the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Pandey, S K; Siddiqui, Abdul; Bég, O Anwar

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented for transient peristaltic flow of an incompressible fluid with variable viscosity in a finite length cylindrical tube as a simulation of transport in physiological vessels and biomimetic peristaltic pumps. The current axisymmetric analysis is qualitatively similar to two-dimensional analysis but exhibits quantitative variations. The current analysis is motivated towards further elucidating the physiological migration of gastric suspensions (food bolus) in the human digestive system. It also applies to variable viscosity industrial fluid (waste) peristaltic pumping systems. First, an axisymmetric model is analysed in the limit of large wavelength ([Formula: see text]) and low Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) for axial velocity, radial velocity, pressure, hydromechanical efficiency and stream function in terms of radial vibration of the wall ([Formula: see text]), amplitude of the wave ([Formula: see text]), averaged flow rate ([Formula: see text]) and variable viscosity ([Formula: see text]). Subsequently, the peristaltic flow of a fluid with an exponential viscosity model is examined, which is based on the analytical solutions for pressure, wall shear stress, hydromechanical efficiency and streamline patterns in the finite length tube. The results are found to correlate well with earlier studies using a constant viscosity formulation. This study reveals some important features in the flow characteristics including the observation that pressure as well as both number and size of lower trapped bolus increases. Furthermore, the study indicates that hydromechanical efficiency reduces with increasing magnitude of viscosity parameter.

  5. State of the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education Finance, 2017

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, a group of school finance scholars and public school practitioners gathered in Jacksonville, Florida, for the National Education Finance Academy's annual conference to discuss, among an array of topics, the state of P-20 finance in all 50 states. At the roundtable discussion, 36 states were represented, and scholars representing 30 states…

  6. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaeli, Reza; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shahoon, Hossein; Hooshmand, Behzad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein; Khoshroo, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  7. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaeli, Reza [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat, E-mail: jafarzat@sina.tums.ac.ir [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rakhshan, Vahid [Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahoon, Hossein [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmand, Behzad [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshroo, Kimia [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonsteady state, natural laminar double diffusive convection on heating surfaces of different geometry; Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchung der instationaeren, natuerlichen, laminaren doppelt diffusen Konvektion an Heizflaechen unterschiedlicher Geometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosch, J

    1991-12-31

    The aim of this work is the development of a numerical process independent of the geometry of the flow space. The temperature, concentration and speed fields set up with double diffusive convection should be determined by this and their effect on heat transfer should be determined. The numerical process should be used for non-steady state double diffusive convection in various geometries. The results should be verified experimentally with the aid of holographic interferometry. (orig./IHL) [Deutsch] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines von der Geometrie des Stroemungsraumes unabhaengigen numerischen Verfahrens. Mit ihm sollen die sich bei doppelt diffusiver Konvektion einstellenden Temperatur-, Konzentrations- und Geschwindigkeitsfelder bestimmt und deren Einfluss auf die Waermeuebertragung ermittelt werden. Das numerische Verfahren soll auf die instationaere doppelt diffusive Konvektion in verschiedenen Geometrien angewendet werden. Die Ergebnisse sollen experimentell mit Hilfe der holographischen Interferometrie verifiziert werden. (orig./IHL)

  9. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    The state and society are mutual symbionts as far as their political, economic and social relationships .... consequences have played a role in the African state's deviation from the 'strong state' ideal. .... International Olympic Committee (IOC).

  10. Automated Generation of Tabular Equations of State with Uncertainty Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John H.; Robinson, Allen C.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Mattsson, Ann E.

    2015-06-01

    As computational science pushes toward higher fidelity prediction, understanding the uncertainty associated with closure models, such as the equation of state (EOS), has become a key focus. Traditional EOS development often involves a fair amount of art, where expert modelers may appear as magicians, providing what is felt to be the closest possible representation of the truth. Automation of the development process gives a means by which one may demystify the art of EOS, while simultaneously obtaining uncertainty information in a manner that is both quantifiable and reproducible. We describe our progress on the implementation of such a system to provide tabular EOS tables with uncertainty information to hydrocodes. Key challenges include encoding the artistic expert opinion into an algorithmic form and preserving the analytic models and uncertainty information in a manner that is both accurate and computationally efficient. Results are demonstrated on a multi-phase aluminum model. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart failure,...

  12. Supersqueezed states from squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    Using super-Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations on the elements of the supergroup OSP(2/2), we derive the supersqueeze operator and the supersqueezed states, which are the supersymmetric generalization of the squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator

  13. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  14. Multiquark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Ping, J.L.; Quing, D.; Goldman, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pentaquark state recently discovered has been discussed based on various quark model calculations. Odd parity for the state cannot be ruled out theoretically because the contributions related to nontrivial color structures have not been studied completely. Other multiquark states, especially dibaryons, have been discussed also. A strangeness -3 NΩ dibaryons, have been shown to have a width as small as 12-22 keV and should be detectable in Ω-high-productivity reactions such as at RHIC, COMPAS, and the planned JHF and FAIR projects [ru

  15. Altered States

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But as members of the international community, we can take advantage of .... The connections and their effects, between people and states, are not just more ...... children's IQs and are linked to attention disorders, aggression, and delinquency.

  16. State Climatologist

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quarterly newsletter published by the American Association of State Climatologists. Library includes volumes 1 through 21, for the years 1977-1997.

  17. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  18. HCAHPS - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  19. Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouillard, F.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the formation of Rydberg atoms; their radiative decay; their behavior in electric and electromagnetic fields; and their collisions with atoms and ions. Discusses electron capture into high excited states; laser excitation of Rydberg states; Stark shift and Stark mixing; field ionization; ionization in oscillating fields; thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms; fast collisions of Rydberg atoms; n-changing collisions; and charge exchange. Points out that a large amount of experimental work has been done on collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral perturbers at thermal energies, and most of it concerns the destruction of Rydberg alkali atoms in collisions with rare gases

  20. State Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2013-01-01

    When a music teacher is named Teacher of the Year for an entire state, one just know a special story awaits. The narrative of Heidi Welch, director of music at Hillsboro-Deering High School in New Hampshire, does not disappoint. Welch, who grew up in abject poverty and was often homeless, developed her love of music through memorizing and singing…

  1. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    colonial history is the 'artificial nature' of Africa's state borders and the notion that statehood ..... Source: Central Intelligence Agency, 2003b. Scientia .... As a virtue of the lack of faith in the country's banking system, this move had the opposite ...

  2. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  3. State of the States 2016: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The "State of the States 2016" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or administrative code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based on a comprehensive search of state education statute and codes on each state's relevant websites. Complete results from this review are available in…

  4. State perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Expectations by States in fulfilling their responsibilities in the disposal of radioactive wastes as defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. Specific areas include informational needs, participation in the process of site selection and characterization, access to technical data in a timely manner, and development of consultation and cooperation agreements. Experiences in New Mexico over the past seven years in conducting an independent technical review of the WIPP Project are described. A discussion is included of avoidable factors that contribute to public concern of radioactive waste disposal on relative risk, voluntary versus involuntary risk, technological needs, changes in disposal practices, public health concerns and enforcement of regulations

  5. State-of-the-art and needs for jet instability and direct contact condensation model improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia-Salah, A.; Moretti, F.; D'auria, F.; Bousbia-Salah, A.)

    2007-01-01

    There is a common understanding among thermal-hydraulic experts that the system analysis codes have currently reached an acceptable degree of maturity. Reliable application, however, is still limited to the validated domain. There is a growing need for qualified codes in assessing the safety of the existing reactors and for developing advanced reactor systems. Under conditions involving multi-phase flow simulations, the use of classical methods, mainly based upon the one dimensional approach, is not appropriate at all. The use of new computational models, such as the direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation or other advanced computational fluid dynamics methods, seems to be more suitable for more complex events. For this purpose, the European Commission financed NURESIM Integrated Project (as a part of the FP6 programme), was adopted to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for modelling, recording and recovering computer data for nuclear reactor simulations. Some of the studies carried out at the University of Pisa within the framework of the NURESIM project are presented in this paper. They mainly concern the investigation of two critical phenomena connected with jet instabilities and direct contact condensation that occur during emergency core cooling. Through these examples, the state-of-the-art and the need for model improvements and validation against new experimental data for the sake of getting a better understanding and more accurate predictions are discussed. (author)

  6. State of the States, 2012: Arts Education State Policy Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts Education Partnership (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "State of the States 2012" summarizes state policies for arts education identified in statute or code for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Information is based primarily on results from the AEP Arts Education State Policy Survey conducted in 2010-11, and updated in April 2012.

  7. Non-destructive inspection approach using ultrasound to identify the material state for amorphous and semi-crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Elliott; Jack, David; Moore, David

    2018-04-01

    At present, there are many methods to identify the temperature and phase of a material using invasive techniques. However, most current methods require physical contact or implicit methods utilizing light reflectance of the specimen. This work presents a nondestructive inspection method using ultrasonic wave technology that circumvents these disadvantages to identify phase change regions and infer the temperature state of a material. In the present study an experiment is performed to monitor the time of flight within a wax as it undergoes melting and the subsequent cooling. Results presented in this work show a clear relationship between a material's speed of sound and its temperature. The phase change transition of the material is clear from the time of flight results, and in the case of the investigated material, this change in the material state occurs over a range of temperatures. The range of temperatures over which the wax material melts is readily identified by speed of sound represented as a function of material temperature. The melt temperature, obtained acoustically, is validated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), which uses shifts in heat flow rates to identify phase transition temperature ranges. The investigated ultrasonic NDE method has direct applications in many industries, including oil and gas, food and beverage, and polymer composites, in addition to many implications for future capabilities of nondestructive inspection of multi-phase materials.

  8. Effects of Debris Entrainment and Multi-Phase Flow on Plug Loading in an MX Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-15

    gas stream of density (pg) and velocity (Vg) is: -., * -) - * 2~ TD FD Pg (V P V) Vp-Vg I CD( TD ) (A.1) 4 where the drag coefficient (CD) is defined by...ATTN: FCPR ATTN: Code L53 , J. Forrest Field Command Naval Facilities Engineering Command Defense Nuclear Agency ATTN: Code 09M22C Livermore Division

  9. Design and Analysis of Multi-Phase BLDC Motors for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Boztas, Gullu; Yildirim, Merve; Aydogmus, Omur

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and analysis of multiphase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor for electric vehicles (EV). In this work, hub-wheels having 110Nm, 900rpm rated values have been designed for the proposed EV. This EV can produce 440 Nm without using transmission, differential and other mechanical components which have very high losses due to the mechanical fraction. The motors to be used in the EV have been designed as 3-, 5- and 7-phase by Infolytica/Motor Solve Software to compa...

  10. Multi-phase structural and tectonic evolution of the Andaman Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Sevastjanova, Inga

    2017-04-01

    We present a new regional tectonic interpretation for Myanmar and the Andaman Sea, built within the framework of global plate motions. In our model the Present Day Andaman Sea region has been subjected to multiple phases of extension, culminating in its mid-Miocene to Present Day opening as a rhomboidal pull-apart basin. The Andaman Sea region is historically thought to have developed as a consequence of back-arc opening associated with plate convergence at the Andaman-Nicobar subduction system. We have undertaken detailed structural interpretation of potential field, Landsat and SRTM data, supported by 2-D crustal models of the Andaman Sea. From this analysis we identified several major north-south striking faults and a series of northeast-southwest striking structures across the region. We have also mapped the extent of the Andaman-Nicobar Accretionary Prism, a fore arc trough and volcanic arc, which we associate with a phase of traditional trench-parallel back-arc extension from the Paleocene to the middle Miocene. A regional tectonic event occurred during the middle Miocene that caused the cessation of back-arc extension in the Present Day Andaman Sea and an eastward shift in the locus of arc-related volcanism. At that time, N-S striking faults onshore and offshore Myanmar were reactivated with widespread right-lateral motion. This motion, accompanied by extension along new NE-SW striking faults, facilitated the opening of the Central Andaman Basin as a pull-apart basin (rhombochasm) in which a strike-slip tectonic regime has a greater impact on the mode of opening than the subduction process. The integration of our plate model solution within a global framework allows identification of major plate reorganisation events and their impact on a regional scale. We therefore attribute the onset of pull-apart opening in the Andaman Sea to ongoing clockwise rotation of the western Sundaland margin throughout the late Paleogene and early Miocene, possibly driven by the opening of the South China Sea to the east. Consequently, the obliquity of plate convergence along this margin increased, ultimately resulting in a change from minor strain partitioning to hyper oblique convergence and full strain partitioning by the mid-Miocene. Investigation into the effects of slab-steepening and dynamic subsidence in the Indochina region could be used as further tests of our proposed tectonic evolution of the Andaman Sea.

  11. Towards multi-phase flow simulations in the PDE framework Peano

    KAUST Repository

    Bungartz, Hans-Joachim

    2011-07-27

    In this work, we present recent enhancements and new functionalities of our flow solver in the partial differential equation framework Peano. We start with an introduction including an overview of the Peano development and a short description of the basic concepts of Peano and the flow solver in Peano concerning the underlying structured but adaptive Cartesian grids, the data structure and data access optimisation, and spatial and time discretisation of the flow solver. The new features cover geometry interfaces and additional application functionalities. The two geometry interfaces, a triangulation-based description supported by the tool preCICE and a built-in geometry using geometry primitives such as cubes, spheres, or tetrahedra allow for the efficient treatment of complex and changing geometries, an essential ingredient for most application scenarios. The new application functionality concerns a coupled heat-flow problem and two-phase flows. We present numerical examples, performance and validation results for these new functionalities. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. A Model of the Turbulent Electric Dynamo in Multi-Phase Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementyeva, Svetlana; Mareev, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Many terrestrial and astrophysical phenomena witness the conversion of kinetic energy into electric energy (the energy of the quasi-stationary electric field) in conducting media, which is natural to treat as manifestations of electric dynamo by analogy with well-known theory of magnetic dynamo. Such phenomena include thunderstorms and lightning in the Earth's atmosphere and atmospheres of other planets, electric activity caused by dust storms in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres, snow storms, electrical discharges occurring in technological setups, connected with intense mixing of aerosol particles like in the milling industry. We have developed a model of the large-scale turbulent electric dynamo in a weakly conducting medium, containing two heavy-particle components. We have distinguished two main classes of charging mechanisms (inductive and non-inductive) in accordance with the dependence or independence of the electric charge, transferred during a particle collision, on the electric field intensity and considered the simplified models which demonstrate the possibility of dynamo realization and its specific peculiarities for these mechanisms. Dynamo (the large-scale electric field growth) appears due to the charge separation between the colliding and rebounding particles. This process is may be greatly intensified by the turbulent mixing of particles with different masses and, consequently, different inertia. The particle charge fluctuations themselves (small-scale dynamo), however, do not automatically mean growth of the large-scale electric field without a large-scale asymmetry. Such an asymmetry arises due to the dependence of the transferred charge magnitude on the electric field intensity in the case of the inductive mechanism of charge separation, or due to the gravity and convection for non-inductive mechanisms. We have found that in the case of the inductive mechanism the large-scale dynamo occurs if the medium conductivity is small enough while the electrification process determined by the turbulence intensity and particles sizes is strong enough. The electric field strength grows exponentially. For the non-inductive mechanism we have found the conditions when the electric field strength grows but linearly in time. Our results show that turbulent electric dynamo could play a substantial role in the electrification processes for different mechanisms of charge generation and separation. Thunderstorms and lightning are the most frequent and spectacular manifestations of electric dynamo in the atmosphere, but turbulent electric dynamo may also be the reason of electric discharges occurring in dust and snow storms or even in technological setups with intense mixing of small particles.

  13. Mathematical modelling and numerical resolution of multi-phase compressible fluid flows problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoutiere, Frederic

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with Eulerian compressible multi-species fluid dynamics, the species being either mixed or separated (with interfaces). The document is composed of three parts. The first parts devoted to the numerical resolution of model problems: advection equation, Burgers equation, and Euler equations, in dimensions one and two. The goal is to find a precise method, especially for discontinuous initial conditions, and we develop non dissipative algorithms. They are based on a downwind finite-volume discretization under some stability constraints. The second part treats of the mathematical modelling of fluids mixtures. We construct and analyse a set of multi-temperature and multi-pressure models that are entropy, symmetrizable, hyperbolic, not ever conservative. In the third part, we apply the ideas developed in the first part (downwind discretization) to the numerical resolution of the partial differential problems we have constructed for fluids mixtures in the second part. We present some numerical results in dimensions one and two. (author) [fr

  14. Multi-phase AC/AC step-down converter for distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeloiza, Eddy C.; Burgos, Rolando P.

    2017-10-25

    A step-down AC/AC converter for use in an electric distribution system includes at least one chopper circuit for each one of a plurality of phases of the AC power, each chopper circuit including a four-quadrant switch coupled in series between primary and secondary sides of the chopper circuit and a current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch coupled between the secondary side of the chopper circuit and a common node. Each current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch is oriented in the same direction, with respect to the secondary side of the corresponding chopper circuit and the common node. The converter further includes a control circuit configured to pulse-width-modulate control inputs of the switches, to convert a first multiphase AC voltage at the primary sides of the chopper circuits to a second multiphase AC voltage at the secondary sides of the chopper circuits, the second multiphase AC voltage being lower in voltage than the first multiphase AC voltage.

  15. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  16. Multi-Phase Combustion and Transport Processes Under the Influence of Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    waveguide. Alcohol fuels (ethanol and methonal) as well as aviation fuel replacements ( Fischer -Tropsch (FT) synfuel and an FT blend with JP-8) were studied...replacements ( Fischer -Tropsch (FT) synfuel and an FT blend with JP-8) were studied here. During acoustic excitation, the flame surrounding the droplet was...Wegener is approved. Chris R. Anderson Jeff D. Eldredge Ivett A. Leyva Owen I. Smith Ann R. Karagozian, Committee Chair University of California, Los

  17. Complexity reduction of multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply mode decomposition and interpolatory projection methods to speed up simulations of two-phase flows in highly heterogeneous porous media. We propose intrusive and non-intrusive model reduction approaches that enable a significant reduction in the dimension of the flow problem size while capturing the behavior of the fully-resolved solutions. In one approach, we employ the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM). This approach does not require any modification of the reservoir simulation code but rather postprocesses a set of global snapshots to identify the dynamically-relevant structures associated with the flow behavior. In a second approach, we project the governing equations of the velocity and the pressure fields on the subspace spanned by their proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes. Furthermore, we use DEIM to approximate the mobility related term in the global system assembly and then reduce the online computational cost and make it independent of the fine grid. To show the effectiveness and usefulness of the aforementioned approaches, we consider the SPE 10 benchmark permeability field and present a variety of numerical examples of two-phase flow and transport. The proposed model reduction methods can be efficiently used when performing uncertainty quantification or optimization studies and history matching.

  18. Inference in Complex Systems Using Multi-Phase MCMC Sampling With Gradient Matching Burn-in

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarus, Alan; Husmeier, Dirk; Papamarkou, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for parameter inference that builds on the current research in gradient matching surrogate likelihood spaces. Adopting a three phase technique, we demonstrate that it is possible to obtain parameter estimates of limited bias whilst still adopting the paradigm of the computationally cheap surrogate approximation.

  19. Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Electrochemical Performance Using Multi-Phase Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This work explored the use of oxide heterostructures for enhancing the catalytic and degradation properties of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode electrodes. We focused on heterostructures of Ruddlesden-Popper and perovskite phases. Building on previous work showing enhancement of the Ruddlesden-Popper (La,Sr)2CoO4 / perovskite (La,Sr)CoO3 heterostructure compared to pure (La,Sr)CoO3 we explored the application of related heterostructures of Ruddlesden-Popper phases on perovskite (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3. Our approaches included thin-film electrodes, physical and electrochemical characterization, elementary reaction kinetics modeling, and ab initio simulations. We demonstrated that Sr segregation to surfaces is likely playing a critical role in the performance of (La,Sr)CoO3 and (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 and that modification of this Sr segregation may be the mechanism by which Ruddlesden-Popper coatings enhance performances. We determined that (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 could be enhanced in thin films by about 10× by forming a heterostructure simultaneously with (La,Sr)2CoO4 and (La,Sr)CoO3. We hope that future work will develop this heterostructure for use as a bulk porous electrode.

  20. Non-linear behaviour of multi-phase MOX fuels: a micro-mechanical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousette, S.; Gatt, J.M.; Michel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of mechanical pellet-clad interaction requires knowledge of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuels. Some nuclear fuels such as MOX are composed of several phases. The mechanical properties of these phases, which are elasto-visco-plastic in-pile, are changing in-pile. The objective is to formulate a mechanical behaviour law taking all the physical phenomena into account in the different phases, which can easily be introduced into a fuel rod modelling code. Consequently, Non-uniform Transformation Field Analysis (NTFA) is used on the one hand, to correctly capture the heterogeneity of the anelastic strain in the different phases and, on the other hand, to provide a simple overall constitutive law for computational codes. This method is a good way to describe the behaviour of MOX fuel. Transformation Field Analysis (TFA), which corresponds to piecewise uniform transformation fields, is used to perform a sensitivity study. (authors)

  1. Online slug detection in multi-phase transportation pipelines using electrical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    in the pipelines is a highly investigated topic. To eliminate the slug in an online manner real-time slug detection methods are often required. Traditionally topside pressure transmitters upstream a 3-phase separator have been used as the controlled variable. In this paper Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  2. Online Slug Detection in Multi-phase Transportation Pipelines Using Electrical Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Mai, Christian; Hansen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    in the pipelines is a highly investigated topic. To eliminate the slug in an online manner real-time slug detection methods are often required. Traditionally topside pressure transmitters upstream a 3-phase separator have been used as the controlled variable. In this paper Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT...

  3. Stator fault detection for multi-phase machines with multiple reference frames transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, Claudio; Fornasiero, Emanuele; Matzen, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on a new diagnostic index for fault detection of a five-phase permanent-magnet machine. This machine has been designed for fault tolerant applications, and it is characterized by a mutual inductance equal to zero and a high self inductance, in order to limit the short-circuit cu...

  4. Numerical simulation of multi-phase phenomena in IVR related processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xu [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Innovative Reaktorsysteme; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering

    2016-05-15

    IVR (in-vessel retention) is one of the severe accident mitigation measures, which is widely applied in the advanced light water reactors (LWRs) such as KERENA of AREVA, AP1000 of Westinghouse and CAP1400 of SNPTC, and attracts extensive interests of the German and Chinese nuclear scientists. The ultimate target of IVR is to keep the core melt inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and to provide cooling capability via water flowing outside the RPV, the so called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). This paper summarizes some activities ongoing in both KIT and SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) with a few results examples.

  5. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  6. Bone marrow niche-inspired, multi-phase expansion of megakaryocytic progenitors with high polyploidization potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuganti, Swapna; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.; Miller, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Megakaryopoiesis encompasses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) commitment to the megakaryocytic cell (Mk) lineage, expansion of Mk progenitors and mature Mks, polyploidization, and platelet release. pH and pO2 increase from the endosteum to sinuses, and different cytokines are important for various stages of differentiation. We hypothesized that mimicking the changing conditions during Mk differentiation in the bone marrow would facilitate expansion of progenitors that could generate many high-ploidy Mks. Methods CD34+ HSPCs were cultured at pH 7.2 and 5% O2 with stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (Tpo), and all combinations of Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11, and Flt-3 ligand to promote Mk progenitor expansion. Cells cultured with selected cytokines were shifted to pH 7.4 and 20% O2 to generate mature Mks, and treated with nicotinamide to enhance polyploidization. Results Using Tpo+SCF+IL-3+IL-11, we obtained 3.5 CD34+CD41+ Mk progenitors per input HSPC, while increasing purity from 1% to 17%. Cytokine cocktails with IL-3 yielded more progenitors and mature Mks, although the purities were lower. Mk production was much greater at higher pH and pO2. Although fewer progenitors were present, shifting to 20% O2/pH 7.4 at day 5 (versus days 7 or 9) yielded the greatest mature Mk production, 14 per input HSPC. Nicotinamide more than doubled the percentage of high-ploidy Mks to 40%. Discussion We obtained extensive Mk progenitor expansion, while ensuring that the progenitors could produce high-ploidy Mks. We anticipate that subsequent optimization of cytokines for mature Mk production and delayed nicotinamide addition will greatly increase high-ploidy Mk production. PMID:20482285

  7. A Lattice Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Phase Surface Reactions with Heat Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamali, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to explore the promises and shift the limits of the numerical framework of lattice Boltzmann (LB) for studying the physics behind multi-component two-phase heterogeneous non-isothermal reactive flows under industrial conditions. An example of such an industrially

  8. Towards multi-phase flow simulations in the PDE framework Peano

    KAUST Repository

    Bungartz, Hans-Joachim; Gatzhammer, Bernhard; Lieb, Michael; Mehl, Miriam; Neckel, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    for the efficient treatment of complex and changing geometries, an essential ingredient for most application scenarios. The new application functionality concerns a coupled heat-flow problem and two-phase flows. We present numerical examples, performance

  9. Crystal Analysis of Multi Phase Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Containing Different amount of Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalian, Afsaneh; Behnamghader, Ali Asghar; Moshkforoush, Arash

    In this study, Mg doped hydroxyapatite [(Ca, Mg)10(PO4)6(OH)2] and β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized via sol gel method. Triethyl phosphite, calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate were used as P, Ca and Mg precursors. The ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P and the amount of magnesium (x) were kept constant at 1.67 and ranging x = 0 up to 3 in molecular formula of Ca10-xMgx (PO4)6(OH)2, respectively. Phase composition and chemical structure were performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Phase percentages, crystallite size, degree of crystallinity and lattice parameters were investigated. The presence of magnesium led to form the Mg doped tricalcium phosphate (β-TCMP) and Mg doped hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA). Based on the results of this study, lattice parameters, degree of crystallinity and crystallite size decreased with magnesium content. In addition, with increasing magnesium content, the amount of CaO phase decreased whereas the amount of MgO phase increased significantly. Obtained results can be used for new biomaterials design.

  10. Multi-Phase US Spread and Habitat Switching of a Post-Columbian Invasive, Sorghum halepense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Uzay Sezen

    Full Text Available Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense is a striking example of a post-Columbian founder event. This natural experiment within ecological time-scales provides a unique opportunity for understanding patterns of continent-wide genetic diversity following range expansion. Microsatellite markers were used for population genetic analyses including leaf-optimized Neighbor-Joining tree, pairwise FST, mismatch analysis, principle coordinate analysis, Tajima's D, Fu's F and Bayesian clusterings of population structure. Evidence indicates two geographically distant introductions of divergent genotypes, which spread across much of the US in <200 years. Based on geophylogeny, gene flow patterns can be inferred to have involved five phases. Centers of genetic diversity have shifted from two introduction sites separated by ~2000 miles toward the middle of the range, consistent with admixture between genotypes from the respective introductions. Genotyping provides evidence for a 'habitat switch' from agricultural to non-agricultural systems and may contribute to both Johnsongrass ubiquity and aggressiveness. Despite lower and more structured diversity at the invasion front, Johnsongrass continues to advance northward into cooler and drier habitats. Association genetic approaches may permit identification of alleles contributing to the habitat switch or other traits important to weed/invasive management and/or crop improvement.

  11. Hydrodynamic and thermal modeling of solid particles in a multi-phase, multi-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Wider, H.U.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the new thermal hydraulic models describing the hydrodynamics of the solid fuel/steel chunks during an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident. These models, which account for two-way coupling between the solid and fluid phases, describe the mass, momentum and energy exchanges which occur when the chunks are present at any axial location. They have been incorporated in LEVITATE, a code for the analysis of fuel and cladding dynamics under Loss-of-Flow (LOF) conditions. Their influence on fuel motion is presented in the context of the L6 TREAT experiment analysis. It is shown that the overall hydrodynamic behavior of the molten fuel and solid fuel chunks is dependent on both the size of the chunks and the power level. At low and intermediate power levels the fuel motion is more dispersive when small chunks, rather than large ones, are present. At high power levels the situation is reversed

  12. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  13. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray-Munro, J.E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-01-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy

  14. Multi-phase EBSD mapping and local texture analysis in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, T.G., E-mail: t.woodcock@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    A combination of electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been used to identify the crystal structure and composition of all the phases present in commercially available NdFeB sintered magnets and to map their spatial distribution. The Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and NdO grains were shown to have low defect densities. The fcc Nd-rich and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains had intra-grain misorientation angles of up to 14{sup o}, which was shown to be due to defects. Large numbers ({approx}100) of data points for each phase were used to study texture in the NdO, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases. The Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains exhibited a <0 0 1> fibre texture. The Nd oxide phases showed no strong texture, which implied that no strongly preferred orientation relationships between those phases and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B exist. The result was shown to be valid for optimally annealed samples exhibiting high coercivity and as-sintered samples exhibiting low coercivity.

  15. Ultra-fast x-ray tomography for multi-phase flow interface dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, M.; Ichikawa, N.; Akai, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the concept of a fast scanning X-ray tomograph, the hardware development, and measurement results of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. The device uses 18 pulsed X-ray sources activated in a successive order. In this way, a complete set of 18 independent projections of the object is obtained within 38 ms, i.e. the measuring rate is about 250 frames per second. Finally, to evaluate the measurement capability of the fast X-ray CT, a wire-mesh sensor was installed in the flow loop and both systems were operated for the same two-phase flow simultaneously. Comparison of the time series of the cross section averaged void fraction from both systems showed sufficient agreement for slug flow at large void fractions, while the fast CT underestimated the void fraction of bubbly flow especially in low void fraction range. For the wire-mesh sensor, coerced deformation of slug bubble interface was found. Further hardware improvement is in progress to achieve better resolution with the fast X-ray CT scanner. (orig.)

  16. Multi-phase Turbulence Density Power Spectra in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, N. M.; Lee, Min-Young; Burkhart, Blakesley; Stanimirović, Snežana

    2018-04-01

    We derive two-dimensional spatial power spectra of four distinct interstellar medium tracers, H I, 12CO(J = 1–0), 13CO(J = 1–0), and dust, in the Perseus molecular cloud, covering linear scales ranging from ∼0.1 pc to ∼90 pc. Among the four tracers, we find the steepest slopes of ‑3.23 ± 0.05 and ‑3.22 ± 0.05 for the uncorrected and opacity-corrected H I column density images. This result suggests that the H I in and around Perseus traces a non-gravitating, transonic medium on average, with a negligible effect from opacity. On the other hand, we measure the shallowest slope of ‑2.72 ± 0.12 for the 2MASS dust extinction data and interpret this as the signature of a self-gravitating, supersonic medium. Possible variations in the dust-to-gas ratio likely do not alter our conclusion. Finally, we derive slopes of ‑3.08 ± 0.08 and ‑2.88 ± 0.07 for the 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) integrated intensity images. Based on theoretical predictions for an optically thick medium, we interpret these slopes of roughly ‑3 as implying that both CO lines are susceptible to the opacity effect. While simple tests for the impact of CO formation and depletion indicate that the measured slopes of 12CO(1–0) and 13CO(1–0) are not likely affected by these chemical effects, our results generally suggest that chemically more complex and/or fully optically thick media may not be a reliable observational tracer for characterizing turbulence.

  17. Simulation of isothermal multi-phase fuel-coolant interaction using MPS method with GPU acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, S.; Zheng, Y. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Center for Engineering and Scientific Computation

    2016-07-15

    The energetic fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) has been one of the primary safety concerns in nuclear power plants. Graphical processing unit (GPU) implementation of the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is presented and used to simulate the fuel coolant interaction problem. The governing equations are discretized with the particle interaction model of MPS. Detailed implementation on single-GPU is introduced. The three-dimensional broken dam is simulated to verify the developed GPU acceleration MPS method. The proposed GPU acceleration algorithm and developed code are then used to simulate the FCI problem. As a summary of results, the developed GPU-MPS method showed a good agreement with the experimental observation and theoretical prediction.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Multi-Phase High-Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs), composed of four or more metallic elements mixed in equal or near equal atomic percent, have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. They show significant promise as candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However, the conventional synthesis methods are unlikely to present an industrially suitable route for the production and use of HEAs. Recognizing rapidly evolving additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, the goal of this proposal is to optimize the AM process to fabricate HEAs with predesigned chemical compositions and phase morphologies for nuclear components. For this project, two HEAs FeCrNiMn and FeCrNiMnAl have been successfully synthesized. Correlated mechanical response has been systematically characterized under a variety of laser processing and ion irradiations. Both high entropy alloys are found to present comparable swelling and extraordinary irradiation tolerance (limited voids and stabilized phase structure under high irradiation dose). In addition, the microstructure and radiation-induced hardening can be tailored by laser processing under additive manufacturing. And we have assembled at LANL a unique database of HEAs containing a total of 674 compositions with Phase Stability information. Based on this, the machine learning and Artificial Intelligence capability now are established to predict the microstructure of casted HEAs by given chemical compositions. This unique integration will lead to an optimal AM recipe for fabricating radiation tolerant HEAs. The development of both modeling models and experimental capability will also benefit other programs at LANL.

  19. Characterizing the Multi-Phase Origin of the [CII] Emission in M101 and NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Elizabeth; Bolatto, Alberto; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    The bright far-infrared line [CII] is a dominant cooling channel of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) and is a tracer of star formation. However, [CII] can be excited in different environments of the ISM, such as in dense photodissociation regions (PDRs), the cold/warm neutral medium (CNM/WNM), and the warm ionized medium (WIM). Separating the [CII] emission into its multiple components is vital for understanding star formation and for using [CII] as a star formation tracer. We present spectrally resolved SOFIA/GREAT data of the 158 μm [CII] emission, as well as ancillary HI and CO 2-1 data, to disentangle the multiple phases of the ISM. We use 18 pointings that sample the range of different environments present in these galaxies, including star formation activity, metallicity, radiation field strength, and gas content. We find that on average the [CII] is more associated with the dense CO gas coming from PDRs than the neutral medium, consistent with other results in the literature. Additionally, the [CII] observations allow us to access the “CO-faint” molecular gas in regions that have too low of a metallicty to produce CO. This adds to the small number of studies that have explored this “CO-faint” regime.

  20. Fast Streaming 3D Level set Segmentation on the GPU for Smooth Multi-phase Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    Level set method based segmentation provides an efficient tool for topological and geometrical shape handling, but it is slow due to high computational burden. In this work, we provide a framework for streaming computations on large volumetric images on the GPU. A streaming computational model...

  1. Modelling transient 3D multi-phase criticality in fluidised granular materials - the FETCH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Eaton, M.D.; Ziver, A.K.; Umpleby, A.P.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Goddard, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The development and application of a generic model for modelling criticality in fluidised granular materials is described within the Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH) code - which models criticality transients in spatial and temporal detail from fundamental principles, as far as is currently possible. The neutronics model in FETCH solves the neutron transport in full phase space with a spherical harmonics angle of travel representation, multi-group in neutron energy, Crank Nicholson based in time stepping, and finite elements in space. The fluids representation coupled with the neutronics model is a two-fluid-granular-temperature model, also finite element fased. A separate fluid is used to represent the liquid/vapour gas and the solid fuel particle phases, respectively. Particle-particle, particle-wall interactions are modelled using a kinetic theory approach on an analogy between the motion of gas molecules subject to binary collisions and granular flows. This model has been extensively validated by comparison with fluidised bed experimental results. Gas-fluidised beds involve particles that are often extremely agitated (measured by granular temperature) and can thus be viewed as a particularly demanding application of the two-fluid model. Liquid fluidised systems are of criticality interest, but these can become demanding with the production of gases (e.g. radiolytic and water vapour) and large fluid/particle velocities in energetic transients. We present results from a test transient model in which fissile material ( 239 Pu) is presented as spherical granules subsiding in water, located in a tank initially at constant temperature and at two alternative over-pressures in order to verify the theoretical model implemented in FETCH. (author)

  2. Modulation Schemes of Multi-phase Three-Level Z-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, F.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    different modulation requirement and output performance. For clearly illustrating the detailed modulation process, time domain analysis instead of the traditional multi-dimensional space vector demonstration is assumed which reveals the right way to insert shoot-through durations in the switching sequence...... with minimal commutation count. Lastly, the theoretical findings are verified in Matlab/PLECS simulation and experimentally using constructed laboratory prototypes.......This paper investigates the modulation schemes of three-level multiphase Z-source inverters with either two Z-source networks or single Z-source network connected between the dc sources and inverter circuitry. With the proper offset added for achieving both desired four-leg operation and optimized...

  3. Multi-Phase Flow Analysis Tools for Solid Motor Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's Vision for Space Exploration Program moves beyond...

  4. Experimental Study of Stable Surfaces for Anti-Slug Control in Multi-phase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    -phase flow dynamics, the slug can be avoided or eliminated by proper facility design and control of operational conditions. Based on a testing facility which can emulate a pipeline-riser or a gas-lifted production well in a scaled-down manner, this paper experimentally studies the correlations of key...

  5. Experimental Study of Stable Surfaces for Anti-Slug Control in Multi-phase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Stampe, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    , the slug can be avoided or eliminated by proper facility design or control of operational conditions. Based on a testing facility which can emulate a pipeline-riser or a gas-lifted production well in a scaled-down manner, this paper experimentally studies the correlations of key operational parameters...

  6. Multi-Phase Flow Analysis Tools for Solid Motor Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of designing, developing, and fielding man-rated propulsion systems continue to increase as NASA's Vision for Space Exploration Program moves beyond...

  7. A multi-phase telepsychiatry programme in Michigan: organizational factors affecting utilization and user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Pamela; Kuwahara, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years, telepsychiatry services in Michigan have been developed by LifeWays, a Medicaid-managed behavioural health-care organization. The project had four phases, involving the introduction of telepsychiatry services between a rural and an urban clinic, to a crisis intervention centre, to a youth detention centre and to patients' homes. The role of organizational issues in the success of the programme was examined through patient interviews, provider interviews, patient and provider pre- and post-project focus groups, and service documents. Utilization data were obtained from activity logs and patient charts. During the study, 297 clients received 578 teleconsultations. Almost 97% of the telepsychiatry visits were scheduled. Telemedicine usage varied between the four project phases. The reasons for its variation in use included provider roles, existing organizational strategic goals and resources, the inherent organizational culture and quirks, and leadership and managerial factors. The major difficulties stemmed from the providers and the organization itself. There is tremendous potential for telepsychiatry and the ways in which organizational variables can be managed to influence the success of telepsychiatry programmes deserve further study.

  8. Quantum States Transfer by Analogous Bell States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Di; Li Chong; Yang Guohui; Song Heshan

    2008-01-01

    Transmitting quantum states by channels of analogous Bell states is studied in this paper. We analyze the transmitting process, constructed the probabilitic unitary operator, and gain the largest successful transfer quantum state probability.

  9. Employee, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Resources Division of Corporations, Business & Professional Licensing Dept. of Commerce Benefits Resources State Employee Directory State Calendar State Training: LearnAlaska State Travel Manager) Web Mail (Outlook) Login Who to Call Health Insurance Insurance Benefits Health and Optional

  10. In-Situ Characterization of Tissue Blood Flow, Blood Content, and Water State Using New Techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conturo, Thomas Edward

    foldover in magnified images was eliminated by exciting limited regions with orthogonal pi/2 and pi pulses. Off-midline regions were imaged by tandemly offsetting the phase-encoding and excitation. Artifacts due to non-steady-state conditions were demonstrated. The approach to steady state was defined by operators and vectors, and any repeated series of RF pulses was proven to produce a steady-state. The vector difference between the magnetization and its steady state value is relatively constant during the approach. The repetition time relative to T_1 is the main determinant of approach rate, and off-resonant RF pulses incoherent with the magnetization produce a more rapid approach than on-resonant pulses.

  11. Heat Transfer Analysis of an Optimized, Flexible Holder System for Freeze-Drying in Dual Chamber Cartridges Using Different State-of-the-Art PAT Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Pikal, Michael; Friess, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat transfer characteristics of an optimized flexible holder device, using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy, the Pressure Rise Test, and the gravimetric procedure. Two different controlled nucleation methods were tested, and an improved sublimation process, "preheated plate," was developed. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy identified an initial sublimation burst phase. Accordingly, steady-state equations were adapted for the gravimetric procedure, to account for this initial non-steady-state period. The heat transfer coefficient, K DCC , describing the transfer from the holder to the DCC, was the only heat transfer coefficient showing a clear pressure dependence with values ranging from 3.81E-04 cal/(g·cm 2 ·K) at 40 mTorr to 7.38E-04 cal/(g·cm 2 ·K) at 200 mTorr. The heat transfer coefficient, K tot , reflecting the overall energy transfer via the holder, increased by around 24% from 40 to 200 mTorr. This resulted in a pressure-independent sublimation rate of around 42 ± 1.06 mg/h over the whole pressure range. Hence, this pressure-dependent increase in energy transfer completely compensated the decrease in driving force of sublimation. The "flexible holder" shows a substantially reduced impact of atypical radiation, improved drying homogeneity, and ultimately a better transferability of the freeze-drying cycle for process optimization. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal resource states for local state discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Halder, Saronath; Nathanson, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We study the problem of locally distinguishing pure quantum states using shared entanglement as a resource. For a given set of locally indistinguishable states, we define a resource state to be useful if it can enhance local distinguishability and optimal if it can distinguish the states as well as global measurements and is also minimal with respect to a partial ordering defined by entanglement and dimension. We present examples of useful resources and show that an entangled state need not be useful for distinguishing a given set of states. We obtain optimal resources with explicit local protocols to distinguish multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and graph states and also show that a maximally entangled state is an optimal resource under one-way local operations and classical communication to distinguish any bipartite orthonormal basis which contains at least one entangled state of full Schmidt rank.

  13. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  14. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  15. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  16. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  17. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  18. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  19. Minimally conscious state or cortically mediated state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Lionel

    2018-04-01

    Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'. I discuss this major problem in this review and propose a novel interpretation of minimally conscious state: its criteria do not inform us about the potential residual consciousness of patients, but they do inform us with certainty about the presence of a cortically mediated state. Based on this constructive criticism review, I suggest three proposals aiming at improving the way we describe the subjective and cognitive state of non-communicating patients. In particular, I present a tentative new classification of impairments of consciousness that combines behavioural evidence with functional brain imaging data, in order to probe directly and univocally residual conscious processes.

  20. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  1. Transcriptome States Reflect Imaging of Aging States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, D Mark; Coletta, Christopher E; Orlov, Nikita V; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy; Bastian, Paul; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2018-06-14

    In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete subpopulations (or "age-states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset. Short-lived strains rapidly transitioned through the putative healthy state. We previously found that age-matched animals in different age-states have distinct transcriptome profiles. We isolated animals at the beginning and end of each identified state and performed microarray analysis (principal component analysis, relative sample to sample distance measurements, and gene set enrichment analysis). In some comparisons, chronologically identical individuals were farther apart than morphologically identical individuals isolated on different days. The age-state biomarker allowed assessment of aging in a novel manner, complementary to chronological age progression. We found hsp70 and some small heat shock protein genes are expressed later in adulthood, consistent with the proteostasis collapse model.

  2. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  3. The State and Corporatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Schmidt-Hansen, Ulrich

    in corporatist theory. In particular, we draw upon a conceptualization of the state developed by Michael Mann and Eric Nordlinger's different forms of state autonomy. We propose a state-centered theoretical focus enabling us to grasp the role of the state in the dynamics of the corporatist system. In the second...... to the development of the `Danish model', but that these actors were often orchestrated by the state. At crucial moments the direction of these different actors was even determined by the state. In the first part of the article, it is argued that the state has been under-theorized and to some extent neglected...

  4. Photon virtual bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.

    2004-01-01

    We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results

  5. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  6. Quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions

  7. Verification of hypergraph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-12-01

    Hypergraph states are generalizations of graph states where controlled-Z gates on edges are replaced with generalized controlled-Z gates on hyperedges. Hypergraph states have several advantages over graph states. For example, certain hypergraph states, such as the Union Jack states, are universal resource states for measurement-based quantum computing with only Pauli measurements, while graph state measurement-based quantum computing needs non-Clifford basis measurements. Furthermore, it is impossible to classically efficiently sample measurement results on hypergraph states unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level. Although several protocols have been proposed to verify graph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements, there was no verification method for hypergraph states. In this paper, we propose a method for verifying a certain class of hypergraph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements. Importantly, no i.i.d. property of samples is assumed in our protocol: any artificial entanglement among samples cannot fool the verifier. As applications of our protocol, we consider verified blind quantum computing with hypergraph states, and quantum computational supremacy demonstrations with hypergraph states.

  8. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  9. Most energetic passive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Huber, Marcus; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Tura, Jordi; Acín, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Passive states are defined as those states that do not allow for work extraction in a cyclic (unitary) process. Within the set of passive states, thermal states are the most stable ones: they maximize the entropy for a given energy, and similarly they minimize the energy for a given entropy. Here we find the passive states lying in the other extreme, i.e., those that maximize the energy for a given entropy, which we show also minimize the entropy when the energy is fixed. These extremal properties make these states useful to obtain fundamental bounds for the thermodynamics of finite-dimensional quantum systems, which we show in several scenarios.

  10. Excited states v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1982-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho

  11. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  12. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  13. State diagrams of tokamaks and state transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1992-01-01

    In a simple one-fluid cylindrical model of transport and of dissipative effects, the family of the magnetic states of the Tokamak which correspond to a vanishing entropy production in the confinement region is characterized by a define relation or ''state equation'' involving the relevant parameters of the discharge. An investigation is made as to how the entropy production changes when the current density profile is rearranged by a perturbation which conserves the poloidal magnetic flux. It is shown that for a sufficiently short time interval, that is to say t 2 E τ s where τ E is the energy confinement time and τ s is the resistive time, neighbouring bifurcating equilibria exist which can be reached with a flux-conserving transition and with increase of the magnetic entropy. The family of these new states can also be characterized by a state equation involving the relevant discharge parameters. When the state equations of the two families are simultaneously satisfied by the same set of parameter values, a flux-conserving, entropy-increasing transition may take place between states of the two families. The modifications of the current density and of the temperature profiles involved in the transition and the conditions that the discharge parameters should satisfy in order that the transition could occur are investigated. (author)

  14. STATE_SYSTEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline highway network representation of the 10,000 miles Kansas State Highway System (Interstate, U.S., and Kansas routes). The state...

  15. State Capitalism in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Spechler, Martin; Ahrens, Joachim; Hoen, Herman W.

    2017-01-01

    The book specifies the type of economic system that has arisen in Central Asian. It presents three types of state-capitalism established in the former Soviet Union states in Eurasia - crony, dual sector, and predatory capitalism.

  16. Stats of the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and age-adjusted death rates from unintentional injuries/accidents. Stroke Mortality by State, 2013 - Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates from cerebrovascular disease. Alzheimer's Disease Mortality by State, 2013 - Number ...

  17. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  18. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and 30-day...

  19. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  20. State Program Integrity Reviews

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State program integrity reviews play a critical role in how CMS provides effective support and assistance to states in their efforts to combat provider fraud and...

  1. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  2. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  3. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  4. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  5. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  8. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  9. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  10. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  11. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  12. Matrix product state description of Halperin states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépel, V.; Estienne, B.; Bernevig, B. A.; Lecheminant, P.; Regnault, N.

    2018-04-01

    Many fractional quantum Hall states can be expressed as a correlator of a given conformal field theory used to describe their edge physics. As a consequence, these states admit an economical representation as an exact matrix product state (MPS) that was extensively studied for the systems without any spin or any other internal degrees of freedom. In that case, the correlators are built from a single electronic operator, which is primary with respect to the underlying conformal field theory. We generalize this construction to the archetype of Abelian multicomponent fractional quantum Hall wave functions, the Halperin states. These can be written as conformal blocks involving multiple electronic operators and we explicitly derive their exact MPS representation. In particular, we deal with the caveat of the full wave-function symmetry and show that any additional SU(2) symmetry is preserved by the natural MPS truncation scheme provided by the conformal dimension. We use our method to characterize the topological order of the Halperin states by extracting the topological entanglement entropy. We also evaluate their bulk correlation lengths, which are compared to plasma analogy arguments.

  13. Remote state preparation through hyperentangled atomic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mehwish; ul-Islam, Rameez-; Ikram, Manzoor

    2018-04-01

    Hyperentangled states have enhanced channel capacity in quantum processing and have yielded` evident increased communication speed in quantum informatics as a consequence of excessively high information content coded over each quantum entity. In the present article, we intend to demonstrate this fact by utilizing atomic states simultaneously entangled both in internal as well as external degrees of freedom, i.e. the de Broglie motion for remote state preparation (RSP). The results clearly demonstrate that we can efficiently communicate two bit information while manipulating only a single quantum subsystem. The states are prepared and manipulated using atomic Bragg diffraction as well as Ramsey interferometry, both of which are now considered as standard, state of the art tools based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. Since atomic Bragg diffraction is a large interaction time regime and produces spatially well separated, decoherence resistant outputs, the schematics presented here for the RSP offer important perspectives on efficient detection as well as unambiguous information coding and readout. The article summarizes the experimental feasibility of the proposal, culminating with a brief discussion.

  14. Quantum states of light

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.

  15. Symmetries of Chimera States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina

    2018-05-01

    Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.

  16. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  17. Superexcited states of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Takagi, Hidekazu.

    1990-01-01

    The report addresses the nature and major features of molecule's superexcited states, focusing on their involvement in dynamic processes. It also outlines the quantum defect theory which allows various processes involving these states to be treated in a unified way. The Rydberg state has close relation with an ionized state with a positive energy. The quantum defect theory interprets such relation. Specifically, the report first describes the quantum defect theory focusing on its basic principle. The multi-channel quantum defect theory is then outlined centering on how to describe a Rydberg-type superexcited state. Description of a dissociative double-electron excited state is also discussed. The quantum defect theory is based on the fact that the physics of the motion of a Rydberg electron vary with the region in the electron's coordinate space. Finally, various molecular processes that involve a superexcited state are addressed focusing on autoionization, photoionization, dissociative recombination and bonding ionization of diatomic molecules. (N.K.)

  18. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  19. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy

  20. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  1. Quantum chimera states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-15

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  2. Quantum chimera states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  3. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  5. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  6. Nuclear cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, W.D.M.; Merchant, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    We review clustering in light nuclei including molecular resonances in heavy ion reactions. In particular we study the systematics, paying special attention to the relationships between cluster states and superdeformed configurations. We emphasise the selection rules which govern the formation and decay of cluster states. We review some recent experimental results from Daresbury and elsewhere. In particular we report on the evidence for a 7-α chain state in 28 Si in experiments recently performed at the NSF, Daresbury. Finally we begin to address theoretically the important question of the lifetimes of cluster states as deduced from the experimental energy widths of the resonances. (Author)

  7. Rotating quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries

  8. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  9. Visitor, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Fishing License Get a Birth Certificate, Marriage License, etc. Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend Statewide Library Alaska Historical Society Alaska State Museum Sheldon Jackson Museum Industry Facts Agriculture

  10. Orthogonalization of correlated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme for orthogonalizing correlated states while preserving the diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian is developed. Conventional perturbation theory can be used with the orthonormal correlated basis obtained from this scheme. Advantages of using orthonormal correlated states in calculations of the response function and correlation energy are discussed

  11. Business, State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment Advisors Business Law Charitable Gaming Division of Banking & Securities Laws Relating to Skip to content State of Alaska myAlaska My Government Resident Business in Alaska Visiting Alaska State Government Jobs Federal Jobs Starting a Small Business Living Get a Driver License Get a Hunting

  12. Gender and the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Kantola, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    The article argues from a Nordic, feminist and post-structuralist position that feminism state theories need to be developed methodologically.......The article argues from a Nordic, feminist and post-structuralist position that feminism state theories need to be developed methodologically....

  13. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  14. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  15. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  16. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  17. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  18. Kurds, states and tribes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2002-01-01

    At most times, Kurdish society has existed at the periphery of, and functioned as a buffer between, two or more neighbouring states. From c. 1500 until the First World War, the relevant states were the Ottoman Empire in the west and Safavid, later Qajar Iran in the east (with Russia and the

  19. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  20. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  1. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...

  2. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  3. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  4. Thermalization of squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Allan I

    2005-01-01

    Starting with a thermal squeezed state defined as a conventional thermal state based on an appropriate Hamiltonian, we show how an important physical property, the signal-to-noise ratio, is degraded, and propose a simple model of thermalization (Kraus thermalization)

  5. Metrics of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.

  6. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  7. Healthcare. State Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This report projects education requirements linked to forecasted job growth in healthcare by state and the District of Columbia from 2010 through 2020. It complements a larger national report which projects educational demand for healthcare for the same time period. The national report shows that with or without Obamacare, the United States will…

  8. Categorical Tensor Network States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Biamonte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the use of string diagrams and the mathematics of category theory in the description of quantum states by tensor networks. This approach lead to a unification of several ideas, as well as several results and methods that have not previously appeared in either side of the literature. Our approach enabled the development of a tensor network framework allowing a solution to the quantum decomposition problem which has several appealing features. Specifically, given an n-body quantum state |ψ〉, we present a new and general method to factor |ψ〉 into a tensor network of clearly defined building blocks. We use the solution to expose a previously unknown and large class of quantum states which we prove can be sampled efficiently and exactly. This general framework of categorical tensor network states, where a combination of generic and algebraically defined tensors appear, enhances the theory of tensor network states.

  9. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    coverage. A Danish survey of newsrooms shows that the national world-view and prevalent news criteria prevent consistent coverage. It is argued that politicians are the ones who determine national agendas: it is from political initiatives, rather than media coverage, that failing states and humanitarian......When states are failing, when basic state functions are no longer carried out, and when people have no security, humanitarian crises erupt. In confronting this problem, the stronger states have followed an ad hoc policy of intervention and aid. In some cases, humanitarian disasters have resulted...... from inaction. Often, the media are blamed. Politicians complain about the media when they interfere (the CNN effect), and when they do not. This article looks at how the media do cover failing states. Sierra Leone and Congo are used as examples. The analysis shows that there is little independent...

  10. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  11. State and market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ferenčak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the relationship between state and market, about their relative importance, does not cease to be topical, and there is no end of it in sight. The market (invisible hand does need, more or less, the help of the state (visible hand. Liberal sympathizers of the market prefer a “small” state whose ambitions include only providing an adaptable legal framework in which and by which the market functions, and (re allocation of resources, because of the inherent defects of the market. Proponents of welfare economics will wish for progressive taxation and redistribution of income. Keynes’s mission to save capitalism meant an increase in the importance of the state and appearance of a new, stabilizing role of the state. Excessive unemployment is to be prevented by fine-tuning. Unfortunately, Keynes’s critics from the public choice camp will say that the state (government is not perfect, and, as a rule, falls into the trap of asymmetry. Only and solely in theory will it apply that a perfect state means perfect functioning of an imperfect market.

  12. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  13. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  14. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  15. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  16. Correlations in Werner States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shunlong; Li Nan

    2008-01-01

    Werner states are paradigmatic examples of quantum states and play an innovative role in quantum information theory. In investigating the correlating capability of Werner states, we find the curious phenomenon that quantum correlations, as quantified by the entanglement of formation, may exceed the total correlations, as measured by the quantum mutual information. Consequently, though the entanglement of formation is so widely used in quantifying entanglement, it cannot be interpreted as a consistent measure of quantum correlations per se if we accept the folklore that total correlations are measured (or rather upper bounded) by the quantum mutual information.

  17. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  18. Design of a new multi-phase experimental simulation chamber for atmospheric photosmog, aerosol and cloud chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new simulation chamber has been built at the Interuniversitary Laboratory of Atmospheric Systems (LISA. The CESAM chamber (French acronym for Experimental Multiphasic Atmospheric Simulation Chamber is designed to allow research in multiphase atmospheric (photo- chemistry which involves both gas phase and condensed phase processes including aerosol and cloud chemistry. CESAM has the potential to carry out variable temperature and pressure experiments under a very realistic artificial solar irradiation. It consists of a 4.2 m3 stainless steel vessel equipped with three high pressure xenon arc lamps which provides a controlled and steady environment. Initial characterization results, all carried out at 290–297 K under dry conditions, concerning lighting homogeneity, mixing efficiency, ozone lifetime, radical sources, NOy wall reactivity, particle loss rates, background PM, aerosol formation and cloud generation are given. Photolysis frequencies of NO2 and O3 related to chamber radiation system were found equal to (4.2 × 10−3 s−1 for JNO2 and (1.4 × 10−5 s−1 for JO1D which is comparable to the solar radiation in the boundary layer. An auxiliary mechanism describing NOy wall reactions has been developed. Its inclusion in the Master Chemical Mechanism allowed us to adequately model the results of experiments on the photo-oxidation of propene-NOx-Air mixtures. Aerosol yields for the α-pinene + O3 system chosen as a reference were determined and found in good agreement with previous studies. Particle lifetime in the chamber ranges from 10 h to 4 days depending on particle size distribution which indicates that the chamber can provide high quality data on aerosol aging processes and their effects. Being evacuable, it is possible to generate in this new chamber clouds by fast expansion or saturation with or without the presence of pre-existing particles, which will provide a multiphase environment for aerosol-droplet interaction.

  19. Numerical analysis of the motion of a suspended charged particle in multi-phase flow. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The motion of a suspended charged particle in a two component viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates was studied. The motion takes place under constant magnetic field normal to the plane of the motion. The effect of some parameters as particle volume, fluid density, viscosity of the fluid, and the magnetic force used on the motion were investigated. The particle is assumed moving initially from the midpoint of the channel with a velocity equal to the velocity of the fluid. The trajectory of solid spherical suspended charged particle is calculated by integrating the equations of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about the path lines were deduced. 5 figs.

  20. Quantification of non-isothermal, multi-phase crystallization of isotactic polypropylene : the influence of shear and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van T.B.; Balzano, L.; Spoelstra, A.B.; Govaert, L.E.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Key issue in studying the crystallization process of semi-crystalline polymers, is the need for controlled (or known) boundary and initial conditions. Here dilatometry (PVT) is used to reveal the crystallization kinetics and the resulting morphology of isotactic polypropylene homopolymer as a

  1. Rifting to India-Asia Reactivation: Multi-phase Structural Evolution of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. J.; Bladon, A.; Clarke, S.; Najman, Y.; Copley, A.; Kloppenburg, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Barmer Basin, situated within the West Indian Rift System, is an intra-cratonic rift basin produced during Gondwana break-up. Despite being a prominent oil and gas province, the structural evolution and context of the rift within northwest India remains poorly understood. Substantial subsurface datasets acquired during hydrocarbon exploration provide an unrivalled tool to investigate the tectonic evolution of the Barmer Basin rift and northwest India during India-Asia collision. Here we present a structural analysis using seismic datasets to investigate Barmer Basin evolution and place findings within the context of northwest India development. Present day rift structural architectures result from superposition of two non-coaxial extensional events; an early mid-Cretaceous rift-oblique event (NW-SE), followed by a main Paleocene rifting phase (NE-SW). Three phases of fault reactivation follow rifting: A transpressive, Late Paleocene inversion along localised E-W and NNE-SSW-trending faults; a widespread Late Paleocene-Early Eocene inversion and Late Miocene-Present Day transpressive strike-slip faulting along NW-SE-trending faults and isolated inversion structures. A major Late Eocene-Miocene unconformity in the basin is also identified, approximately coeval with those identified within the Himalayan foreland basin, suggesting a common cause related to India-Asia collision, and calling into question previous explanations that are not compatible with spatial extension of the unconformity beyond the foreland basin. Although, relatively poorly age constrained, extensional and compressional events within the Barmer Basin can be correlated with regional tectonic processes including the fragmentation of Gondwana, the rapid migration of the Greater Indian continent, to subsequent collision with Asia. New insights into the Barmer Basin development have important implications not only for ongoing hydrocarbon exploration but the temporal evolution of northwest India.

  2. A multi-phase approach to select new wine yeast strains with enhanced fermentative fitness and glutathione production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, Tommaso; De Vero, Luciana; Mezzetti, Francesco; Fay, Justin C; Giudici, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The genetic improvement of winemaking yeasts is a virtually infinite process, as the design of new strains must always cope with varied and ever-evolving production contexts. Good wine yeasts must feature both good primary traits, which are related to the overall fermentative fitness of the strain, and secondary traits, which provide accessory features augmenting its technological value. In this context, the superiority of "blind," genetic improvement techniques, as those based on the direct selection of the desired phenotype without prior knowledge of the genotype, was widely proven. Blind techniques such as adaptive evolution strategies were implemented for the enhancement of many traits of interest in the winemaking field. However, these strategies usually focus on single traits: this possibly leads to genetic tradeoff phenomena, where the selection of enhanced secondary traits might lead to sub-optimal primary fermentation traits. To circumvent this phenomenon, we applied a multi-step and strongly directed genetic improvement strategy aimed at combining a strong fermentative aptitude (primary trait) with an enhanced production of glutathione (secondary trait). We exploited the random genetic recombination associated to a library of 69 monosporic clones of strain UMCC 855 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to search for new candidates possessing both traits. This was achieved by consecutively applying three directional selective criteria: molybdate resistance (1), fermentative aptitude (2), and glutathione production (3). The strategy brought to the selection of strain 21T2-D58, which produces a high concentration of glutathione, comparable to that of other glutathione high-producers, still with a much greater fermentative aptitude.

  3. Implementation and process analysis of pilot scale multi-phase anaerobic fermentation and digestion of faecal sludge in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Justin; Fanyin-Martin, Ato; Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-11-06

    Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana.  Methods.  A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly's Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase.  The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets.  The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4 .  Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions.  This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more mechanistically informed development and application of different process designs and configurations for global FS management practice.

  4. A DIFFERENT APPROACH IN OPTIMUM DESIGN PROCESS AND FEA VALIDATION OF LOW-SPEED MULTI-PHASE IPMSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed asghar gholamian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnets placement effects on permanent magnet motors performance, because of its different magnetic flux density distribution. Therefore, different types of magnet placement should be examined experimentally or by valid simulations. In this paper, first, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM called spoke type with specifications related to the propulsion of ships is designed and then optimized by ant colony algorithm to increase the torque-to-volume ratio. The design procedure and its formulas presented as simple as possible. Then, to verify the optimization results of the optimized motor, a Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA is done. Also in this analyze the core and the slot saturation was studied.

  5. Multi-phase simultaneous segmentation of tumor in lung 4D-CT data with context information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Shen

    Full Text Available Lung 4D computed tomography (4D-CT plays an important role in high-precision radiotherapy because it characterizes respiratory motion, which is crucial for accurate target definition. However, the manual segmentation of a lung tumor is a heavy workload for doctors because of the large number of lung 4D-CT data slices. Meanwhile, tumor segmentation is still a notoriously challenging problem in computer-aided diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new method based on an improved graph cut algorithm with context information constraint to find a convenient and robust approach of lung 4D-CT tumor segmentation. We combine all phases of the lung 4D-CT into a global graph, and construct a global energy function accordingly. The sub-graph is first constructed for each phase. A context cost term is enforced to achieve segmentation results in every phase by adding a context constraint between neighboring phases. A global energy function is finally constructed by combining all cost terms. The optimization is achieved by solving a max-flow/min-cut problem, which leads to simultaneous and robust segmentation of the tumor in all the lung 4D-CT phases. The effectiveness of our approach is validated through experiments on 10 different lung 4D-CT cases. The comparison with the graph cut without context constraint, the level set method and the graph cut with star shape prior demonstrates that the proposed method obtains more accurate and robust segmentation results.

  6. Design and initial results of a multi-phase randomized trial of ceftriaxone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Berry

    Full Text Available Ceftriaxone increases expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, EAAT2, which might protect from glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. A trial using a novel three stage nonstop design, incorporating Phases I-III, tested ceftriaxone in ALS. Stage 1 determined the cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone in subjects with ALS. Stage 2 evaluated safety and tolerability for 20-weeks. Analysis of the pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety was used to determine the ceftriaxone dosage for Stage 3 efficacy testing.In Stage 1, 66 subjects at ten clinical sites were enrolled and randomized equally into three study groups receiving intravenous placebo, ceftriaxone 2 grams daily or ceftriaxone 4 grams daily divided BID. Participants provided serum and cerebrospinal fluid for pharmacokinetic analysis on study day 7. Participants continued their assigned treatment in Stage 2. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB reviewed the data after the last participants completed 20 weeks on study drug.Stage 1 analysis revealed linear pharmacokinetics, and CSF trough levels for both dosage levels exceeding the pre-specified target trough level of 1 µM (0.55 µg/mL. Tolerability (Stages 1 and 2 results showed that ceftriaxone at dosages up to 4 grams/day was well tolerated at 20 weeks. Biliary adverse events were more common with ceftriaxone but not dose-dependent and improved with ursodeoxycholic (ursodiol therapy.The goals of Stages 1 and 2 of the ceftriaxone trial were successfully achieved. Based on the pre-specified decision rules, the DSMB recommended the use of ceftriaxone 4 g/d (divided BID for Stage 3, which recently closed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00349622.

  7. Study of preparation and survey of radioisotopes tracer applications of gold nanoparticles in the multi-phase industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thai Kim Ngan; Trinh Cong Son; Duong Thi Bich Chi; Tran Tri Hai; Nguyen Huu Quang; Bui Trong Duy; Le Trong Nghia; Ngo Duc Tin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by Turkevich and Brust method. The labeled gold in liquids is the colloidal form with nano size particle of gold. This particles is of high dispersity in the liquid phase that makes them a good physical tracer. The stability and dissolve of AuNPs in solvents such as water, toluene are hereafter discussed. The size of AuNPs was determined through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (author)

  8. Quantification of Single- and Multi-Phase Hydrodynamic Dispersion in Rocks Using Dynamic 3D PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.; Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.; Benson, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We report results of an experimental investigation into the effects of small-scale (mm-cm) heterogeneities and hydrodynamic dispersion on miscible and immiscible displacements in a Berea Sandstone core. Pulse-radiotracer tests were carried out by measuring breakthrough curves at distinct flow rates and gas/water saturation ratios, while simultaneously imaging the internal displacement of the radioactive solution by [11C]PET. Dynamic multidimensional maps of the tracer concentration in the rock sample have been obtained with a spatial resolution of about 10 mm3 and provide evidence for significant macrodispersion effects caused by the presence of heterogeneities at the same scale. The numerical solution of the classic Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) applied in 1D form fails to describe the measured breakthrough curves and significantly overestimates longitudinal dispersivity. An excellent agreement with the experiments is attained by explicitly accounting for permeability heterogeneity, while reducing the contribution of "Fickian" dispersivity. Heterogeneity was introduced in the model by discretising the rock sample into independent parallel streamlines, which were generated based on a previously determined 3D permeability map, and by solving the 1D ADE for each of them. The use of streamlines is supported by direct quantitative observations from the PET scans; remarkably, this approach leads to an accurate representation of both the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of the tracer concentration in the sample. It is shown that when the length-scale of permeability variations is similar in order as the size of the sample, the effect of the former can be as significant as hydrodynamic dispersion. The presence of a second immiscible fluid phase further complicates the flow field and, accordingly, the interpretation of the experiments. The ability to decouple these effects leads to the estimation of dispersion coefficients that aren't sample specific and are therefore better suited for up-scaling fluid mixing and dispersion in rocks. In this context, PET provides significant opportunities to advance our understanding of fluids displacements in rocks, thus including complex flows that involve additional phenomena, such as adsorption and chemical reactions.

  9. The possible occurrence of multi-phase behavior in the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.A.; Soderholm, L.; Capone, D.W. II

    1989-01-01

    We report here the results obtained for powder diffraction studies on four YBa 2 Cu 3 O x samples in which a model with two orthorhombic phases was used to obtain an improved agreement. The implications of this structural model on the systematic variation of T c with oxygen content will be discussed. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  11. Estimating multi-phase pore-scale characteristics from X-ray tomographic data using cluster analysis-based segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, D.; Culligan, K.A.; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun

    2006-01-01

    present in grey-scale X-ray tomographic images. The approach is based on a cluster analysis technique, used in combination with various other filtering and skeletonization schemes. We apply this segmentation algorithm to analyze multiphase pore-scale flow subjects such as hysteresis and interfacial...... characterization. The results clearly illustrate the advantage of using X-ray tomography together with cluster analysis-based image processing techniques. We were able to obtain detailed information on pore scale distribution of air and water phases, as well as quantitative measures of air bubble size and air...... of individual pores and interfaces. However, separation of the various phases (fluids and solids) in the grey-scale tomographic images has posed a major problem to quantitative analysis of the data. We present an image processing technique that facilitates identification and separation of the various phases...

  12. THE MULTI-PHASE COLD FOUNTAIN IN M82 REVEALED BY A WIDE, SENSITIVE MAP OF THE MOLECULAR INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Martini, Paul; Walter, Fabian; Roussel, Hélène; Sandstrom, Karin; Ott, Jürgen; Weiss, Axel; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Schuster, Karl; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We present a wide area (≈8 × 8 kpc), sensitive map of CO (2–1) emission around the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Molecular gas extends far beyond the stellar disk, including emission associated with the well-known outflow as far as 3 kpc from M82's midplane. Kinematic signatures of the outflow are visible in both the CO and H i emission: both tracers show a minor axis velocity gradient and together they show double peaked profiles, consistent with a hot outflow bounded by a cone made of a mix of atomic and molecular gas. Combining our CO and H i data with observations of the dust continuum, we study the changing properties of the cold outflow as it leaves the disk. While H 2 dominates the ISM near the disk, the dominant phase of the cool medium changes as it leaves the galaxy and becomes mostly atomic after about a kpc. Several arguments suggest that regardless of phase, the mass in the cold outflow does not make it far from the disk; the mass flux through surfaces above the disk appears to decline with a projected scale length of ≈1–2 kpc. The cool material must also end up distributed over a much wider angle than the hot outflow based on the nearly circular isophotes of dust and CO at low intensity and the declining rotation velocities as a function of height from the plane. The minor axis of M82 appears so striking at many wavelengths because the interface between the hot wind cavity and the cool gas produces Hα, hot dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and scattered UV light. We also show the level at which a face-on version of M82 would be detectable as an outflow based on unresolved spectroscopy. Finally, we consider multiple constraints on the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, which must change across the galaxy but appears to be only a factor of ≈2 lower than the Galactic value in the outflow

  13. THE MULTI-PHASE COLD FOUNTAIN IN M82 REVEALED BY A WIDE, SENSITIVE MAP OF THE MOLECULAR INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Roussel, Hélène [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC (Univ. Paris 06), CNRS (UMR 7095), F-75014 Paris (France); Sandstrom, Karin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ott, Jürgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hgel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schuster, Karl [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d’Hères (France); Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava [Observatoire de Geneve, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2015-12-01

    We present a wide area (≈8 × 8 kpc), sensitive map of CO (2–1) emission around the nearby starburst galaxy M82. Molecular gas extends far beyond the stellar disk, including emission associated with the well-known outflow as far as 3 kpc from M82's midplane. Kinematic signatures of the outflow are visible in both the CO and H i emission: both tracers show a minor axis velocity gradient and together they show double peaked profiles, consistent with a hot outflow bounded by a cone made of a mix of atomic and molecular gas. Combining our CO and H i data with observations of the dust continuum, we study the changing properties of the cold outflow as it leaves the disk. While H{sub 2} dominates the ISM near the disk, the dominant phase of the cool medium changes as it leaves the galaxy and becomes mostly atomic after about a kpc. Several arguments suggest that regardless of phase, the mass in the cold outflow does not make it far from the disk; the mass flux through surfaces above the disk appears to decline with a projected scale length of ≈1–2 kpc. The cool material must also end up distributed over a much wider angle than the hot outflow based on the nearly circular isophotes of dust and CO at low intensity and the declining rotation velocities as a function of height from the plane. The minor axis of M82 appears so striking at many wavelengths because the interface between the hot wind cavity and the cool gas produces Hα, hot dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, and scattered UV light. We also show the level at which a face-on version of M82 would be detectable as an outflow based on unresolved spectroscopy. Finally, we consider multiple constraints on the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, which must change across the galaxy but appears to be only a factor of ≈2 lower than the Galactic value in the outflow.

  14. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  15. Studies on Single-phase and Multi-phase Heat Pipe for LED Panel for Efficient Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnave, K. C.; Rohit, G.; Maithreya, D. V. N. S.; Rakesh, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The popularity of LED panel as a source of illumination has soared recently due to its high efficiency. However, the removal of heat that is produced in the chip is still a major challenge in its design since this has an adverse effect on its reliability. If high junction temperature develops, the colour of the emitted light may diminish over prolonged usage or even a colour shift may occur. In this paper, a solution has been developed to address this problem by using a combination of heat pipe and heat fin technology. A single-phase and a two-phase heat pipes have been designed theoretically and computational simulations carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. The results of the theoretical calculations and those obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with each other.

  16. A multi-phase, multi-component PEM fuel cell model. Paper no. IGEC-1-051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschuk, J.J.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' Mathematical modeling is an important tool for PEM fuel cell commercialization. Mathematical models can illustrate the effect of the different processes on the overall performance of a PEM fuel cell; thus, mathematical models can be used to as a design tool to find optimal designs and operating conditions. A general formulation for a comprehensive fuel cell model, based on the conservation principle and volume-averaging, is presented. The model formulation includes the electro-chemical reactions, proton migration, and the mass transport of the gaseous reactants and liquid water. Additionally, the model formulation can be applied to all regions of the PEM fuel cell: the bipolar plates, gas flow channels, electrode backing, catalyst, and polymer electrolyte layers. Numerical results, showing the effect of water flooding on PEM fuel cell performance, are presented. (author)

  17. A New and General Formulation of the Parametric HFGMC Micromechanical Method for Three-Dimensional Multi-Phase Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Ali, Rami; Aboudi, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The recent two-dimensional (2-D) parametric formulation of the high fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) reported by the authors is generalized for the micromechanical analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) multiphase composites with periodic microstructure. Arbitrary hexahedral subcell geometry is developed to discretize a triply periodic repeating unit-cell (RUC). Linear parametric-geometric mapping is employed to transform the arbitrary hexahedral subcell shapes from the physical space to an auxiliary orthogonal shape, where a complete quadratic displacement expansion is performed. Previously in the 2-D case, additional three equations are needed in the form of average moments of equilibrium as a result of the inclusion of the bilinear terms. However, the present 3-D parametric HFGMC formulation eliminates the need for such additional equations. This is achieved by expressing the coefficients of the full quadratic polynomial expansion of the subcell in terms of the side or face average-displacement vectors. The 2-D parametric and orthogonal HFGMC are special cases of the present 3-D formulation. The continuity of displacements and tractions, as well as the equilibrium equations, are imposed in the average (integral) sense as in the original HFGMC formulation. Each of the six sides (faces) of a subcell has an independent average displacement micro-variable vector which forms an energy-conjugate pair with the transformed average-traction vector. This allows generating symmetric stiffness matrices along with internal resisting vectors for the subcells which enhances the computational efficiency. The established new parametric 3-D HFGMC equations are formulated and solution implementations are addressed. Several applications for triply periodic 3-D composites are presented to demonstrate the general capability and varsity of the present parametric HFGMC method for refined micromechanical analysis by generating the spatial distributions of local stress fields. These applications include triply periodic composites with inclusions in the form of a cavity, spherical inclusion, ellipsoidal inclusion, discontinuous aligned short fiber. A 3-D repeating unit-cell for foam material composite is simulated.

  18. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  19. US State Submerged Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submerged Lands Act (43 U.S.C. Section 1301 et seq.) grants coastal states title to natural resources located within their coastal submerged lands and navigable...

  20. State Geodatabase for Connecticut

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. State Geodatabase for Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  2. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  3. Teale State Assembly Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  4. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  5. Varieties in State Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for pene...

  6. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  7. Baryoniums and related states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1978-01-01

    A brief introduction is given to current theoretical ideas on baryonium states with particular emphasis on their interpretation as 'colour molecules'. It is argued that baryonium spectroscopy provides a valuable test for colour as a new degree of freedom. (author)

  8. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... T K RANA, C BHATTACHARYA, S KUNDU, ... of various direct 3α decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. ... Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. ... FMD predicts a compact triangle shape and LEFT predicts a bent arm chain structure,.

  9. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  10. Engaging Future Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    military missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa, Asia , and South America. There is an increasing proliferation of failed and failing states...disparity, overpopulation , food security, health services availability, migration pressures, environmental degradation, personal and 22 community

  11. State of Services Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A comprehensive monthly report portraying customer experience with our various service options. The State of Services is shared with the ACOSS and is presented to...

  12. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  13. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  15. Outpatient Imaging Efficiency - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Use of medical imaging - state data. These measures give you information about hospitals' use of medical imaging tests for outpatients. Examples of medical imaging...

  16. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  17. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  18. State Agency Administrative Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database comprises 28 State agency boundaries and point of contact. The Kansas Geological Survey collected legal descriptions of the boundaries for various...

  19. State DOT mission evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper highlights the challenges faced by six state departments of transportation (California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Missouri, Oregon) and the views of their respective chief executive officers within the context of national trends. E...

  20. MSIS State Summary Datamarts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS State Summary Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  1. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  2. Asking for more State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a period of embedding, as Achille Mbembe puts it when discussing the novelty of the postcolony (Mbembe 2001: 242, 01/09/2008); in this paper the term applies to conceptualise particular social processes of state/citizen entanglement within the realm of western welfare bureauc...... the concept of welfare, moral order and legality is constantly negotiated and reconstituted. From this perspective, I explore everyday ghetto life as frontier practices within the community and with the state....

  3. State of the Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Profits In the first two months, the combined profits of all state-owned enterprises as well as non-state enterprises with annual sales revenue of more than 5 million yuan (enterprises above designated size) totaled 203.4 billion yuan, increasing 21.8 percent compared with the same period last year, according to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (see graph 1).

  4. State of the Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Industrial Profits From January to June, the total volume of profits made by all state-owned enterprises as well as non-state enterprises with annual sales revenue of more than 5 million yuan (enterprises above designated size) stood at 810.7 billion yuan, expanding 28 percent compared with the same period last year, according to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (see graph 1).

  5. Appealing to the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Vejrup

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyzes identity formation of majority religion in the context of intentional, political processes of change in state-church relations from a perspective that combines discursive institutionalism with the insights from governance research.......This essay analyzes identity formation of majority religion in the context of intentional, political processes of change in state-church relations from a perspective that combines discursive institutionalism with the insights from governance research....

  6. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  7. Bound and rebound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)

  8. Machine learning topological states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-11-01

    Artificial neural networks and machine learning have now reached a new era after several decades of improvement where applications are to explode in many fields of science, industry, and technology. Here, we use artificial neural networks to study an intriguing phenomenon in quantum physics—the topological phases of matter. We find that certain topological states, either symmetry-protected or with intrinsic topological order, can be represented with classical artificial neural networks. This is demonstrated by using three concrete spin systems, the one-dimensional (1D) symmetry-protected topological cluster state and the 2D and 3D toric code states with intrinsic topological orders. For all three cases, we show rigorously that the topological ground states can be represented by short-range neural networks in an exact and efficient fashion—the required number of hidden neurons is as small as the number of physical spins and the number of parameters scales only linearly with the system size. For the 2D toric-code model, we find that the proposed short-range neural networks can describe the excited states with Abelian anyons and their nontrivial mutual statistics as well. In addition, by using reinforcement learning we show that neural networks are capable of finding the topological ground states of nonintegrable Hamiltonians with strong interactions and studying their topological phase transitions. Our results demonstrate explicitly the exceptional power of neural networks in describing topological quantum states, and at the same time provide valuable guidance to machine learning of topological phases in generic lattice models.

  9. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  10. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  11. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  12. Quantum Teleportation of Tripartite Arbitrary State via W State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of teleportation of a tripartite state via W state is suggested. The W state serves as quantum channels. Standard Bell-state measurements and Von Neumann measurements are performed. After the sender operates the measurements and informs the receiver her results, he can reconstruct the original state by the corresponding unitary transformation. The probability of the successful teleportation is also obtained.

  13. The mathematics behind chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel’chenko, O. E.

    2018-05-01

    Chimera states are self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of coexisting coherence and incoherence. We give an overview of the main mathematical methods used in studies of chimera states, focusing on chimera states in spatially extended coupled oscillator systems. We discuss the continuum limit approach to these states, Ott-Antonsen manifold reduction, finite size chimera states, control of chimera states and the influence of system design on the type of chimera state that is observed.

  14. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  15. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  16. Smallest chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrenko, Yuri; Brezetsky, Serhiy; Jaros, Patrycja; Levchenko, Roman; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in small networks consisting of three identical oscillators, with mutual all-to-all coupling. Three different types of chimeras, characterized by the coexistence of two coherent oscillators and one incoherent oscillator (i.e., rotating with another frequency) have been identified, where the oscillators show periodic (two types) and chaotic (one type) behaviors. Typical bifurcations at the transitions from full synchronization to chimera states and between different types of chimeras have been described. Parameter regions for the chimera states are obtained in the form of Arnold tongues, issued from a singular parameter point. Our analysis suggests that chimera states can be observed in small networks relevant to various real-world systems.

  17. The state manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defendini, A.; Jones, R.; Matheys, J.P.; Vyvre, P.V.; Vascotto, A.

    1992-01-01

    The State Manager system (SM) is a set of tools, developed at CERN, for the control of large data-acquisition systems. A dedicated object-based language is used to describe the various components of the data-acquisition system. Each component is declared in terms of finite state machines and sequences of parametrized actions to be performed for operations such as the start and end of a run. The description, written by the user, is translated into Ada to produce a run-control program capable of controlling processes in a distributed environment. A Motif-based graphical interface to the control program displays the current state of all the components and can be used to control the overall data-acquisition system. The SM has been used by several experiments both at CERN and other organizations. We present here the architecture of the SM, some design choices, and the experience acquired from its use. (author)

  18. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  19. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  20. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  1. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  2. Multiquark resonant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invariant mass spectra of forty nine hadronic systems with hypercharge, strangeness and baryon number, varied in wide limits have been studied. Resonance peaks have been found in the invariant mass spectra of Y 2 and #betta#pπ 2495 MeV/c 2 resonant states. Three more candidates for anti qq 4 states were found #bettaπ# + π + : 1705, 2072, 2605 MeV/c 2 . The masses of all these candidates are in good agreement with Bag Model predictions. A hypercharge selection rule is suggested: ''The hypercharge of hadronic resonances in weak gravitational fields cannot exceed one Y <= 1

  3. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  4. Narrow Sigma -hypernuclear states

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, A

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-isospin dependence of low-energy Sigma N to Lambda N conversion leads to substantial quenching of nuclear-matter estimates of the widths of some Sigma -hypernuclear states produced in (K/sup -/, pi ) reactions, to a level below 10 MeV. The estimated widths compare favorably with those of the Sigma -hypernuclear peaks recently observed at CERN for /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, and /sup 12/C. Tentative quantum number assignments are suggested for these states. (10 refs).

  5. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  6. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  7. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  8. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  9. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  10. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  11. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-02

    Nov 2, 2014 ... The prediction of Hoyle state was necessitated to explain the abundance of carbon, which is crucial for the existence of life on Earth and is the stepping stone for understanding the abundance of other heavier elements. After the experimental confirmation of its existence, soon it was realized that the Hoyle ...

  12. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  13. The Islamic State unfiltered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, Inte; Rowson, Rose; Cachia, Rebecca; Clandillon, Susan; Kolopaking, Cristel

    Instagram has become an unsuspecting pulpit ­– seemingly caught off guard – for those determined to spread a militant message of Islamic State terror. Graphic, fanatical and oftentimes heavily photoshopped images weave through Instagram’s labyrinth of sunset snaps and gym selfies to advance a

  14. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  15. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  16. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  17. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  18. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  19. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  20. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  1. Control of Squeezed States

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Anthony M.; Rojo, Alberto G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical and quantum control of squeezed states of harmonic oscillators. This provides a method for reducing noise below the quantum limit and provides an example of the control of under-actuated systems in the stochastic and quantum context. We consider also the interaction of a squeezed quantum oscillator with an external heat bath.

  2. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  3. Present State Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla; Bertelsen, Aksel

    Present State Examination (PSE) 5. udgave er en revideret version af speciallæge i psykiatri Aksel Bertelsens oprindelige materiale. Aksel Bertelsen er ophavsmand til PSE og til den danske udgave af ICD-10. Revisionen omfatter et forbedret layout, en modernisering af sproget, tilføjelse af...

  4. The Islamic State Unfiltered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloerich, I.; Kolopaking, C.; Cachia, R.; Rowson, R.; Clandillon, Susan

    Instagram has become an unsuspecting pulpit ­– seemingly caught off guard – for those determined to spread a militant message of Islamic State terror. Graphic, fanatical and oftentimes heavily photoshopped images weave through Instagram’s labyrinth of sunset snaps and gym selfies to advance a

  5. Phase squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, A.V.; Paris, M.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Phase squeezed states of a single mode radiation field have been introduced as eigenstates of a linear combination of lowering and raising operators. The explicit expression in the Fock basis has been obtained and some relevant properties have been illustrated. (author)

  6. State Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  7. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Liquid State - The Arrangement of Atoms. K R Rao. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 54-59. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/06/0054-0059 ...

  8. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  9. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  10. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  11. Create Your State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  12. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  13. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Solid, liquid, gas, glasses, powders. D Dhar is a theoretical physicist at the Tata. Institute of Funamental. Research, Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of non- equilibrium statistical physics. All of us have read about solid, liquid and gaseous.

  14. Alaska State Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing Committees Finance Committees Special Committees Joint Committees Conference Committees Other , administrative support to the Legislature and all divisions, and has the responsibility for accounting, payroll Information Offices within the state. Accounting Santé Lesh, Administrative Operations Manager 465-3852

  15. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  16. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  17. Understanding the pointer states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Brasil, Carlos; Andreta de Castro, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, pointer states are eigenstates of the observable of the measurement apparatus that represent the possible positions of the display pointer of the equipment. The origin of this concept lies in attempts to fill the blanks in Everett’s relative-state interpretation, and to make it a fully valid description of physical reality. To achieve this, it was necessary to consider not only the main system interacting with the measurement apparatus (like von Neumann and Everett did) but also the role of the environment in eliminating correlations between different possible measurements when interacting with the measurement apparatus. The interaction of the environment with the main system (and the measurement apparatus) is the core of the decoherence theory, which followed Everett’s thesis. In this article, we review the measurement process according to von Neumann, Everett’s relative state interpretation, the purpose of decoherence and some of its follow-up until Wojciech Zurek’s primordial paper that consolidated the concept of pointer states, previously presented by Heinz Dieter Zeh. Employing a simple physical model consisting of a pair of two-level systems—one representing the main system, the other the measurement apparatus—and a thermal bath—representing the environment—we show how pointer states emerge, explaining its contributions to the question of measurement in quantum mechanics, as well as its limitations. Finally, we briefly show some of its consequences. This paper is accessible to readers with elementary knowledge about quantum mechanics, on the level of graduate courses. (paper)

  18. Paired Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of individual articles on various topics. Their significance in the corresponding field as well as connections between them are emphasized in a general and comprehensive introduction. In the first article, the author explores the consequences for macroscopic effective Lagrangians of assuming that the momentum density is proportional to the flow of conserved current. The universal corrections obtained for the macroscopic Lagrangian of a superconductor describe the London Hall effect, and provide a fully consistent derivation of it. In the second article, a heuristic principle is proposed for quantized Hall states: the existence and incompressibility of fractionally quantized Hall states is explained by an argument based on an adiabatic localization of magnetic flux, the process of trading uniform flux for an equal amount of fictitious flux attached to the particles. This principle is exactly implemented in the third article. For a certain class of model Hamiltonians, the author obtains Laughlin's Jastrow type wave functions explicitly from a filled Landau level, by smooth extrapolation in quantum statistics. The generalization of this analysis to the torus geometry shows that theorems restricting the possibilities of quantum statistics on closed surfaces are circumvented in the presence of a magnetic field. In the last article, the existence is proposed of a novel incompressible quantum liquid, a paired Hall state, at a half filled Landau level. This state arises adiabatically from free fermions in zero magnetic field, and reduces to a state previously proposed by Halperin in the limit of tightly bound pairs. It supports unusual excitations, including neutral fermions and charge e/4 anyons with statistical parameter θ = π/8

  19. Coherent states and rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.

  20. The State of Preschool 2012: State Preschool Yearbook. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, W. Steven; Carolan, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, Jen; Squires, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 "State Preschool Yearbook" profiles state-funded prekindergarten programs in the United States. The "Yearbook" compares each state program's standards against a checklist of 10 research-based quality standards benchmarks. Although the benchmarks against which the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER)…

  1. Quantum information with Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangbin; Hiroshima, Tohya; Tomita, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Quantum optical Gaussian states are a type of important robust quantum states which are manipulatable by the existing technologies. So far, most of the important quantum information experiments are done with such states, including bright Gaussian light and weak Gaussian light. Extending the existing results of quantum information with discrete quantum states to the case of continuous variable quantum states is an interesting theoretical job. The quantum Gaussian states play a central role in such a case. We review the properties and applications of Gaussian states in quantum information with emphasis on the fundamental concepts, the calculation techniques and the effects of imperfections of the real-life experimental setups. Topics here include the elementary properties of Gaussian states and relevant quantum information device, entanglement-based quantum tasks such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography with weak and strong Gaussian states and the quantum channel capacity, mathematical theory of quantum entanglement and state estimation for Gaussian states

  2. Localized states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, A.Q.

    1976-08-01

    The multi-valley effective mass formalism for the asymmetric energy surfaces developed in an earlier paper is extended for the calculations of the ground state energies of isocoric donors in Ge. The impurity potential is constructed from the k-dependent dielectric function of Ge and a variational trial wave function, belonging to an irreducible representation of the point group Tsub(d) of the Hamiltonian, is used. The calculated energy levels for the singlet A 1 and the triplet T 2 symmetries of the ls states for As in Ge is found to be of the same order (-9.6 to-12.8 meV) as observed experimentally; however, the predicted E(A 1 ) - E(T 2 ) splitting is rather too small (approximately -0.5 to -0.7 meV) compared with the observed value -4.23 meV

  3. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  4. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  5. Parallel Polarization State Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-17

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  6. Bringing Different States in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Fersch, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Migration scholars have long been concerned with understanding what influences the incorporation of migrants into their host societies. The theoretical development in this field has been dominated for several years by North American migration scholars who have not been much interested...... of the article, it is exemplified how these insights can be applied when studying the Danish welfare state in a comparative perspective, drawing on examples on the influence of family policies on migrants’ attitudes towards women’s paid work....... in the influence of welfare state institutions. In recent years, European migration scholars have, however, contributed to important insights on the impact of the national integration context on the socioeconomic incorporation of migrants. The aim of this article is to contribute to this burgeoning research field...

  7. Models of multiquark states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The success of simple constituent quark models in single-hardon physics and their failure in multiquark physics is discussed, emphasizing the relation between meson and baryon spectra, hidden color and the color matrix, breakup decay modes, coupled channels, and hadron-hadron interactions via flipping and tunneling of flux tubes. Model-independent predictions for possible multiquark bound states are considered and the most promising candidates suggested. A quark approach to baryon-baryon interactions is discussed

  8. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  9. Algebras of Information States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2017), s. 1643-1675 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-07954J Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : information states * relational semantics * algebraic semantics * intuitionistic logic * inquisitive disjunction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2016

  10. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  11. Nevada state revenues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report analyzes the major sources of revenue to the Nevada State General Fund for purposes of estimating impacts associated with the siting of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. Each major revenue source is analyzed to identify relationships among the economic or demographic base, the revenue base, and the revenues generated. Trends and changes in the rates and/or base are highlighted. A model is developed for each revenue source to allow impact estimation

  12. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  13. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Coherent state quantum data encryption is highly interoperable with current classical optical infrastructure in both fiber and free space optical networks...hub’s field of regard has a transmit/receive module that are endpoints of the Lyot filter stage tree within the hub’s backend electro-optics control... mobile airborne and space-borne networking. Just like any laser communication technology, QC links are affected by several sources of distortions

  14. State Controled Avantgarde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    State controlled radio developed in the Nordic countries by the middle of the 1920es. Danish Radio was established for a trial period in April 1925, and was permanently founded in April 1926. Swedish radio was founded in 1925 and Norwegian radio in 1933. The new and unquestionably powerful medium...... to the program sheet from Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DBC) the program included transmission of music from the Radio Orchestra, sound film and transmissions from theatres and dance restaurants in Copenhage...

  15. Tracking intruder states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedinger, L L; Mueller, W F; Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The deformation-driving effects of intruder states are studied by analysis of various types of data on rotational bands in rare-earth deformed nuclei. The sensitivity of four measurables (bandhead energy, B(E2) value, neutron i{sub 13/2} crossing frequency, and signature splitting) to increased deformation in an intruder band is shown. The analysis of signature splitting systematics is extended to known superdeformed bands. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs.

  16. On coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polubarinov, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    A definition of the coherent state representation is given in this paper. In the representation quantum theory equations take the form of classical field theory equations (with causality inherent to the latter) not only in simple cases (free field and interactions with an external current or field), but also in the general case of closed systems of interacting fields. And, conversely, a classical field theory can be transformed into a form of a quantum one

  17. The nuclear state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungk, R.

    1979-01-01

    A general picture is given of the technical and sociological problems which it is said arise in the 'nuclear state'. Separate chapters are entitled: radiation fodder; the gamblers; the atomic man; the intimidated; the proliferators; atomic terrorists; the supervised. The Foreword, entitled 'the hard path' (i.e. with nuclear power) is contrasted with a final chapter entitled 'Prospect: the soft path' (i.e. without nuclear power). (U.K.)

  18. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  19. Variational transition state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces

  20. JWL Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-15

    The JWL equation of state (EOS) is frequently used for the products (and sometimes reactants) of a high explosive (HE). Here we review and systematically derive important properties. The JWL EOS is of the Mie-Grueneisen form with a constant Grueneisen coefficient and a constants specific heat. It is thermodynamically consistent to specify the temperature at a reference state. However, increasing the reference state temperature restricts the EOS domain in the (V, e)-plane of phase space. The restrictions are due to the conditions that P ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, and the isothermal bulk modulus is positive. Typically, this limits the low temperature regime in expansion. The domain restrictions can result in the P-T equilibrium EOS of a partly burned HE failing to have a solution in some cases. For application to HE, the heat of detonation is discussed. Example JWL parameters for an HE, both products and reactions, are used to illustrate the restrictions on the domain of the EOS.

  1. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  2. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  3. Information Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Gough

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle is applied to information in the universe. Once stars began forming there was a constant information energy density as the increasing proportion of matter at high stellar temperatures exactly compensated for the expanding universe. The information equation of state was close to the dark energy value, w = -1, for a wide range of redshifts, 10 > z > 0.8, over one half of cosmic time. A reasonable universe information bit content of only 1087 bits is sufficient for information energy to account for all dark energy. A time varying equation of state with a direct link between dark energy and matter, and linked to star formation in particular, is clearly relevant to the cosmic coincidence problem. In answering the ‘Why now?’ question we wonder ‘What next?’ as we expect the information equation of state to tend towards w = 0 in the future.c

  4. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  5. Overlaps of partial Néel states and Bethe states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O; Zarembo, K

    2016-01-01

    Partial Néel states are generalizations of the ordinary Néel (classical anti-ferromagnet) state that can have arbitrary integer spin. We study overlaps of these states with Bethe states. We first identify this overlap with a partial version of reflecting-boundary domain-wall partition function, and then derive various determinant representations for off-shell and on-shell Bethe states. (paper: quantum statistical physics, condensed matter, integrable systems)

  6. State estimation in networked systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers state estimation strategies for networked systems. State estimation refers to a method for computing the unknown state of a dynamic process by combining sensor measurements with predictions from a process model. The most well known method for state estimation is the Kalman

  7. Functional State Modelling of Cultivation Processes: Dissolved Oxygen Limitation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new functional state, namely dissolved oxygen limitation state for both bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultivation processes is presented in this study. Functional state modelling approach is applied to cultivation processes in order to overcome the main disadvantages of using global process model, namely complex model structure and a big number of model parameters. Alongwith the newly introduced dissolved oxygen limitation state, second acetate production state and first acetate production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of E. coli, while mixed oxidative state and first ethanol production state are recognized during the fed-batch cultivation of S. cerevisiae. For all mentioned above functional states both structural and parameter identification is here performed based on experimental data of E. coli and S. cerevisiae fed-batch cultivations.

  8. Teleportations of Mixed States and Multipartite Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-Shui; WANG Ya-Hong; SONG He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a protocol to deterministically teleport an unknown mixed state of qubit by utilizing a maximally bipartite entangled state of qubits as quantum channel. Ifa non-maximally entangled bipartite pure state is employed as quantum channel, the unknown mixed quantum state of qubit can be teleported with 1 - √1 - C2 probability, where C is the concurrence of the quantum channel. The protocol can also be generalized to teleport a mixed state of qudit or a multipartite mixed state. More important purpose is that, on the basis of the protocol, the teleportation of an arbitrary multipartite (pure or mixed) quantum state can be decomposed into the teleportation of each subsystem by employing separate entangled states as quantum channels. In the case of deterministic teleportation,Bob only needs to perform unitary transformations on his single particles in order to recover the initial teleported multipartite quantum state.

  9. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques

    2001-12-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)

  10. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  11. State Energy Program Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs

    1999-03-17

    The State Energy Program Operations Manual is a reference tool for the states and the program officials at the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and Regional Support Offices as well as State Energy Offices. The Manual contains information needed to apply for and administer the State Energy Program, including program history, application rules and requirements, and program administration and monitoring requirements.

  12. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  13. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  14. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  15. Nuclear molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of polarization on the stability of α-cluster structures in 8 Be and 12 C nuclei are studied in the intrinsic states. The extent of the polarization of α-clusters is investigated by employing a molecular-orbital model. Two α-cluster structure of 8 Be is shown to be extremely stable, and a triangular configuration of three α-clusters is also shown to be stable, but the polarizations of α-clusters are found rather large. Gruemmer--Faessler's method is discussed and their results are shown to be trivial

  16. Two electron Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the study of two-electron Rydberg atoms. With Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), there is a technique for characterizing a spectra in terms of a small number of parameters. A survey of some important effects specific to two-electon Rydberg states, using primarily the alkaline earth atoms for examples, is made. The remainder of the paper deals with a discussion of the electron-electron interaction, including some of the basic points of MQDT. Energy exchange between two electrons is also addressed

  17. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  18. Triggers of State Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    à 1990) à l’aide de données collatérales additionnelles. Les auteurs du document n’ont pas essayé de suivre les événements qui étaient en cours...défaillance étatique, et les auteurs du document ont reconnu qu’il ne serait pas très utile de reproduire toutes ces informations. Le document s’appuie le...30 Carment, David. Assessing state failure: implications for theory and policy. in Third World Quarterly. Vol 24, no 3. pp 407-427. 30 DRDC

  19. ECO INDUSTRIAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana López Pascual

    2015-06-01

    The facades will become aesthetically pleasing for the public space or such with the installation of a new technology of a photovoltaic-glass with transparency that can be used for windows or displays. A social program of artistic murals will accompany this with the aim for awareness on environmental protection. This is a project seeks to intervene in the public space, inviting the private sector for the economic investment and nurture to gives neighbours and all Barcelona's citizens a new and attractive image of this Industrial State

  20. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  1. Nuclear quasimolecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, Thorsten; Scheid, Werner; Schmidt, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Two aspects are reported: (a) Resonances in the scattering of 12 C on 12 C are interpreted within a phenomenological model of two oblately deformed 12 C nuclei. The corresponding quasibound states describe the nuclei rotating around the internuclear axis and carrying out butterfly and radial oscillations; (b) Angle-integrated cross sections of the scattering of 58 Ni on 58 Ni are calculated with the coupled channel method by taking the low energy spectrum of 58 Ni into account and compared with recent experimental data of Cindro et al. in the energy range between E cm = 110 and 115 MeV. (authors)

  2. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  3. Transcending the nation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    competition. This article surveys vocational education and training models in Europe, applying a discursive institutionalist perspective in order to describe how vocational education and training as an institution is being reframed by means of the Copenhagen Process, and concludes that a European model......Throughout Europe, vocational education and training is undergoing reform and modernisation as part of a common EU policy process, the Copenhagen Process. The aim of this Process is initiate a pan-European modernisation of vocational education and training in order to meet the challenges of global...... is under construction which aims to transcend the nation state by introducing a new way of "thinking" vocational education and training....

  4. Polynomial intelligent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milks, Matthew M; Guise, Hubert de

    2005-01-01

    The construction of su(2) intelligent states is simplified using a polynomial representation of su(2). The cornerstone of the new construction is the diagonalization of a 2 x 2 matrix. The method is sufficiently simple to be easily extended to su(3), where one is required to diagonalize a single 3 x 3 matrix. For two perfectly general su(3) operators, this diagonalization is technically possible but the procedure loses much of its simplicity owing to the algebraic form of the roots of a cubic equation. Simplified expressions can be obtained by specializing the choice of su(3) operators. This simpler construction will be discussed in detail

  5. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  6. Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  7. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    There is a large body of experience in high luminosity data taking in fixed target research. We try to consider a wide variety of high rate experiments which were limited by the detector (not by available beam) to a preset number of collisions per second. We then attempt to translate these state-of-the-art experiments to effective collider experiments. To this end, we extend the chosen detector to a comparison 4π collider detector operating near 1 TeV. There are several issues: (1) effective solid angle must be translated to approx. = 4π, (2) environments may be quite different, e.g., beam dump near fixed target or beam halo muons vs. collider backgrounds, (3) the multiplicity varies over the experiments selected and (4) we have to treat open vs closed geometries. The large variety of experiments selected is designed to average over the causes for detector limitation. Finally we chose detectors which have produced physics in order to gauge the state of the art

  8. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  9. Metastable states in magnetic nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, F. J.; Ross, C. A.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found. This "twi......Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found....... This "twisted" state contains a 360degrees domain wall which can exist over a wide range of applied fields. Four possible configurations of the twisted state are possible. Micromagnetic modeling shows that the twisted state is stabilised in small diameter, narrow rings. Additionally, more complex configurations...

  10. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  11. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandra Curtin and Jennifer Gangi

    2015-12-17

    This December 2015 report, the sixth in a series, provides a comprehensive analysis of state activities supporting fuel cell and hydrogen technology, profiles of leading states, and a catalog of recent installations, policies, funding, and deployments around the country.

  12. Set discrimination of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied

  13. Parent di-nuclear quasimolecular states as exotic resonant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, N.

    2002-01-01

    It in shown that the parent di-nuclear quasimolecular state is an exotic resonant state that corresponds to a S-matrix pole in the neighbourhood of an attractor in the k-plane. The properties of the parent quasimolecular states i.e. energy, widths, deviation from the linear dependence of the energy on l(l + 1) doorway character and criteria for observability, result naturally from the general properties of the exotic resonant states. (author)

  14. SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingSta...

  15. Teleportation of Two-Particle Entangled State via Cluster State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Da-Chuang; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,two schemes for teleporting an unknown two-particle entangled state from the sender (Alice)to the receiver (Bob) via a four-particle entangled cluster state are proposed.In these two schemes,the unknown twoparticle entangled state can be teleported perfectly.The successful probabilities and fidelities of the schemes can reach unity.

  16. steady – state performance of induction and transfer state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This paper presents paper presents paper presents the steady the steady the steady–state performance state performance state performance comparison comparison comparison between polyphase induction motor and polyphase between polyphase induction motor and polyphase. TF motor operating in. TF motor ...

  17. State distribution and reliability of some multi- state systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn : G series systems and second, the multi-state consecutive kn-out-of-mn : G parallel systems (see denitions 1 and 2).We begin by giving a non recursive formula which calculates the state distribution and the reliability of multi-state ...

  18. FIPRED state of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, D.; Meleg, T.; Dumitrescu, I.; Benga, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the FIPRED (Fission Product Release from Debris Bed) Project state of art (UO 2 sintered pellets oxidation). The FIPRED Project is dedicated to the study of the fission products released from irradiated pellets present in debris bed. The fission product release is produced by oxidative self disintegration of sintered pellets at air ingress and it depends on temperature. The experimental program covered experiments of 300-1400 deg. C in air diluted with nitrogen at different concentrations of oxygen and different steam-air mixture. The experiments were performed using the SETARAM thermo-gravimetric equipment and the FIPRED EQ equipment designed and manufactured especially for this type of experiment. The powders (fragments), resulted from UO 2 pellets self disintegration, were characterized by sieving and SEM. The self disintegration mechanism was demonstrated using the experimental result obtained and thermodynamically data of uranium oxides. (authors)

  19. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...... to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......, the essay argues three theses: (1) Toleration is not reducible to an ethics of spiritual freedom. (2) Toleration is not neutral to fanatism. (3) Toleration involves esteem for the person....

  20. Geometry of Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, D W

    2008-01-01

    A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and