WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-statistically significant relative

  1. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  2. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  3. Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.

  4. Non-statistical behavior of coupled optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pando Lambruschini, C.; Sinha, S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1991-10-01

    We study globally coupled chaotic maps modeling an optical system, and find clear evidence of non-statistical behavior: the mean square deviation (MSD) of the mean field saturates with respect to increase in the number of elements coupled, after a critical value, and its distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We also find that the power spectrum of the mean field displays well defined peaks, indicating a subtle coherence among different elements, even in the ''turbulent'' phase. This system is a physically realistic model that may be experimentally realizable. It is also a higher dimensional example (as each individual element is given by a complex map). Its study confirms that the phenomena observed in a wide class of coupled one-dimensional maps are present here as well. This gives more evidence to believe that such non-statistical behavior is probably generic in globally coupled systems. We also investigate the influence of parametric fluctuations on the MSD. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  5. Non-Statistical Methods of Analysing of Bankruptcy Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisula Tomasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on assessing the effectiveness of a non-statistical approach to bankruptcy modelling in enterprises operating in the logistics sector. In order to describe the issue more comprehensively, the aforementioned prediction of the possible negative results of business operations was carried out for companies functioning in the Polish region of Podkarpacie, and in Slovakia. The bankruptcy predictors selected for the assessment of companies operating in the logistics sector included 28 financial indicators characterizing these enterprises in terms of their financial standing and management effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to identify factors (models describing the bankruptcy risk in enterprises in the context of their forecasting effectiveness in a one-year and two-year time horizon. In order to assess their practical applicability the models were carefully analysed and validated. The usefulness of the models was assessed in terms of their classification properties, and the capacity to accurately identify enterprises at risk of bankruptcy and healthy companies as well as proper calibration of the models to the data from training sample sets.

  6. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The Relative Importance of Low Significance Level and High Power in Multiple Tests of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Rainer; Hager, Willi

    1983-01-01

    Two psychological experiments--Anderson and Shanteau (1970), Berkowitz and LePage (1967)--are reanalyzed to present the problem of the relative importance of low Type 1 error probability and high power when answering a research question by testing several statistical hypotheses. (Author/PN)

  8. [Significance of expert-guided groups for relatives in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M

    1985-03-01

    Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.

  9. Broken home or drug using peers : "Significant relations"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quensel, S; McArdle, P; Brinkley, A; Wiegersma, A; Blom, M; Fitzgerald, M; Johnson, R; Kolte, B; Michels, [No Value; Pierolini, A; Pos, R; Stoeckel, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative survey with representative samples of 3,386 school attending youths, most of whom were 15 years of age and residing in five European cities. We found significant but low correlations between the type of family structure (intact family, model family,

  10. Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    must respond within five seconds” [ EPF 2010]. A major source of architecturally significant requirements is the set of business goals that led to the...Projects for Competitive Advantage, Center for Business Practices, 1999. [ EPF 2010] Eclipse Process Framework Project. Concept: Architecturally

  11. Significance of the NCA's "Dialogue on Public Relations Education" Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean; Paluszek, John L.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that the 1998 Summer Conference of the National Communication Association, and the massive formative research in preparation for it, were seminal in examining current public-relations practice and education, in advocating education norms for the future, and in contributing to a much-needed ecumenism among the diverse public-relations…

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs

  13. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Single-trial event-related potentials to significant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    The stimulus-response pattern of the skin conductance response (SCR) was used as a model of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to assess the P1, N1, P2, N2 and late positive complex (LPC/P300) components of the ERP in a simple habituation paradigm, in which a single series of 12 innocuous tones were presented at a very long interstimulus interval (2 min). To maintain their waking state during this boring task, participants were instructed to alternately close or open their eyes to each stimulus. None of the baseline-to-peak ERP measures showed trials effects comparable with the marked habituation over trials shown by the SCRs. Principal Components Analysis was used to decompose the ERP, yielding factors identified as the N1, N2, P3a, P3b and Novelty P3 components. An additional factor represented later eye-movement activity. No trial effects were apparent for the N1, N2, P3a or P3b components. The Novelty P3 showed marked response decrement over trials. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptualisations of the OR.

  15. Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Martínez-Nuñez, Emilio; Vazquez, Saulo; Hase, William L

    2017-04-28

    In this Introduction, we show the basic problems of non-statistical and non-equilibrium phenomena related to the papers collected in this themed issue. Over the past few years, significant advances in both computing power and development of theories have allowed the study of larger systems, increasing the time length of simulations and improving the quality of potential energy surfaces. In particular, the possibility of using quantum chemistry to calculate energies and forces 'on the fly' has paved the way to directly study chemical reactions. This has provided a valuable tool to explore molecular mechanisms at given temperatures and energies and to see whether these reactive trajectories follow statistical laws and/or minimum energy pathways. This themed issue collects different aspects of the problem and gives an overview of recent works and developments in different contexts, from the gas phase to the condensed phase to excited states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by [sup 16]O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and [sup 12]C and [sup 24]Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author).

  17. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by 16 O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and 12 C and 24 Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author)

  18. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  19. Self-relation and relations with significant adults as factors of satisfaction with life in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of factors influencing life satisfaction of teenagers raised in families as well as those raised in orphanages. Both groups are studied with regard to their self-attitude, self-confidence and relationships with significant adults. Sample: 96 teenagers aged between 14 and 16 years (46 of them live in or- phanages. Methods: Self-attitude methodology by S.R. Pantileev, Trust questionnaire by T.P. Skripkina, Child-parent relationships questionnaire by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanskaya, Life Satisfaction scale by E. Diner. The research proved the level of trust in orphanage-raised teenagers to be considerably lower than that of family-raised teenagers. The way teenagers see their relationships with significant adults also turned out to be fairly different in case of orphanage-raised groups due to their caregivers' authoritarian attitude towards them and lack of empathy and communication. The study also shows that the level of life satisfaction in the orphanage group is significantly below the average and substantially lower than in the group from family-raised teenagers. Positive self-attitude, person’s approval of his/ her intellectual capacities, as well as the caregiver's understanding of his pupil's features, are predictors of life satisfaction in the group of teenagers from orphanages. Concerning the family-raised teenagers, much more factors are involved in maintaining their subjective well-being.

  20. Perception and significance of an assistive technology intervention - the perspectives of relatives of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, Jenny; Persson, Jan; Krevers, Barbro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions. Process evaluation is a good method for understanding how interventions can be improved - a keystone for quality work. Based on relatives' ratings, a high fulfilment of the AT intervention process was associated with the perception of a significant outcome of the intervention.

  1. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H., E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, Y. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen (France); Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN/Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, bd Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Schlathölter, T. [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-06-14

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.

  2. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  4. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  7. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives receiving oncological palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Araujo de Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.

  9. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  10. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRECHOROIDAL CLEFT IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.

  12. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  13. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  14. The significance of relative density for particle damage in loaded and sheared gravels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fityus Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.

  15. Relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy in treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Ohtsuka, Sinichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku; Ha, Young-Soo; Handa, Hajime

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen cases of brain metastases of lung cancer were retrospectively analysed with special reference to the relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastases was 1.2 months in 27 cases without treatment, 2.5 months in 51 cases treated by surgery alone, 4.2 months in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy alone and 6.5 months in 7 cases treated by surgery and radiotherapy. The survival rate in patients treated by radiotherapy was significantly better than in those not treated by radiotherapy. However, the effect of surgery was not significant in prolongation of survival time. On the other hand, the rate of improvement in neurological symptoms assessed at one month after the initiation of treatment was 80.9% in 47 cases treated by surgery and 19.4 % in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy. The result suggested that surgery is superior to radiotherapy in alleviating neurological symptoms. It is important to understand the nature of effect of each treatment. A better result will be anticipated by proper selection or combination of these treatments. (author)

  16. Chemical and Biological Significance of Oenothein B and Related Ellagitannin Oligomers with Macrocyclic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.

  17. Highly significant linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis and related allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Haagerup, Annette; Børglum, Anders D.

    2006-01-01

    or all are still inconclusive. Following genome-wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12-q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib-pair families were fine-scale mapped......BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra-individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many...... in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) > or =1.5 in the genome-wide scans. RESULTS: Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib-pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage...

  18. On the relative significance of lithospheric weakening mechanisms for sustained plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.

  19. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  20. Concrete component aging and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  1. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  2. Study of stone composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang; Li, WenHui; Ru, XiaoRui; Meng, Min; Xi, Xinsheng; Huang, Gang; Shi, BaoGuang; Liu, Gang; Li, WeiHua; Xu, Hui

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and their clinical significance. A total of 49 melamine-related urinary calculi were included from 49 children (age 4-82 months, mean 22). The qualitative analysis of stone composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared. The quantitative analysis of the stone computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, stone uric acid level, and stone calcium level were measured using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that 41 (84%) of the 49 stones contained uric acid and 25 (51%) contained calcium compounds. The data from the qualitative and quantitative analysis were available for 15 stones because of sample consumption in the detection process (Fourier transform infrared, atomic absorption spectrum, and high-performance liquid chromatography). A negative correlation was observed between stone uric acid level and stone calcium level (n = 15, r = -0.629, P = .009). A positive correlation was observed between the stone calcium level and stone CT attenuation value (n = 25, r = 0.855, P = .000). Compared with the ≤1-year-age group and the 1-2-year-age group, the stone calcium level in the >2-year-age group was significantly greater (27.51% ± 12.65% vs 1.60% ± 1.68% or 10.12% ± 8.69%, P = .000 and P = .003, respectively). Compared with the alkalization-alone group, the stone calcium level in the nonalkalization-alone group was significant greater (19.83% ± 7.48% vs 1.25% ± 1.43%, n = 19, P = .000). The stones from children >2 years old were not amenable to medical treatment because they contained greater levels of calcium, which can be demonstrated by the radiologic "positive stone image" or stone CT attenuation value. We believe that surgical invention will be the best choice for such patients if extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  4. The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect

  5. Significant change of predictions related to the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, nuclear power contribution increased slowly in the world. This trend was mainly determined by the commissioning of new nuclear power plants, NPP, in the non-developed countries, except for Japan and South Korea. Almost all the forecasts offered the image of the stagnant nuclear power business. Sweden, Germany, Holland and Belgium Governments made clear the intention to stop the production of electricity based on fission. Recently, despite the negative effects on nuclear power of the terrorism events of September 11, 2001, the predictions related to the nuclear power future become much more optimistic. USA, Japan, South Korea and Canada made clear that new NPPs will offer their significant electricity contribution several decades, even after years 2020-2030. Moreover, several old NPP from USA obtained the license for an additional 20 years period of operation. The analysis indicated that most of the existing NPP in USA may increase the level of the maximum global power defined by the initial design. In the European Union the situation is much more complicated. About 35% of the electricity is based now on fission. Several countries, like Sweden and Germany, maintain the position of phasing out the NPPs, as soon as the licensed life-time is over. Finland decided to build a new power plant. France is very favorable to nuclear power, but does not need more energy. In the UK several very old NPP will be shut down, and companies like BNFL and British Energy intend to build new NPP, based on Westinghouse or AECL-Canada advanced reactors. Switzerland and Spain are favorable to the future use of nuclear power. In the eastern part of Europe, almost all the countries intend to base their electricity production on coal, fission, hydro and gas, nuclear contribution being significant. The most impressive increases of nuclear power output are related to Asia; in China, from 2.2 Gwe in 1999, to 18.7 Gwe in 2020, reference case, or 10

  6. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  7. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  8. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  9. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  10. The significance of residual stresses in relation to the integrity of LWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidbury, D.P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The level and distribution of residual stresses in heavy section weldments and the factors affecting their relaxation with post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed; residual stresses are also considered in relation to the deposition of austenitic strip cladding and repair welding. A brief survey is made of currently available methods of measuring surface and sub-surface residual stresses in heavy section weldments; the effects of compressive residual stresses on the detection and sizing of planar defects are similarly considered. Available fracture mechanics methodologies with the capability of evaluation defect significance in the presence of residual and other secondary stresses are reviewed in some detail. On-going experimental investigations of the effects of residual stresses on structural integrity are also described. Following a general discussion, the desirability of internationally agreed Codes and Methods for assessing defects in the presence of residual and other self-limiting stresses is pointed out. It is argued that before such agreement could be achieved, however, further work is necessary, and a number of recommendations are given. (author)

  11. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Natsis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.

  12. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  13. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...

  14. Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.

    There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...

  15. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  16. Health-related quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Which factors are of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Ostergaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing joint pain, loss of function and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL in RA patients is associated with several risk factors; in this paper the evidence relating to the most important risk factors is reviewed....... Modern medical therapy has improved HRQoL in RA patients, while demographic factors (female sex and older age), low socioeconomic status (in terms of education and position in the work force) and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to be associated with poorer HRQoL Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/3...

  17. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  18. Paraprotein–Related Kidney Disease: Diagnosing and Treating Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mitchell H.; Edeani, Amaka; Yanagita, Motoko; Glezerman, Ilya G.

    2016-01-01

    Paraprotein–related kidney disease represents a complex group of diseases caused by an abnormal paraprotein secreted by a clone of B cells. The disease manifestations range from tubulopathies, such as the Fanconi syndrome, to a spectrum of glomerular diseases that can present with varying degrees of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. Diagnosis of these diseases can be challenging because of the wide range of manifestations as well as the relatively common finding of a serum paraprotein, especially in elderly patients. Thus, renal biopsy along with detailed hematologic workup is essential to link the presence of the paraprotein to the associated renal disease. Recent advances in treatment with more effective and targeted chemotherapies, as well as stem cell transplantation, have improved the renal and overall prognosis for many of these disorders. PMID:27526705

  19. Relative Significance of Journals, Authors, and Articles Cited in Financial Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, John C; Mabry, Rodney H

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate journals based on their relative contributions to top-level finance research in a recent period. Journals are ranked according to the number of citations found in articles published in the Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, and Review of Financial Studies. The analysis controls for both the average number of articles and average number of words published annually in each cited journal. The authors identify t...

  20. Crystalline lens paradoxes revisited: significance of age-related restructuring of the GRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    The accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline lens is used to explore the age-related changes in ocular power and spherical aberration. The additional parameter m in the GRIN lens model allows decoupling of the axial and radial GRIN profiles, and is used to stabilise the age-related change in ocular power. Data for age-related changes in ocular geometry and lens parameter P in the axial GRIN profile were taken from published experimental data. In our age-dependent eye model, the ocular refractive power shows behaviour similar to the previously unexplained "lens paradox". Furthermore, ocular spherical aberration agrees with the data average, in contrast to the proposed "spherical aberration paradox". The additional flexibility afforded by parameter m , which controls the ratio of the axial and radial GRIN profile exponents, has allowed us to study the restructuring of the lens GRIN medium with age, resulting in a new interpretation of the origin of the power and spherical aberration paradoxes. Our findings also contradict the conceptual idea that the ageing eye is similar to the accommodating eye.

  1. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  3. Epidemiology and Clinical Significance of Secondary and Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt Østgård, Lene Sofie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Sengeløv, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Secondary and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (sAML and tAML, respectively) remain therapeutic challenges. Still, it is unclear whether their inferior outcome compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) varies as a result of previous hematologic disease or can be explained...... leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasia) versus de novo AML. Limited to intensive therapy patients, we compared chance of complete remission by logistic regression analysis and used a pseudo-value approach to compare relative risk (RR) of death at 90 days, 1 year, and 3 years, overall and stratified...... myeloid disorder or prior cytotoxic exposure was associated with decreased complete remission rates and inferior survival (3-year adjusted RR for MDS-sAML, non-MDS-sAML, and tAML: RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32; RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.34; and RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32, respectively) compared...

  4. Praxis induction. Definition, relation to epilepsy syndromes, nosological and prognostic significance. A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  6. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  7. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.

  8. The Significance of Electronic Commerce to Firms' Operations in Relation to Business Location: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Eze

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.

  9. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  10. High density renal medulla on unenhanced CT : significance and relation with hydration status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation

  11. Relation of milrinone after surgery for congenital heart disease to significant postoperative tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y; Fish, Frank A; Kannankeril, Prince J

    2011-12-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and an increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. The data were prospectively collected, including a review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical records. Within 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (range 0.0 to 426), the median weight was 6.0 kg (range 0.7 to 108), and the cohort was 45% female. The overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n = 58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.0, p = 0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of Milrinone Following Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease to Significant Postoperative Tachyarrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H.; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y.; Fish, Frank A.; Kannankeril, Prince J.

    2011-01-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients following congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and increased risk for postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias following congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. Data was prospectively collected, including review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical record. Over 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (0.0–426), weight was 6.0 kg (0.7–108), and the cohort was 45% female. Overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n=85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n=69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n=58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n=58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age less than 1 month, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, RACHS-1 score greater than 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.3–6.0], p=0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period following congenital heart surgery. PMID:21890079

  13. Are there non-statistical effects in /sup 173/Yb(n,gamma)/sup 174/Yb?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, S.; Becvar, F.; Chrien, R.E.; Kopecky, J.

    1987-01-01

    The resonance-averaged capture of neutrons in 173 Yb has been studied at energy of 2 keV. With a statistical significance of 99.5% an enhancement of E1-transition to the neutron 2QP levels in 174 Yb is observed. 8 refs

  14. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  15. Non-statistical effects in the radiative capture cross sections of the neodymium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, A.R.; Allen, B.J.; Boldeman, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of the stable neodymium isotopes have been measured with high energy resolution in the keV region at the 40 m station of ORELA. Average resonance parameters are extracted for s-wave resonances. Significant positive correlations are found between gamma-n-0 and gamma-gamma for all isotopes. The magnitude of the observed correlation coefficient, particularly for 142 Nd (rho = 0.9), cannot be explained in terms of valence neutron capture and additional mechanisms are discussed. The average s-wave radiative widths for the odd-A isotopes are markedly greater than for the even-A isotopes, while the p-wave radiative width for 142 Nd is considerably less than the s-wave width. (author)

  16. Non-statistical effects in bond fission reactions of 1,2-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Harold W.; Raff, Lionel M.; Thompson, Donald L.

    1991-08-01

    A microcanonical, classical variational transition-state theory based on the use of the efficient microcanonical sampling (EMS) procedure is applied to simple bond fission in 1,2-difluoroethane. Comparison is made with results of trajectory calculations performed on the same global potential-energy surface. Agreement between the statistical theory and trajectory results for CC CF and CH bond fissions is poor with differences as large as a factor of 125. Most importantly, at the lower energy studied, 6.0 eV, the statistical calculations predict considerably slower rates than those computed from trajectories. We conclude from these results that the statistical assumptions inherent in the transition-state theory method are not valid for 1,2-difluoroethane in spite of the fact that the total intramolecular energy transfer rate out of CH and CC normal and local modes is large relative to the bond fission rates. The IVR rate is not globally rapid and the trajectories do not access all of the energetically available phase space uniformly on the timescale of the reactions.

  17. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  18. Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-08-01

    In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

  19. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum true insulin and proinsulin levels in relations of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Huang Haibo; Wu Yan; He Haoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the degree of insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function impairment in close (1st degree) relations of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMII). Methods: Serum true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels at fasting and after oral 75g glucose loading were determined in: 1) patients with DM 2, n=65 2)relations of DM 2 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), n=34 3) relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n=66 and 4) controls, n=48. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β cell secretory indices were calculated from the data. Results: Fasting serum PI levels were significantly higher in DM 2 patients, relations with IGT and NGT than those in the controls (t=2.38, t=2.16, t=1.95, P 1 C percentages were significantly higher in DM 2 patients and IGT, NGT groups than those in controls (t=3.67, t=2.45, t=1.97, P 1 C percentage, fasting TI and IRI levels. Conclusion: Insulin resistance was already obvious in those relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory function impairment was also present. Early intervention in these subjects might be beneficial. (authors)

  1. Impulsive IR-multiphoton dissociation of acrolein: observation of non-statistical product vibrational excitation in CO ( v=1-12) by time resolved IR fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P. K.

    2000-10-01

    On IR-multiphoton excitation, vibrationally highly excited acrolein molecules undergo concerted dissociation generating CO and ethylene. The vibrationally excited products, CO and ethylene, are detected immediately following the CO 2 laser pulse by observing IR fluorescence at 4.7 and 3.2 μm, respectively. The nascent CO is formed with significant vibrational excitation, with a Boltzmann population distribution for v=1-12 levels corresponding to T v=12 950±50 K. The average vibrational energy in the product CO is found to be 26 kcal mol -1, in contrast to its statistical share of 5 kcal mol -1, available from the product energy distribution. The nascent vibrationally excited ethylene either dissociates by absorbing further infrared laser photons from the tail of the CO 2 laser pulse or relaxes by collisional deactivation. Ethylene IR-fluorescence excitation spectrum showed a structure in the quasi-continuum, with a facile resonance at 10.53 μm corresponding to the 10P(14) CO 2 laser line, which explains the higher acetylene yield observed at a higher pressure. A hydrogen atom transfer mechanism followed by C-C impulsive break in the acrolein transition state may be responsible for such non-statistical product energy distribution.

  2. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  3. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  4. Significant Factors Related to Failed Pediatric Dental General Anesthesia Appointments at a Hospital-based Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, John R; Yepes, Juan F; Vinson, LaQuia A; Jones, James E; Emhardt, John D; Kozlowski, Diana C; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo

    2017-05-15

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relationship between appointment failure and the factors of age, gender, race, insurance type, day of week, scheduled time of surgery, distance traveled, and weather; (2) investigate reasons for failure; and (3) explore the relationships between the factors and reasons for failure. Electronic medical records were accessed to obtain data for patients scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia from May 2012 to May 2015. Factors were analyzed for relation to appointment failure. Data from 3,513 appointments for 2,874 children were analyzed. Bivariate associations showed statistically significant (Pgeneral anesthesia face specific barriers to care.

  5. Expression and Significance of gp96 and Immune-related Gene CTLA-4, CD8 in Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan ZHENG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp

  6. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  7. Determination of vasculopathy-related indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-bin MA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determined the serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and provide a basis for the prevention of diabetes related complications. Methods Two-hundred and forty-six T2DM patients (113 males and 133 females, aged 60.2±15.3 years, disease course 5-22 years hospitalized in the Navy General Hospital of PLA from March to December, 2012, were involved in the present study. The patients were divided into complication group (n=140 and no complication group (n=106 according to whether there were diabetes related complications, and 120 healthy individuals were recruited as control group. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, fibrinogen (FIB, platelet count (PLT, and platelet size distribution width (PDW, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR were determined and compared among the 3 groups. Results The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MPV, PDW, P-LCR and FIB were significantly higher in complication group than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05, and PLT, APTT and PT were significantly lower than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05. No significant difference of HDL-C levels was found among the 3 groups. Conclusions The blood of patients with T2DM was in hyperviscous and/or hypercoagulable states, and it is prone to induce vascular complications. Monitoring serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters should be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.015

  8. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and application of a methodology for the analysis of significant human related event trends in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is developed to identify and flag significant trends related to the safety and availability of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The development is intended to aid in reducing likelihood of human errors. To assure that the methodology can be easily adapted to various types of classification schemes of operation data, a data bank classified by the Transient Analysis Classification and Evaluation (TRACE) scheme is selected for the methodology. The significance criteria for human-initiated events affecting the systems and for events caused by human deficiencies were developed. Clustering analysis was used to verify the learning trend in multidimensional histograms. A computer code is developed based on the K-Means algorithm and applied to find the learning period in which error rates are monotonously decreasing with plant age. The Freeman-Tukey (F-T) deviates are used to select generic problems identified by a large positive value (here approximately over 2.0) for the deviate. The identified generic problems are: decision errors which are highly associated with reactor startup operations in the learning period of PWR plants (PWRs), response errors which are highly associated with Secondary Non-Nuclear Systems (SNS) in PWRs, and significant errors affecting systems and which are caused by response action are highly associated with startup reactor mode in BWRS

  10. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  11. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  12. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  13. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  14. Clinical significance of SNP (rs2596542 in histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A promoter region among hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA is an antigen induced by stress and performs an integral role in immune responses as an anti-infectious and antitumor agent. This work was designed to investigate whether (SNP rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region is predictive of liver cirrhosis (LC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or not. Forty-seven healthy controls and 94 HCV-infected patients, subdivided into 47 LC and 47 HCC subjects were enrolled in this study. SNP association was studied using real time PCR and soluble serum MICA concentration was measured using ELISA. Results showed that heterozygous genotype rs2596542CT was significantly (P = 0.022 distributed between HCC and LC related CHC patients. The sMICA was significantly higher (P = 0.0001 among HCC and LC. No significant association (P = 0.56 between rs2596542CT genotypes and sMICA levels was observed. Studying SNP rs2596542C/T association with HCC and LC susceptibility revealed that statistical significant differences (P = 0.013, P = 0.027 were only observed between SNP rs2596542C/T and each of HCC and LC, respectively, versus healthy controls, indicating that the rs2596542C/T genetic variation is not a significant contributor to HCC development in LC patients. Moreover, the T allele was considered a risk factor for HCC and LC vulnerability in HCV patients (OR = 1.93 and 2.1, respectively, while the C allele contributes to decreasing HCC risk. Therefore, SNP (rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region and sMICA levels might be potential useful markers in the assessment of liver disease progression to LC and HCC.

  15. Absolute fragmentation cross sections in atom-molecule collisions : Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Domaracka, A.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schlathölter, T.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling laws for absolute cross sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH+) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation cross sections

  16. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prognostic significance of normal quantitative Tl-201 stress scintigraphy in relation to pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.; Wackers, F.

    1984-01-01

    A previous study reported an excellent prognosis and low cardiac event rate in patients(pts) with chest pain and normal quantitative T1-201 scintigraphy(SC). Such result would not be unexpected if the population under study had a predominance of pts with low pre-T1-201 likelihood(L) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the authors undertook telephone follow-up in pts with chest pain syndrome and normal quantitative T1-201 exercise SC, and related outcome to pretest L of CAD. Pretest L was determined by serial L analysis on the basis of: symptoms, age, sex, and exercise ECG. All pts had T1-201 SC immediately post exercise and 2 hrs later. After interpolative background correction, circumferential count and washout profiles were generated. All pts had unequivocally normal studies. Of a total of 96 pts studied in 1981-82, 20 pts were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 76 pts, 45 were males and 31 females. The pretest L of CAD had an inverted Gaussian distribution: thirty-four pts(47%) had 66% L of CAD. Mean follow-up was 22+- 3 months. No deaths occurred. Two pts(3%) (with pretest L of 54% and 94%) had myocardial infarctions, 8 and 22 months respectively after T1-201 stress SC. One pt underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) 16 months after T1-201 stress SC. These findings confirm excellent prognostic significance of normal quantitative T1-201 stress scintigraphy

  18. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  19. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  20. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  2. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  3. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  4. The application of statistical and/or non-statistical sampling techniques by internal audit functions in the South African banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. van der Nest

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use by internal audit functions of audit sampling techniques in order to test the effectiveness of controls in the banking sector. The article focuses specifically on the use of statistical and/or non-statistical sampling techniques by internal auditors. The focus of the research for this article was internal audit functions in the banking sector of South Africa. The results discussed in the article indicate that audit sampling is still used frequently as an audit evidence-gathering technique. Non-statistical sampling techniques are used more frequently than statistical sampling techniques for the evaluation of the sample. In addition, both techniques are regarded as important for the determination of the sample size and the selection of the sample items

  5. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  6. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with

  8. Relating genes to function: identifying enriched transcription factors using the ENCODE ChIP-Seq significance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J

    2013-08-01

    Biological analysis has shifted from identifying genes and transcripts to mapping these genes and transcripts to biological functions. The ENCODE Project has generated hundreds of ChIP-Seq experiments spanning multiple transcription factors and cell lines for public use, but tools for a biomedical scientist to analyze these data are either non-existent or tailored to narrow biological questions. We present the ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool, a flexible web application leveraging public ENCODE data to identify enriched transcription factors in a gene or transcript list for comparative analyses. The ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool is written in JavaScript on the client side and has been tested on Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Mozilla Firefox browsers. Server-side scripts are written in PHP and leverage R and a MySQL database. The tool is available at http://encodeqt.stanford.edu. abutte@stanford.edu Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan

  10. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  11. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  12. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic...

  13. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p work per week (p < 0.01). Women workers reported experiencing more sites of pain (p < 0.003). This exploratory study suggests that managing the server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  15. Validation of DAB2IP methylation and its relative significance in predicting outcome in renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yun; Kapur, Payal; Wu, Kai-Jie; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Bing; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Margulis, Vitaly; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Luo, Jun-Hang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in RCC development. In this study, We identified one CpG methylation biomarker (DAB2IP CpG1) located UTSS of DAB2IP that was associated with poor overall survival in a cohort of 318 ccRCC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We further validated the prognostic accuracy of DAB2IP CpG methylation by pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay in 224 ccRCC patients from multiple Chinese centers (MCHC set), and 239 patients from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW set) by using FFPE samples. DAB2IP CpG1 can predict the overall survival of patients in TCGA, MCHC, and UTSW sets independent of patient age, Fuhrman grade and TNM stage (all p<0.05). DAB2IP CpG1 successfully categorized patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical subsets, regardless of age, sex, grade, stage, or race (HR: 1.63-7.83; all p<0.05). The detection of DAB2IP CpG1 methylation was minimally affected by ITH in ccRCC. DAB2IP mRNA expression was regulated by DNA methylation in vitro. DAB2IP CpG1 methylation is a practical and repeatable biomarker for ccRCC, which can provide prognostic value that complements the current staging system. PMID:27129174

  16. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Skeletal-related events significantly impact health-related quality of life in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: data from PREVAIL and AFFIRM trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Ivanescu, C; Phung, D; Loriot, Y; Abhyankar, S; Beer, T M; Tombal, B; Holmstrom, S

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of skeletal-related events (SREs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in phase III trials of enzalutamide versus placebo. Patients with mCRPC experiencing at least one SRE during AFFIRM and PREVAIL were assessed for trajectory-adjusted mean change in HRQoL by first SRE using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P; AFFIRM, three domains, and PREVAIL, nine domains) and EQ-5D (PREVAIL) instruments. First SREs caused HRQoL deterioration in both trials. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact, with clinically meaningful reductions in seven of nine FACT-P domains in PREVAIL and all three in AFFIRM (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) change in FACT-P total score -16.95 (-26.47, -7.44) and -9.69 (-16.10, -3.27), respectively). In PREVAIL, first SREs caused clinically meaningful declines in EQ-5D utility index, irrespective of category; spinal cord compression had the largest impact (mean (95% CI) change -0.24 (-0.39, -0.08)). In AFFIRM, FACT-P and FACT-General total scores showed clinically meaningful declines after radiation/surgery to bone. SREs were associated with clinically meaningful functional declines in the daily lives of patients with mCRPC. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact on HRQoL.

  19. Non statistical Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-04-01

    We have shown that the transport equation can be solved with particles, like the Monte-Carlo method, but without random numbers. In the Monte-Carlo method, particles are created from the source, and are followed from collision to collision until either they are absorbed or they leave the spatial domain. In our method, particles are created from the original source, with a variable weight taking into account both collision and absorption. These particles are followed until they leave the spatial domain, and we use them to determine a first collision source. Another set of particles is then created from this first collision source, and tracked to determine a second collision source, and so on. This process introduces an approximation which does not exist in the Monte-Carlo method. However, we have analyzed the effect of this approximation, and shown that it can be limited. Our method is deterministic, gives reproducible results. Furthermore, when extra accuracy is needed in some region, it is easier to get more particles to go there. It has the same kind of applications: rather problems where streaming is dominant than collision dominated problems

  20. Weather is not significantly correlated with destination-specific transport-related physical activity among adults: A large-scale temporally matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Casey P; Zhang, Kai; Salvo, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Weather is an element of the natural environment that could have a significant effect on physical activity. Existing research, however, indicates only modest correlations between measures of weather and physical activity. This prior work has been limited by a failure to use time-matched weather and physical activity data, or has not adequately examined the different domains of physical activity (transport, leisure, occupational, etc.). Our objective was to identify the correlation between weather variables and destination-specific transport-related physical activity in adults. Data were sourced from the California Household Travel Survey, collected in 2012-3. Weather variables included: relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Transport-related physical activity (walking) was sourced from participant-recorded travel diaries. Three-part hurdle models were used to analyze the data. Results indicate statistically or substantively insignificant correlations between the weather variables and transport-related physical activity for all destination types. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that transport-related physical activity may occur relatively independently of weather conditions. The knowledge that weather conditions do not seem to be a significant barrier to this domain of activity may potentially expand the universe of geographic locations that are amenable to environmental and programmatic interventions to increase transport-related walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    . On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  2. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  3. The influence of mood on the perception of hearing-loss related quality of life in people with hearing loss and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preminger, Jill E; Meeks, Suzanne

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the congruent/incongruent perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life between members of couples and to determine how incongruence was affected by individual psychosocial characteristics, specifically measures of mood (negative affect and positive affect), stress, and communication in the marriage. An exploratory correlational analysis was performed on data for 52 couples in which only one member had a hearing loss. In the regression analyses the independent variables were hearing-loss related quality of life scores measured in people with hearing loss, measured in significant others, and differences in hearing-loss related quality of life among members of a couple. The results demonstrate that both in people with hearing loss and their significant others, perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life is highly correlated with negative mood scores. Incongruence in hearing-loss related quality of life scores reported by members of a couple were highly correlated with negative affect measured within each individual. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of audiologic rehabilitation can use measures of mood as an outcome variable.

  4. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two Aspects of Activation: Arousal and Subjective Significance – Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Correlates Investigated by Means of a Modified Emotional Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Imbir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The arousal level of words presented in a Stroop task was found to affect their interference on the required naming of the words’ color. Based on a dual-processes approach, we propose that there are two aspects to activation: arousal and subjective significance. Arousal is crucial for automatic processing. Subjective significance is specific to controlled processing. Based on this conceptual model, we predicted that arousal would enhance interference in a Stroop task, as attention would be allocated to the meaning of the inhibited word. High subjective significance should have the opposite effect, i.e., it should enhance the controlled and explicit part of Stroop task processing, which is color naming. We found that response latencies were modulated by the interaction between the arousal and subjective significance levels of words. The longest reaction times were observed for highly arousing words of medium subjective significance level. Arousal shaped event related potentials in the 150–290 ms time range, while effects of subjective significance were found for 50–150, 150–290, and 290–530 ms time ranges.

  6. Significance of psychological stress response and health-related quality of life in spouses of cancer patients when given bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoko Kugimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.

  7. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    .2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value...... the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) when the patients were admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation and at discharge. Improvement in emotional condition was investigated using the following criteria: (i) statistically reliable improvement; and (ii) clinically significant change (CSC). Results: At admission, 53...... in the patients. Conclusion: Of the relatives who reported scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales at patient's admission, approximately 40% experienced CSC in anxiety and depression during the patient's rehabilitation. Relatives of patients experiencing improvement during inpatient...

  8. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  9. Relation of burnout with lack of time for being with significant others, role conflict, cohesion, and self-confidence among Norwegian Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and Self-confidence were negatively associated with Burnout, whereas Lack of time to be with significant others and Role conflict were positively ssociated with Burnout scores. Results are in accordance with Coakley's 1992 conception of burnout explained as a social problem, Kahn's 1978 hypothesis that role conflict is positively correlated with stress and burnout, and Smith's 1986 hypothesis that personality factors such as self-confidence should be associated with cognitive appraisal of situational demands related to burnout.

  10. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  12. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  13. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  14. Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil (AEO is becoming increasingly popular in skincare, although its biological activity in human skin cells has not been investigated. Therefore, we sought to study AEO's effect on 17 important protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling by using a pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast culture model. AEO significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC, monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. It also showed significant antiproliferative activity and robustly inhibited collagen-I, collagen-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. The inhibitory effect of AEO on increased production of these protein biomarkers suggests it has anti-inflammatory property. We then studied the effect of AEO on the genome-wide expression of 21,224 genes in the same cell culture. AEO significantly and diversely modulated global gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA showed that AEO robustly affected numerous critical genes and signaling pathways closely involved in inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of the biological activity and beneficial action of AEO in human skin cells.

  15. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.

  16. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys−) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys− cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

  17. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  18. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  19. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3 and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthodontic treatment, subjects having disto-angular, horizontal or vertical impacted PMM3 were excluded from the study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 mesially impacted PMM3 and (2 vertically erupted PMM3. Following measurements were taken from acetate paper tracing of standardized panoramic radiograph: (1 Angulation of long axis of PMM3 to permanent mandibular second molar (theta (2 Angulation of PMM 3 to base of mandible (theta 2 (3 Gonial angle (theta 3 (4 Mesio-distal width of PMM 3 (5 Retro molar space. From these measurements Ganss ratio (retro molar space /PMM3 crown width. was calculated. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that angle theta 1, angle theta 2, retro molar space and Ganss ratio were positively co-related and highly significant variables associated with the mesially and vertically erupted teeth as measured on panoramic radiograph. Using these variables a long-term study can be carried out to predict the ultimate position of lower third molar in the arch so that if there is a probability of the tooth being impacted at a later age, a prophylactic germectomy can be performed at an early age.

  20. Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Marcyniuk, Paulina; Rudnicki, Wojciech; Mitus, Jerzy W; Dyczek, Sonia; Rys, Janusz; Sas-Korczynska, Beata

    2018-02-01

    It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters. For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Herein we report, for the first time, that strong and heterogenous enhancement on CESM was related to unfavorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients (p=0.005). Moreover, the strong enhancement was more frequent in large and node-positive tumors (pT>1, pN>0) (p=0.002), as well as in carcinomas with podoplanin-sparse stroma (p=0.008). Intensity and pattern of enhancement on CESM might provide (together with the results of other diagnostic imaging methods) not only the confirmation of presence or absence of tumor, but also prognostic information. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2018-01-19

    The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The

  2. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  3. Relatively slow stochastic gene-state switching in the presence of positive feedback significantly broadens the region of bimodality through stabilizing the uninduced phenotypic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Wu, Pingping; Qian, Hong; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2018-03-01

    Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation. Hence using the lac operon as an archetype, in such a region of operon-state switching, we present a fluctuating-rate model for this classical gene regulation module, incorporating the more realistic operon-state switching mechanism that was recently elucidated. We found that the positive feedback mechanism induces bistability (referred to as deterministic bistability), and that the parameter range for its occurrence is significantly broadened by stochastic operon-state switching. We further show that in the absence of positive feedback, operon-state switching must be extremely slow to trigger bistability by itself. However, in the presence of positive feedback, which stabilizes the induced state, the relatively slow operon-state switching kinetics within the physiological region are sufficient to stabilize the uninduced state, together generating a broadened parameter region of bistability (referred to as stochastic bistability). We illustrate the opposite phenotype-transition rate dependence upon the operon-state switching rates in the two types of bistability, with the aid of a recently proposed rate formula for fluctuating-rate models. The rate formula also predicts a maximal transition rate in the intermediate region of operon-state switching, which is validated by numerical simulations in our model. Overall, our findings suggest a biological function of transcriptional "variations" among genetically identical cells, for the emergence of bistability and

  4. The distribution of FDG at PET examinations constitutes a relative mechanism: significant effects at activity quantification in patients with a high muscular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Henry; Johansson, Ove; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    At 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) examinations a high tracer uptake of the skeletal muscles is sometimes encountered which can lead to reduced uptake in pathological lesions. This was evaluated in retrospect in patients being recalled for a repeat examination after reducing the muscular uptake. Ten patients with increased muscular tracer uptake were examined with FDG PET/CT on two occasions with a mean of 6 days. All patients showed at least one pathological lesion with increased tracer uptake. The muscular uptake was reduced at the second examination by informing the patient to refrain from physical activity together with pretreatment with diazepam. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the pathological lesion and SUV mean of certain skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, blood and certain bone marrow portions were calculated. In all patients, the muscular uptake was reduced to a normal level at visual evaluation as well as at comparison of SUVs with 25 consecutive clinical patients exhibiting a normal FDG distribution (p max increased from 2.4 to 3.7 (54 %) between the examinations (p max to the activity of any of the reference tissues/organs there was no significant difference between the studies. The distribution of FDG constitutes a relative mechanism. This must be especially considered at longitudinal examinations in the same patient at therapy evaluations. In examinations with a somehow distorted general distribution of the activity, it may be more relevant to relate the lesion activity to a reference tissue/organ than relying on SUV assessments. (orig.)

  5. Hypoxia and inactivity related physiological changes precede or take place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial community structure: The PlanHab randomized trial pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šket

    Full Text Available We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR, hypoxic bed rest (HBR and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2 and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4000 m simulated altitude, respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal environment such as defecation frequency, intestinal electrical conductivity (IEC, sterol and polyphenol content and diversity, indole, aromaticity and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured (64 variables. The structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community was assessed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Inactivity negatively affected frequency of defecation and in combination with hypoxia increased IEC (p < 0.05. In contrast, sterol and polyphenol diversity and content, various characteristics of DOM and aromatic compounds, the structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community were not significantly affected over time. A new in-house PlanHab database was established to integrate all measured variables on host physiology, diet, experiment, immune and metabolic markers (n = 231. The observed progressive decrease in defecation frequency and concomitant increase in IEC suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state towards the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was dose dependent on the extent of time spent in inactivity and preceded or took place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial microbial community. Species B. thetaiotamicron, B. fragilis, B

  6. Expressions and clinical significance of autophagy-related markers Beclin1, LC3, and EGFR in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu YF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yun-Feng Hu,1 Xia Lei,2 Hong-Yi Zhang,3 Jun-wei Ma,1 Wei-wei Yang,1 Min-lin Chen,1 Jie Cui,1,4 Hong Zhao1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Gynecology, 3Department of Urology, Yan’an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China Purpose: We aimed to investigate the expression of EGFR and the autophagy-related markers Beclin1 and LC3 in cervical cancer.Methods: Beclin1, LC3, and EGFR expression were analyzed in 80 samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 40 samples of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and 40 samples of normal cervical tissues by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression rates were analyzed with χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Differences in overall survival (OS were determined using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank tests.Results: Cervical cancer, high-grade CIN, and normal cervical epithelial cells expressed Beclin1 in 26.2%, 77.5%, and 82.5% of patients, respectively, and expressed LC3 in 28.8%, 70.0%, and 75.0% of patients, respectively. There was a significant difference between cervical SCC and high-grade CIN or normal cervical epithelial cells (P=0.000. Cervical cancer cells, high-grade CIN cells, and normal cervical epithelial cells expressed EGFR in 68.8%, 62.5%, and 12.5% of patients, respectively. There was a significant difference between cervical SCC or high-grade CIN and normal cervical epithelial cells (P=0.000. No significant association between Beclin1 or LC3 or EGFR expression and various clinicopathological parameters was observed in cervical SCC. There was no significant correlation between Beclin1, LC3, EGFR expression, and 5-year OS rates of cervical SCC patients. Beclin1- or LC3-negativity with EGFR-positivity in cervical SCC was associated with a higher Federation International of

  7. The significance of lower jaw position in relation to postural stability. Comparison of a premanufactured occlusal splint with the Dental Power Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, D; Riegel, M; Lin Chung, T; Kopp, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on postural stability of two different lower jaw positions held in place by splints with eyes open and eyes closed. The postural stability in 21 healthy adult volunteers was investigated using two different sets of occlusal conditions with the lower jaw being at rest either with the eyes opened or closed. Two occlusal splints (standard splint and DPS splint) were used in order to maintain this lower jaw position. The balance behaviour was recorded using a balance platform. In a comparison of the habitual occlusion with the two occlusal splints, the balance posturographic values with the eyes opened fell between 7-9% and those for weight distribution with the eyes closed between 22-26% (with greater improvement being achieved with DPS) with the result that the variability in the range of fluctuations was reduced. The level of positioning accuracy deteriorated with the wearing of a splint between 13% with the DPS splint and 30% with the standard splint. Gender-specific differences of minor importance in relation to the positioning accuracy were recorded, with there being significant differences in the female participants (P≤0.00). An occlusal change in the stomatognathic system impacts on postural stability. Balance deficits seem to correlate with deteriorated body sway, which, according to the results, can be improved by a myocentric bite position using a DPS splint. This is more the case with the eyes closed than with the eyes opened.

  8. Clinical significance of lymphadenectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Dezső; Plósz, János; Török, Miklós

    2016-02-15

    Approximately thirty percent of patients with gastric cancer undergo an avoidable lymph node dissection with a higher rate of postoperative complication. Comparing the D1 and D2 dissections, it was found that there is a significant difference in morbidity, favoured D1 dissection without any difference in overall survival. Subgroup analysis of patients with T3 tumor shows a survival difference favoring D2 lymphadenectomy, and there is a better gastric cancer-related death and non-statistically significant improvement of survival for node-positive disease in patients with D2 dissection. However, the extended lymphadenectomy could improve stage-specific survival owing to the stage migration phenomenon. The deployment of centralization and application of national guidelines could improve the surgical outcomes. The Japanese and European guidelines enclose the D2 lymphadenectomy as the gold standard in R0 resection. In the individualized, stage-adapted gastric cancer surgery the Maruyama computer program (MCP) can estimate lymph node involvement preoperatively with high accuracy and in addition the Maruyama Index less than 5 has a better impact on survival, than D-level guided surgery. For these reasons, the preoperative application of MCP is recommended routinely, with an aim to perform "low Maruyama Index surgery". The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) may decrease the number of redundant lymphadenectomy intraoperatively with a high detection rate (93.7%) and an accuracy of 92%. More accurate stage-adapted surgery could be performed using the MCP and SNB in parallel fashion in gastric cancer.

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GENETIC EROSION IN THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION .1. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN SALVIA-PRATENSIS AND SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA IN RELATION TO POPULATION-SIZE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; VANDELDEN, W; OUBORG, NJ

    As part of a programme to determine the importance of the loss of genetic variation for the probability of population extinction, the amount of allozyme variation was determined in 14 populations of Salvia pratensis and in 12 populations of Scabiosa columbaria. Significant correlations were found

  10. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Facets of Identity Formation Considered to Be of Significance by Female Students in Relation to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study explored facets of identity formation considered to be of significance by Zimbabwean female adolescent students in physics. Four high schools that were offering physics at A' level in the Midlands Province, in Zimbabwe were targeted. Nine female adolescents doing mathematics and physics and only mathematics were chosen. Data generation…

  11. Mitral regurgitation in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both: prognostic significance and relation to ventricular size and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigoni, Maria; Meris, Alessandra; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Mitral regurgitation (MR) confers independent risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We utilized data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion echo study to relate baseline MR to left ventricular (LV) size, shape, and function, and to assess the relationship between...

  12. The anatomical perspective of human occipital condyle in relation to the hypoglossal canal, condylar canal, and jugular foramen and its surgical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Verma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The OC and related structures such as HC, CC, and JF are likely to have variations in respect to morphometry and morphology. This study may prove helpful to neurosurgeons operating in this field, especially during TCA where neurovascular structures emerging from these canals and foramen are more vulnerable to injury.

  13. A Comparative Study of Finland and Chile: The Culture-Dependent Significance of the Individual and Interindividual Levels of the Mathematics-Related Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohilampi, Laura; Laine, Anu; Hannula, Markku S.; Varas, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics-related affect is established regarding both individual and interindividual levels. However, the interaction between the levels has not been elaborated. Furthermore, it is known that people may draw either from intrinsic or extrinsic experiences to construct their identities depending on their cultural environment. Thus, affective…

  14. Guide to the declaration procedure and coding system for criteria concerning significant events related to safety, radiation protection or the environment, applicable to basic nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, Andre-Claude

    2005-01-01

    This guide notably contains various forms associated with the declaration of significant events, and explanations to fill them in: significant event declaration form for a basic nuclear installation, significant event declaration form for radioactive material transport, significant event report for a basic nuclear installation, significant event report for radioactive material transport, declaration criteria for significant events related to the safety of non-PWR basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events related to PWR safety, significant events declared further to events resulting in group 1 unavailability and non-compliance with technical operating specifications, declaration criteria for significant events concerning radiation protection for basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events concerning environmental protection, applicable to basic nuclear installations, and declaration criteria for significant events concerning radioactive material transport

  15. Modalities of declaration and codification of criteria related to significant events in the field of radioprotection besides base nuclear installations and transports of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document specifies provisions which must be applied by those in charge of a nuclear activity when declaring significant events regarding radioprotection. It describes the general principles, evokes the declaration criteria (they are more precisely presented in appendix), the declaration delay, and the declaration modalities (the informant, the documents, the addressee). It also evokes obligations regarding population information. A declaration form and a model of event report are provided in appendix

  16. The Significance of α-Synuclein, Amyloid-β and Tau Pathologies in Parkinson’s Disease Progression and Related Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Y.; Parkkinen, L.; Kempster, P.; Selikhova, M.; Lashley, T.; Holton, J.L.; Lees, A.J.; Revesz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is one of the milestones of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), with its neuropathological substrate still being a matter of debate, particularly regarding its potential mechanistic implications. Objective The aim of this study was to review the relative importance of Lewy-related α-synuclein and Alzheimer’s tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies in disease progression and dementia in PD. Methods We reviewed studies conducted at the Queen Square Brain Bank, Institute of Neurology, University College London, using large PD cohorts. Results Cortical Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies are associated with milestones of poorer prognosis and with non-tremor predominance, which have been, in turn, linked to dementia. The combination of these pathologies is the most robust neuropathological substrate of PD-related dementia, with cortical Aβ burden determining a faster progression to dementia. Conclusion The shared relevance of these pathologies in PD progression and dementia is in line with experimental data suggesting synergism between α-synuclein, tau and Aβ and with studies testing these proteins as disease biomarkers, hence favouring the eventual testing of therapeutic strategies targeting these proteins in PD. PMID:24028925

  17. The significance of climate change in the Netherlands. An analysis of historical and future trends (1901-2020) in weather conditions, weather extremes and temperature-related impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.

    2005-07-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis reveals changes in Dutch climate that are statistically significant over the last century. Annually averaged temperatures have increased by 1.5 about 0.5 degrees Centigrade; the number of summer days has roughly doubled from 14 about 5 to 27 about 9 days; annual precipitation has increased by 120 about 100 mm; and the number of extremely wet days has increased by about 40%, from 19 about 3 to 26 about 3 days. Several other changes in Dutch climate, such as spring temperatures rising more rapidly than winter temperatures, the increase of the coldest temperature in each year by 0.9 degrees Centigrade and the annual maximum day sum of precipitation, turn out to be not (yet) statistically significant. The changes in Dutch climate have already led to several statistically significant impacts. The length of the growing season has increased by nearly a month, and the number of heating-degree days, a measure for the energy needed for the heating of houses and buildings, has decreased by 14 about 5%. Projections of future temperature increase in 2020 based on the statistical analysis closely resemble projections based on climate models: temperatures continue to increase from 10.4 about 0.4 degrees Centigrade in 2003 to 10.7 about 0.6 degrees Centigrade in 2010 and 11.1 about 1.0 degrees Centigrade in 2020. The energy needed for heating of houses and buildings is expected to decrease further. This warming effect is expected to lower projections of future Dutch greenhouse-gas emissions by 3.5 Mton CO2 equivalents, which is relevant in the context of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, over the course of the 20th century the chance on an 'Elfstedentocht', an outdoor skating event in the Netherlands, has decreased from once every five years to once every ten years. Even though this impact change is not yet statistically significant, it resides 'on the edge' of significance: within a few years more evidence may

  18. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. Ekeland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1 reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2 mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  19. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Anne G

    2015-01-22

    Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1) reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2) mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  20. Autoimmunity related to IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Peripheral neuropathy and connective tissue sensibilization caused by IgM M-proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, V; Schrøder, H D; Nolsøe, C

    1988-01-01

    of them, including two siblings with a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, the IgM was bound to the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) of peripheral nerves. One had axonal neuropathy with IgM activity against the peri- and endoneurium, while another case with post-infectious neuritis had IgM activity......In eight of 10 consecutive cases of IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the M-protein had specificity towards various tissues as estimated by direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies of skin and/or sural nerve biopsies. Five of the cases had neuropathy. In three...

  1. Significance of common variants on human chromosome 8q24 in relation to the risk of prostate cancer in native Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoi Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variants on human chromosome 8q24, rs1447295 (C/A and rs6983267 (T/G, have been recently linked to the prevalence of prostate cancer in European and American populations. Here, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1447295 and rs6983267 were associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer as well as latent prostate cancer in a native Japanese population. Results We analyzed genomic DNA samples from 391 sporadic prostate cancer patients, 323 controls who had died from causes unrelated to cancer and 112 Japanese men who were diagnosed as having latent prostate cancer based on autopsy results. The polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using a fluorescent-based TaqMan assay. The A allele of rs1447295 was significantly associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer (p = 0.04; age-adjusted OR, 1.34, while the G allele of rs6983267 showed a trend towards being a high-risk allele (p = 0.06; age-adjusted OR, 1.27. No significant difference between these two polymorphisms and the risk of latent prostate cancer was observed in the present Japanese population. Conclusion Known variants on human chromosome 8q24 may be risk factors for sporadic prostate cancer in native Japanese men.

  2. Significance of clinical evaluation of the metacarpophalangeal joint in relation to synovial/bone pathology in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Millicent A; White, Lawrence M; Gladman, Dafna D; Inman, Robert D; Chaya, Sam; Lax, Matthew; Salonen, David; Weber, Deborah A; Guthrie, Judy A; Pomeroy, Emma; Podbielski, Dominik; Keystone, Edward C

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatologists base many clinical decisions regarding the management of inflammatory joint diseases on joint counts performed at clinic. We investigated the reliability and accuracy of physically examining the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints to detect inflammatory synovitis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the gold standard. MCP joints 2 to 5 in both hands of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) were assessed by 5 independent examiners for joint-line swelling (visually and by palpation); joint-line tenderness by palpation (tender joint count, TJC) and stress pain; and by MRI (1.5 Tesla superconducting magnet). Interrater reliability was assessed using kappa statistics, and agreement between examination and corresponding MRI assessment was assessed by Fisher's exact tests (p 0.8) and positive predictive value (= 0.8). For PsA, significant associations exist between TJC and MRI synovitis scores (p < 0.01) and stress pain and MRI edema scores (p < 0.04). Assessment of swelling by palpation was not significantly associated with synovitis or edema as determined by MRI in RA or PsA (p = 0.54-1.0). In inflammatory arthritis, disease activity in MCP joints can be reliably assessed at the bedside by examining for joint-line tenderness (TJC) and visual inspection for swelling. Clinical assessment may have to be complemented by other methods for evaluating disease activity in the joint, such as MRI, particularly in patients with PsA.

  3. Brain functional network connectivity based on a visual task: visual information processing-related brain regions are significantly activated in the task state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the method used in functional brain-network related research can be applied to explore the feature binding mechanism of visual perception. In this study, we investigated feature binding of color and shape in visual perception. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 38 healthy volunteers at rest and while performing a visual perception task to construct brain networks active during resting and task states. Results showed that brain regions involved in visual information processing were obviously activated during the task. The components were partitioned using a greedy algorithm, indicating the visual network existed during the resting state. Z-values in the vision-related brain regions were calculated, confirming the dynamic balance of the brain network. Connectivity between brain regions was determined, and the result showed that occipital and lingual gyri were stable brain regions in the visual system network, the parietal lobe played a very important role in the binding process of color features and shape features, and the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were crucial for processing color and shape information. Experimental findings indicate that understanding visual feature binding and cognitive processes will help establish computational models of vision, improve image recognition technology, and provide a new theoretical mechanism for feature binding in visual perception.

  4. Anomalously deep earthquakes related to the Ojo de Agua Lineament and its tectonic significance, Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba, Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caro Montero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sierras de Córdoba are the easternmost uplifted ranges of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province of Argentina. They are composed of a Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic basement arranged in north–south aligned mountain ranges, limited by west-vergent reverse faults, reactivated or formed by compressive tectonics during the Andean orogeny. The ranges are also affected by oblique subvertical lineaments, probably related to pan-Gondwanan structures. The recorded seismicity shows anomalously deep earthquakes (up to 80 km depth concentrated in the northwestern area. We attribute this seismicity to the current tectonic activity of the Ojo de Agua Lineament. This lineament is a N130º–135° strike, 70º–80° NE dip, macrostructure with more than 80 km depth and 160 km length. A sinistral transcompressional kinematics (convergent oblique shear is deduced by the focal mechanism of a deep earthquake, together with hydrological and geomorphological features strongly modified. The continental lithosphere under the Sierras de Córdoba would be colder and more rigid than in a normal subduction area, due to the retraction of the asthenospheric wedge to the foreland, causing seismicity to depths greater than 40 km, below the Mohorovičić discontinuity. Neogene volcanism would be closely related to this lineament, allowing the rapid ascent of melts from the mantle.

  5. An Evaluation of the Significance of Work-Related Influence Factors on Fitness and the Development of Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Military Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational health promotion is an effective tool to improve the state of health of employees. As part of occupational health promotion in the German Bundeswehr, top-ranking military executives are offered a medical examination and training programme. Health-related data is collected as a basis for training and lifestyle counselling. This data was subjected to a retrospective evaluation in order to identify occupational risk factors and their correlation with cardiovascular resilience, trunk strength, and the development of orthopaedic and internal disorders. A total of 122 military executives (all male, age 54.6±4.2 years answered a questionnaire aimed at evaluating private and occupational stress factors. The medical history was followed by a medical and orthopaedic examination involving a lactate performance test (treadmill or bicycle ergometry and an isometric trunk strength measurement. The data obtained was then statistically evaluated. For military executives, work-related travelling and commuting involve a high risk of medical and orthopaedic conditions. Regular exercise leads to improved fitness levels. In order to prevent medical problems, military executives working long hours should regularly take part in fitness and weight training under professional instructions.

  6. A novel synonymous SNP (A47A of the TMEM95 gene is significantly associated with the reproductive traits related to testis in male piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 95 (TMEM95 is located on the acrosomal membrane of the sperm head involved in the acrosome reaction; thus, it is regarded as affecting spermatogenesis and reproduction traits. The aim of this study was to explore the novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the pig TMEM95 gene as well as to evaluate their associations with the testicular sizes in male Landrace (LD and Large White (LW breeds. After pool sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, only one novel coding SNP was found in exon 1, namely NC_010454.3: g.341T > C, resulting in a synonymous mutation (A47A. This SNP could be genotyped using the StuI polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. The minor allelic frequencies (MAFs were 0.259 and 0.480 in the LD and LW breeds. Their polymorphism information content (PIC values were 0.310 and 0.375. The LW population was at the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE (p > 0.05, whereas the LD population was not (p < 0.05. Association analyses demonstrated that a significant relationship was found between this A47A polymorphism and testis weight at 40 days of age in the LW population (p  =  0.047, and the heterozygote individuals showed lower testis weight than those with other genotypes. Moreover, this SNP was significantly associated with three testis measurement traits at 15 days of age in the LW population (p < 0.05; the individuals with genotypes TT and TC showed consistently superior testis measurement traits than those with genotype CC. These findings demonstrate that the A47A polymorphism had a significant effect on testis measurement traits, suggesting that the TMEM95 gene could be a candidate gene associated with reproductive traits. These results could contribute to breeding and genetics programs in the pig industry via DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  7. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Significance of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Dispersion in the dc and ac Voltammetry of Surface-Confined Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Morris, Graham P.; Baker, Ruth E.; Gillow, Kathryn; Davis, Jason J.; Gavaghan, David J.; Bond, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Commonly, significant discrepancies are reported in theoretical and experimental comparisons of dc voltammograms derived from a monolayer or close to monolayer coverage of redox-active surface-confined molecules. For example, broader-than-predicted voltammetric wave shapes are attributed to the thermodynamic or kinetic dispersion derived from distributions in reversible potentials (E0) and electrode kinetics (k0), respectively. The recent availability of experimentally estimated distributions of E0 and k0 values derived from the analysis of data for small numbers of surface-confined modified azurin metalloprotein molecules now allows more realistic modeling to be undertaken, assuming the same distributions apply under conditions of high surface coverage relevant to voltammetric experiments. In this work, modeling based on conventional and stochastic kinetic theory is considered, and the computationally far more efficient conventional model is shown to be equivalent to the stochastic one when large numbers of molecules are present. Perhaps unexpectedly, when experimentally determined distributions of E0 and k0 are input into the model, thermodynamic dispersion is found to be unimportant and only kinetic dispersion contributes significantly to the broadening of dc voltammograms. Simulations of ac voltammetric experiments lead to the conclusion that the ac method, particularly when the analysis of kinetically very sensitive higher-order harmonics is undertaken, are far more sensitive to kinetic dispersion than the dc method. ac methods are therefore concluded to provide a potentially superior strategy for addressing the inverse problem of determining the k0 distribution that could give rise to the apparent anomalies in surface-confined voltammetry.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Significance of Thermodynamic and Kinetic Dispersion in the dc and ac Voltammetry of Surface-Confined Molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Morris, Graham P.

    2015-05-05

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Commonly, significant discrepancies are reported in theoretical and experimental comparisons of dc voltammograms derived from a monolayer or close to monolayer coverage of redox-active surface-confined molecules. For example, broader-than-predicted voltammetric wave shapes are attributed to the thermodynamic or kinetic dispersion derived from distributions in reversible potentials (E0) and electrode kinetics (k0), respectively. The recent availability of experimentally estimated distributions of E0 and k0 values derived from the analysis of data for small numbers of surface-confined modified azurin metalloprotein molecules now allows more realistic modeling to be undertaken, assuming the same distributions apply under conditions of high surface coverage relevant to voltammetric experiments. In this work, modeling based on conventional and stochastic kinetic theory is considered, and the computationally far more efficient conventional model is shown to be equivalent to the stochastic one when large numbers of molecules are present. Perhaps unexpectedly, when experimentally determined distributions of E0 and k0 are input into the model, thermodynamic dispersion is found to be unimportant and only kinetic dispersion contributes significantly to the broadening of dc voltammograms. Simulations of ac voltammetric experiments lead to the conclusion that the ac method, particularly when the analysis of kinetically very sensitive higher-order harmonics is undertaken, are far more sensitive to kinetic dispersion than the dc method. ac methods are therefore concluded to provide a potentially superior strategy for addressing the inverse problem of determining the k0 distribution that could give rise to the apparent anomalies in surface-confined voltammetry.

  9. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion on ictal Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT: clinical significance for differentiation of mesial or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and related factors for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Ah; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Gun; Kim, Seok Ki; Jang, Myoung Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion (CCH) was helpful in discriminating mesial from lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and what other factors were related in the development of CCH on ictal brain SPECT. We conducted retrospective analysis in 59 patients with TLE (M:41, F:18; 27.4±7.8 years old; mesial TLE: 51, lateral TLE: 8), which was confirmed by invasive EEG and surgical outcome (Engel class 1, 2). All the patients underwent ictal Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT and their injection time from ictal EEG onset on video EEG monitoring ranged from 11 sec to 75 sec (32.6±19.5 sec) in 39 patients. Multiple factors including age, TLE subtype (mesial TLE or lateral TLE), propatation pattern (hyperperfusion localized to temporal lobes, spread to adjacent lobes or contralateral hemisphere) and injection time were evaluated for their relationship with CCH using multiple logistic regression analysis CCH was observed in 18 among 59 patients. CCH developed in 29% (15/51) of mesial TLE patients and 38% (3/8) of lateral TLE patients. CCH was associated with propagation pattern; no CCH (0/13) in patients with hyperperfusion localized to temporal lobe, 30% (7/23) in patients with propagation to adjacent lobes, 48% (11/23) to contralateral hemisphere. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that propagation pattern (p=3D0.01) and age (p=3D0.02) were related to the development of CCH. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion in ictal brain SPECT did not help differentiate mesial from lateral remporal lobe epilepsy. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion was associated with propagation pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy and age.=20

  10. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion on ictal Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT: clinical significance for differentiation of mesial or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and related factors for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National Univ. School of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Gun; Kim, Seok Ki; Jang, Myoung Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion (CCH) was helpful in discriminating mesial from lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and what other factors were related in the development of CCH on ictal brain SPECT. We conducted retrospective analysis in 59 patients with TLE (M:41, F:18; 27.4{+-}7.8 years old; mesial TLE: 51, lateral TLE: 8), which was confirmed by invasive EEG and surgical outcome (Engel class 1, 2). All the patients underwent ictal Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT and their injection time from ictal EEG onset on video EEG monitoring ranged from 11 sec to 75 sec (32.6{+-}19.5 sec) in 39 patients. Multiple factors including age, TLE subtype (mesial TLE or lateral TLE), propatation pattern (hyperperfusion localized to temporal lobes, spread to adjacent lobes or contralateral hemisphere) and injection time were evaluated for their relationship with CCH using multiple logistic regression analysis CCH was observed in 18 among 59 patients. CCH developed in 29% (15/51) of mesial TLE patients and 38% (3/8) of lateral TLE patients. CCH was associated with propagation pattern; no CCH (0/13) in patients with hyperperfusion localized to temporal lobe, 30% (7/23) in patients with propagation to adjacent lobes, 48% (11/23) to contralateral hemisphere. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that propagation pattern (p=3D0.01) and age (p=3D0.02) were related to the development of CCH. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion in ictal brain SPECT did not help differentiate mesial from lateral remporal lobe epilepsy. Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion was associated with propagation pattern of temporal lobe epilepsy and age.

  11. Relative accretion of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate by forming and resorbing bone systems in rats: its significance in the pathologic basis of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Tow, D.E.; Kapur, K.K.; Wells, H.

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of osteogenesis and osteolysis in the production of positive radionuclide images of skeletal lesions were investigated. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (Tc-PP) by each process was measured in an animal model that permitted bone formation and resorption to be studied independently. Ten rats received intramuscular implants of bone-forming demineralized matrix (DM) and resorbing devitalized bone (DV). Radiographs and Tc-PP scintiscans were made each week thereafter. At 6 to 10 weeks, the implants and normal bone samples were removed, counted for /sup 99m/Tc, and examined histologically. The uptake of Tc-PP by DM implants was first detected on images made 3 weeks after implantation, and by DV implants, 1 to 2 weeks later. Serial radiography showed progressive calcification of DM and resorption of DV implants. Microscopic examinations of undecalcified sections, stained with a modified Goldner preparation, revealed vital-bone formation in the DM implants and osteoclastic resorption in the DV. Activity counts per gram of DM and DV implants were, respectively, 200 percent and 90 percent that of normal bone. Since only the bone-forming system (DM) accumulated Tc-PP at greater than normal concentrations, this study indicates that positive bone images of osteolytic lesions solely reflect compensatory osteogenic responses

  12. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  13. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  14. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  15. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  16. Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M

    2010-07-01

    We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.

  17. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Relation of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function to Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Significant Valvular Heart Disease and Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Won; Park, Sung-Ji; Cho, Eun Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Ga Yeon; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Jin-Oh; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo

    2017-06-01

    An association between N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and exercise tolerance in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) has been suggested; however, there are few data available regarding this relation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between exercise tolerance and NT-proBNP in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic significant VHD and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF). A total of 96 patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic VHD and normal LV EF (≥50%) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise echocardiography. NT-proBNP levels were determined at baseline and after exercise in 3 hours. Patients were divided in 2 groups based on lower (left atrial volume index before exercise, right ventricular systolic pressure before exercise, E velocity after exercise, and E/e' ratio after exercise varied significantly. In addition, peak VO 2 was inversely related to NT-proBNP before (r = -0.352, p left atrial volume index, E/e' ratio, and right ventricular systolic pressure before and after exercise. NT-proBNP after exercise was also directly related to the same parameters. NT-proBNP levels both before and after exercise were higher in the group with lower exercise tolerance. In conclusion, through the correlation among exercise tolerance, NT-proBNP, and parameters of diastolic dysfunction, we demonstrated that diastolic dysfunction and NT-proBNP could predict exercise tolerance in patients with significant VHD and normal LV EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on clinical significance of exercise-induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads in the patients with prior myocardial infarction using the stress scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Toshitaka

    1988-01-01

    Stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging and stress radionuclide ventriculography were performed in a total of 67 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) to assess the clinical significance of exercise induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads on ECG during the chronic stage. The patients consisted of 12 with inferior MI with single vessel disease (SVD) that showed no precordial ST-segment depression; 7 with inferior MI with SVD accompanied by precordial ST-segment depression; 13 with inferior MI with multivessel disease (MVD); 20 with anterior MI with SVD that showed no inferior ST-segment depression; 4 with anterior MI with SVD accompanied by inferior ST-segment depression; and 11 with anterior MI with MVD. In cases of SVD, the incidence of ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads was higher for inferior MI (36.8%) than anterior MI (16.7%). Myocardial imaging revealed large infarct and infarct extending into the inferoseptal wall of the left ventricle (LV) in cases of exercise induced precordial ST-segment depression; and infarct extending into the lateral wall of LV in cases of exercise induced inferior ST-segment depression. In detecting MVD, stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging was superior to exercise electrocardiography and stress radionuclide ventriculography, but this was not statistically significant. Prognostic value of error rate for detecting MVD was significantly improved with a discriminant analysis. Exercise induced ST-segment depression on ECG should be of clinical significance in reflecting myocardial ischemia around an infarcted area. (Namekawa, K)

  1. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  2. GABA and GABA-Alanine from the Red Microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Exhibit a Significant Neuro-Soothing Activity through Inhibition of Neuro-Inflammation Mediators and Positive Regulation of TRPV1-Related Skin Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandolera, Amandine; Hubert, Jane; Humeau, Anne; Lambert, Carole; De Bizemont, Audrey; Winkel, Chris; Kaouas, Abdelmajid; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-soothing activity of a water-soluble hydrolysate obtained from the red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Geitler (Stylonemataceae). Transcriptomic analysis performed on ≈100 genes related to skin biological functions firstly revealed that the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was able to significantly negatively modulate specific genes involved in pro-inflammation (interleukin 1α encoding gene, IL1A) and pain detection related to tissue inflammation (nerve growth factor NGF and its receptor NGFR). An in vitro model of normal human keratinocytes was then used to evaluate the ability of the Rhodosorus marinus extract to control the release of neuro-inflammation mediators under phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced inflammatory conditions. The extract incorporated at 1% and 3% significantly inhibited the release of IL-1α and NGF secretion. These results were confirmed in a co-culture system of reconstructed human epithelium and normal human epidermal keratinocytes on which a cream formulated with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% was topically applied after systemic induction of neuro-inflammation. Finally, an in vitro model of normal human astrocytes was developed for the evaluation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor modulation, mimicking pain sensing related to neuro-inflammation as observed in sensitive skins. Treatment with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% significantly decreased PMA-mediated TRPV1 over-expression. In parallel with these biological experiments, the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and chemically profiled by a recently developed 13C NMR-based dereplication method. The CPC-generated fractions as well as pure metabolites were tested again in vitro in an attempt to identify the biologically active constituents involved in the neuro-soothing activity of the Rhodosorus marinus extract

  3. GABA and GABA-Alanine from the Red Microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Exhibit a Significant Neuro-Soothing Activity through Inhibition of Neuro-Inflammation Mediators and Positive Regulation of TRPV1-Related Skin Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Scandolera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-soothing activity of a water-soluble hydrolysate obtained from the red microalgae Rhodosorus marinus Geitler (Stylonemataceae. Transcriptomic analysis performed on ≈100 genes related to skin biological functions firstly revealed that the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was able to significantly negatively modulate specific genes involved in pro-inflammation (interleukin 1α encoding gene, IL1A and pain detection related to tissue inflammation (nerve growth factor NGF and its receptor NGFR. An in vitro model of normal human keratinocytes was then used to evaluate the ability of the Rhodosorus marinus extract to control the release of neuro-inflammation mediators under phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-induced inflammatory conditions. The extract incorporated at 1% and 3% significantly inhibited the release of IL-1α and NGF secretion. These results were confirmed in a co-culture system of reconstructed human epithelium and normal human epidermal keratinocytes on which a cream formulated with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% was topically applied after systemic induction of neuro-inflammation. Finally, an in vitro model of normal human astrocytes was developed for the evaluation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 receptor modulation, mimicking pain sensing related to neuro-inflammation as observed in sensitive skins. Treatment with the Rhodosorus marinus extract at 1% and 3% significantly decreased PMA-mediated TRPV1 over-expression. In parallel with these biological experiments, the crude Rhodosorus marinus extract was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC and chemically profiled by a recently developed 13C NMR-based dereplication method. The CPC-generated fractions as well as pure metabolites were tested again in vitro in an attempt to identify the biologically active constituents involved in the neuro-soothing activity of the Rhodosorus

  4. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  5. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  6. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  7. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  8. Candidate SNP markers of aggressiveness-related complications and comorbidities of genetic diseases are predicted by a significant change in the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadaeva, Irina V; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Rasskazov, Dmitry A; Sharypova, Ekaterina B; Kashina, Elena V; Matveeva, Marina Yu; Arshinova, Tatjana V; Ponomarenko, Petr M; Arkova, Olga V; Bondar, Natalia P; Savinkova, Ludmila K; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2016-12-28

    Aggressiveness in humans is a hereditary behavioral trait that mobilizes all systems of the body-first of all, the nervous and endocrine systems, and then the respiratory, vascular, muscular, and others-e.g., for the defense of oneself, children, family, shelter, territory, and other possessions as well as personal interests. The level of aggressiveness of a person determines many other characteristics of quality of life and lifespan, acting as a stress factor. Aggressive behavior depends on many parameters such as age, gender, diseases and treatment, diet, and environmental conditions. Among them, genetic factors are believed to be the main parameters that are well-studied at the factual level, but in actuality, genome-wide studies of aggressive behavior appeared relatively recently. One of the biggest projects of the modern science-1000 Genomes-involves identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., differences of individual genomes from the reference genome. SNPs can be associated with hereditary diseases, their complications, comorbidities, and responses to stress or a drug. Clinical comparisons between cohorts of patients and healthy volunteers (as a control) allow for identifying SNPs whose allele frequencies significantly separate them from one another as markers of the above conditions. Computer-based preliminary analysis of millions of SNPs detected by the 1000 Genomes project can accelerate clinical search for SNP markers due to preliminary whole-genome search for the most meaningful candidate SNP markers and discarding of neutral and poorly substantiated SNPs. Here, we combine two computer-based search methods for SNPs (that alter gene expression) {i} Web service SNP_TATA_Comparator (DNA sequence analysis) and {ii} PubMed-based manual search for articles on aggressiveness using heuristic keywords. Near the known binding sites for TATA-binding protein (TBP) in human gene promoters, we found aggressiveness-related candidate SNP markers

  9. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care.Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value.Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6 and four (4 case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5 of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%.High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling

  10. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Tesfay Gebremedhin, Amanuel; Demissie, Tariku Dejene; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Sudhakar, Morankar; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care. Methods Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ‘late HIV testing’, ‘late HIV diagnosis’ and ‘late presentation for HIV care after testing’. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value. Results Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6) and four (4) case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5) of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6–3.6, I2 = 79%). Conclusions High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should

  11. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  12. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  13. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  14. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  15. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  16. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  17. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  18. The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D{sub min}, below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D{sub min}], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D{sub min} values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D{sub min} of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D{sub min} of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D{sub min} of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D{sub min} by presenting further investigations into D{sub min} using different trial values for D{sub min} and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D{sub min} comes from the length of follow-up and a D{sub min} of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D{sub min} values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D{sub min} increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A

  19. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-03-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87-1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79-1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43-2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49-2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, "treated normalized hypertension." Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term "white-coat hypertension" to persons

  20. Clinical significance of changes of plasma endothelin vasoactive factors (ET and NO) as well as serum related interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8) levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical etiological significance of changes of plasma endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: Plasma ET (with RIA), NO (with biochemistry) and serum IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 32 pregnant women with PIH, 35 normal pregnant women without PIH and 35 non-pregnant women (as controls). Results: The plasma ET, NO level were significantly higher in normal pregnant women than those in the non-pregnant women controls, while serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 levels were only slightly higher without significance (P>0.05). Before treatment, the blood ET, IL-6 and IL- 8 levels were significantly higher in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension than those in the control (P<0.01), while plasma levels of NO were significantly decreased (P<0.01), Two weeks after treatment, the plasma ET, NO and serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were markedly corrected with no significantly differences from those in controls. The ET levels and serum IL-6, IL-8 levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.6097, 0.7213, P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of plasma ET and NO, serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension was helpful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  1. Statistical significant change versus relevant or important change in (quasi) experimental design : some conceptual and methodological problems in estimating magnitude of intervention-related change in health services research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Berrie; van Sonderen, Eric

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to identify problems in estimating and the interpretation of the magnitude of intervention-related change over time or responsiveness assessed with health outcome measures. Responsiveness is a problematic construct and there is no consensus on how to quantify the appropriate index to

  2. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  3. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  4. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  5. The Relativity Characteristic and Practical Significance of Ethic Thoughts of Mo Zi”s Utilitarianism%墨子功利主义伦理思想的相对性特色及其现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳春; 郭智勇

    2014-01-01

    Utilitarianism of Mo Zi”s ethic thoughts is related to the continuous wars in the Warring time,and is the objective life appeal of historic relativity.By sticking to the principle of unity of heaven and men,Mo Zi holds that human desire should be expressed through heaven desire,utility should be restricted by morality,so as to unify morality and utility and benefit the world.This symbolizes the civilian temperament and life wisdom of Mo Zi”s ethic spirit.The understanding of this spirit, thus,helps to resolve the moral predicament in the present social market economy.%墨子伦理思想的功利特色与战国社会的祸乱不已相联系,是历史相对性存在的生活欲望的客观诉求。遵循“天人合一”的理路,以“天之欲”表达“人之欲”,以道义制约功利,实现义利统一,造福天下百姓,体现了墨子伦理精神的平民气质和生活智慧。理解这一精神实质,对化解当今社会市场经济中的道德困境有积极的借鉴意义。

  6. ALGUNS ASPECTOS DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE A TEORIA SAUSSURIANA DA LINGUAGEM E A TEORIA DO SIGNIFICANTE LACANIANO A FEW ASPECTS OF THE RELATION ENTER THE SAUSSURE'S THEORY OF THE LANGUAGE AND THE THEORY OF THE LACAN'S SIGNIFICANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Augusto Franco Fernandes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se necessário uma busca de elementos que venham a facilitar a compreensão das origens do significante lacaniano, na tentativa de esclarecer, pela via do estruturalismo lingüístico, até onde vai, realmente, a influência saussuriana. Sabe-se que o significante lacaniano, mesmo tendo como referência epistemológica o significante saussuriano, ambos não devem ser confundidos. Normalmente se atribui a Ferdinand de Saussure a invenção da teoria do signo. Ressaltaremos, entretanto, que essa “invenção” é bem anterior às teorias do lingüista genebrino. Levaremos em conta as observações de Jean-Luc Nancy e Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, na medida em que esses autores demonstram que o deslocamento operado sobre o esquema saussuriano não vai depender, como comumente se pensa, da autonomia do significante. Verificaremos, portanto, até que ponto mostra-se legítimo o uso do termo significante na teoria lacaniana.A search of elements becomes necessary to facilitate the understanding of the origins of the Lacan´s significant, in the attempt to explain through structural linguistic, the limits of the Saussure´s influence. It is known that the Lacan´s significant, even though has the Saussure´s influence as a reference in epistemology, both “significant” must not be mistaken. It is usually attributed to Ferdinand de Saussure the invention of the theory of the linguistic sign. We will stand out, however, that this “invention” is previous to the theories of the genevan linguist. We will observe the comments of Jean-Luc Nancy and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, to the point where these authors demonstrate that the displacement operated on the Saussure´s scheme will not depend on, as it is well known, the significant’s autonomy. It will be verified, therefore, how legitimate it is, the use of the significant´s term in the Lacan´s theory.

  7. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  8. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  9. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts

  10. Significance of Microbiology in Porous Hydrocarbon Related Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Augsburger, Nicolas

    2017-07-01

    This thesis explores bio-mediated processes in geotechnical and petroleum engineering. Worldwide energy consumption is rapidly increasing as the world population and per-capita consumption rises. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) predicts that hydrocarbons will remain the primary energy source to satisfy the surging energy demands in the near future. The three topics described in detail in this document aim to link microbiology with geotechnical engineering and the petroleum industry. Microorganisms have the potential to exploit residual hydrocarbons in depleted reservoirs in a technique known as microbial enhanced oil recovery, MEOR. The potential of biosurfactants was analyzed in detail with a literature review. Biosurfactant production is the most accepted MEOR technique, and has been successfully implemented in over 700 field cases. Temperature is the main limiting factor for these techniques. The dissolution of carbonates by microorganisms was investigated experimentally. We designed a simple, economical, and robust procedure to monitor diffusion through porous media. This technique determined the diffusion coefficient of H+ in 1.5% agar, 1.122 x 10-5 cm2 sec-1, by using bromothymol blue as a pH indicator and image processing. This robust technique allows for manipulation of the composition of the agar to identify the effect of specific compounds on diffusion. The Red Sea consists of multiple seeps; the nearby sediments are telltales of deeper hydrocarbon systems. Microbial communities associated with the sediments function as in-situ sensors that provide information about the presence of carbon sources, metabolites, and the remediation potential. Sediments seeps in the Red Sea revealed different levels of bioactivity. The more active seeps, from the southern site in the Red Sea, indicated larger pore sizes, higher levels of carbon, and bioactivity with both bacteria and archaeal species present.

  11. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  12. Autoimmunity in differentiated thyroid cancer: significance and related clinical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and thyroid autoimmune diseases could represent a mere coincidence due to the frequent occurrence of autoimmunity, but there may also be a pathological and causative link between the two conditions. The coincidence of DTC with Hashimoto's disease...... has been variably reported at between 0.5 and 22.5% and of DTC with Graves' disease between 0 and 9.8%. In this review available evidence for thyroid autoimmunity in DTC is summarized and it is concluded that thyroid cancer does coexist with thyroid autoimmunity, implying that patients treated...... TgAb measurements may be used as a surrogate marker for recurrence of thyroid cancer during the long-term monitoring of DTC patients....

  13. Relative significance of natural irradiation vs all human exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals allowing to quantitatively express the importance of the various sources of human exposure by an individual or collective approach. Following a summary of the components of normal exposure to natural sources, the various human actions at the origin of enhanced exposure are studied: 1) those modifying the relationship between natural sources and man (dwelling conditions, coal burning, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock); 2) those creating new artificial sources (nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, nuclear power production, medical use of radiation and radionuclides). The effective dose equivalent commitments for these sources are compared with those necessarily involved by continuous normal exposure to the natural sources of exposure [fr

  14. Non-statistical fluctuations in collisions of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrlakova, J.

    2004-01-01

    Results of the search for nonstatistical multiplicity fluctuations of produced relativistic particles are presented. Such fluctuations may be used to signal the formation of a quark gluon plasma in the early stage of heavy ion interactions at high energies. Three methods of scaled factorial moments - horizontal, vertical and mixed ones have been used for this purpose. The scaled factorial moments F q of the order of q have been studied as a function of the pseudorapidity bin size, parametrized in the form of ln q > = α q + φ q ln M, where M is the number of bins. Experimental data were obtained by the same standard emulsion method using different primary nuclei ( 1 6O, 2 2Ne, 2 8Si, 3 2 S, 197 Au and 208 P6) at momenta of 4.1 - 200 A GeV/c. Only the relativistic particles produced in central and semi-central collisions entered the analysis. The results of analysis show an evidence for the presence of intermittent behaviour in all experimental data samples. The values of the slopes (φ q obtained by all three methods of analysis are similar for 28 Si induced interactions. The values of the slopes obtained from the modified cascade evaporation and Forefeet models are fairly smaller than those for experimental data. The dependence of parameters α q and φ q on the particle density per unit pseudorapidity ρ has been studied for 16 O and 208 Pb induced interactions. While the aq dependence can be characterized as rather increasing, q decreases with ρ. Both parameters α q and φ q increase with the order of factorial moments q. The dependences of intermittency parameter λ q and q have been studied for 16 O and 208 Pb induced interactions, but no clear minimum has been found. The values of the slopes φ q for different primary nuclei masses of A = 16 - 32 are similar at Dubna energies and they decrease with the increasing primary nuclei masses for studied range of A = 16 - 197 at BNL energies. (author)

  15. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  16. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  17. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  18. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Radiobiological significance of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A short outline is given on the history of the problem relating to the repair of radiation injuries, specifically its molecular mechanisms. The most urgent problems which currently confront the researchers are noted. This is a further study on the role of DNA repair in post-radiation recovery, search for ways to activate and suppress DNA repair, investigations into the activity balance of various repair enzymes as well as the problem of errors in the structure of repairing DNA. An important role is attached to the investigations of DNA repair in solving a number of practical problems

  1. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  2. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  3. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  4. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  5. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  6. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  7. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  8. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  9. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  12. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  13. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dual purpose or not? The significant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, W.; Roland, V.

    1999-01-01

    The development of spent fuel storage systems requires consideration of many factors in making design decisions. A significant issue affecting the design is the need to incorporate transportability of the canister or cask system design, which results in major changes to the storage system design. This paper presents a review of the significant factors affecting storage system design to incorporate transportation requirements and looks at the trends in both the United States and Europe where Transnucleaire and its US affiliated companies Transnuclear Inc., Transnuclear West and PacTec are active. A discussion is also presented relative to the pros and cons of whether the spent fuel storage system vendor should anticipate these transportation needs in the design of their systems. (author)

  16. Assessing the significance of Heidegger's Black Notebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malpas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Heidegger's Black Notebooks (Schwarze Hefte has provoked a storm of controversy. Much of this has centred on the pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic comments the volumes contain. But these aspects of the Notebooks are perhaps the least surprising and important. This essay offers a summary overview of the issues to which the Notebooks give rise, at the same time as it also aims to provide a preliminary assessment of their overall significance, especially in relation to what they show about the nature and development of Heidegger's thinking from the early 1930s to the late 1940s.

  17. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  18. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  19. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  20. Origin and significance of defects in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years significant advances have taken place in the understanding of the origin and nature of weld discontinuities. The furthering of the knowledge of hot cracking, cold cracking, lamellar tearing and porosity formation is due to the development and utilization of sophisticated techniques for microscopy and microanalysis and the concerted efforts of many researchers in the U.S. and abroad. Concurrent with the progress toward better definition of the metallurgical mechanisms for discontinuity formation, the development of the fracture mechanics approach for the assessment of the significance of the discontinuities was brought into focus. It is the marriage of the metallurgical understanding of formation and the mechanics assessment of relevance that permits discontinuities to be treated with a new degree of sophistication. The many types of cracking and porosity formation were the subjects of numerous studies in the intervening years. This presentation will treat the various types of weld discontinuities which have their origin closely related to a metallurgical mechanism. Emphasis will be placed on hot cracking, and porosity formation with information presented on cold cracking, reheat cracking and lamellar tearing. The employment of the newer metallurgical tools will be discussed in terms of their utilization in determining the cause of discontinuity formation

  1. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  2. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH; Prognostische Bedeutung von gastrointestinalen Symptomen und Befunden in Zusammenhang mit dem aktuen Strahlensyndrom. Eine retrospektive Datenanalyse anhand der Datenbank SEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-11-17

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  3. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  4. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  5. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  6. Relação entre diferença mínima significativa e coeficiente de variação nos ensaios de competição de cultivares Relation among least significant difference and coefficient of variation in the cultivar competition trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Col Lúcio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, trigo, soja, feijão, cevada, aveia, triticale e sorgo conduzidos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e estimar a relação entre a diferença mínima significativa (DMS e o coeficiente de variação (CV. Foram utilizadas as principais características estatísticas de 2014 ensaios: delineamento experimental, número de cultivares, número de repetições, número de graus de liberdade do erro, CV e a DMS obtida pelo método de Tukey em porcentagem da média dos ensaios. A estimativa da equação de regressão entre a DMS e o CV (variável independente, passando pela origem, resultou numa relação média de DMS = 2,72xCV, variando entre 2,47 (cevada e 3,05 (sorgo. Esta variação nas relações indicam que existe diferenças nos planos experimentais tradicionais usados pelos pesquisadores. A DMS é uma estatística adequada para o controle de qualidade dos ensaios de competição de cultivares. Ela é facilmente obtido a partir do CV e reflete, em termos do valor comercial da produção, a importância da sua magnitude.The objetive of this work was to study competition trials of maize, wheat, soybeans, drybeans, barley, oats, triticale and sorghum conducted in Rio Grande do Sul State and estimate relations between least significant difference and coefficient of variation. Statistics characteristics of 2014 trials were used, such as: experimental design, number of cultivars, replications, error degrees of freedom, coeffïcient of variation (CV and least significant difference (LSD obtained from Tukey's test by the porcentage of the experiment mean. The regression equation passing through the origin obtained between LSD and CV as the independent variable resulted in LSD = 2.72xCV, with the angular coeffïcient ranging from 2.47 (barley to 3.05 (sorghum. These difference indicate that there are deviations of the traditional experimental layouts used by field crop

  7. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Brain: Significant Answers and Significant Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2011-01-01

    Summary Adult neurogenesis, a process of generating functional neurons from adult neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted brain regions in mammals. The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in addressing questions related to almost every aspect of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. Here we review major advances in our understanding of adult mammalian neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. We highlight emerging principles that have significant implications for stem cell biology, developmental neurobiology, neural plasticity, and disease mechanisms. We also discuss remaining questions related to adult neural stem cells and their niches, underlying regulatory mechanisms and potential functions of newborn neurons in the adult brain. Building upon the recent progress and aided by new technologies, the adult neurogenesis field is poised to leap forward in the next decade. PMID:21609825

  8. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  9. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  10. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  11. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    sensory threshold on the operated-on side (6.08 ± 2.02 mm Hg) decreased significantly at the 6-week follow-up, even in relation to the preoperative measure (P = .022). With the exception of one patient with permanent unilateral vocal fold immobility, no signs of nerve injury were detected. In accordance with previous reports, injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during CEA seem to be rare. In most patients, postoperative symptoms (globus, dysphagia, dysphonia) and signs fade within a few weeks without any specific therapeutic intervention. This study shows an improved long-term postoperative superior laryngeal nerve function with regard to laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An examination of comorbid asthma and obesity: assessing differences in physical activity, sleep duration, health-related quality of life and parental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, David A; Janicke, David M; Lim, Crystal S; Abu-Hasan, Mutasim

    2014-04-01

    Compare youth with comorbid asthma and obesity to youth with obesity only to determine if differences exist in body mass index, dietary intake, levels of physical activity, sleep duration and health-related quality of life. Levels of parent distress were also compared. Participants included 248 children (n = 175 in Obesity group; n = 73 in Asthma + Obesity group) with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and gender, and their participating parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Measures of child height and weight were obtained by study personnel and Z-scores for child body mass index were calculated using age- and gender-specific norms. Child physical activity and sleep duration were measured via accelerometers. Dietary intake, health-related quality of life and parent distress were assessed via self-report. The Asthma + Obesity group evidenced significantly higher body mass index scores, and had lower sleep duration. There was a non-statistically significant trend for lower levels of physical activity among children in the Asthma + Obesity group. Dietary intake, health-related quality of life and parent distress did not differ between groups. Youth with comorbid asthma and obesity are at increased risk for negative health and psychosocial difficulties compared to youth who are overweight or obese only. Professionals providing treatment for youth with asthma are encouraged to assess the implications of weight status on health behaviors and family psychosocial adjustment.

  13. Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An overview ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Legal Research, Methodology, Theory, Pedagogy, Legal Training, Scholarship ...

  14. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  15. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  16. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  17. What if there were no significance tests?

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, Lisa L; Steiger, James H

    2013-01-01

    This book is the result of a spirited debate stimulated by a recent meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Although the viewpoints span a range of perspectives, the overriding theme that emerges states that significance testing may still be useful if supplemented with some or all of the following -- Bayesian logic, caution, confidence intervals, effect sizes and power, other goodness of approximation measures, replication and meta-analysis, sound reasoning, and theory appraisal and corroboration. The book is organized into five general areas. The first presents an overview of significance testing issues that sythesizes the highlights of the remainder of the book. The next discusses the debate in which significance testing should be rejected or retained. The third outlines various methods that may supplement current significance testing procedures. The fourth discusses Bayesian approaches and methods and the use of confidence intervals versus significance tests. The last presents the p...

  18. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  19. Understanding significant others' experience of aphasia and rehabilitation following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown how rehabilitation services contribute to significant others' adjustment to stroke with aphasia since their experience of rehabilitation has not been studied before. The purpose of this study was thus to understand significant others' experience of aphasia rehabilitation within the context of post-stroke rehabilitation. Individual interviews were carried out with 12 significant others of persons who became aphasic as a result of a stroke and were discharged from rehabilitation in the past 3 months. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. "Being centered on the aphasic person" was the core category triggered by the significant other's perception of the stroke survivor's vulnerability and his/her feelings of attachment towards that person. Through their interactions with professionals, significant others assumed that rehabilitation was also centered on the aphasic person; a perspective that was reinforced. Consequently, significant others participated in rehabilitation as caregivers and expected rehabilitation to meet their caregiver needs but not other personal and relational needs. Their appraisal of rehabilitation was thus related to the satisfaction or not of caregiver needs. With a greater sensitivity to significant others who focus on the stroke survivor and disregard their own needs, rehabilitation professionals and especially speech-language therapists, can assist families in reestablishing communication and satisfying relationships which are affected because of aphasia. This qualitative study shows that significant others of aphasic stroke survivors experience rehabilitation as services focused on the person who had the stroke. Significant others' satisfaction with rehabilitation is not related to the fulfillment of their personal (e.g. resuming their activities) and relational needs (e.g. good communication with the person with aphasia). When offering interventions targeting significant others' needs, rehabilitation

  20. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  1. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  2. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  3. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  4. Can a significance test be genuinely Bayesian?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos A. de B.; Stern, Julio Michael; Wechsler, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The Full Bayesian Significance Test, FBST, is extensively reviewed. Its test statistic, a genuine Bayesian measure of evidence, is discussed in detail. Its behavior in some problems of statistical inference like testing for independence in contingency tables is discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 1508.27 - Significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Register of Historic Places or may cause loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or... cultural resources, park lands, prime farmlands, wetlands, wild and scenic rivers, or ecologically critical...

  6. Economically Significant Sites - OSPR [ds356

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This point data set shows locations of Economically Significant Sites along the California coast from Del Norte to San Diego counties. Data for locating these points...

  7. Contribution of radiodiagnosis to genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.M.; Ouvrard, R.

    Surveys were carried out in France on 33,000 X-ray medical examinations. The genetically significant dose to the whole population from roentgenography and fluoroscopy, for typical examinations, should be about 65mrads [fr

  8. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used

  9. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  10. Significance of Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    1 School of Studies in Geology and Water Resource Management, .... In few cases, complete alteration of olivine grains either to ..... Hari KR, Nambiar CG, Furuyama K and Rai SK 2002 Some geochemical and petrogenetic relations between ...

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clinical significance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The clinical significance and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) differs according to different groups of patients. ASB requires antibiotic treatment in pregnant women, children aged 5-6 years and prior to invasive genitourinary procedures. However, there is a consensus that ASB in the elderly, healthy school girls and young women, diabetic women and patients with indwelling catheters or intermittent catheterization has no clinical significance and antibiotic prescription is not indicated.

  12. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....

  13. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Prognostic significance of aortic pulse wave velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.W.; Jeppesen, J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Om bogen Vascular Hemodynamics This is the only complete work on vascular hemodynamics. Recently, vascular hemodynamics has undergone major advances, resulting from increasingly sophisticated imaging, computational, and clinical research methodologies. The effects of these advances are likely...... to be profound at both the scientific and clinical levels. Now, "Vascular Hemodynamics" provides a self-contained treatment of this rapidly advancing topic as it relates to vascular disease and related pathologies in the human body. Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach encompassing engineering, vascular...

  15. Building stones can be of geoheritage significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocx, Margaret; Semeniuk, Vic

    2017-04-01

    Building stones have generally been assigned values according to their cultural, aesthetic, and rarity significance, amongst other criteria, but they also may have geoheritage significance. This is akin to the geoheritage significance ascribed to minerals and fossils housed as ex situ specimens in museums. We proffer the notion that building stones can be of geoheritage value particularly where they comprise permanent buildings, they illustrate significant windows into the history of the Earth, and they can be visited as an ex situ museum locality (e.g., the "Blue Granite" of Iceland) for education as part of building-stone tours. For some rocks the quarries that supplied the building stone are no longer in existence and hence the building stones provide the only record of that type of material; for other rocks, the building stone may illustrate features in the lithology no longer present in the quarry itself (e.g., rare and large xenoliths). Building stones are particularly significant as they are often polished and manifest structures, fabrics, and textures not evident in outcrop. We illustrate here examples of building stone of geoheritage significance using Australian and International examples. Australian designated stones could include the "Sydney Sandstone" or "Victorian Bluestone". For international examples, there is the famous "Carrara Marble" in Italy and the widely known "Portland Limestone" from southern England, the latter having been utilized for St Pauls Cathedral in London and the UN building in New York City.

  16. Occult pneumothoraces in Chinese patients with significant blunt chest trauma: radiological classification and proposed clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan K L; Graham, Colin A; Yeung, Janice H H; Ahuja, Anil T; Rainer, Timothy H

    2012-12-01

    An occult pneumothorax (OP) is a pneumothorax not seen on a supine chest X-ray (CXR) but detected on abdominal or thoracic computed tomography (CT) scanning. With the increasing use of CT in the management of significantly injured trauma patients, more OPs are being detected. The aim of this study was to classify OPs diagnosed on thoracic CT (TCT) and correlate them with their clinical significance. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected trauma registry data. Total 36 (N=36) consecutive significantly injured trauma patients admitted through the emergency department (ED) who sustained blunt chest trauma and underwent TCT between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2008 were included. OP was defined as the identification (by a consultant radiologist) of a pneumothorax on TCT that had not been detected on supine CXR. OPs were classified by laterality (unilateral/bilateral) and location (apical, basal, non apical/basal). The size of pneumothoraces, severity of injury [including number of associated thoracic injuries and injury severity score (ISS)], length of hospital stay and mortality were compared between groups. The need for tube thoracostomy and clinical outcome were also analysed. Patients with bilateral OPs (N=8) had significantly more associated thoracic injuries (median: 2 vs. 1, p=0.01), higher ISS (median: 35 vs. 23, p=0.02) and longer hospital stay (median: 20 days vs. 11 days, p=0.01) than those with a unilateral OP (N=28). Basal OPs (N=7) were significantly larger than apical (N=10) and non-apical/basal Ops (N=11). Basal OPs were associated with significantly more associated thoracic injuries (median: 2 vs. 1, p=0.01), higher ISS (median: 35 vs. 25, p=0.04) and longer hospital stays (median: 23 days vs. 17 days, p=0.02) than apical Ops, which had higher ISS (median: 35 vs. 25, p=0.04) and longer hospital stays (median: 23 days vs. 15 days, p=0.02) than non-apical/basal OPs. Non-apical/basal OPs were associated with more related injuries (median: 2

  17. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  18. Analysis of the Detection Rate of Atypical Squamous Cell of Undermined Significance(ASCUS)and Its Relative Factors among Healthy Checkup Population%健康体检人群宫颈非典型鳞状细胞检出情况及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫澜; 冉利梅; 曹煜; 华玉淑; 宋珏; 沈璐; 吴春维; 詹洁

    2015-01-01

    炎及宫颈病变是预防宫颈癌的重要途径。%Objective To understand the detection rate of ASCUS and its relative factors among healthy checkup population. Methods 29 080 healthy women who received health examination in department of physical checkup center in the Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang Medical College from January 2011 to December 2013,were selected as study subjects. All cases received routine gynecological examination, examination of vaginal secretions, cervical smear cytological examination. The ASCUS detection rate of different age groups,the relationship between different types of reproductive tract infection( bacterial vaginosis,trichomonas vaginitis,colpomycosis,cervical erosion changes,cervical hypertrophy complicated with nessler′s cyst) and the ASCUS detection rate,and influence factors for ASCUS were analyzed. Results Among 29 080 women,359 had ASCUS,the detection rate of ASCUS was 1. 23%. There was no significant difference in the detection rate of ASCUS among different age groups(P0. 05). According to Logistic regression analysis results,the independent risk factors for the occurrence of ASCUS were trichomonas vaginitis,cervical erosion changes,cervical hypertrophy complicated with nessler′s cyst(P<0. 05). Conclusion The detection rate of ASCUS varies by age groups, the high risk factors for the occurrence of ASCUS are trichomonas vaginitis, cervical erosion changes, cervical hypertrophy complicated with nessler′s cyst. So, regular cervical cytological screening,timely treatment of trichomonal vaginitis and cervical lesions are the important ways to prevent cervical cancer.

  19. Clinical significance of anismus in encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto-Smith, A G; Nolan, T M; Coffey, C M

    1998-09-01

    Treatments designed to relieve paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincters during defecation (anismus) have had limited success in children with encopresis. This has raised doubts as to the clinical relevance of this diagnosis in childhood as anorectal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine whether, in patients who had treatment-resistant encopresis, the presence of electromyographic anismus was associated with increased faecal retention. Sixty-eight children with soiling (mean age 8.7+/-2.06 years) were assessed by clinical examination, abdominal radiography and then with anorectal manometry. Patients with electromyographic anismus (n=32; 47%) had significantly increased radiographic rectal faecal retention and were significantly less likely to be able to defecate water-filled balloons. There were no significant differences in response to prior therapy, history of primary encopresis, behavioural adjustment or in sociodemographic data. Our results suggest that electromyographic anismus is associated with obstructed defecation and faecal retention.

  20. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  1. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  2. Changing relationships with significant others: Reflections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolic interactionism provides the framework for analysing the building of relationships between elite athletes and their significant others. In-depth interviews were conducted with elite throwers and decathlon athletes. The sample included current (n=15) and retired (n=5) student-athletes, parents (n=5), coaches (n=2) ...

  3. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  4. Incidence and Significance of Haematemesis in Cirrhosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... veloped encephalopathy and coma. It was found that more patients fell into the latter group (50 cases) than into the group with haematemesis (with or without encephalopathy). (45 cases), but there was no significant difference in the mortality rate of the groups. s. Afr. Med. l., 48, 1155 (1974). It has for some ...

  5. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  6. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  7. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  8. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  9. Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrochemistry and geotectonic significance of enderbite-charnockite association in the Pan-African Obudu plateau, southeastern Nigeria. VU Ukaegbu, FT Beka. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 43 (1) 2007: pp. 1-14. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  10. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  11. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  12. Cystic echinococcosis: prevalence and economic significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 at ELFORA export abattoir to determine the prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic significance of small ruminant cystic echinococcosis. A total of 850 small ruminants (400 sheep and 450 goats), were examined for the presence of ...

  13. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  14. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.39 Significance. (a) If the...

  15. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  16. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argue...

  17. On the Military Significance of Language Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Kurt E.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)

  18. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan.

    1992-01-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks

  19. Petrological significance of REE in uraninite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu

    1992-09-01

    According to the petrological study of Zhuguangshan and Huanglongmiao granites and REE in uraninite from these granites, it can be concluded that REE contents in uraninite and granites are positively correlative; the partition characteristics of REE in uraninite are related to the acidity of initial rocks; and the fractionation degree of REE in uraninite reflects the differentiation degree of initial rocks.

  20. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  1. Nutritional significance of lactose and lactose derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences is a resource for researchers, students and practitioners involved in all aspects of dairy science and related food science and technology areas. It covers the core theories, methods, and techniques employed by dairy scientists. It enables readers to access basic

  2. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  3. [Biofilms and their significance in medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernohorská, L; Votava, M

    2002-11-01

    Microorganisms are able to adhere to various surfaces and to form there a three-dimensional structure known as biofilm. In biofilms, microbial cells show characteristics and behaviours different from those of plankton cells. Intercellular signalizations of the quorum-sensing type regulate interaction between members of the biofilm. Bacteria embedded in the biofilm can escape and form well known planktonic forms, that are obviously only a part of the bacterial life cycle. Bacteria adhere also to medically important surfaces such as catheters, either urinary or intravenous ones, artificial heart valves, orthopedic implants and so on and contribute to device-related infections like cystitis, catheter-related sepsis, endocarditis etc. Once a biofilm has been established on a surface, the bacteria harboured inside are less exposed to the host's immune response and less susceptible to antibiotics. As an important cause of nosocomial infections the biofilm must remain in the centre of the microbiologist's attention.

  4. The evolutionary origin and significance of Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollycove, Ricki; Naftolin, Frederick; Simon, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary human females have long life expectancy (81y US), especially relative to age at menopause (51y US). Menopause is a consequence of reproductive aging and follicular depletion (ovarian failure), yielding very low circulating estrogen* serum concentrations and biologically disadvantageous metabolic alterations. Stated in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy, the ongoing hypoestrogenic endocrine environment, beneficial during lactation, results in acceleration of several age-related health conditions following menopause (i.e. late postmenopausal osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline). In contrast, the complex hypoestrogenic hormonal milieu present during postpartum lactation provides biologic advantages to both mother and newborn. The lactational hormonal milieu causes symptoms similar to those of the late perimenopause and early postmenopause, prompting theories for their biologic selective advantage. The precepts of evolutionary medicine encourage a reassessment of hormone therapy. Based on data presented, the authors propose additional opportunities for disease prevention and morbidity reduction in postmenopausal women. PMID:21252729

  5. Significance and radioimmunoassay of gastric inhibitory polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ping; Zeng Minde; Yuan Jimin

    1995-01-01

    We have established the GIP Radioimmunoassay which has high sensitivity and specificity by labelling with iodogen and purified with HPLC. Using this method, the plasma GIP level was measured in 64 cases of which there are 10 normal individuals, 25 cases of diabetes and 29 cases of liver cirrhosis . The results showed that the plasma GIP level was significantly increased in patients with liver cirrhosis and correlated to degree of glucose tolerance damage

  6. Prevalence of significant bacteriuria among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill). Results: A total of 100 consenting participants were recruited into the study. The mean age was: 23.42 ± 8.31 years and a range of 14‑50 years. Only 9% (9/100) had significant bacteriuria while 44.4% (4/9) ...

  7. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  8. Significance of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Nobuko; Ogami, Koji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Koga, Kenji; Waki, Norio; Higashi, Hidefumi; Hayashi, Asami; Shibata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Katsuji

    1986-01-01

    From 1978 through 1983, 27 patients were treated with surgery followed by irradiation (irradiated group) and 29 with surery alone (non-irradiated group). In the irradiated group, 10 had stage II and 17 stage III; in the non-irradiated group, 25 had stage II and 4 stage III. The most common histology was medullary tubular carcinoma (MTC). There was no significant difference in survivals at 3 years and 5 years between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was seen among stage II patients. Patients with MTC tended to have worse survivals in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group, with no statistically significant difference. Among stage II patients, no major differences in local recurrence were seen between the groups; the incidence of distant metastases tended to be high in the irradiated group. The incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases for stage III patients showed a tendency to be higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group. The results indicated no apparent benifit of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. A randomized clinical trial is needed for the evaluation of postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Clinical significance of dental root canal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Lilley, J D; Drucker, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by this group has shown that a significant association exists between pain and the presence of either Prevotella or Peptostreptococcus spp. in dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine a more extensive series of canals microbiologically, to determine whether any other particular endodontic symptoms or clinical signs showed specific associations with individual bacterial species. Seventy root canals were examined microbiologically and clinical data collected to investigate in detail such associations. Of the canals studied, 37 were associated with pain, 49 with tenderness to percussion, 23 with swelling, six with purulent exudate and 57 presented with wet root canals. Anaerobes were isolated from 70.3% of painful canals and from 29.7% of pain-free canals. Significant associations were found between (a) pain and either Prevotella spp. or peptostreptococci, both with P spp. (P Eubacterium spp. (P spp. or Pstr. micros, both with P spp. (each P Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella or Propionibacterium (each P < 0.05). It was concluded that several different endodontic clinical signs and symptoms are significantly associated with specific bacterial species.

  10. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  11. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W.; Jamieson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  12. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  13. Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi’s example has inspired countless political struggles worldwide over the past century. We might then ask how his thought has been transferred and translated when taken out of the particular historical and geographic context in which he lived. How have Gandhi’s ideas been changed or altered when adopted in different contexts? Which aspects of Gandhi’s thinking remain most relevant to struggles for social and environmental justice today? These are just a few of the questions that were discussed at the “Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Workshop” hosted by Reed College in Portland Oregon (USA, on April 16th, 2016.

  14. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  15. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  16. Medical significance of the essential biological metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, I.J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The medical significance of the essential biological metals such as zinc, copper and molybdenum as well as their nutritional and biochemical importance are reviewed. The following topics are treated: biochemical actions of the essential biological metals; the concept of essentiality; the development of knowledge about the essential biological metals. Data are given on zinc deficiency and hypogonadismi in humans, zinc and acrodermatitis enterophatica, zinc and the skin, zinc in diabetes mellitus, zinc and insulin, zinc and the liver; copper functions, copper deficiency - ''sway back'' in sheep, copper and haemopoiesis, copper and the function of blood vessels; molybdenum and dental caries in humans, oesophageal carcinoma and molybdenum deficiency in humans. (T.G.)

  17. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  18. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  19. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  20. pancreatic steatosis: diagnosis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Daðdeviren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic steatosis (PS, with increased use of abdominal imaging in recent years generally appears as incidental. But it is a condition that is often overlooked. The reason for this is not yet fully demonstrated the clinical significance of PS while. However, in recent years, there are some studies conducted on the relationship with ps and other disease such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. In this review, the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and clinical characteristics of ps were evaluated in the light of recent literature and current approaches. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 107-112

  1. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  2. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V

    2001-01-01

    with this microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...... biochemical testing is performed. Mannose-positive strains of A. hominis are especially difficult to differentiate from A. equuli. Attempts to identify A. hominis by automatic identification systems may lead to misidentifications. Ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization data show that A. hominis is a homogeneous...

  3. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Sciences (UCAR-SOARS) program: A paradigm case for a research based analysis of elements and attributes of a highly successful research experience for undergraduate (REU) program designed to broaden participation in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    REU (research experience for undergraduate) programs in science serve as a centerpiece for: recruitment improved learning, retention and increased graduation rates among students in STEM fields. Structured REUs are highly effective programs for broadening participation and remedying inequities, to increase and diversify the STEM talent pool and professional workforce. Now in its 16th year, SOARS is dedicated to broadening participation in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS is an undergraduate through graduate program built on the structure of: a summer research internship, mentoring by professional scientists, and a supportive learning community. SOARS is an exemplar. Its structure serves as a paradigm case for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of students from underserved populations. This research-based examination of SOARS explores its program elements and identifies attributes and practices that contribute to its impact and lasting outcomes.

  4. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  5. Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia V

    2008-01-01

    Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds.

  6. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  7. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  8. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... note any other environmental documents related to it (§ 1501.7(a)(5)). If the assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may incorporate it by... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508...

  9. Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2014-01-01

    In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,

  10. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis : Clinical significance and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knegt, RJ

    2001-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of liver disease resembling alcoholic liver disease in a patient who does not consume significant amounts of alcohol. Since its first description in 1980 it has been recognized with increasing frequency. The natural course is relatively benign, but

  11. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, T.R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  12. The Nature and Significance of Listening Skills in Accounting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    While surveys of the employers of accountancy graduates highlight the significance of listening skills, relatively little is known about how such skills are utilised in accounting practice. The present study attempts to address the above lacuna by utilising the findings of in-depth interviews with Australian public accountants about the nature of…

  13. Vulture significance in Ogoni Culture | Saale | AFRREV LALIGENS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explained the spiritual and social significance of vulture in Ogoni culture. It also explained how the use of vulture to refer to human beings and its characteristics became sources of social relations and conflicts in Ogoni culture. It adopted both the anthropological and sociological approaches. Findings from the ...

  14. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  16. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  17. Bayesian approaches for detecting significant deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, Willy; Aven, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Risk indicators can provide useful input to risk management processes and are given increased attention in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Examples include indicators expressing the proportion of test failures of safety and barrier systems. Such indicators give valuable information about the performance of the systems and provide a basis for trend evaluations. Early warning of a possible deterioration is essential due to the importance of the systems in focus, but what should be the basis for the warning criterion? This paper presents and discusses several Bayesian approaches for the establishment of a warning criterion to disclose significant deterioration. The Norwegian petroleum industry is the starting point for this paper, but the study is relevant for other application areas as well

  18. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  19. The insignificance of statistical significance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    Despite their use in scientific journals such as The Journal of Wildlife Management, statistical hypothesis tests add very little value to the products of research. Indeed, they frequently confuse the interpretation of data. This paper describes how statistical hypothesis tests are often viewed, and then contrasts that interpretation with the correct one. I discuss the arbitrariness of P-values, conclusions that the null hypothesis is true, power analysis, and distinctions between statistical and biological significance. Statistical hypothesis testing, in which the null hypothesis about the properties of a population is almost always known a priori to be false, is contrasted with scientific hypothesis testing, which examines a credible null hypothesis about phenomena in nature. More meaningful alternatives are briefly outlined, including estimation and confidence intervals for determining the importance of factors, decision theory for guiding actions in the face of uncertainty, and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and other statistical practices.

  20. WHC significant lessons learned 1993--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, J.C.

    1997-12-12

    A lesson learned as defined in DOE-STD-7501-95, Development of DOE Lessons Learned Programs, is: A ``good work practice`` or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat applications or an adverse work practice or experience that is captured and shared to avoid a recurrence. The key word in both parts of this definition is ``shared``. This document was published to share a wide variety of recent Hanford experiences with other DOE sites. It also provides a valuable tool to be used in new employee and continuing training programs at Hanford facilities and at other DOE locations. This manual is divided into sections to facilitate extracting appropriate subject material when developing training modules. Many of the bulletins could be categorized into more than one section, however, so examination of other related sections is encouraged.

  1. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, P.F.; Gomez, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  2. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  3. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  4. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ismail, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.; Khattak, M.B.; Anwar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  5. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  6. Real significance of skin contamination is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudmann, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For five decades, health physicists have discussed the thickness, area, significance of radioactive contamination and the exposures to various portions of the skin. Concern about instances of skin contamination extend beyond the resultant organ dose simply because it is a recognizable and quantifiable event. As such, there is a tendency for management and regulatory agencies to use it as a trend indicator. The final result is a score card similar to the list of OSHA reportable accidents. In fact, the skin contamination incidence rate has a somewhat different meaning to the health physicist, to the manager, and to the regulator. The question must then be asked, What is the true significance of skin contamination, Is it the resultant skin dose, Is it an indicator of loss of control, Is it both or neither. In order to answer these questions, Rockwell Hanford Operations began analysis of the previous five years records of skin contamination cases. Since by policy each incidence of skin contamination is documented, a large percentage of the 425 records analyzed were of low level activity (less than 100 dpm/cm 2 ) on the extremeties, primarily hands and fingers. Most of these cases were readily decontaminated with soap and water. Individual elements studied included: detection/monitoring methods and limits; impact of type of operation on the incidence rate; causes of and methods for reduction of the incidence rate; reporting and documentation; and dose assessment. Results of the study indicate that skin contamination rarely presents a beta dose problem because it is normally highly localized on the extremeties. Only in unusual cases does it represent a potential for internal deposition. Thus, the real importance of skin contamination incidence is as an indicator of deteriorating conditions and should be reviewed by health physicists, managers and regulators as such

  7. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  8. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  10. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  11. Clinical significance of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Iman; El Nadi, Enas; Taha, Hala; Elkinaai, Naglaa; Zaghloul, Mohamed S; Younes, Alaa; Labib, Rania; Sabry, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    The presence of anaplastic features has been known to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various pediatric malignancies, including Wilms tumor and medulloblastoma but not in rhabdomyosarcoma. Aim was to study the frequency of anaplasia at presentation in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and its relationship to clinical and pathological characteristics as well as to outcome. Anaplasia was retrospectively assessed in 105 consecutive pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma patients who were registered at the Children's Cancer Hospital in Egypt (CCHE) during the period from July 2007 till the end of May 2010. Anaplasia was diagnosed in 18 patients (17.1%), focal in 10 (9.5%) and diffuse in 8 (7.6%). The distribution of anaplasia was found to be more common in older patients having age⩾10 years. Also it was more likely to occur in the high risk group and in tumors with unfavorable histology (alveolar subtype), and stage IV. The 3-year failure free survival rates for patients with and without anaplasia were 27.8±10.6% and 53.4±5.8%, respectively (p=0.014) and the 3-year overall survival rates were 35.3±11.6% and 61±6%, respectively (p=0.019). The frequency of anaplasia in pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma in our study was 17.1%. The presence of anaplasia had statistically significant worse clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical significance of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhom, I.; El Nadi, E.; Taha, H.; Elkinaai, N.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Younes, A.; Labib, R.; Sabry, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of anaplastic features has been known to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various pediatric malignancies, including Wilms tumor and medulloblastoma but not in rhabdomyosarcoma. Aim: Aim was to study the frequency of anaplasia at presentation in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and its relationship to clinical and pathological characteristics as well as to outcome. Patients and Methods: Anaplasia was retrospectively assessed in 105 consecutive pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma patients who were registered at the Children’s Cancer Hospital in Egypt (CCHE) during the period from July 2007 till the end of May 2010. Results: Anaplasia was diagnosed in 18 patients (17.1%), focal in 10 (9.5%) and diffuse in 8 (7.6%). The distribution of anaplasia was found to be more common in older patients having age P 10 years. Also it was more likely to occur in the high risk group and in tumors with unfavorable histology (alveolar subtype), and stage IV. The 3-year failure free survival rates for patients with and without anaplasia were 27.8 ± 10.6% and 53.4 ± 5.8%, respectively (p = 0.014) and the 3-year overall survival rates were 35.3 ± 11.6% and 61 ± 6%, respectively (p = 0.019). Conclusions: The frequency of anaplasia in pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma in our study was 17.1%. The presence of anaplasia had statistically significant worse clinical outcome

  13. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  14. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  15. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play. PMID:28791169

  16. CT diagnostic significance of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tieqiao; Dong Jie; Xu Quanying; An Haiqin; Sang Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomographic (CT) imaging features of tuboovarian abscess as well as to discuss CT diagnostic significance. Methods: Ten patients with tuboovarian abscess were performed CT enhancing scans. Results: Ten patients manifested thick-walled, cystic-solid complex adnexal mass and indistinct margins on CT imaging. Internal thick septations and layered enhancement of the mass border on CT contrast images were common. Associated findings of CT included thickening of' the uterosacral ligaments in 9 of 10 patients, increased attenuation of the presacral and perirectal fat secondary to edema in 9 patients, serpiginous structure corresponding to a dilated, pus-filled fallopian tube in 6 patients and fluid-filled within uterine cavity in 4 patients. On CT scans, the inflammatory infiltration of adnexal abscesses involved pelvic structure included adhesion with borders of uterus in 9 patients, adhesion with rectal or sigmoid in 4 patients and pelvic wall or bowel loop in 3 patients. Two cases with peritoneal thicken showed ascites on CT images and right adnexal tuboovarian abscess in 2 patients were associated with appendicitis. Conclusion: CT can reveal pelvic adjacent organs involvement or adhesion and inflammatory infihration of pelvic floor soft-tissues or fascial planes except showing cystic solid complex mass of adnexal location so that indicating characteristics and the extent of the suspected pelvic inflammatory diseases. CT can be valuable in difficult cases of gynecologic infective diseases. (authors)

  17. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Significant and Basic Innovations in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyasnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the development features of the innovative urban planning in the USSR and Russia in XVIII - XX centuries. Innovative urban planning is defined as an activity on innovations creation and their implementation to obtain a socio-economic, political, environmental or other effect. In the course of urban development history this activity represents a cyclic wave process in which there are phases of rise and fall. The study of cyclic waves in the development of innovative urban planning uses the concept of basic and epochal innovations selection. This concept was developed by scientists for the study of cyclic wave processes in economics. Its adaptation to the conditions of innovative urban planning development allows one to introduce the concept of “basic innovation” and “significant innovation” in the theory and practice of settlement formation and their systems as well as to identify opportunities to highlight these innovations in the history of Russian urban planning. From these positions, six innovation waves committed to the urban development over the past 300 years are being investigated. The observed basic innovations in the domestic urban area show that urban development is a vital area for ensuring the country’s geopolitical security. Basic innovations are translated in time and modernized under new conditions of urban planning development. In this regard, we can predict the development of four basic innovations in post-Soviet Russia.

  19. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  20. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  1. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  2. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  3. Neoproterozoic marine carbonates and their paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Ashleigh van Smeerdijk; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2018-01-01

    The primary mineralogy of marine carbonate precipitates has been a crucial factor in constraining the major element composition of ancient oceans. Secular changes in Phanerozoic marine chemistry, including Mg/Ca, have been well-documented using the original carbonate mineralogy of ooids, marine cements and biominerals. However, the history of Precambrian seawater chemistry is not as well constrained, partially due to the prevalence of dolomitisation in the Precambrian geological record. The Neoproterozoic ( 1000 Ma to 541 Ma) record of primary carbonate mineralogy is documented here using a combination of literature data and new analysis of marine carbonate precipitates from the Otavi Fold Belt, Namibia, the Death Valley succession, USA and the Adelaide Fold Belt, Australia. These data suggest that the last 460 million years of the Proterozoic were dominated by aragonite and high-Mg calcite precipitation in shallow marine settings. In contrast, low-Mg calcite has only been recognised in a small number of formations. In addition to aragonite and calcite precipitation, marine dolomite precipitation was widespread in Neoproterozoic oceans, including mimetic (syn-sedimentary) dolomitisation and primary dolomite marine cementation. The combination of marine aragonite, high Mg-calcite and dolomite precipitation during the Neoproterozoic suggests extremely high seawater Mg/Ca conditions relative to Phanerozoic oceans. Marine dolomite precipitation may also be linked to widespread marine anoxia during this time.

  4. Significance of quantum fluctuations in roentgen imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations in the roentgen radiation relief are analysed mathematically. The intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio of the radiation relief for a given object contrast is proportional to the square root of the number of photons contributing to the image of a characteristic detail in the object. In the presence of secondary radiation the signal-to-noise ratio is impaired, since the fluctuations of secondary radiation increase the noise of the radiation relief. By efficient secondary screening, the quality of the relief can be partially recovered. With a dynamically limited recording device, i.e. a film-screen combination, increased detection speed in conjunction with improved secondary screening will either result in unchanged image quality with the gain of an object-dose reduction or provide improved imaging at an unchanged dose value. As regards the relation between contrast resolution and spatial resolution, the dose required to barely demonstrate an object detail of given geometry and composition is found to vary inversely with the fourth power of the linear size of the detail. It is also concluded that recording and secondary-screening devices should always be considered together as far as recording quality is concerned.

  5. [Significance of mobbing in Italian law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollani, A

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the juridical profile that the phenomenon of mobbing assumes within the Italian legal system, emphasizing that the English term of current usage does not designate any specific legal entity as such but simply refers, in summary fashion, to deeds and behaviours that need to be qualified according to the law in vigour. The normative frame of reference for mobbing is found in article 2087 of the Civil code, which states, as an open, teleologically oriented norm, the employer's obligation to safeguard the moral person of the employee; hence the onus is on the interpreter, essentially, to evaluate if there has been, in actual fact, a contravention of this safeguarded legal right. The author then discusses profiles that intersect with mobbing (or behaviours perceived as such) drawing on other cases regulated by the law such as the safeguarding of professionality (art. 2103 of the Civil code), and underlines that often mobbing ends by being construed as a mere accompaniment to, if not duplication of, other typical cases. Finally, the author discusses aspects of the judicial process related to the allegation and proof of the facts constituting the offence, and to the damage, in its various non patrimonial components.

  6. Antinuclear antibodies: clinical significance of fluorescence patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, S.L.; Habermann, F.; Franco, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with 212 sera positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were studied to: 1) determine the immunofluorescent nuclear staining patterns using Burnham's technique and simplified classification; 2) note the specificity of fluorescence patterns among the various connective tissue diseases; 3) study comparatively the fluorescence paterns employing 5 different antigen substrates; 4) correlate ANA titers and fluorescence patterns with renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It was observed: 1) most of the sera gave nonparticulate fluorescent patterns: peripheral, homogeneous, or peripheral-homogeneneous; 2) 55,5% of the patients had LE and most of those sera showed nonparticulate fluorescent patterns; 3) the sera displayed no specificity for any of the following antigen substrates: imprints of human normal spleen, frozen rat liver and kidney sections, frozen mouse kidney sections and perypheral human blood smears; 4) imprints of normal human spleen were the best substrate for accurate identification of fluorescent patterns; 5) sera from SLE patients with renal involvement showed higher ANA titers in relation to patients without renal involvement; both groups of sera gave similar ANA fluorescent patterns. (Author) [pt

  7. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice......This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results are highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinking. We claim that the use of such tests do not provide any advantages in relation to deciding whether differences between citation indicators...

  8. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th 232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  9. Psoriasis causes significant economic burden to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, A; Mattila, K; Leino, M; Koulu, L; Tuominen, R

    2014-06-01

    Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients. The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method. 199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers. Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.

  10. Significance of venous anastomosis in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Abe, Yukio; Dhawan, Vikas

    2003-03-01

    Adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for successful fingertip replantation. The authors have attempted venous anastomosis in all cases of fingertip replantation to overcome postoperative congestion. In this article, the significance of venous repair for fingertip replantation is described from the authors' results of 64 complete fingertip amputations in 55 consecutive patients, which were replanted from January of 1996 to June of 2001. The overall survival rate was 86 percent. Of the 44 replantations in zone I, 37 survived, and the success rate was 84 percent. Of the 20 replantations in zone II, 18 survived, and the success rate was 90 percent. Venous anastomosis was attempted in all cases, but it was possible in 39 zone I and in all zone II replantations. For arterial repair, vein grafts were necessary in 17 of the 44 zone I and in one of the 20 zone II replantations; for venous repair, they were necessary in six zone I replantations and one zone II replantation. Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 15 replantations. There were five cases of arterial thrombosis and 10 cases of venous congestion. Venous congestion occurred in nine zone I and one zone II replantations. In five of these 10 replantations, venous anastomosis was not possible. In another five replantations, venous outflow was established at the time of surgery, but occlusion occurred subsequently. Except for the five failures resulting from arterial thrombosis, successful venous repair was possible in 49 of 59 replantations (83 percent). Despite the demand for skillful microsurgical technique and longer operation time, the authors' results using venous anastomosis in successful fingertip replantations are encouraging. By performing venous anastomosis, external bleeding can be avoided and a higher survival rate can be achieved. Venous anastomosis for fingertip replantation is a reliable and worthwhile procedure.

  11. Clinical significance of autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2013-10-01

    The accurate diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) rely upon the detection of characteristic autoantibodies. Positivity for anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) autoantibodies defines AIH type 1 (AIH-1), whereas anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) define AIH type 2 (AIH-2). ANA and SMA, and less commonly anti-LKM1, have also been detected in de-novo autoimmune hepatitis developing after liver transplantation, a condition that may affect patients transplanted for non-autoimmune liver disease. The diagnostic autoantibodies associated with AIH-1 are also detected in the paediatric AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome, referred to as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC). ASC, like adult primary sclerosing cholangitis, is often associated with atypical perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA), although p-ANCA are also detected in other autoimmune liver diseases. These associations highlight the necessity for simple and prompt diagnostic autoantibody testing, and the requirement for the accurate interpretation of the results of the tests in the clinical context. Fine-mapping of antigenic autoantibody targets has facilitated the development of rapid molecular assays that have the potential to revolutionise the field if properly standardised and when used in combination with classical immunofluorescence. Despite their diagnostic significance, the pathogenic role of the various autoantibodies and the mechanisms by which they can potentially inflict damage onto the liver cell remain a topic for further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The significance of routines in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytterström, Patrik; Unosson, Mitra; Arman, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the significance of routines in nursing practice. Clinical nursing is performed under the guidance of routines to varying degrees. In the nursing literature, routine is described as having both negative and positive aspects, but use of the term is inconsistent, and empirical evidence is sparse. In the research on organisational routines, a distinction is made between routine as a rule and routine as action. A qualitative design using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Data collection from three focus groups focused on nurses' experience of routines. Seventeen individual interviews from a previous study focusing on caring culture were also analysed in a secondary qualitative analysis. All participants were employed as 'qualified nursing pool' nurses. Routines are experienced as pragmatic, obstructive and meaningful. The aim of the pragmatic routine was to ensure that daily working life works; this routine is practised more on the basis of rational arguments and obvious intentions. The obstructive routine had negative consequences for nursing practice and was described as nursing losing its humanity and violating the patient's integrity. The meaningful routine involved becoming one with the routine and for the nurses, it felt right and meaningful to adapt to it. Routines become meaningful when the individual action is in harmony with the cultural pattern on which the nursing work is based. Instead of letting contemporary practice passively become routine, routines can be assessed and developed using research and theoretical underpinnings as a starting point for nursing practice. Leaders have a special responsibility to develop and support meaningful routines. One approach could be to let wards examine their routines from a patient perspective on the basis of the themes of pragmatic, meaningful and obstructive routine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Signet Ring Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Sharven; Jayarajan, Senthil N.; Davey, Adam; Willis, Alliric I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Studies in Asia have questioned the dictum that signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) has a worse prognosis than other forms of gastric cancer. Our study determined differences in presentation and outcomes between SRC and gastric adenocarcinoma (AC) in the United States. Patients and Methods The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was reviewed for SRC and AC from 2004 to 2007. Results We reviewed 10,246 cases of patients with gastric cancer, including 2,666 of SRC and 7,580 of AC. SRC presented in younger patients (61.9 v 68.7 years; P < .001) and less often in men (52.7% v 68.7%; P < .001). SRC patients were more frequently black (11.3% v 10.9%), Asian (16.4% v 13.2%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.9% v 0.8%), or Hispanic (23.3% v 14.0%; P < .001). SRC was more likely to be stage T3-4 (45.8% v 33.3%), have lymph node spread (59.7% v 51.8%), and distant metastases (40.2% v 37.6%; P < .001). SRC was more likely to be found in the lower (30.7% v 24.2%) and middle stomach (30.6% v 20.7%; P < .001). Median survival was not different between the two (AC, 14.0 months v SRC, 13.0 months; P = .073). Multivariable analyses demonstrated SRC was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P = .150). Mortality was associated with age (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02; P < .001), black race (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20; P = .026), and tumor grade. Variables associated with lower mortality risk included Asian race (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91; P < .001) and surgery (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.39; P < .001). Conclusion In the United States, SRC significantly differs from AC in extent of disease at presentation. However, when adjusted for stage, SRC does not portend a worse prognosis. PMID:22927530

  14. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  15. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  16. Significance of NTM infections in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Katalinic-Jankovic

    2015-01-01

    laboratory are sent to the National Reference Laboratory for identification. NTM strains have been systematically recorded and reported since 1982. In the last decade, two retrospective analyses were done to assess the clinical relevance of different NTM species and the burden of pulmonary NTM disease. Over the past decade, a 30-fold increase in overall NTM isolation rates and a 4-fold increase in PNTM incidence were observed. Mycobacterium xenopi was the most frequently seen causative agent of pulmonary NTM disease, but the degree of clinical relevance (i.e., percentage of patients meeting the diagnosis criteria, per species was higher for isolates of MAC (66.5% and M. kansasii (57.2%. Only about 30% of the M. xenopi isolates represented true disease. Further, interesting regional differences were observed. Clinically relevant NTM isolates were significantly more often found in the coastal region of Croatia, and the average annual incidence of the PNTM was twice as high in coastal compared with the continental region. The overall burden of PNTM in Croatia is still low compared with tuberculosis. This can, in part, explain the observed lack of knowledge of NTM infections among respiratory specialists. Since these pathogens are increasingly common worldwide, especially in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is declining, a constant rising of awareness and knowledge is necessary.

  17. Significant events in psychotherapy: An update of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2010-11-01

    Significant events research represents a specific approach to studying client-identified important moments in the therapy process. The current study provides an overview of the significant events research conducted, the methodology used together with findings and implications. PsychInfo database was searched with keywords such as significant events, important events, significant moments, important moments, and counselling or psychotherapy. The references of the selected studies were also searched. This process led to the identification of 41 primary studies that used client-identified significant event(s) as a main or secondary focus of the study. These were consequently reviewed with regard to their methodology and findings. The findings are presented according to type of study conducted. The impacts of helpful events reported by clients are focused on contributions to therapeutic relationship and to in-session outcomes. Hindering events focus on some client disappointment with the therapist or therapy. The group therapy modality highlighted additional helpful impacts (like learning from others). Perspectives on what is significant in therapy differ between clients and therapists. The intensive qualitative studies reviewed confirm that the processes involved in significant events are complex and ambiguous. Studies show that the helpful events may also contain many hindering elements and that specific events are deeply contextually embedded in the preceding events of therapy. Some studies suggest that helpful significant events are therapeutically productive although this may need to be established further. Specific intensive studies show that the clients' perceptions in therapy may differ dramatically from that of the therapist. Furthermore, the relational and emotional aspects of significant moments may be more important for the clients than the cognitive aspects of therapy which are frequently stressed by therapists. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    related to the production, use, transmission , storage, control, or conservation of energy that will – (A) reduce the need for additional energy supplies...Conditions set for operation were: a. The computer with the broadband wireless card is to be used for data collection, transmission and...FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied

  19. Video games: A significant cognitive artifact of contemporary youth culture

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Education is not limited to formal schooling. Recreational video games have been relatively ignored as a means of informal education. In fact, they are usually seen as trivial without educational worth beyond eye-hand coordination and something from which educators, parents, and politicians must rescue children and distance themselves. Yet video game literacy demands mastery of significant cognitive skills. Unfortunately, there is a remarkably limited research literature in this area. Most me...

  20. Systematic Significance of Leaf Epidermal Features in Holcoglossum (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jie; He, Runli; Zhang, Yinbo; Jin, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Determining the generic delimitations within Aeridinae has been a significant issue in the taxonomy of Orchidaceae, and Holcoglossum is a typical case. We investigated the phylogenetic utility of the morphological traits of leaf epidermis in the taxonomy of Holcoglossum s.l. by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyze 38 samples representing 12 species of Holcoglossum, with five species from five closely related genera, such as Ascocentrum, Luisia, Papilionanthe, Rhynchostylis ...

  1. Multiparametric MRI in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, Jurgen J. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 50 years and older in developed countries and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Multiparametric prostate MR imaging is currently the most accurate imaging modality to detect, localize, and stage prostate cancer. The role of multi-parametric MR imaging in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer are discussed. In addition, insights are provided in imaging techniques, protocol, and interpretation.

  2. [Clinical Significance of HBV Detection in NHL Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Juan; Lv, Cheng-Xiu; Hu, Tian-Yu; Li, Qing

    2018-04-01

    To analyze the relation of HBV infection with clinical characteristics and prognosis in NHL patients, so as to explore the significance of HBV detection. Sixty-eight NHL patients from December 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled in NHL group and 136 patients with other malignancies were chosen in control group, the detectable rate of HBV was compared between 2 groups. The correlation of HBV infection with sex, age, stage, cell origin, expression of P53 and BCL-2 in NHL patients was analyzed. The prognosis-related factors in NHL patients were also analyzed. The infection rate of HBV in NHL group was 51.47%(35/68), that in control group was 15.44% (21/136), and the difference was statistically significant(χ 2 =27.768,PHBV infection correlated with cell origins and expression of BCL-2 in NHL patients(PHBV infection (P>0.05), while the prognosis was significantly related with stage, expression of P53 and BCL-2(PHBV infection correlates with BCL-2 expression level of NHL patients, and shows influence on the prognosis of patients.

  3. Weight comments by family and significant others in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Berge, Jerica M; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Weight teasing is common among adolescents, but less is known about the continuation of this experience during young adulthood. The present study uses survey data from a diverse sample of 2287 young adults, who participated in a 10-year longitudinal study of weight-related issues to examine hurtful weight comments by family members or a significant other. Among young adults, 35.9% of females and 22.8% of males reported receiving hurtful weight-related comments by family members, and 21.2% of females and 23.8% of males with a significant other had received hurtful weight-related comments from this source. Hispanic and Asian young adults and overweight/obese young adults were more likely to report receiving comments than those in other groups. Weight teasing during adolescence predicted hurtful weight-related comments in young adulthood, with some differences by gender. Findings suggest that hurtful weight talk continues into young adulthood and is predicted by earlier weight teasing experiences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on structure-alteration zone related to uranium mineralization and its exploration significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Dong Xiuzhen; Yang Xu Zhang Hongguang

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on recommending geological characteristics of structure-alteration zone which is found from image interpretation in Bashibulake District, north of Tarim Basin, expounding remote sensing information enhancement and extraction technique, analyzing image feature, genetic mechanism and discussing the relationship between uranium mineralization and structure-alteration zone. A new discovery is raised through applying remote sensing information analysis and geologic analysis, that is, the uranium deposits in Bashibulake District are controlled by structure-alteration zone. The new understanding provides a new view point for reconsidering main controlling factors and uranium mineralization distribution in the area. It is helpful for further reconnaissance and exploration in the area. (authors)

  5. 78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... (LLRW) in the form of concrete/asphalt, piping, miscellaneous equipment, soil and soil-like wastes... oversight of certain studies and response actions in accordance with the National Oil and Hazardous...-action alternative would include continued contamination of soil and water, which could further escalate...

  6. Central and Peripheral Significance of Neuropeptide Y and Its Related Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands dDipartimento di Biologia Animale Lab. Anatomia Comparata Via G. Giolitti, 34 10123 Torino, Italy eMRC Group in...neurones. At the ultrastructural level, the demonstration that NPY/C-PON ’Correspondence: Sirgio Gulbenkian, PhD, Laborat6rio de Biologia Celular

  7. Call mimicry by eastern towhees and its significance in relation to auditory learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon S. Greenlaw; Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown

    1998-01-01

    The authors document cases of eastern towhees (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) using mimicked alarm calls from three presumptive models (blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), and American robin (Turdus migratorius)). In four instances, male towhees employed heterospecific calls without substitution in their own call repertoires. Three birds (New...

  8. Significance of relative velocity in the estimation of drag force of a tethered spherical float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P; Sastry, J.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ocean_Eng_20_449.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ocean_Eng_20_449.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Installation was completed, and the decontamination and dismantlement phase of HBPP Unit 3 decommissioning..., building materials, and soil debris from Unit 3. The waste would be transported by truck from HBPP in... concrete, steel, insulation, roofing material, gravel and other metal, wood and soil debris generated...

  10. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  11. Chemosystematic significance of flavonoids isolated from Diplotaxis acris (Brassicaceae) and related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Sameh R; Marzouk, Mona M; Kassem, Mona E S; Abdel Latif, Rasha R; Mohammed, Reda S

    2017-02-01

    The chemosystematic relationship of four Diplotaxis species; Diplotaxis acris, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis harra and Diplotaxis muralis were surveyed from the flavonoids point of view. These species were found to produce 33 flavonoids (7 flavones and 26 flavonols), including 11 compounds were isolated in the present study from D. acris. Among them, seven flavonoids were identified for the first time; luteolin (4), kaempferol (8), kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (13), quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (16), quercetin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (20), isorhamnetin (22) and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (32). Their structures were recognized on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic techniques (1D & 2D NMR, UV, EI & ESI/MS). The isolated flavonoids may provide useful taxonomic characters at the infraspecific levels of classification where the flavonoid profile of D. acris and D. harra is similar and different from the other species.

  12. Significant Attributes and Challenges Related to Cross-Functional Team Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the research work is to investigate the importance of the communication in the cross-functional teams and in what which communicational tools provide better convenience of communication in cross-functional team members. Methodology An empirical study including the data collection from the interviews conducted from the participants working in cross-functional teams. Qualitative approach has been adopted to understand the communicational attributes in the cross-functional...

  13. Anesthesia-related neurotoxicity and the developing animal brain is not a significant problem in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    development with functional deficits in learning and behavior later in life. Initial studies were mainly performed in immature rodent pups, but more recent studies have included nonhumans primates (rhesus monkeys). Given the number of neonates, infants, and young children anesthetized annually worldwide......A multitude of animal studies have shown that virtually all general anesthetics used in clinical practice possibly during a vulnerable period of brain development (i.e., brain growth spurt, peak of synaptogenesis) may lead to neurodegeneration (particularly apoptosis) and abnormal synaptic...... the anesthetics. Currently, there is no need to change current anesthetic clinical practice or to postpone or cancel truly urgent surgeries in young children....

  14. Two significant experiences related to radon in a high risk area in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, C.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.-L.; Fuente, I.; Quindos, L.; Soto, J.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Arteche, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas and it is currently accepted as being responsible for lung cancer in some cases. One of the most important sources of indoor radon is from the soil. The RADON content of soil is also a very important factor to be taken into account. The natural radiation map of Spain (MARNA) classifies the country into three regions with different levels of natural gamma radiation. There are some areas in Spain with high levels of natural radiation one of those is the province of Salamanca. Western part of this province presents a population of 20 000 inhabitants and 7% of the houses have an indoor radon concentration above 400 Bq·m -3 . In this high risk area, the village of Villar de la Yegua is of special interest: 11% of the houses in this village have an indoor radon level below 400 Bq·m -3 , 89% have above 400 Bq·m -3 and 71% of the houses have a radon concentration above 1000 Bq·m -3 . An old uranium mine site close to this village has been selected for the construction of an experimental pilot house. It is a two story house located in the place with a very high 226 Ra concentration in soil. Radon in soil at 1 m depth has an average level of 250 kBq·m -3 . We present in this work the characteristics of the experimental unit located in this high risk area and we describe the zone where one of the Spanish villages with the highest radon concentration is located. This is a very interesting place for further research on indoor radon concentration and it is a unique opportunity of testing radon monitors, radon passive detectors and remedial actions for the mitigation of radon in real conditions. It is common to carry out intercomparison exercises under laboratory conditions. Nonetheless, it is not so common to develop these exercises in real conditions as we have in the experimental unit we present here. We offer in this work the possibility for other research groups of testing their equipment in this unit and we also show the evolution of the works carried out in the locality of Villar de la Yegua. (authors)

  15. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  16. Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection - 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Augustina; Mai, Cara; Smoots, Ashley; Cragan, Janet; Ellington, Sascha; Langlois, Peter; Breidenbach, Rebecca; Fornoff, Jane; Dunn, Julie; Yazdy, Mahsa; Scotto-Rosato, Nancy; Sweatlock, Joseph; Fox, Deborah; Palacios, Jessica; Forestieri, Nina; Leedom, Vinita; Smiley, Mary; Nance, Amy; Lake-Burger, Heather; Romitti, Paul; Fall, Carrie; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Barton, Jerusha; Bryan, J Michael; Arias, William; Brown, Samara Viner; Kimura, Jonathan; Mann, Sylvia; Martin, Brennan; Orantes, Lucia; Taylor, Amber; Nahabedian, John; Akosa, Amanda; Song, Ziwei; Martin, Stacey; Ramlal, Roshan; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Isenburg, Jennifer; Moore, Cynthia A; Gilboa, Suzanne; Honein, Margaret A

    2018-01-26

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. † In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs) § were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

  17. A conceptual review of the cultural significance of `Takhtah Table'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Fatema M.; Ibrahim, Fuziah

    2017-10-01

    There exists nowadays a growing awareness about the development of cultural objects. The impact of such development on the identity of nations and global design platforms is significant. Diminishing barriers among societies has helped to spread creative ideas. Recognizing the direction of designs is supposed to develop the lifestyle of nations, cultures, and identities through interior design spaces and their elements such as furniture. The first step to a sustainable creativity goes through an identification stage that upholds the satisfaction of products' users. Through the identification stage, furniture designers encounter some challenges that are mostly related to the cultural significance of an object before starting to develop that object, especially within the context of a different approach. This paper presents the concept of the cultural significance of objects. It also highlights and illustrates the relations between cultural levels and types of meanings that can be reflected by certain objects. This paper provides information guidelines about cultural objects in a form that helps designers continue the development of the nation's creativity. `Takhtah Table' has been presented as a sample of cultural objects, which needs to be maintained in Sana'a City in Yemen.

  18. The significance of end-of-life dreams and visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Pei; Wright, Scott; Depner, Rachel; Luczkiewicz, Debra

    End-of-life dreams and visions (ELDVs) have been well documented through history and across cultures. They appear to affect both dying people and their families deeply, and may be a source of profound meaning and comfort. The aims of the study were to; document hospice patients' ELDV experiences over time using a daily survey, examine the content and subjective significance of ELDVs, and relate the prevalence, content and significance of end-of-life experiences over time until death. Patients (n = 66) in a hospice inpatient unit, between January 2011 and July 2012, were interviewed daily. The interview contained closed questions about the content, frequency and level of comfort or distress of dreams and visions. Most participants reported at least one dream or vision and almost half of the dreams and visions occurred during sleep. Nearly all patients reported that their experience felt real. The most common content featured deceased friends and relatives, followed by living friends and relatives. As participants approached death, comforting dreams and visions of the deceased became more prevalent. End-of-life dreams and visions are commonly experienced during dying. These dreams and visions may be a profound source of potential meaning and comfort to the dying.

  19. Relativity without relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan Z; Murchadha, Niall O

    2002-01-01

    We give a derivation of general relativity (GR) and the gauge principle that is novel in presupposing neither spacetime nor the relativity principle. We consider a class of actions defined on superspace (the space of Riemannian 3-geometries on a given bare manifold). It has two key properties. The first is symmetry under 3-diffeomorphisms. This is the only postulated symmetry, and it leads to a constraint linear in the canonical momenta. The second property is that the Lagrangian is constructed from a 'local' square root of an expression quadratic in the velocities. The square root is 'local' because it is taken before integration over 3-space. It gives rise to quadratic constraints that do not correspond to any symmetry and are not, in general, propagated by the Euler-Lagrange equations. Therefore these actions are internally inconsistent. However, one action of this form is well behaved: the Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler (Baierlein R F, Sharp D and Wheeler J A 1962 Phys. Rev. 126 1864) reparametrization-invariant action for GR. From this viewpoint, spacetime symmetry is emergent. It appears as a 'hidden' symmetry in the (underdetermined) solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations, without being manifestly coded into the action itself. In addition, propagation of the linear diffeomorphism constraint together with the quadratic square-root constraint acts as a striking selection mechanism beyond pure gravity. If a scalar field is included in the configuration space, it must have the same characteristic speed as gravity. Thus Einstein causality emerges. Finally, self-consistency requires that any 3-vector field must satisfy Einstein causality, the equivalence principle and, in addition, the Gauss constraint. Therefore we recover the standard (massless) Maxwell equations

  20. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early, difficulties during the sleep (insomnia middle, waking in early hours of the morning (insomnia late and dissatisfaction with sleep quality (subjective insomnia. Methods. The sample consisted of 254 students of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. Predictive significance of nine perfectionism dimensions, measured by Frost’s and Hewitt’s and Flett’s scales of multi-dimensional perfectionism, related to four modalities of insomnia, measured by a structured questionnaire, was analyzed by multiple linear regression method. Results. Perfectionism dimensions are significant predictors of each of the tested forms of insomnia. Doubt about actions significantly predicts initial insomnia; to other-oriented perfectionism in the negative pole and socially prescribed perfectionism underlie the difficulties during the sleep, while organization and parental criticism underlie late insomnia. Significant predictors of subjective insomnia are personal standards and organization and to other-oriented perfectionism on the negative pole. Three of nine analyzed dimensions were not confirmed as significant; concern over mistakes, parental expectations and self-oriented perfectionism. Conclusion. Various aspects of perfectionism can be considered as a vulnerability factor for understanding some forms of insomnia. Out of all forms of insomnia tested, perfectionism as the personality trait proved to be the most significant for understanding subjective insomnia.

  1. Early onset of significant local warming in low latitude countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstein, I; Knutti, R; Solomon, S; Portmann, R W

    2011-01-01

    The Earth is warming on average, and most of the global warming of the past half-century can very likely be attributed to human influence. But the climate in particular locations is much more variable, raising the question of where and when local changes could become perceptible enough to be obvious to people in the form of local warming that exceeds interannual variability; indeed only a few studies have addressed the significance of local signals relative to variability. It is well known that the largest total warming is expected to occur in high latitudes, but high latitudes are also subject to the largest variability, delaying the emergence of significant changes there. Here we show that due to the small temperature variability from one year to another, the earliest emergence of significant warming occurs in the summer season in low latitude countries (∼25 deg. S-25 deg. N). We also show that a local warming signal that exceeds past variability is emerging at present, or will likely emerge in the next two decades, in many tropical countries. Further, for most countries worldwide, a mean global warming of 1 deg. C is sufficient for a significant temperature change, which is less than the total warming projected for any economically plausible emission scenario. The most strongly affected countries emit small amounts of CO 2 per capita and have therefore contributed little to the changes in climate that they are beginning to experience.

  2. Fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose: biological behaviour, significance and interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillez, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorine 18-labelled fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) demonstrated a growing interest in oncology during the fifteen past years. Biological mechanisms of its tumour uptake are well known, but uptake intensity depends on numerous factors related to cellular metabolism, tumour characteristics and environment, patient and treatments. Thus the significance of scintigraphic images and moreover their clinical interest require detailed semeiologic analysis which takes into account these factors, in order to make the best use of the FDG for the detection of lesions and recurrences, and for treatment response evaluation. (author)

  3. [Aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zhao-xia; You, Xiang-dong; Weng, Wen-chao; Wang, Jian-an; Shi, Jian

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms (IAs). One hundred and seven IAs patients (57 with hypertension) and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. The internal aortic diameters in systole and diastole were measured by the M-mode echocardiography, the aortic elasticity indexes were calculated and compared. The aortic distensibility (DIS) was lower and the aortic stiffness index (SI) was higher in IAs patients than those in controls (both P IAs patients with hypertension (IAs-HP) than those in IAs with no hypertension (P IAs patients and hypertension is closely related to the severity of aortic elasticity.

  4. Statistical and non statistical models for delayed neutron emission: applications to nuclei near A = 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, Z.M.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the simple statistical model description for delayed neutron emission of 87 Br, 137 I, 85 As and 135 Sb has been performed. In agreement with experimental findings, structure in the #betta#-strength function is required to reproduce the envelope of the neutron spectrum from 87 Br. For 85 As and 135 Sb the model is found incapable of simultaneously reproducing envelopes of delayed neutron spectra and neutron branching ratios to excited states in the final nuclei for any choice of #betta#-strength function. The results indicate that partial widths for neutron emission are not compatible with optical-model transmission coefficients. The simple shell model with pairing is shown to qualitatively describe the main features of the #betta#-strength functions for decay of 87 Br and 91 93 95 97 Rb. It is found that the location of apparent resonances in the experimental data are in rough agreement with the location of centroids of strength calculated with this model. An extension of the shell model picture which includes the Gamow-Teller residual interaction is used to investigate decay properties of 84 86 As, 86 92 Br and 88 102 Rb. For a realistic choice of interaction strength, the half lives of these isotopes are fairly well reproduced and semiquantitative agreement with experimental #betta#-strength functions is found. Delayed neutron emission probabilities are reproduced for precursors nearer stability with systematic deviations being observed for the heavier nuclei. Contrary to the assumption of a structureless Gamow-Teller giant resonance as embodied gross theory of #betta#-decay, we find that structures in the tail of the Gamow-Teller giant resonances are expected which strongly influence the decay properties of nuclides in this region

  5. Non-statistically populated autoionizing levels of Li-like carbon: Hidden-crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveney, E.F.; Krause, H.F.; Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intensities of the Auger-electron lines from autoionizing (AI) states of Li-like (1s2s2l) configurations excited in ion-atom collisions vary as functions of the collision parameters such as, for example, the collision velocity. A statistical population of the three-electron levels is at best incomplete and underscores the intricate dynamical development of the electronic states. The authors compare several experimental studies to calculations using ''hidden-crossing'' techniques to explore some of the details of these Auger-electron intensity variation phenomena. The investigations show promising results suggesting that Auger-electron intensity variations can be used to probe collision dynamics

  6. Apparent non-statistical binding in a ditopic receptor for guanosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Likhitsup, Asawin; Deeth, Robert J.; Otto, Sijbren; Marsh, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of stepwise association constants for guests binding to more than one site in a receptor is expected to give a ratio of the first association constant to the second of about 4 : 1 on statistical grounds (since a second guest should have an equal chance of binding to a different site on the

  7. The somatically significant dose, SSD, and analog of the GSD, the genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beentjes, L.B.; Duijsings, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The medical applications of radiation comprise three main fields namely: Diagnostic Radiology, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine. With the new weighting factors of ICRP (IC91a) the effective dose due to medical applications can be established. I is common to separate the effective dose into the genetic part and the somatic part, SED. In dealing with gonad doses it is important to account for the age of the person at the time of exposure as this will influence the number of children still to be expected from that person. The resulting dose will then be called the genetically significant dose, GSD. In a similar fashion this age factor will be important in considering the chance of tumor induction. The age of patients differs considerably from the average age of the general population. This age difference has to be accounted for if a comparison is to be made with other sources of radiation. This justifies establishing a somatically significant dose, SSD. The reduction of the SED value to a SSD for the medical field due to this phenomenon is .6 for diagnostic radiology, .5 for nuclear medicine and .3 for radiotherapy. Also the extension to more organs at risk, which result in a larger number of weighting factors published by ICRP (IC91a) tends to lower the calculated effective doses. (author)

  8. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  9. Expression and significance of GRHL2 in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao CC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chengcheng Shao,1 Chushu Ji,1 Xiaoqiu Wang,2 Bing Hu1 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Esophageal cancer (EC is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality in the world. Although much effort has been made to improve the 5-year survival rate of patients with EC, it still remains low due to diagnosis at an advanced stage, aggressive local invasion, early metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Although grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2 has attracted interest since it has been recently identified as a novel suppressor of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, clinical values of GRHL2 and its relationship with the metastasis-related factors, such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, remain unclear. In order to investigate the expression of GRHL2, HIF-1α, and VEGF, and their correlation with angiogenesis in EC, 63 patients with EC were examined. The expression of GRHL2, HIF-1α, and VEGF in tumor tissues was higher than that in adjacent tissues and was associated with tumor differentiation. GRHL2 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and invasion depth, whereas VEGF expression was associated with tumor (TNM stage. A significant correlation was found between the expression of GRHL2 and HIF-1α. The patients expressing low GRHL2 and high HIF-1α showed significant reduction in both overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate. The results demonstrated that abnormal expression of GRHL2 is common in EC, and low expression of GRHL2 accompanied by a high expression of HIF-1α indicates poor prognosis. Keywords: esophageal neoplasms, GRHL2, HIF-1α, VEGF, MVD

  10. Racin and the Significance of a National Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Banovic-Markovska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the text RACIN and the Significance of a National Culture I’ll speak further on Racin’s publications, namely, his political reflections, which apart from their notable social dimension also possess an explicitly national and moral dimension. Along those lines, I’ll see to a contextualization of the same, in the span of seventy years, as the world order had undergone momentous changes, not only in terms of political and ideological shifts, but rather through a change in the class-based and race-bound paradigms.This, in turn, allows me to draw a parallel between our Kosta Racin, a progressive people’s thinker, a revolutionary and a socialist, a poet and a journalist stemming from the realm of the old Yugoslavia, on the one hand, and the Franco-based existential humanist, the psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, the progenitor of the anticolonial movement in the countries of the Third World, on the other. Even though the parallel between Racin and Fanon may seem a bit far-fetched, the fact remains that both were involved with socially-centered,nationally-bound and revolutionary-focused questions, thus emphasizing, first and foremost, the significance of a national culture amidst the conditions of political, economic and spiritual enslavement.As proponents of socialist ideas and Marxist ideology, as revolutionaries and fighters for national and human rights who had experienced the turmoil of war, both men exhibited a higher consciousness when it came to matters related to the state of the national culture with the enslaved colonized peoples, with one difference in mind, namely, that in the case of Racin, the emphasis was placed on the class-related national aspect, whereas with Fanon, the emphasis was placed on the race-related national aspect.

  11. Significance chasing in research practice: causes, consequences and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jennifer J; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-01-01

    The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives which, in turn, can misdirect research effort and waste money. We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of 'significant' findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures and the impact of these on research practices. The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g. unplanned post-hoc tests) to the calculated and serious (e.g. fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasize the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimize significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Significance chasing, questionable research practices and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a 'publish or perish' culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g. funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Land use type significantly affects microbial gene transcription in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Fischer, Christiane; Thürmer, Andrea; Meinicke, Peter; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in sustaining biogeochemical processes and cycling of nutrients across different land use types. To gain insights into microbial gene transcription in forest and grassland soil, we isolated mRNA from 32 sampling sites. After sequencing of generated complementary DNA (cDNA), a total of 5,824,229 sequences could be further analyzed. We were able to assign nonribosomal cDNA sequences to all three domains of life. A dominance of bacterial sequences, which were affiliated to 25 different phyla, was found. Bacterial groups capable of aromatic compound degradation such as Phenylobacterium and Burkholderia were detected in significantly higher relative abundance in forest soil than in grassland soil. Accordingly, KEGG pathway categories related to degradation of aromatic ring-containing molecules (e.g., benzoate degradation) were identified in high abundance within forest soil-derived metatranscriptomic datasets. The impact of land use type forest on community composition and activity is evidently to a high degree caused by the presence of wood breakdown products. Correspondingly, bacterial groups known to be involved in lignin degradation and containing ligninolytic genes such as Burkholderia, Bradyrhizobium, and Azospirillum exhibited increased transcriptional activity in forest soil. Higher solar radiation in grassland presumably induced increased transcription of photosynthesis-related genes within this land use type. This is in accordance with high abundance of photosynthetic organisms and plant-infecting viruses in grassland.

  13. Isolation and significance of Salmonella sp. from some beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    to be some relation between the coliforms, E. coli counts and the presence of Salmonella. The occurrence and significance of Salmonella in bathing beaches in relation to public health hazard have been highlighted...

  14. Expression and prognostic significance of lysozyme in male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Carlos; Baltasar, Aniceto; Medrano, Justo; Vizoso, Francisco; Alonso, Lorena; Rodríguez, Juan C; González, Luis O; Fernández, María; Lamelas, María L; Sánchez, Luis M; García-Muñiz, José L

    2002-01-01

    Lysozyme, one of the major protein components of human milk that is also synthesized by a significant percentage of breast carcinomas, is associated with lesions that have a favorable outcome in female breast cancer. Here we evaluate the expression and prognostic value of lysozyme in male breast cancer (MBC). Lysozyme expression was examined by immunohistochemical methods in a series of 60 MBC tissue sections and in 15 patients with gynecomastia. Staining was quantified using the HSCORE (histological score) system, which considers both the intensity and the percentage of cells staining at each intensity. Prognostic value of lysozyme was retrospectively evaluated by multivariate analysis taking into account conventional prognostic factors. Lysozyme immunostaining was negative in all cases of gynecomastia. A total of 27 of 60 MBC sections (45%) stained positively for this protein, but there were clear differences among them with regard to the intensity and percentage of stained cells. Statistical analysis showed that lysozyme HSCORE values in relation to age, tumor size, nodal status, histological grade, estrogen receptor status, metastasis and histological type did not increase the statistical significance. Univariate analysis confirmed that both nodal involvement and lysozyme values were significant predictors of short-term relapse-free survival. Multivariate analysis, according to Cox's regression model, also showed that nodal status and lysozyme levels were significant independent indicators of short-term relapse-free survival. Tumor expression of lysozyme is associated with lesions that have an unfavorable outcome in male breast cancer. This milk protein may be a new prognostic factor in patients with breast cancer

  15. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV. However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA still remains unclear. In addition, it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to the prognosis. The aims of this study were to 1 further explore the relationship between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the stage and metastases of lung cancer 2 evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with lung cancer 3 explore the prognostic value of the change in fibrinogen levels between pre and post-chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 370 patients with lung cancer were enrolled into this study. The plasma fibrinogen levels were compared with the clinical and prognostic significance of lung cancer. The association between the plasma fibrinogen level and clinical-prognostic characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: 1 The median pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels were 4.20g/L. Pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.013. A higher plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (4.83±1.50 g/L versus 4.15±1.30 g/L; P<0.001, there was a significant association between plasma fibrinogen level and metastases of lung cancer, pointing a higher plasma fibrinogen level in lymph nodes or distant organ metastases (p < 0.001. 2 Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrates higher overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen

  16. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  17. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Two measures were used to assess the translational status of each individual mRNA: the fraction engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy) and ribosome density (number of ribosomes per 100 nucleotides). Under isoleucine starvation, half of the mRNAs considered were translationally down-regulated mainly due to decreased ribosome density. This pattern concerned genes involved in growth-related functions such as translation, transcription, and the metabolism of fatty acids, phospholipids and bases, contributing to the slowdown of growth. Only 4% of the mRNAs were translationally up-regulated, mostly related to prophagic expression in response to stress. The remaining genes exhibited antagonistic regulations of the two markers of translation. Ribosome occupancy increased significantly for all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, although their ribosome density had decreased. The results revealed complex translational regulation of this pathway, essential to cope with isoleucine starvation. To elucidate the regulation of global gene expression more generally, translational regulation was compared to transcriptional regulation under isoleucine starvation and to other post-transcriptional regulations related to mRNA degradation and mRNA dilution by growth. Translational regulation appeared to accentuate the effects of transcriptional changes for down-regulated growth-related functions under isoleucine starvation although m

  18. Significance of Coaching in the Context of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Ivana; Blahová, Jarmila; Šatanková, Sláva

    2017-09-01

    Coaching as a form of development has opened new possibilities and broadened the sphere of competence for personal or manager development since 1990s. At the beginning, there was not enough literature related to this topic, but progressively it has been popularized in so much that some authors have released their books in several languages. John Whitmore (2004) warns about the misuse of popularization of a new term (coaching), by using which many managers hide their reluctance against a modification or disability to change something in their traditional managerial style. Emotion regulation is the base for successful leadership, success in work life in general and satisfaction in any relationship. In the paper, the authors focus on the significance of coaching for the personal and professional growth as a systematic method using several strategies of emotion regulation.

  19. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: clinical significance and implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, M J; Munro, C L

    1997-01-01

    Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and the leading cause of death from nosocomial infections. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of bacterial pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in a patient treated with mechanical ventilation, and it is neither present nor developing at the time of intubation; it is a serious problem--with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Aspiration of bacteria from the oropharynx, leakage of contaminated secretions around the endotracheal tube, patient position, and cross-contamination from respiratory equipment and health care providers are important factors in the development of VAP. Nurses caring for patients treated with mechanical ventilation must recognize risk factors and include strategies for reducing these factors as part of their nursing care. This article summarizes the literature related to VAP: its incidence, associated factors, diagnosis, and current therapies, with an emphasis on nursing implications in the care of these patients.

  20. Significance of high level test data in piping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Bitner, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980's the piping technical community in the U.S. initiated a series of research activities aimed at reducing the conservatism inherent in nuclear piping design. One of these activities was directed at the application of the ASME Code rules to the design of piping subjected to dynamic loads. This paper surveys the test data obtained from three groups in the U.S. and none in the U.K., and correlates the findings as they relate to the failure modes of piping subjected to seismic loads. The failure modes experienced as the result of testing at dynamic loads significantly in excess of anticipated loads specified for any of the ASME Code service levels are discussed. A recommendation is presented for modifying the Code piping rules to reduce the conservatism inherent in seismic design

  1. Significance of Coaching in the Context of Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotná Ivana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coaching as a form of development has opened new possibilities and broadened the sphere of competence for personal or manager development since 1990s. At the beginning, there was not enough literature related to this topic, but progressively it has been popularized in so much that some authors have released their books in several languages. John Whitmore (2004 warns about the misuse of popularization of a new term (coaching, by using which many managers hide their reluctance against a modification or disability to change something in their traditional managerial style. Emotion regulation is the base for successful leadership, success in work life in general and satisfaction in any relationship. In the paper, the authors focus on the significance of coaching for the personal and professional growth as a systematic method using several strategies of emotion regulation.

  2. Subclassification of autoimmune pancreatitis: a histologic classification with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Vikram; Gupta, Rajib; Sainani, Nisha; Sahani, Dushyant V; Virk, Renu; Ferrone, Cristina; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Stone, John H; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2011-01-01

    periductal inflammation and neutrophilic microabscesses. Our review of pancreatic resection specimens shows 2 histologically distinct forms of AIP. Our data support the concept that type 1 AIP is a systemic disease and is the pancreatic manifestation of IgG4-related systemic disease. Type 2 disease is confined to the pancreas. The intensity of the periductal inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of ductal neutrophilic abscesses are features that assist in distinguishing type 2 AIP from chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified. Although imperfect, clinical and imaging features may help distinguish the 2 subtypes of AIP. On the basis of these significant differences between the 2 types of AIP, we advocate the position that all subsequent studies attempt to substratify their patients into these 2 groups.

  3. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiguo; Yu, Guoqiang; Hou, Xuchu; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Zhang, Junying; Hoffman, Eric P; Wang, Roger R; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yue

    2012-07-27

    Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs) in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC), a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1) exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2) performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3) iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs) and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS) on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma). When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC) or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B). Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes. Open-source and platform-independent SAIC software is

  4. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  5. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the clinical significance of tumor markers in common neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketic-Oreskovic, Lidija; Maric, Petra; Ozretic, Petar; Oreskovic, Darko; Ajdukovic, Mia; Levanat, Sonja

    2012-06-01

    The term tumor markers include a spectrum of molecules and substances with widely divergent characteristics whose presence in the significant amount can be related to the malignant disease. An ideal tumor marker should have high specificity and sensitivity, which would allow its use in early diagnosis and prognosis of malignant disease, as well as in prediction of therapeutic response and follow-up of the patients. Numerous biochemical entities have emerged as potentially valuable tumor markers so far, but only few markers showed to be of considerable clinical reliability and have been accepted into standard clinical practice. Recent development of genomics and proteomics has enabled the examination of many new potential tumor markers. Scientific studies on discovery, development, and application of tumor markers have been proceeding quite rapidly providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients. This review is focusing on the clinical usefulness of various tumor markers already in clinical practice as well as certain potential markers, giving a brief description of their prognostic and predictive significance in most common malignancies.

  7. Registered nurses' perceptions of rewarding and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitovirta, Jaana; Lehtimäki, Aku-Ville; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Mitronen, Lasse; Kvist, Tarja

    2017-11-07

    To examine reward type preferences and their relationships with the significance of rewarding perceived by registered nurses in Finland. Previous studies have found relationships between nurses' rewarding and their motivation at work, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Data were collected in a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire survey from 402 registered nurses using the Registered Nurses' Perceptions of Rewarding Scale in 2015, and analysed with descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. Registered nurses assigned slightly higher values to several non-financial than to financial rewards. The non-financial reward types appreciation and feedback from work community, worktime arrangements, work content, and opportunity to develop, influence and participate were highly related to the significance of rewarding. We identified various rewards that registered nurses value, and indications that providing an appropriate array of rewards, particularly non-financial rewards, is a highly beneficial element of nursing management. It is important to understand the value of rewards for nursing management. Nurse managers should offer diverse rewards to their registered nurses to promote excellent performance and to help efforts to secure and maintain high-quality, safe patient care. The use of appropriate rewards is especially crucial to improving registered nurses' reward satisfaction and job satisfaction globally in the nursing profession. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tundra permafrost thaw causes significant shifts in energy partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stiegler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost, a key component of the arctic and global climate system, is highly sensitive to climate change. Observed and ongoing permafrost degradation influences arctic hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry, and models predict that rapid warming is expected to significantly reduce near-surface permafrost and seasonally frozen ground during the 21st century. These changes raise concern of how permafrost thaw affects the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere. However, associated impacts of permafrost thaw on the surface energy balance and possible feedbacks on the climate system are largely unknown. In this study, we show that in northern subarctic Sweden, permafrost thaw and related degradation of peat plateaus significantly change the surface energy balance of three peatland complexes by enhancing latent heat flux and, to less degree, also ground heat flux at the cost of sensible heat flux. This effect is valid at all radiation levels but more pronounced at higher radiation levels. The observed differences in flux partitioning mainly result from the strong coupling between soil moisture availability, vegetation composition, albedo and surface structure. Our results suggest that ongoing and predicted permafrost degradation in northern subarctic Sweden ultimately result in changes in land–atmosphere coupling due to changes in the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. This in turn has crucial implications for how predictive climate models for the Arctic are further developed.

  9. Statistical significance of epidemiological data. Seminar: Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In stochastic damages, the numbers of events, e.g. the persons who are affected by or have died of cancer, and thus the relative frequencies (incidence or mortality) are binomially distributed random variables. Their statistical fluctuations can be characterized by confidence intervals. For epidemiologic questions, especially for the analysis of stochastic damages in the low dose range, the following issues are interesting: - Is a sample (a group of persons) with a definite observed damage frequency part of the whole population? - Is an observed frequency difference between two groups of persons random or statistically significant? - Is an observed increase or decrease of the frequencies with increasing dose random or statistically significant and how large is the regression coefficient (= risk coefficient) in this case? These problems can be solved by sttistical tests. So-called distribution-free tests and tests which are not bound to the supposition of normal distribution are of particular interest, such as: - χ 2 -independence test (test in contingency tables); - Fisher-Yates-test; - trend test according to Cochran; - rank correlation test given by Spearman. These tests are explained in terms of selected epidemiologic data, e.g. of leukaemia clusters, of the cancer mortality of the Japanese A-bomb survivors especially in the low dose range as well as on the sample of the cancer mortality in the high background area in Yangjiang (China). (orig.) [de

  10. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  11. PLACE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LATINISMS IN THE SLOVAK VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Karabová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary of any language undergoes a natural evolution. In many cases this centuries-long process is related to several factors, including the penetration of new words into the language lexis. Similarly, the historical development of the Slovak language and its enhancement can be observed by examining the adoption of words from other languages. At a time when Latin was the only official language as well as the language of scholars and religious institutions in the Hungarian Kingdom, the penetration of Latinisms into the lexis of the old Slovak was significant. This trend was still evident in the 18th and 19th centuries marked by the beginning revivalist efforts. Domestication of adopted words - that initially stood at the edge of the language standard - was significantly influenced by innovative trends and technologies. The study does not primarily examine penetration of foreign words from modern languages, but it aims to analyse the process of naturalisation of Latinisms in Slovak and their use at different language levels.

  12. The significance of liver in metabolism of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchev, Christo.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium 239 has an important toxicological significance and is widely used in the nuclear industry which makes the study of its metabolism in the organism appear of substantial interest. The role of the liver in the distribution of radionuclide and its barrier capabilities, determining to a certain extent the back transport of the isotope from the blood plasma into the gut is studied. The storage of Plutonium 239 in the organ and its reexcretion by way of the gull is quantitatively demonstrated. This question is related to the exact determination of the coefficient of absorption of the radioisotope in the digestive tract. The radionuclide is inserted into organism as PuCl 3 directly into vein jugularis and vein portae. The peculiarities of its distribution in the liver by the two ways of introduction as well as the essential differences in the radioactivity of the products of excretion by portal application are described. The mechanism of the storage of the radioisotope in the organ is explained to a great extent with its physical and chemical condition in the liver tissue. Plutonium 239 is found in the liver completely as a complex compound with the tissue proteins, the combining with globulines predominating. The dynamics of exchange of the radionuclide in the organ is determined mainly by its complex combination with the globulins. The part of nuclide connected with the other protein fractions of liver is not significant and hence they do not much influence kinetics in the organ

  13. Systematic significance of leaf epidermal features in holcoglossum (orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; He, Runli; Zhang, Yinbo; Jin, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Determining the generic delimitations within Aeridinae has been a significant issue in the taxonomy of Orchidaceae, and Holcoglossum is a typical case. We investigated the phylogenetic utility of the morphological traits of leaf epidermis in the taxonomy of Holcoglossum s.l. by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyze 38 samples representing 12 species of Holcoglossum, with five species from five closely related genera, such as Ascocentrum, Luisia, Papilionanthe, Rhynchostylis and Vanda. Our results indicated that Holcoglossum can be distinguished from the related genera based on cuticular wax characteristics, and the inclusion of Holcoglossum himalaicum in Holcoglossum is supported by the epidermis characteristics found by LM and SEM. The percentage of the tetracytic, brachyparacytic, and laterocytic stomata types as well as the stomata index and certain combinations of special wax types support infrageneric clades and phylogenetic relationships that have been inferred from molecular data. Laterocytic and polarcytic stomata are perhaps ecological adaptations to the strong winds and ample rains in the alpine region of the Hengduanshan Mountains.

  14. Systematic significance of leaf epidermal features in holcoglossum (orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fan

    Full Text Available Determining the generic delimitations within Aeridinae has been a significant issue in the taxonomy of Orchidaceae, and Holcoglossum is a typical case. We investigated the phylogenetic utility of the morphological traits of leaf epidermis in the taxonomy of Holcoglossum s.l. by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyze 38 samples representing 12 species of Holcoglossum, with five species from five closely related genera, such as Ascocentrum, Luisia, Papilionanthe, Rhynchostylis and Vanda. Our results indicated that Holcoglossum can be distinguished from the related genera based on cuticular wax characteristics, and the inclusion of Holcoglossum himalaicum in Holcoglossum is supported by the epidermis characteristics found by LM and SEM. The percentage of the tetracytic, brachyparacytic, and laterocytic stomata types as well as the stomata index and certain combinations of special wax types support infrageneric clades and phylogenetic relationships that have been inferred from molecular data. Laterocytic and polarcytic stomata are perhaps ecological adaptations to the strong winds and ample rains in the alpine region of the Hengduanshan Mountains.

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL- 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX and total antioxidant capacity (TAC by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01 and TPX (P < 0.0001 were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05 and TAC (P < 0.0001 were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely, as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001, but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  16. The significance of postangiographic CT for differentiation of hepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyo; Chang, Jae Chun; Chang, You Song

    1994-01-01

    To identify the long term hemodynamics of various hepatic masses and to determine any differential findings by using postangiograpic CT performed with increased amount of contrast media and time than conventional contrast CT. 50 confirmed masses consisted of 22 hepatocellular carcinoma, 10 cholangiocarcinoma, 9 metastasis, and 9 cavernous hemangioma were included. The changes of the density of internal viable tumor portion relative to surrounding normal liver parenchyma in postangiograhic CT from that in conventional CT were classified as 3 patients; no specific changes, increase, or decrease. In 22 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, six cases showed no relative density change, four cases increase, and twelve cases decrease. In ten cases of cholangiocacinoma, one case showed no change, nine cases increase. In nine cases of metastasis, four cases showed no change, five cases increase. In nine cases of hemangioma, all cases showed increase. In postangiographic CT which emphasize the significance of postequilibrium and delayed phase, other hemodynamic changes undetected in angiography could more easily be comprehended. Considering the differing amount of consumed contrast media and time duration, and with reference of other imaging modalities, differential diagnosis of hepatic masses based on long term hemodynamics could easily be made

  17. Prognostic significance of obstructive uropathy in advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefelein, Michael G

    2004-06-01

    To report the incidence and prognostic implications of obstructive uropathy (OU) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy and to define the impact initial local therapy has on the development of OU in patients with prostate cancer who develop recurrence and begin androgen deprivation therapy. From a population of 260 patients with advanced prostate cancer diagnosed between 1986 and 2003, OU was identified in 51 patients. The OU treatment options included ureteral stent, percutaneous nephrostomy, transurethral resection of the prostate, Foley catheter placement, and urinary diversion. Overall survival and the factors that influenced survival were calculated using standard statistical methods. OU was diagnosed in 15 (16%) of 80 patients who received local therapy with curative intent and in whom local therapy subsequently failed and in 36 (19%) of 180 patients who had never received local therapy (P = 0.7, chi-square test). Of these 51 patients, 39 had bladder neck obstruction and 16 had ureteral obstruction. Overall survival was significantly worse for the men with OU compared with those without OU (41 versus 54 months). OU was associated with tumor stage and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. OU results in significantly reduced survival in men with prostate cancer. In a select group of patients with prostate cancer with progression after local therapy (primarily radiotherapy), no statistically significant reduction in the development of OU was observed relative to patients matched for stage, grade, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level treated with androgen deprivation therapy alone. Aggressive advanced stage and hormone-insensitive disease are variables associated with OU.

  18. Due to extreme personal significance of the choice of educational path, personal contacts in the communications regarding the educational services have a very big importance. The fact that the level and quality of education can be a long time to determine the identity card of a particular social group significantly raises the importance of methods of "public relations". However, in the field of education the state is to perform very specific functions that are essentially unattainable by other entities in need of a scale. It is the creation, maintenance and strengthening of decent public opinion ("public relations"), a positive image of social institutions of education, including both the public and employers in the community.

    OpenAIRE

    Zotov, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Communication in marketing, sales and personal contacts, the quality of education, modern advertising educational services, meaningful information, advertising appeal, target audience, an emotional response, commercial advertising effectiveness, and informative advertising, public relations.

  19. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, David S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Lowrance, William T; Maschino, Alexandra C; Savage, Caroline J; Cronin, Angel M; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2011-08-01

    increased risk of BCR after RP on univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.82; P = 0.017). As a result of the relatively short follow-up, the predictive accuracy of the standard clinicopathological features was high (concordance index, 0.880), and inclusion of LVI only marginally improved the predictive accuracy (0.884). Although associated with features of aggressive disease and BCR, LVI added minimally to established predictors on short follow-up. Further study of cohorts with longer follow-up is warranted to help determine its prognostic significance. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  20. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  1. Clinically significant change in stroke volume in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolferen, Serge A; van de Veerdonk, Marielle C; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Jacobs, Wouter; Marcus, J Tim; Marques, Koen M J; Bronzwaer, Jean G F; Heymans, Martijn W; Boonstra, Anco; Postmus, Pieter E; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2011-05-01

    Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory increased heart rate as is the case for cardiac output. For this reason, stroke volume, which can be measured noninvasively, is an important hemodynamic parameter to monitor during treatment. However, the extent of change in stroke volume that constitutes a clinically significant change is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal important difference (MID) in stroke volume in PH. One hundred eleven patients were evaluated at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up with a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and cardiac MRI. Using the anchor-based method with 6MWT as the anchor, and the distribution-based method, the MID of stroke volume change could be determined. After 1 year of treatment, there was, on average, a significant increase in stroke volume and 6MWT. The change in stroke volume was related to the change in 6MWT. Using the anchor-based method, an MID of 10 mL in stroke volume was calculated. The distribution-based method resulted in an MID of 8 to 12 mL. Both methods showed that a 10-mL change in stroke volume during follow-up should be considered as clinically relevant. This value can be used to interpret changes in stroke volume during clinical follow-up in PH.

  2. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  3. Schizophrenia causes significant burden to patients' and caregivers' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Jakovljević, Miro; Jukić, Vlado; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Janno, Sven; Bitter, István; Tolna, Judit; Jarema, Marek; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pecenak, Jan; Vavrusova, Livia; Tavčar, Rok; Walczak, Jacek; Talbot, Darren; Augustyńska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a serious public health problem and is ranked among the most disabling diseases in the world. The sub-study presented here was part of a larger project to characterize the burden of schizophrenia on healthcare systems and on individuals living with the disease in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). This sub-study aimed to assess and analyze the impact of schizophrenia on many aspects of the lives of patients and caregivers. Psychiatrists from selected centers in seven Central and Eastern European countries were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to collect information about the disease history, characteristics, treatment protocols and resources used for each randomly selected patient. All data were statistically analyzed and compared between countries. Data from 961 patients with schizophrenia (mean age 40.7 years, 45.1% female) were included in the analysis. The mean number of days spent in hospital per patient per year across all seven countries was 25.3 days. Hospitalization occurred on average once per year, with psychiatrist visits 9.4 times per year. Of the patients in the study, 61% were single, 12% divorced and 22% married or cohabiting. Almost 84% were living with relatives or a partner; only 17% lived alone and, on average, 25% of patients received support from social workers. Relatives provided care for approximately 60% of patients and 4% of them had to stop working in order to do so. Twenty-nine percent of the patients were unemployed, and 56% received a disability pension or were retired, with only 19% in full-time employment or education. Schizophrenia has a significant effect on the lives of patients and caregivers and impacts their social integration.

  4. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  5. Economic Significance of Fasciolosis at Mettu Municipal Abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and economic significance of fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu town municipal abattoir, Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 663 animals were randomly selected from the indigenous zebu cattle brought to the abattoir during October 2008-May 2009. Retrospective assessment, Ante-mortem examinations, body condition scoring and Post-mortem inspections were performed to collect data. Out of the total examined animals 47.1% (312/663 were found positive for Fasciola parasites. Two species of Fasciola: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were detected with prevalences of 26.9% (178/663 and 11.8% (78/663, respectively, mixed infections by both species were 4.8% (32/663 and immature (unidentified flukes were 3.5% (24/663 of the total infections. The difference in prevalence of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was found to be significant (P=0.000. Prevalence of the disease was also determined in relation to body condition score of the sample animals whereby 319 and 344 animals were categorized under Good and Medium body condition score sub-groups, respectively. It was found that 41.7% (133/319 of the Good score animals and 52% (179/344 of the medium score animals were positive for Fasciola parasites, and the difference in prevalence between the two sub-groups was statistically significant (P=0.008. The annual direct economic loss due to liver condemnation and the annual indirect economic loss due to carcass weight reduction were estimated to be 4,757.00 USD (47,570.00 birr and 46,615.00 USD (466,150.00 birr, respectively; hence, the total economic loss due to fasciolosis in cattle slaughtered at Mettu municipal abattoir was estimated to be 51,372.00 USD (513,720.00 birr. In conclusion, bovine fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica was observed to be an economically important disease in Mettu and its surrounding districts. Further studies on small ruminant species and

  6. Expression and significance of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Tao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the expression of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cells, and to observe the influence of Axin2 on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1. MethodsQuantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the expression of Axin2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines with different invasive abilities (PANC-1, Mia PaCa-2, and BxPC-3 and immortalized normal pancreatic cells (H6C7. PANC-1 cells with low expression were transfected with over-expressed Axin2 plasmid by transient transfection. MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch assay were used to determine the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cells transfected with over-expressed Axin2. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and SNK-q test was used for comparison between any two groups. ResultsThe relative expression levels of Axin2 in PANC-1, BxPC-3, Mia PaCa-2, and H6C7 cells were 0.13±0.01, 0.42±0.05, 0.24±0.011, and 1.00±0.00, respectively, and PANC-1 cells had the lowest expression level of Axin2, with significant differences compared with the other cells (all P<0.05. When PANC-1 cells were transfected with over-expressed Axin2 plasmid, the cells in the over-expression group had a significant increase in the expression level of Axin2 compared with those in the blank group and the negative control group (both P<0.05. Compared with those in the non-transfection group and the blank group, PANC-1 cells in the over-expression group showed significant reductions in the proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities. ConclusionThe expression of Axin2 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and decreases with the increasing invasion ability, suggesting the role of tumor suppressor gene. High expression of Axin2 can reduce the proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities of PANC-1 cells.

  7. Significance of Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Cerebrovascular Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumnima Acharya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA is defined as abrupt onset of a neurological deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause. CT scan is a widely available, affordable, non-invasive and relatively accurate investigation in patients with stroke and is important to identify stroke pathology and exclude mimics. Aim of this study is to establish the diagnostic significance of computed tomography in cerebrovascular accident and to differentiate between cerebral infarction and cerebral haemorrhage with CT for better management of CVA. Methods: A one year observational cross sectional study was conducted in 100 patients that presented at the department of radiodiagnosis from emergency or ward within the one year of study period with the clinical diagnosis of stroke, and had a brain CT scan done within one to fourteen days of onset. Results: A total of 100 patients were studied. 66 were male and 34 were female with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1. Maximum number of cases (39% was in the age group of 61-80 yrs. Among 100 patients, 55 cases were clinically diagnosed as hemorrhagic stroke and 45 cases were clinically diagnosed with an infarct. Out of the 55 hemorrhagic cases, two cases were diagnosed as both hemorrhage and infarct by CT scan, one case had normal CT scan findings and one had subdural haemorrhage. These four cases were excluded while comparing the clinical diagnosis with CT scan finding. Among 51 clinically diagnosed cases of hemorrhagic stroke, 32(62.7% cases were proved by CT scan as hemorrhagic stroke and among clinically diagnosed cases of infarct, 39(86.7% cases were proved by CT scan as infarct which is statistically significant (p <0.001. A significant agreement between clinical and CT diagnosis was observed as indicated by kappa value of 0.49. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical findings as compared to CT in diagnosing hemorrhage were 84.2%, 67.2%, 62.8% and 86

  8. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  9. Physiological significance, structure and isolation of α-lactalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lisak Jakopović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the constant increase in the cheese milk production, the world whey production is increasing constantly too (>2 % per year. The excellent nutritional properties attributed to whey are mainly conditioned by the presence of highly valuable proteins with wide range of biological and functional properties. The main whey proteins are β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and α-lactalbumin (α-La which are extensively used in functional foods and beverages, infant formulas, sport diets, but are a very good source of bioactive peptides too. Along with casein, β-Lg is most commonly made responsible for causing food allergies, especially in infants whose digestion system isn’t completely developed. Hence, there is a great interest for removing β-Lg prior to whey utilization in certain products. At the same time α-La was recognized as the nutritionally most valuable protein and might be regarded as an ideal ingredient for infant formulas. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to give an overview of the currently available methods for α-La isolation, and to highlight their advantages and disadvantages as well. Also, this paper reviews the most recent insights related to the structure and physiological significance of α-La.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  11. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PATTERN ERG IN CENTRAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Novak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern electroretinogram (PERG findings were analysed in 30 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. Latency and amplitude values of PERG waves were compared with the results obtained in 30 healthy individuals after sample randomisation. In 15 cases with „hemorrhagic type” occlusion of the central retinal vein significantly reduced N1-P1 wave amplitude was noted (0,369 mV, related to „exudative“ disease type (0,557 mV, as well as to the control group of examines (0,782 mV. PERG was described as the sensitive method and important indicator in damage assessment, ie. ischemia in the ganglional cell layer in central retinal vein occlusion. Ischemia increases anoxia, which influences not only the axons but also the enzymatic and transport processes within the cell bodies, dendrites, axons and axonal terminals. Slowing down of the fast phase of axoplasmatic transport in the axons in ischemic damage blocked transmission impulses which could be evident through different degrees of PERG wave amplitude reduction. With this method the patients can be selected in whom due to severe retinal ischemia there is the risk of neovascular glaucomma and maculopathy, which is the absolute indication for panlaser-photocoagulation.

  12. Clinical significance of the radioimmunological determination of C-peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.; Waldhaeusl, W.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of metabolic control to insulinogenic reserve in insulin-dependent diabetics. Thus, the secretory reserve of the pancreatic beta cell was estimated in insulin-dependent diabetics by measuring changes in peripheral serum immunoreactive C-peptide (IRCP) concentrations in response to intravenous arginine (n = 19; 0.5 g/kg,t = 30 min) or glibenclamide-glucose (n = 6; 2 mg HB 419 - 0.33 g/kg intravenously). In the majority of ''stable'' diabetics a small secretory reserve of the beta cell was demonstrated, but both the absolute and relative increase in IRCP was reduced after intravenous arginine or glibenclamide-glucose in comparison with normal controls. In ''unstable'' diabetics a decreased basal concentration of IRCP, significantly smaller than that seen in ''stable'' diabetics (p < 0.01), was accompanied by a complete lack of IRCP release on intravenous arginine administration. Thus, we conclude that the radioimmunological determination of IRCP is of clinical interest in assessing the residual secretory capacity of the beta cell in insulin-dependent diabetics. In revealing a lack of insulin this diagnostic tool seems to detect a group of potentially ''unstable'' diabetics in need of strict observation, which would minimize the risks of bad metabolic control. (author)

  13. Topography significantly influencing low flows in snow-dominated watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wei, Xiaohua; Yang, Xin; Giles-Hansen, Krysta; Zhang, Mingfang; Liu, Wenfei

    2018-03-01

    Watershed topography plays an important role in determining the spatial heterogeneity of ecological, geomorphological, and hydrological processes. Few studies have quantified the role of topography in various flow variables. In this study, 28 watersheds with snow-dominated hydrological regimes were selected with daily flow records from 1989 to 1996. These watersheds are located in the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, and range in size from 2.6 to 1780 km2. For each watershed, 22 topographic indices (TIs) were derived, including those commonly used in hydrology and other environmental fields. Flow variables include annual mean flow (Qmean), Q10 %, Q25 %, Q50 %, Q75 %, Q90 %, and annual minimum flow (Qmin), where Qx % is defined as the daily flow that occurred each year at a given percentage (x). Factor analysis (FA) was first adopted to exclude some redundant or repetitive TIs. Then, multiple linear regression models were employed to quantify the relative contributions of TIs to each flow variable in each year. Our results show that topography plays a more important role in low flows (flow magnitudes ≤ Q75 %) than high flows. However, the effects of TIs on different flow magnitudes are not consistent. Our analysis also determined five significant TIs: perimeter, slope length factor, surface area, openness, and terrain characterization index. These can be used to compare watersheds when low flow assessments are conducted, specifically in snow-dominated regions with the watershed size less than several thousand square kilometres.

  14. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ERK PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李柏林; 宋敏; 宋继谒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ERK and p-ERK protein in human breast cancer and their corresponding tissue, to assess the significance of ERK signal pathway in tumorigenesis and progression of breast carcinoma. Methods: 40 breast cancer cases were used in S-P immunohistochemistry technique and Western Blot study. Results: The expression of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK protein levels increased remarkably in breast cancer tissues in comparison to normal tissues (P<0.01). The expression was upregulated by 1.32-, 1.53-and 4.27-fold, respectively. The overexpressions of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK proteins were obviously correlated with clinical stage of breast cancer. Protein levels of ERK and p-ERK were higher in stage III patients than in stage I and stage II patients (P<0.05). These proteins were strongly related with axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, but not correlated with histopathological type and status of ER and PR of breast cancer. Expression of ERK1, and ERK2, protein showed a positive linear correlation. Conclusion: ERK signal transduction pathway is a key factor during human breast tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression.

  15. Significance of Sarcopenia Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Keiichi; Fujihara, Yuki; Hiroki, Jiro; Hakamata, Takahiro; Sakai, Ryohei; Nishida, Kota; Sudo, Koji; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka

    2018-01-27

    In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), the clinical importance of sarcopenia has been recognized in relation to disease severity, reduced exercise capacity, and adverse clinical outcome. Nevertheless, its impact on acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is still poorly understood. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technique for quantitatively analyzing muscle mass and the degree of sarcopenia. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) is a noninvasive and easily applicable marker of muscle mass.This was a prospective observational cohort study comprising 38 consecutive patients hospitalized for ADHF. Sarcopenia, derived from DXA, was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) two standard deviations below the mean for healthy young subjects. FFMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated as 7.38 + 0.02908 × urinary creatinine (mg/day) divided by the square of height (m 2 ).Sarcopenia was present in 52.6% of study patients. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were significantly higher in ADHF patients with sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (1666 versus 429 pg/mL, P sarcopenia as a predictor of higher BNP level (OR = 18.4; 95% CI, 1.86-181.27; P = 0.013).Sarcopenia is associated with increased disease severity in ADHF. SMI based on DXA is potentially superior to FFMI in terms of predicting the degree of severity, but FFMI is also associated with ADHF severity.

  16. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  17. The historical significance of anaesthesia events at Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, Ja

    2014-07-01

    Up to the end of World War II, less than 10% of the general anaesthetics administered was with intravenous barbiturates. The remaining 90% of anaesthetics given in the USA were with diethyl ether. In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, chloroform was also popular. Diethyl ether administration was a relatively safe and simple procedure, often delegated to nurses or junior doctors with little or no specific training in anaesthesia. During the Japanese attack on the US bases at Pearl Harbor, with reduced stocks of diethyl ether available, intravenous Sodium Pentothal(®), a most 'sophisticated and complex' drug, was used with devastating effects in many of those hypovolaemic, anaemic and septic patients. The hazards of spinal anaesthesia too were realised very quickly. These effects were compounded by the dearth of trained anaesthetists. This paper presents the significance of the anaesthesia tragedies at Pearl Harbor, and the discovery in the next few years of many other superior drugs that caused medical and other health professionals to realise that anaesthesia needed to be a specialist medical discipline in its own right. Specialist recognition, aided by the foundation of the National Health Service in the UK, the establishment of Faculties of Anaesthesia and appropriate training in pharmacology, physiology and other sciences soon followed. Modern anaesthesiology, as we understand it today, was born and a century or more of ether anaesthesia finally ceased.

  18. [The body as source of significance. Interdisciplinary perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, I A; Crumpei, Irina

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns a general theoretical aspect, followed by different examples which discusses the thesis in relation to major connected domains of research: psychology and philosophy. The thesis which we are arguing for is that the body represents a source of significance in the definitions of he self used as theoretical background in moral problems (philosophical aspect) and the explanations of the way the image of the self is constituted (psychological aspect). The philosophical "conclusion" is that the body, in its materiality, cannot be judged by the metaphysical dualism scheme, which assigns it a secondary role in the hierarchy of categories. From a psychological point of view, this paper tends to show that the body does not represent an accident of personality or a "prison of the soul" as Plato refers to it, but rather an element through which personality is built on and develops and similarly, the mental and personality structures are those which allow the forming of corporeality and then the person's reference to it.

  19. Resisting the therapeutic reduction: on the significance of sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Sin-talk, though politically incorrect, is indispensable. Placing human life under the "hermeneutic of sin" means acknowledging that one ought to aim flawlessly at God, and that one can fail in this endeavor. None of this can be appreciated within the contemporary post-Christian, mindset, which has attempted to reduce religion to morality and culture. In such a secular context, the guilt-feelings connected with the recognition of sin are considered to be harmful; the eternal benefit of a repentance is disregarded. Nevertheless, spirituality appears to have therapeutic benefits. Therefore attempts are made to re-locate within healthcare a religion shorn of its transcendent claims, so as then to harvest the benefits of a spirituality "saved from sin". This reduction of religiosity to its therapeutic function is nourished by a post-modern constructivist construal of religion. This article critically examines the dis-ingenuity marring such recasting, as well as the incoherence of related attempts to reduce transcendence to solidarity, and to re-shape the significance of religious rituals.

  20. Clinical significance of the radioimmunological determination of C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudczak, R; Waldhaeusl, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). 1. Medizinische Klinik

    1979-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of metabolic control to insulinogenic reserve in insulin-dependent diabetics. Thus, the secretory reserve of the pancreatic beta cell was estimated in insulin-dependent diabetics by measuring changes in peripheral serum immunoreactive C-peptide (IRCP) concentrations in response to intravenous arginine (n = 19; 0.5 g/kg,t = 30 min) or glibenclamide-glucose (n = 6; 2 mg HB 419 - 0.33 g/kg intravenously). In the majority of stable diabetics a small secretory reserve of the beta cell was demonstrated, but both the absolute and relative increase in IRCP was reduced after intravenous arginine or glibenclamide-glucose in comparison with normal controls. In unstable diabetics a decreased basal concentration of IRCP, significantly smaller than that seen in stable diabetics (p < 0.01), was accompanied by a complete lack of IRCP release on intravenous arginine administration. Thus, we conclude that the radioimmunological determination of IRCP is of clinical interest in assessing the residual secretory capacity of the beta cell in insulin-dependent diabetics. In revealing a lack of insulin this diagnostic tool seems to detect a group of potentially unstable diabetics in need of strict observation, which would minimize the risks of bad metabolic control.

  1. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  2. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  3. Functional significance of air trapping detected in moderate asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, F.; Latrabe, V.; Raherison, C.; Marthan, R.; Tunon-de-Lara, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial and lung abnormalities in patients suffering from moderate asthma as defined by international guidelines, with special attention to air trapping on CT in comparison with that detected in smoking and non-smoking normal subjects. Twenty-two patients classified as moderate asthma and control subjects including healthy volunteers, smokers (n = 10) or non-smokers (n = 12) were prospectively explored by high-resolution CT (HRCT) performed at suspended full inspiration and expiration. The same expiratory protocol was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 μg of salbutamol. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests within the same week and bronchodilator response was assessed following inhalation of salbutamol. Abnormalities of bronchi and lung parenchyma on inspiratory CT and air trapping on expiratory CT, in dependent and non-dependent areas, were assessed and scored semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. Comparison of score mean values between the different groups was performed using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between CT findings and pulmonary function tests were calculated. Mosaic perfusion was observed in 23 % of asthmatics. Air-trapping scores were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in non-smoking control subjects (p = 0.003), but not than in smokers. This difference was ascribed to non-dependent zones of the lung for which air-trapping scores were also higher in asthmatic patients (p = 0.003) and in smoking subjects (p = 0.004) than in normal controls. In the asthmatic group, a significant positive correlation was found between airways resistance and bronchial dilatation score (p = 0.01), and between small airways obstruction index and mosaic perfusion score (p = 0.05). In addition, both FEV1 and reversibility of small airways obstruction values correlated with air-trapping score (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). No change could be detected in air-trapping score

  4. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  5. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  6. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  7. Factoring local sequence composition in motif significance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Patrick; Keich, Uri

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced a biologically realistic and reliable significance analysis of the output of a popular class of motif finders. In this paper we further improve our significance analysis by incorporating local base composition information. Relying on realistic biological data simulation, as well as on FDR analysis applied to real data, we show that our method is significantly better than the increasingly popular practice of using the normal approximation to estimate the significance of a finder's output. Finally we turn to leveraging our reliable significance analysis to improve the actual motif finding task. Specifically, endowing a variant of the Gibbs Sampler with our improved significance analysis we demonstrate that de novo finders can perform better than has been perceived. Significantly, our new variant outperforms all the finders reviewed in a recently published comprehensive analysis of the Harbison genome-wide binding location data. Interestingly, many of these finders incorporate additional information such as nucleosome positioning and the significance of binding data.

  8. Significance and influence of the ambient temperature as a rate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The results obtained show that the influence of the studied factor is more complex showing an acceleration effect ... ment, the related data in the literature are very sporadic and limited. .... individual function relations expressing the influence of.

  9. Special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  10. Necrotizing pneumonia: CT findings and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Im, Jung Gi; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1995-01-01

    To analyze CT and follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with necrotizing pneumonia and to evaluate clinical significance of the extent of necrosis. We reviewed medical records and retrospectively analysed CT scans and follow-up chest radiographs of 22 patients with necrotizing pneumonia, confirmed by biopsy (n = 7) and culture (n = 15). Inclusion criteria for necrotizing pneumonia was necrotic low attenuation, with or without cavitation on postcontrast enhanced CT scan. The study group included 15 men and seven women, aged 11-66 years (average: 47 years). The pathogens of necrotizing pneumonia were Klebsiella spp (n = 7), Enterobacter spp (n = 5), Actinomyces spp (n = 4), Pseudomonas spp (n = 4), Nocardia spp (n = 4), and others (n = 5). Average duration of pneumonia was 4.1 months. On CT scan, pneumonic consolidations were well-marginated in 14 patients and there were cavities on initial CT scan in 16 cases. Margins of the necrotic portion on CT scan were well-demarcated in majority of the patients (16/22). Low attenuation areas on initial CT scan resulted in cavitation, fibrosis and volume loss as shown on follow-up chest radiographs. The larger the necrotic areas on CT, the more the volume loss was. CT findings of necrotizing pneumonia were well-marginated air-space consolidation with low attenuation area, with or without cavity. The extent of necrotic area was closely related with the degree of fibrotic change later on. CT is important tool for diagnosis and prediction of parenchymal damage in necrotizing pneumonia

  11. Introducing breathlessness as a significant animal welfare issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Breathlessness is a negative affective experience relating to respiration, the animal welfare significance of which has largely been underestimated in the veterinary and animal welfare sciences. In this review, we draw attention to the negative impact that breathlessness can have on the welfare of individual animals and to the wide range of situations in which mammals may experience breathlessness. At least three qualitatively distinct sensations of breathlessness are recognised in human medicine--respiratory effort, air hunger and chest tightness--and each of these reflects comparison by cerebral cortical processing of some combination of heightened ventilatory drive and/or impaired respiratory function. Each one occurs in a variety of pathological conditions and other situations, and more than one may be experienced simultaneously or in succession. However, the three qualities vary in terms of their unpleasantness, with air hunger reported to be the most unpleasant. We emphasise the important interplay among various primary stimuli to breathlessness and other physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as animal management practices. For example, asphyxia/drowning of healthy mammals or killing those with respiratory disease using gases containing high carbon dioxide tensions is likely to lead to severe air hunger, while brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in modern dog and cat breeds increases respiratory effort at rest and likely leads to air hunger during exertion. Using this information as a guide, we encourage animal welfare scientists, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, regulatory bodies and others involved in evaluations of animal welfare to consider whether or not breathlessness contributes to any compromise they may observe or wish to avoid or mitigate.

  12. The significance of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only a small fraction of these patients develop associated diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than those in other countries. The incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographical differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors in addition to host and environmental factors. Virulence factors of H. pylori, such as CagA, VacA, DupA, IceA, OipA and BabA, have been demonstrated to be the predictors of severe clinical outcomes. Interestingly, a meta-analysis showed that CagA seropositivity was associated with gastric cancer compared with gastritis, even in East Asian countries where almost the strains possess cagA. Another meta-analysis also confirmed the significance of vacA, dupA and iceA. However, it is possible that additional important pathogenic genes may exist because H. pylori consists of approximately 1600 genes. Despite the advances in our understanding of the development of H. pylori infection-related diseases, further work is required to clarify the roles of H. pylori virulence factors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  13. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  14. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C

    2012-01-01

    This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely-but only where tides and currents were favourable-and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely-to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating-and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers related to fruit abscission and

  15. Functional significance of SPINK1 promoter variants in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Monique H M; Geisz, Andrea; Kereszturi, Éva; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, which often develops as a result of genetic predisposition. Some of the most frequently identified risk factors affect the serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene, which encodes a trypsin inhibitor responsible for protecting the pancreas from premature trypsinogen activation. Recent genetic and functional studies indicated that promoter variants in the SPINK1 gene might contribute to disease risk in carriers. Here, we investigated the functional effects of 17 SPINK1 promoter variants using luciferase reporter gene expression assay in four different cell lines, including three pancreatic acinar cell lines (rat AR42J with or without dexamethasone-induced differentiation and mouse 266-6) and human embryonic kidney 293T cells. We found that most variants caused relatively small changes in promoter activity. Surprisingly, however, we observed significant variations in the effects of the promoter variants in the different cell lines. Only four variants exhibited consistently reduced promoter activity in all acinar cell lines, confirming previous reports that variants c.-108G>T, c.-142T>C, and c.-147A>G are risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and identifying c.-52G>T as a novel risk variant. In contrast, variant c.-215G>A, which is linked with the disease-associated splice-site mutation c.194 + 2T>C, caused increased promoter activity, which may mitigate the overall effect of the pathogenic haplotype. Our study lends further support to the notion that sequence evaluation of the SPINK1 promoter region in patients with chronic pancreatitis is justified as part of the etiological investigation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  17. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  19. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  20. Numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.