WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-sound symbolic words

  1. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  2. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  3. Electric Symbols: Internet Words And Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fraim, John

    2002-01-01

    The famous Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis posits a linguistic determinism arguing language plays a central role in creation of a worldview. In the sense that language is a product of words, one can say that a culture's worldview is affected and influenced by the words of its particular language. Words both create and communicate worldviews. The greatest potential in history for the observation and analysis of words exists on the Internet. Indeed, the Internet can be considered history's greatest obse...

  4. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Large-scale functional networks connect differently for processing words and symbol strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, Mia; Vartiainen, Johanna; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta

    2018-01-01

    Reconfigurations of synchronized large-scale networks are thought to be central neural mechanisms that support cognition and behavior in the human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings together with recent advances in network analysis now allow for sub-second snapshots of such networks. In the present study, we compared frequency-resolved functional connectivity patterns underlying reading of single words and visual recognition of symbol strings. Word reading emphasized coherence in a left-lateralized network with nodes in classical perisylvian language regions, whereas symbol processing recruited a bilateral network, including connections between frontal and parietal regions previously associated with spatial attention and visual working memory. Our results illustrate the flexible nature of functional networks, whereby processing of different form categories, written words vs. symbol strings, leads to the formation of large-scale functional networks that operate at distinct oscillatory frequencies and incorporate task-relevant regions. These results suggest that category-specific processing should be viewed not so much as a local process but as a distributed neural process implemented in signature networks. For words, increased coherence was detected particularly in the alpha (8-13 Hz) and high gamma (60-90 Hz) frequency bands, whereas increased coherence for symbol strings was observed in the high beta (21-29 Hz) and low gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency range. These findings attest to the role of coherence in specific frequency bands as a general mechanism for integrating stimulus-dependent information across brain regions.

  6. Medical Terminology: Latin Words/Abbreviations; Special Signs and Symbols. Health Occupations Education Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This module on medical terminology (using Latin words/abbreviations; special signs and symbols) is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. This module consists of an introduction to the module topic, a list of resources needed, and three…

  7. GRAPHIC ADVERTISING, SPECIALIZED COMMUNICATIONS MODEL THROUGH SYMBOLS, WORDS, IMAGES WORDS, IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    ADRONACHI Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the graphic advertising components: symbol, text, colour, to illustrate how they cooperate in order to create the advertising message, and to analyze the corelation product – advertising – consumer.

  8. GRAPHIC ADVERTISING, SPECIALIZED COMMUNICATIONS MODEL THROUGH SYMBOLS, WORDS, IMAGES WORDS, IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRONACHI Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the graphic advertising components: symbol, text, colour, to illustrate how they cooperate in order to create the advertising message, and to analyze the corelation product – advertising – consumer.

  9. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with…

  10. Does comprehension of symbolic gestures and corresponding-in-meaning words make use of motor simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Giovanna Cristina; De Stefani, Elisa; Innocenti, Alessandro; De Marco, Doriana; Gough, Patricia M; Buccino, Giovanni; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether or not the comprehension of symbolic gestures, and corresponding-in-meaning words, makes use of cortical circuits involved in movement execution control. Participants were presented with videos of an actress producing meaningful or meaningless gestures, pronouncing corresponding-in-meaning words or pseudo-words; they were required to judge whether the signal was meaningful or meaningless. Single pulse TMS was applied to forearm primary motor cortex area 150-200 ms after the point when the stimulus meaning could be understood. MEPs were significantly greater when processing meaningless signals as compared to a baseline condition presenting a still-and-silent actress. In contrast, this was not the case for meaningful signals whose motor activation did not differ from that for the baseline stimulus. MEPs were significantly greater for meaningless than meaningful signals and no significant difference was found between gesture and speech. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the observation-of/listening-to meaningless signals recruits motor areas. In contrast, this did not occur when the signals were meaningful. Overall, the data suggest that the processes related to comprehension of symbolic gestures and communicative words do not involve primary motor area and probably use brain areas involved in semantics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effective Use of Symbols in Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: A Comparison of Word Alone, Integrated Picture Cueing and the Handle Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2002-01-01

    A comparison is made between a new technique (the Handle Technique), Integrated Picture Cueing, and a Word Alone Method. Results show using a new combination of teaching strategies enabled logographic symbols to be used effectively in teaching word recognition to 12 children with severe learning difficulties. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. How Iconicity Helps People Learn New Words: Neural Correlates and Individual Differences in Sound-Symbolic Bootstrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym Lockwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sound symbolism is increasingly understood as involving iconicity, or perceptual analogies and cross-modal correspondences between form and meaning, but the search for its functional and neural correlates is ongoing. Here we study how people learn sound-symbolic words, using behavioural, electrophysiological and individual difference measures. Dutch participants learned Japanese ideophones —lexical sound- symbolic words— with a translation of either the real meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal correspondences or the opposite meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal clashes. Participants were significantly better at identifying the words they learned in the real condition, correctly remembering the real word pairing 86.7% of the time, but the opposite word pairing only 71.3% of the time. Analysing event-related potentials (ERPs during the test round showed that ideophones in the real condition elicited a greater P3 component and late positive complex than ideophones in the opposite condition. In a subsequent forced choice task, participants were asked to guess the real translation from two alternatives. They did this with 73.0% accuracy, well above chance level even for words they had encountered in the opposite condition, showing that people are generally sensitive to the sound-symbolic cues in ideophones. Individual difference measures showed that the ERP effect in the test round of the learning task was greater for participants who were more sensitive to sound symbolism in the forced choice task. The main driver of the difference was a lower amplitude of the P3 component in response to ideophones in the opposite condition, suggesting that people who are more sensitive to sound symbolism may have more difficulty to suppress conflicting cross-modal information. The findings provide new evidence that cross-modal correspondences between sound and meaning facilitate word learning, while cross-modal clashes make word

  13. Three-to Four-Year-Olds' Recognition That Symbols Have a Stable Meaning: Pictures Are Understood Before Written Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…

  14. Symbol Grounding Without Direct Experience: Do Words Inherit Sensorimotor Activation From Purely Linguistic Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-05-01

    Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field. While this indicates that direct experience with a word's referent is sufficient to evoke said congruency effects, the present study investigates whether this direct experience is also a necessary condition. To this end, we conducted five experiments in which participants learned novel words from purely linguistic input: Novel words were presented in pairs with real up- or down-words (Experiment 1); they were presented in natural sentences where they replaced these real words (Experiment 2); they were presented as new labels for these real words (Experiment 3); and they were presented as labels for novel combined concepts based on these real words (Experiment 4 and 5). In all five experiments, we did not find any congruency effects elicited by the novel words; however, participants were always able to make correct explicit judgements about the vertical dimension associated to the novel words. These results suggest that direct experience is necessary for reactivating experiential traces, but this reactivation is not a necessary condition for understanding (in the sense of storing and accessing) the corresponding aspects of word meaning. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Understanding of Words and Symbols by Chemistry University Students in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladušic, Roko; Bucat, Robert; Ožic, Mia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Croatia on students' understanding of scientific words and representations, as well as everyday words used in chemistry teaching. A total of 82 undergraduate chemistry students and 36 pre-service chemistry teachers from the Faculty of Science, University of Split, were involved. Students' understanding…

  16. Social exclusion – word as a symbol defining the nature of humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of objectively deleting the meaning of ideas-symbols plays an important role in the education, teaching, upbringing and universal socialization of man. It is an area of transcultural struggle, which should lead to exposing the total truth about man, recognizing their place in the history of the world. In addition, naming the truth about oneself creates trust and responsibility and thus frees the state of affirmation for the rule of law and a just state. Via autotelic experiences, internal transformations and proactive consciousness, it is oriented on the basis of language and a symbolic universe, personal growth allowing to integrate the human being with the environment, and not to create a civilization of fall based on enslaved existence. This keyword means that people who are pushed outside the symbolic field and the imaginarium are deprived of emotional freedom and the right to freely choose and take responsibility for their actions in order to ensure freedom for the rest of society, the imagination, perception, sensations and feelings of which are fed by hatred, contempt and total isolation.

  17. Cross-Modal Associations between Sounds and Drink Tastes/Textures: A Study with Spontaneous Production of Sound-Symbolic Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-03-01

    Many languages have a word class whose speech sounds are linked to sensory experiences. Several recent studies have demonstrated cross-modal associations (or correspondences) between sounds and gustatory sensations by asking participants to match predefined sound-symbolic words (e.g., "maluma/takete") with the taste/texture of foods. Here, we further explore cross-modal associations using the spontaneous production of words and semantic ratings of sensations. In the experiment, after drinking liquids, participants were asked to express their taste/texture using Japanese sound-symbolic words, and at the same time, to evaluate it in terms of criteria expressed by adjectives. Because the Japanese language has a large vocabulary of sound-symbolic words, and Japanese people frequently use them to describe taste/texture, analyzing a variety of Japanese sound-symbolic words spontaneously produced to express taste/textures might enable us to explore the mechanism of taste/texture categorization. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on the relationship between linguistic sounds and taste/texture evaluations revealed the structure of sensation categories. The results indicate that an emotional evaluation like pleasant/unpleasant is the primary cluster in gustation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Is processing of symbols and words influenced by writing system? Evidence from Chinese, Korean, English, and Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K; Deng, Ciping; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Katopodi, Katerina; Wei, Wei; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2017-12-01

    We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems. The path coefficient from discrete digits to discrete words was greater for the more transparent orthographies, consistent with more efficient sight-word processing. The effect of discrete word reading on serial word reading was stronger in alphabetic languages, where there was also a suppressive effect of discrete digit naming. However, the effect of serial digit naming on serial word reading did not differ among the four language groups. This pattern of relationships challenges a universal account of reading fluency acquisition while upholding a universal role of rapid serial naming, further distinguishing between multi-element interword and intraword processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  20. The symbolism of zombie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine BOUDOU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show why the zombie can be presented as a justifiable object of search for the symbolic communication. The zombie exists as symbol because the word the leading to a qualification became of current usage, what allows a widened communication. The diversity of the interpretations that he makes possible testifies of its ambivalence. That he is defined as a symbol or as a metaphor we shall see that, far from being that a lasted fad, the zombie is rich in different senses.

  1. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  2. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  3. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol. 97.900 Section... symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety Protection...

  4. Symbolic Water Imagery in the Drama of J. P. Clark- Bekederemo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Key words: Imagery, Symbolism, Water, Drama, J. P. Clark-Bekederemo. Introduction .... the other types (the literal and the figurative) is that a symbolic image has the capacity to extend its ..... A Dictionary of Literary Symbols. Cambridge: ...

  5. Phonetic Symbols through Audiolingual Method to Improve the Students' Listening Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samawiyah, Zuhrotun; Saifuddin, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Phonetic symbols present linguistics feature to how the words are pronounced or spelled and they offer a way to easily identify and recognize the words. Phonetic symbols were applied in this research to give the students clear input and a comprehension toward English words. Moreover, these phonetic symbols were applied within audio-lingual method…

  6. Symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hongo, Syozo; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures for computation of organ doses exposed to internal and/or external radiation sources. One method is to make mathematical phantoms on the basis of ORNL mathematical phantoms. Parameters to specify organs of Japanese mathematical phantom are determined by interpolations of the ORNL data, which define the organs of Caucasian males and females of various ages, i.e. new born, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and adult, with survey data for Japanese physiques. Another procedure is to build 'symbol phantoms' for the Japanese public. The concept and its method of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for an individual when we have all of his transversal section images obtained by a medical imaging device like MRI, and thus we may achieve more realistic phantoms for Japanese public than the mathematical phantoms. Both studies are in progress in NIRS. (author)

  7. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  8. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  9. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  10. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... symbols. 232.306 Section 232.306 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in... words or letters in the English language rather than representative symbols, except that HTML documents...

  11. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  12. Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; te Linde, J

    1980-11-01

    Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those of previous comparison studies involving concrete dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of dual-coding theory and the role of verbal mechanisms in memory for object color.

  13. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  14. Symbolic Dynamics of Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J. W.; Dickens, P. M.

    2003-12-01

    Symbolic dynamics1 is the study of sequences of symbols belonging to a discrete set of elements, the most commmon example being a sequence of ones and zeroes. Often the set of symbols is derived from a timeseries of a continuous variable through the introduction of a partition function--a process called symbolization. Symbolic dynamics has been used widely in the physical sciences; a geophysical example being the application of C1 and C2 complexity2 to hourly precipitation station data3. The C1 and C2 complexities are computed by examining subsequences--or words--of fixed length L in the limit of large values of L. Recent advances in information theory have led to techniques focused on the growth rate of the Shannon entropy and its asymptotic behavior in the limit of long words--levels of entropy convergence4. The result is a set of measures one can use to quantify the amount of memory stored in the sequence, whether or not an observer is able to synchronize to the sequence, and with what confidence it may be predicted. These techniques may also be used to uncover periodic behavior in the sequence. We are currently applying complexity theory and levels of entropy convergence to gridpoint timeseries from the NCAR/NCEP 50-year reanalysis5. Topics to be discussed include: a brief introduction to symbolic dynamics; a description of the partition function/symbolization strategy; a discussion of C1 and C2 complexity and entropy convergence rates and their utility; and example applications of these techniques to NCAR/NCEP 50-reanalyses gridpoint timeseries, resulting in maps of C1 and C2 complexities and entropy convergence rates. Finally, we will discuss how these results may be used to validate climate models. 1{Hao, Bai-Lin, Elementary Symbolic Dynamics and Chaos in Dissipative Systems, Wold Scientific, Singapore (1989)} 2{d'Alessandro, G. and Politi, A., Phys. Rev. Lett., 64, 1609-1612 (1990).} 3{Elsner, J. and Tsonis, A., J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 400-405 (1993).} 4

  15. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  16. Developmental change in children's sensitivity to sound symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Christina Y; Nygaard, Lynne C; Namy, Laura L

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined developmental change in children's sensitivity to sound symbolism. Three-, five-, and seven-year-old children heard sound symbolic novel words and foreign words meaning round and pointy and chose which of two pictures (one round and one pointy) best corresponded to each word they heard. Task performance varied as a function of both word type and age group such that accuracy was greater for novel words than for foreign words, and task performance increased with age for both word types. For novel words, children in all age groups reliably chose the correct corresponding picture. For foreign words, 3-year-olds showed chance performance, whereas 5- and 7-year-olds showed reliably above-chance performance. Results suggest increased sensitivity to sound symbolic cues with development and imply that although sensitivity to sound symbolism may be available early and facilitate children's word-referent mappings, sensitivity to subtler sound symbolic cues requires greater language experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NMR-CT image and symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures. One is described as a mathematical expression. Another is 'symbol phantoms' in 3 dimensional picture-elements, each of which symbolize an organ name. The concept and the algorithm of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for a individual in terms of all his transversal section images. We got 85 transversal section images of head and trunk parts, and those of 40 legs parts by using NMR-CT. We have made the individual phantom for computation of organ doses. The transversal section images were not so clear to identify all organs needed to dose estimation that we had to do hand-editing the shapes of organs with viewing a typical section images: we could not yet make symbol phantom in a automatic editing. Symbols were coded to be visual cords as ASCII characters. After we got the symbol phantom of the first stage, we can edit it easily using a word-processor. Symbol phantom could describe more freely the shape of organs than mathematical phantom. Symbol phantom has several advantages to be an individual phantom, but the only difficult point is how to determine its end-point as a reference man when we apply the method to build the reference man. (author)

  18. Assessment of the depth of anesthesia based on symbolic dynamics of the EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Tupaika, Nadine; Vallverdú Ferrer, Montserrat; Jospin, Mathieu; Jensen, Erik Weber; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Voss, Andreas; Caminal Magrans, Pere

    2010-01-01

    Methodologies based on symbolic dynamics have successfully demonstrated to reflect the nonlinear behavior of biological signals. In the present study, symbolic dynamics was applied to the electroencephalogram (EEG) in order to describe the level of depth of anesthesia. The EEG was transformed to symbol sequences. Words of three symbols were built from this symbolic series. The results obtained from the EEGs of 36 patients undergoing anesthesia showed that the probabilities of the ...

  19. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  20. Symbol in Point View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. R. Yousefi

    Full Text Available Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry; its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this complex world

  1. Ins-Robust Primitive Words

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Kapoor, Kalpesh

    2017-01-01

    Let Q be the set of primitive words over a finite alphabet with at least two symbols. We characterize a class of primitive words, Q_I, referred to as ins-robust primitive words, which remain primitive on insertion of any letter from the alphabet and present some properties that characterizes words in the set Q_I. It is shown that the language Q_I is dense. We prove that the language of primitive words that are not ins-robust is not context-free. We also present a linear time algorithm to reco...

  2. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  3. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  4. 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. ... of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. .... from a psychological perspective, understands symbols as a.

  5. Two cultures - one symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shostak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the question of similarities in the approach to the multilevel symbolism in Slav and Native American cultures. Ambivalent symbol of the snake is analyzed in the frame of mythological thinking. At the end the author comes to the conclusion that elements of mythological thinking are still present in everyday life and influence human behavior levels

  6. Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.

  7. Symbolic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechester, A.B.; White, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamic processes exhibit many complicated patterns of evolution. How can all these patterns be recognized using only output (observational, experimental) data without prior knowledge of the equations of motion? The powerful method for doing this is based on symbolic dynamics: (1) Present output data in symbolic form (trial language). (2) Topological and metric entropies are constructed. (3) Develop algorithms for computer optimization of entropies. (4) By maximizing entropies, find the most appropriate symbolic language for the purpose of pattern recognition. (5) Test this method using a variety of dynamical models from nonlinear science. The authors are in the process of applying this method for analysis of MHD fluctuations in tokamaks

  8. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical

  10. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  11. Bruce Springsteen as a Symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The article explores how Bruce Springsteen and his music function as a symbol. The article first presents the Jungian theory of symbols and of music as symbol. The central argument of the article is that, by functioning symbolically, Springsteen has the potential to influence the psyche of his au...

  12. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  13. Symbol generators with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, V.M.; Tomik, J.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of constructing symbol generators are described which ensure a program variation of symbol shape and setup. The symbols are formed on the basis of a point microraster. A symbol description code contains information on a symbol shape, with one digit corresponding to each microraster element. For a microraster discrete by-pass the description code is transformed into succession of illuminating pulses by means of a shift register

  14. Investigating a Link between Pre-Calculus Students' Uses of Graphing Calculators and Their Understanding of Mathematical Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Rachael H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ways in which students make use of a graphing calculator and how use relates to comfort and understanding with mathematical symbols. Analysis involved examining students' words and actions in problem solving to identify evidence of algebraic insight. Findings suggest that some symbols and symbolic structures had strong…

  15. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  16. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  17. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  18. Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

  19. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  20. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  1. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  2. Front of package symbols as a tool to promote healthier food choices in Slovenia: Accompanying explanatory claim can considerably influence the consumer's preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Miklavec, K; Pravst, I; Raats, Monique; Pohar, J

    2016-01-01

    Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis;...

  3. Symbolic Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte , Eric

    2005-01-01

    The connection between language processing and combinatorics on words is natural. Historically, linguists actually played a part in the beginning of the construction of theoretical combinatorics on words. Some of the terms in current use originate from linguistics: word, prefix, suffix, grammar, syntactic monoid... However, interpenetration between the formal world of computer theory and the intuitive world of linguistics is still a love story with ups and downs. We will encounter in this cha...

  4. Basic ionizing radiation symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the standard symbol for ionizing radiation and of the conditions under which it should not be used. The Arabic equivalent of some English technical terms in this subject is given in one page. 1 ref., 1 fig

  5. Communication in Symbolic Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Musek, Petra Lesnik; Kranjc, Simona

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed records of Slovene children's speech from a linguistic point of view and established differences in communication patterns with regard to the children's ages and the type of symbolic play. Found a shift in play from make-believe with regard to objects to roleplay related to social context. The older the child, the more language functions…

  6. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  7. [Representation of letter position in visual word recognition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, S

    1994-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the representation of letter position in visual word recognition process. In Experiment 1, subjects (12 undergraduates and graduates) were asked to detect a target word in a briefly-presented probe. Probes consisted of two kanji words. The latters which formed targets (critical letters) were always contained in probes. (e.g. target: [symbol: see text] probe: [symbol: see text]) High false alarm rate was observed when critical letters occupied the same within-word relative position (left or right within the word) in the probe words as in the target word. In Experiment 2 (subject were ten undergraduates and graduates), spaces adjacent to probe words were replaced by randomly chosen hiragana letters (e.g. [symbol: see text]), because spaces are not used to separate words in regular Japanese sentences. In addition to the effect of within-word relative position as in Experiment 1, the effect of between-word relative position (left or right across the probe words) was observed. These results suggest that information about within-word relative position of a letter is used in word recognition process. The effect of within-word relative position was explained by a connectionist model of word recognition.

  8. Quantification of cardiorespiratory interactions based on joint symbolic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muammar M; Saint, David A; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Abbott, Derek; Voss, Andreas; Baumert, Mathias

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac and respiratory rhythms are highly nonlinear and nonstationary. As a result traditional time-domain techniques are often inadequate to characterize their complex dynamics. In this article, we introduce a novel technique to investigate the interactions between R-R intervals and respiratory phases based on their joint symbolic dynamics. To evaluate the technique, electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory signals were recorded in 13 healthy subjects in different body postures during spontaneous and controlled breathing. Herein, the R-R time series were extracted from ECG and respiratory phases were obtained from abdomen impedance belts using the Hilbert transform. Both time series were transformed into ternary symbol vectors based on the changes between two successive R-R intervals or respiratory phases. Subsequently, words of different symbol lengths were formed and the correspondence between the two series of words was determined to quantify the interaction between cardiac and respiratory cycles. To validate our results, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was further studied using the phase-averaged characterization of the RSA pattern. The percentage of similarity of the sequence of symbols, between the respective words of the two series determined by joint symbolic dynamics, was significantly reduced in the upright position compared to the supine position (26.4 ± 4.7 vs. 20.5 ± 5.4%, p cardiorespiratory interaction that is highly sensitive to the effects of orthostatic challenge.

  9. Numerical and symbolic scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art and results and also includes articles pointing to future developments. Most of the articles center around the theme of linear partial differential equations. Major aspects are fast solvers in elastoplasticity, symbolic analysis for boundary problems, symbolic treatment of operators, computer algebra, and finite element methods, a symbolic approach to finite difference schemes, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and local Fourier analysis, and white noise analysis for stochastic partial differential equations. Further numerical-symbolic topics range from

  10. Effects of background color and symbol arrangement cues on construction of multi-symbol messages by young children without disabilities: implications for aided AAC design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, Jennifer J; Wilkinson, Krista

    2017-09-01

    Children whose speech does not meet their communication needs often benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The design of an AAC display may influence the child's ability to communicate effectively. The current study examined how symbol background color cues and symbol arrangement affected construction of multi-symbol messages using line-drawing symbols, by young children with typical development. Participants (N = 52) heard a spoken phrase matching a photograph and selected line drawings within a 4 × 4 array. Friedman two-way ANOVAs evaluated speed and accuracy of multi-symbol message construction under four conditions in which the background color and arrangement of symbols was manipulated. Participants demonstrated significantly faster response times when symbols were arranged by word-class category compared to no symbol arrangement. The majority of children responded faster when symbols had white backgrounds, but this effect failed to reach statistical significance. This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of symbol arrangement for young children. The findings highlight the need for caution when incorporating background color on displays for young children. Future research is needed to examine the effect of visual cues on children who use AAC and consider additional factors that could influence efficacy of symbol arrangement and background color use.

  11. Lisbon Symbol Database (LSD): Subjective norms for 600 symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Silva, Rita R; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-12-01

    This article presents subjective rating norms for a new set of 600 symbols, depicting various contents (e.g., transportation, technology, and leisure activities) that can be used by researchers in different fields. Symbols were evaluated for aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. The normative data were obtained from 388 participants, and no gender differences were found. Descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) for each symbol in each dimension are presented. Overall, the dimensions were highly correlated. Additionally, participants were asked to briefly describe the meaning of each symbol. The results indicate that the present symbol set is varied, allowing for the selection of exemplars with different levels on the seven examined dimensions. This set of symbols constitutes a tool with potential for research in different areas. The database with all of the symbols is available as supplemental materials.

  12. Case Study: Students’ Symbolic Manipulation in Calculus Among UTHM Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Maselan; Sufahani, Suliadi; Ahmad, Wan N. A. W.; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    Words are symbols representing certain aspects of mathematics. The main purpose of this study is to gain insight into students’ symbolic manipulation in calculus among UTHM students. This study make use the various methods in collecting data which are documentation, pilot study, written test and follow up individual interviews. Hence, the results analyzed and interpreted based on action-process-object-schema framework which is based on Piaget’s ideas of reflective abstraction, the concept of relational and instrumental understanding and the zone of proximal development idea. The students’ reply in the interview session is analyzed and then the overall performance is discussed briefly to relate with the students flexibility in symbolic manipulation in linking to the graphical idea, the students interpretation towards different symbolic structure in calculus and the problem that related to overgeneralization in their calculus problems solving.

  13. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  14. HMD symbol stabilization concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1995-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.

  15. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  16. Sight Word Recognition among Young Children At-Risk: Picture-Supported vs. Word-Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Stoner, Julia B.; Parette, Howard P.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) on sight word recognition by young children identified as "at risk" for academic and social-behavior difficulties. Ten pre-primer and 10 primer Dolch words were presented to 23 students in the intervention group and 8 students in the…

  17. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical analyses of network structure and dynamics, expanding the scope and detail of results. This paper argues that social network analysis can bridge the divide between qualitative and quantitative analysis...

  18. The Magic of Words Reconsidered: Investigating the Automaticity of Reading Color-Neutral Words in the Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; De Wit, Bianca; Norris, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In 2 variants of the color-word Stroop task, we compared 5 types of color-neutral distractors--real words (e.g., "HAT"), pseudowords (e.g., "HIX"), consonant strings (e.g., "HDK"), symbol strings (e.g., #$%), and a row of Xs (e.g., "XXX")--as well as incongruent color words (e.g., "GREEN" displayed…

  19. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  20. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.

  1. Anthropologists as symbols: Geertz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Bošković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clifford Geertz (1926-2006 was certainly one of the most influential anthropologists in the last decades of the 20th century, even though some of his former students (like Rabinow in Slyomovics 2010 claim that he was not very accessible as a person, and that sometimes he did not even care for his students. Somewhat paradoxically, Geertz´s influence on anthropology and related disciplines remained notable even after his death. This paper analyzes interest in aspects of his work over the last decade, as an indicator of transforming a personality into a global cultural symbol.

  2. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  3. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  4. Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms. A specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBillinger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11 to 13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47% were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic, and 28 students (53% were not (non-symbolic, based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post test performances (p. < .05. Surprisingly, non-symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p. < .05. The results indicate that the operational definition used in the present study may be useful in further studies relating the capability to show symbolic behavior and students’ activity and participation in classroom settings.

  5. Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar , Frank; Hirata , Nina ,; Viard-Gaudin , Christian; Mouchère , Harold; Medjkoune , Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...

  6. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  7. The Effects of the Davis Symbol Mastery System to Assist a Fourth Grader with Dyslexia in Spelling: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsberry, Gianna; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark; Waco, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using the Davis Symbol Mastery Procedure for Words (Davis, 1994) for improving spelling skills. The participant was a fourth-grade male diagnosed with a significant learning disability. The intervention consisted of having the participant write each word, its definition, the word in a…

  8. Shanahan on symbolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  9. Composing the Symbolic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sacco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An excerpt from Sergei M. Eisenstein's memoirs describing a night visit to the museum of Chichén Itzá in Mexico is set forth as a real life example reflecting, both from a visual and theoretical perspective, the architecture of Aby Warburg's Bilderatlas Mnemosyne and his concept of Denkraum. Drawing upon Warburg's own writings and F. T. Vischer's theory of symbol, the paper looks at Eisenstein's experience at the museum as highlighting the dynamic relation between man's religious/magical and scientific/rational psychic poles, and the in-between space of thought inherent to the concept of Denkraum and visually represented by the empty dark intervals separating the images in the Bilderatlas. Adding significance to its argumentation, the paper also hints at an affinity between Eisenstein's film montaging and Warburg's image assembling criteria.

  10. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  11. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  12. Scientific applications of symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, A.C.

    1976-02-01

    The use of symbolic computation systems for problem solving in scientific research is reviewed. The nature of the field is described, and particular examples are considered from celestial mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and general relativity. Symbolic integration and some more recent applications of algebra systems are also discussed [fr

  13. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...

  14. The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro

    2014-09-19

    Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture.

  16. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  17. Degrees of infinite words, polynomials and atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Endrullis; J. Karhumaki; J.W. Klop (Jan Willem); A. Saarela

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOur objects of study are finite state transducers and their power for transforming infinite words. Infinite sequences of symbols are of paramount importance in a wide range of fields, from formal languages to pure mathematics and physics. While finite automata for recognising and

  18. Degrees of infinite words, polynomials and atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Karhumäki, Juhani; Klop, Jan Willem; Saarela, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    Our objects of study are finite state transducers and their power for transforming infinite words. Infinite sequences of symbols are of paramount importance in a wide range of fields, from formal languages to pure mathematics and physics. While finite automata for recognising and transforming

  19. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  20. What’s in a name? The effects of sound symbolism and package shape on consumer responses to food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Lotterman, Henriët; Galetzka, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    In the global market, consumers are exposed to multiple brand names in unfamiliar languages. Even meaningless words can trigger certain semantic associations. This phenomenon is known as sound symbolism, i.e., the direct link between a sound and a meaning. Sound symbolism helps consumers to form

  1. Similarity of Symbol Frequency Distributions with Heavy Tails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gerlach

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the similarity between symbolic sequences is a traditional problem in information theory which requires comparing the frequencies of symbols in different sequences. In numerous modern applications, ranging from DNA over music to texts, the distribution of symbol frequencies is characterized by heavy-tailed distributions (e.g., Zipf’s law. The large number of low-frequency symbols in these distributions poses major difficulties to the estimation of the similarity between sequences; e.g., they hinder an accurate finite-size estimation of entropies. Here, we show analytically how the systematic (bias and statistical (fluctuations errors in these estimations depend on the sample size N and on the exponent γ of the heavy-tailed distribution. Our results are valid for the Shannon entropy (α=1, its corresponding similarity measures (e.g., the Jensen-Shanon divergence, and also for measures based on the generalized entropy of order α. For small α’s, including α=1, the errors decay slower than the 1/N decay observed in short-tailed distributions. For α larger than a critical value α^{*}=1+1/γ≤2, the 1/N decay is recovered. We show the practical significance of our results by quantifying the evolution of the English language over the last two centuries using a complete α spectrum of measures. We find that frequent words change more slowly than less frequent words and that α=2 provides the most robust measure to quantify language change.

  2. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  3. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation......This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...

  4. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tanimura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  5. The Changing Role of Sound-Symbolism for Small Versus Large Vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, James; Monaghan, Padraic; Walker, Peter

    2017-12-12

    Natural language contains many examples of sound-symbolism, where the form of the word carries information about its meaning. Such systematicity is more prevalent in the words children acquire first, but arbitrariness dominates during later vocabulary development. Furthermore, systematicity appears to promote learning category distinctions, which may become more important as the vocabulary grows. In this study, we tested the relative costs and benefits of sound-symbolism for word learning as vocabulary size varies. Participants learned form-meaning mappings for words which were either congruent or incongruent with regard to sound-symbolic relations. For the smaller vocabulary, sound-symbolism facilitated learning individual words, whereas for larger vocabularies sound-symbolism supported learning category distinctions. The changing properties of form-meaning mappings according to vocabulary size may reflect the different ways in which language is learned at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  6. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  7. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  8. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  9. Applications of symbolic algebraic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Hearn, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a survey of applications of systems for symbomic algebraic computation. In most successful applications, calculations that can be taken to a given order by hand are then extended one or two more orders by computer. Furthermore, with a few notable exceptins, these applications also involve numerical computation in some way. Therefore the authors emphasize the interface between symbolic and numerical computation, including: 1. Computations with both symbolic and numerical phases. 2. Data involving both the unpredictible size and shape that typify symbolic computation and the (usually inexact) numerical values that characterize numerical computation. 3. Applications of one field to the other. It is concluded that the fields of symbolic and numerical computation can advance most fruitfully in harmony rather than in competition. (Auth.)

  10. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  11. Blending Words Found In Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyatmi Giyatmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many new words from the social media such as Netizen, Trentop, and Delcon. Those words include in blending. Blending is one of word formations combining two clipped words to form a brand new word. The researchers are interested in analyzing blend words used in the social media such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Blackberry Messenger. This research aims at (1 finding blend words used in the social media (2 describing kinds of blend words used in social media (3 describing the process of blend word formation used in the social media. This research uses some theories dealing with definition of blending and kinds of blending. This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research. Data of the research are English blend words used in social media. Data sources of this research are websites consisting of some English words used in social media and some social media users as the informant. Techniques of data collecting in this research are observation and simak catat. Observation is by observing some websites consisting of some English words used in social media. Simak catat is done by taking some notes on the data and encoding in symbols such as No/Blend words/Kinds of Blending. The researchers use source triangulation to check the data from the researchers with the informant and theory triangulation to determine kinds of blending and blend word formation in social media. There are115 data of blend words. Those data consists of 65 data of Instagram, 47 data of Twitter, 1 datum of Facebook, and 2 data of Blackberry Messenger. There are 2 types of blending used in social media;108 data of blending with clipping and 7 data of blending with overlapping. There are 10 ways of blend word formation found in this research.

  12. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  13. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  14. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  15. Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

  16. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination symbols. 29.1008 Section 29.1008..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another symbol to form the third factor of a grademark to denote a particular side or characteristic of the...

  17. A new interpretation of the symbolic codes for the Henon Map. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2011-01-01

    A certain region in the phase space for the area- and orientation-preserving Heon map is filled with the resonance chains. Taking this fact into account, the concept of block word has been introduced in the preceding paper. The concept of resonance chains in the symbol plane is also introduced and the marquetry structure of the symbol plane is investigated. If the orbit in the horseshoe travels over the resonance chains, the orbit is represented by a block word sequence. There are four purposes discussed in this paper. The first purpose is to introduce a new concept of parity to characterize the periodic orbits. The second is to study the detailed structure of the symbol plane. The third is to clarify the behaviors of symmetric periodic orbits in the resonance chain and determine their block word sequences. The fourth is to propose an improved construction method to make a braid for a non-Birkhoff periodic orbit in a resonance chain. (author)

  18. Front of package symbols as a tool to promote healthier food choices in Slovenia: Accompanying explanatory claim can considerably influence the consumer's preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklavec, Krista; Pravst, Igor; Raats, Monique M; Pohar, Jure

    2016-12-01

    Many nutrition and/or health symbols were introduced in different countries in the past years and Slovenia is no exception. The objective of our study was to examine familiarity with and perception of the Protective Food symbol (PF symbol) in Slovenia and to investigate consumers' associations related to the symbol, and the influence of symbols' appearance on their preferences. The study was conducted through online questionnaire with incorporated word-association tasks and conjoint analysis; GfK consumer panel and social media (Facebook) were used for recruitment of Slovenian adults (n=1050; 534 men, 516 women). The majority (78%) of the participants reported they had previously seen the PF symbol, and 64% declared familiarity with it. Familiarity was verified using a word-association task in which we analysed the nature of the symbol's description, distinguishing the description of symbol's visual appearance or its meaning. In this task, 73% of the participants described the symbol's meaning with reference to health or a healthy lifestyle, confirming their familiarity with it. Women and those responsible for grocery shopping were significantly more familiar with the symbol. The impact of the symbol's appearance on consumers' preferences was investigated using conjoint analysis consisting of two attributes - three different symbols found on foods in Slovenia (PF symbol, Choices Programme symbol and Keyhole symbol), and accompanying worded claims. Although worded claims had less relative importance (29.5%) than the symbols (70.5%), we show that careful choice of the wording can affect consumers' preferences considerably. The lowest part-worth utility was observed without an accompanying claim, and the highest for the claim directly communicating health ("Protects your health"). The fact that most participants are well familiar with the PF symbol indicates the symbol's potential to promote healthier food choices, which could be further improved by an accompanying

  19. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  20. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  1. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  2. The mathematica guidebook for symbolics

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mathematica is today's most advanced technical computing system. It features a rich programming environment, two-and three-dimensional graphics capabilities and hundreds of sophisticated, powerful programming and mathematical functions using state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with a user-friendly interface, and a complete mathematical typesetting system, Mathematica offers an intuitive easy-to-handle environment of great power and utility. "The Mathematica GuideBook for Symbolics" (code and text fully tailored for Mathematica 5.1) deals with Mathematica's symbolic mathematical capabilities. Structural and mathematical operations on single and systems of polynomials are fundamental to many symbolic calculations and they are covered in considerable detail. The solution of equations and differential equations, as well as the classical calculus operations (differentiation, integration, summation, series expansion, limits) are exhaustively treated. Generalized functions and their uses are discussed. In addition...

  3. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  4. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  5. Contribution to comprehending symbolism and meaning of architectural form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihodžić Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural form and space, from the very beginning of their creation, weren’t only elements reflecting mere act of building; as the act of human actions, they included proper symbolic presentation of a creator's perception of the world. The initial point is that each physical, therefore each architectural form, speaks volumes on more than just their purpose, so it can have symbolic meanings, being proved in history of architecture for such a long time. While observing architectural form, these two questions impose. The first question refers to identifying usable purpose of particular facility, in other words, its function. The second question imposes to identify what are the things that we are reminded of concerning that particular facility. This second question represents search for the meaning in each form that mankind instinctively longs to identify in order to comprehend the world we live in. No matter if we are in natural or building area, everything we are surrounded by has got specific forms recalling certain associations. The aim of this paper is to indicate that pictures appearing as a consequence of close forms and designs represent associations and they should not be compared to symbols. The goal of this research is to contribute to clearer seeing of symbolism of architectural form, in which situations it exists and whether it exists in contemporary architectural forms. This work is based on elements of Gestalt observation theory.

  6. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  7. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  8. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  9. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  10. Symbol signing design for older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  11. Metaphor, symbolic play, and logical thought in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J A

    1997-11-01

    Development of the ability to understand diverse types of metaphor was examined in terms of play context (symbolic vs. constructive-object play), Piagetian operational level (preoperational vs. concrete-operational), and medium of presentation (pictures vs. words). Forty 4-year-olds and 80 6-year-olds (40 preoperational, 40 concrete-operational) were presented with six different types of metaphorical relationships (color, shape, physiognomic, cross-modal, psychological-physical, and taxonomic matches) in both pictures and words in a match-to-sample design. Results indicated that (a) constructive-object play, rather than symbolic play, facilitated the understanding of perceptual and taxonomic metaphor, suggesting differences in early styles of metaphoric usage; (b) despite previous findings, the study failed to replicate a relationship between operativity and metaphoric understanding; and (c) younger children did significantly better in the pictorial medium, suggesting a picture-superiority effect for more perceptible metaphorical relations (perceptual and physiognomic), whereas older children showed a word-superiority effect for more conceptual metaphors (psychological-physical and taxonomic).

  12. Consumers recall and recognition for brand symbols

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Hasan, Syed Akif; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    Brand Symbols are important for any brand in helping consumers to remember one’s brand at the point of purchase. In advertising different ways are used to grab attention in consumers’ mind and majorly it’s through brand recall and recognition. This research captivates the Brand Symbol concept and determines whether symbols play an important role in creating a differential impact with other brands. Secondly, it also answers that whether brand symbol is the cause of creating positive associatio...

  13. The Analysis of Mythological Symbols in Shahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    موسی پرنیان

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing symbols of Shahnameh requires an understanding of the context and condition of creation and emergence of symbol, myth and epic. Symbol has a relationship with consciousness and unconsciousness of man and constitutes the language of mythologies, legends, and epics. Thus the language of mythological and epic works is symbolic. The main theme in Iranian mythologies is the dual nature of creation, and during the passage from myth to epic the conflict between the two forces of good and evil appear in various aspects of existence. Some characters that represent symbolic and coded concepts more than other elements can be considered as symbols of the evolution of gods to kings and against them there are devilish kings as symbols of drought (Apush. The other symbolic elements analyzed in this study are: epic-romance stories, imaginary creatures, symbolic dreams of kings and heroes, symbolic numbers, symbolic patterns of flags, the symbolism of water, fire and charisma The findings of the study illustrate that people, more than other elements, are the constitutive elements of mythological symbols, and the tension between these human elements depicts the mutual conflict between good and evil in Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. Like other elements, symbolic characters (especially kings are of symbolic value and constitute a part of constructing elements of mythological symbols in Shahname. Moreover their reputation is dependent on the extent of their benefit from “God charisma“ as the most pivotal element of their personality. Kings like Afrasiab and Zahak, due to lack of it, are the most disreputable kings. On the other hand, Fereidoon and Kaikhosro are on the top of the most reputable kings because of continuous benefit from that. This study has been conducted on the basis of library resources and has applied a descriptive-analytic method.

  14. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  15. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.1007 Section 29.1007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange...

  20. Symbol-String Sensitivity and Children's Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammer, Kristen; Lavis, Ruth; Hansen, Peter; Cornelissen, Piers L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study of primary school children, a novel "symbol-string" task is used to assess sensitivity to the position of briefly presented non-alphabetic but letter-like symbols. The results demonstrate that sensitivity in the symbol-string task explains a unique proportion of the variability in children's contextual reading accuracy. Moreover,…

  1. Reciprocity Laws for the Higher Tame Symbol and the Witt Symbol on an Algebraic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Syder, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    Parshin's higher Witt pairing on an arithmetic surface can be combined with the higher tame pairing to form a symbol taking values in the absolute abelian Galois group of the function field. We prove reciprocity laws for this symbol using techniques of Morrow for the Witt symbol and Romo for the higher tame symbol.

  2. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  3. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.       

  4. Alternate symbol inversion for improved symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Inverting alternate symbols of the encoder output of a convolutionally coded system provides sufficient density of symbol transitions to guarantee adequate symbol synchronizer performance, a guarantee otherwise lacking. Although alternate symbol inversion may increase or decrease the average transition density, depending on the data source model, it produces a maximum number of contiguous symbols without transition for a particular class of convolutional codes, independent of the data source model. Further, this maximum is sufficiently small to guarantee acceptable symbol synchronizer performance for typical applications. Subsequent inversion of alternate detected symbols permits proper decoding.

  5. Cross-Sensory Correspondences and Symbolism in Spoken and Written Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Lexical sound symbolism in language appears to exploit the feature associations embedded in cross-sensory correspondences. For example, words incorporating relatively high acoustic frequencies (i.e., front/close rather than back/open vowels) are deemed more appropriate as names for concepts associated with brightness, lightness in weight,…

  6. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  7. Letter and symbol identification: No evidence for letter-specific crowding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castet, Eric; Descamps, Marine; Denis-Noël, Ambre; Colé, Pascale

    2017-09-01

    It has been proposed that letters, as opposed to symbols, trigger specialized crowding processes, boosting identification of the first and last letters of words. This hypothesis is based on evidence that single-letter accuracy as a function of within-string position has a W shape (the classic serial position function [SPF] in psycholinguistics) whereas an inverted V shape is obtained when measured with symbols. Our main goal was to test the robustness of the latter result. Our hypothesis was that any letter/symbol difference might result from short-term visual memory processes (due to the partial report [PR] procedures used in SPF studies) rather than from crowding. We therefore removed the involvement of short-term memory by precueing target-item position and compared SPFs with precueing and postcueing. Perimetric complexity was stringently matched between letters and symbols. In postcueing conditions similar to previous studies, we did not reproduce the inverted V shape for symbols: Clear-cut W shapes were observed with an overall smaller accuracy for symbols compared to letters. This letter/symbol difference was dramatically reduced in precueing conditions in keeping with our prediction. Our results are not consistent with the claim that letter strings trigger specialized crowding processes. We argue that PR procedures are not fit to isolate crowding processes.

  8. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  9. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  10. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  11. Using Serial and Discrete Digit Naming to Unravel Word Reading Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Protopapas, Athanassios; Georgiou, George K

    2018-01-01

    During reading acquisition, word recognition is assumed to undergo a developmental shift from slow serial/sublexical processing of letter strings to fast parallel processing of whole word forms. This shift has been proposed to be detected by examining the size of the relationship between serial- and discrete-trial versions of word reading and rapid naming tasks. Specifically, a strong association between serial naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed serially, whereas a strong association between discrete naming of symbols and single word reading suggests that words are processed in parallel as wholes. In this study, 429 Grade 1, 3, and 5 English-speaking Canadian children were tested on serial and discrete digit naming and word reading. Across grades, single word reading was more strongly associated with discrete naming than with serial naming of digits, indicating that short high-frequency words are processed as whole units early in the development of reading ability in English. In contrast, serial naming was not a unique predictor of single word reading across grades, suggesting that within-word sequential processing was not required for the successful recognition for this set of words. Factor mixture analysis revealed that our participants could be clustered into two classes, namely beginning and more advanced readers. Serial naming uniquely predicted single word reading only among the first class of readers, indicating that novice readers rely on a serial strategy to decode words. Yet, a considerable proportion of Grade 1 students were assigned to the second class, evidently being able to process short high-frequency words as unitized symbols. We consider these findings together with those from previous studies to challenge the hypothesis of a binary distinction between serial/sublexical and parallel/lexical processing in word reading. We argue instead that sequential processing in word reading operates on a continuum

  12. Abelian primitive words

    OpenAIRE

    Domaratzki, Michael; Rampersad, Narad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate Abelian primitive words, which are words that are not Abelian powers. We show that unlike classical primitive words, the set of Abelian primitive words is not context-free. We can determine whether a word is Abelian primitive in linear time. Also different from classical primitive words, we find that a word may have more than one Abelian root. We also consider enumeration problems and the relation to the theory of codes. Peer reviewed

  13. Joint symbolic dynamic analysis of cardiorespiratory interactions in patients on weaning trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminal, P; Giraldo, B; Zabaleta, H; Vallverdu, M; Benito, S; Ballesteros, D; Lopez-Rodriguez, L; Esteban, A; Baumert, M; Voss, A

    2005-01-01

    Assessing autonomic control provides information about patho-physiological imbalances. Measures of variability of the cardiac interbeat duration RR(n) and the variability of the breath duration TTot(n) are sensitive to those changes. The interactions between RR(n) and TTot(n) are complex and strongly non-linear. A study of joint symbolic dynamics is presented as a new short-term non-linear analysis method to investigate these interactions in patients on weaning trials. 78 patients from mechanical ventilation are studied: Group A (patients that failed to maintain spontaneous breathing and were reconnected) and Group B (patients with successful trials). Using the concept of joint symbolic dynamics, cardiac and respiratory changes were transformed into a word series, and the probability of occurrence of each word type was calculated and compared between both groups. Significant differences were found in 13 words, and the most significant pn(Wc010, r010): 0.0041 ± 0.0036 (group A) against 0.0012 ± 0.0024 (group B), p-value = 0.00001. The number of seldom occurring word types (forbidden words) also presents significant differences fwcr: 6.9 ± 6.6 against 13.5 ± 5.3, p-value = 0.00004. Joint symbolic dynamics provides an efficient non-linear representation of cardiorespiratory interactions that offers simple physiological interpretations.

  14. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batt, Carl A.; Waldron, Anna M.; Broadwater, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  15. Numbers, scale and symbols: the public understanding of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Carl A.; Waldron, Anna M.; Broadwater, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    Nanotechnology will be an increasing part of the everyday lives of most people in the world. There is a general recognition that few people understand the implications of the technology, the technology itself or even the definition of the word. This lack of understanding stems from a lack of knowledge about science in general but more specifically difficulty in grasping the size scale and symbolism of nanotechnology. A potential key to informing the general public is establishing the ability to comprehend the scale of nanotechnology. Transitioning from the macro to the nanoscale seems to require an ability to comprehend scales of one-billion. Scaling is a skill not common in most individuals and tests of their ability to extrapolate size based upon scaling a common object demonstrates that most individuals cannot scale to the extent needed to make the transition to nanoscale. Symbolism is another important vehicle to providing the general public with a basis to understand the concepts of nanotechnology. With increasing age, individuals are able to draw representations of atomic scale objects, but these tend to be iconic and the different representations not easily translated. Ball and stick models are most recognized by the public, which provides an opportunity to present not only useful symbolism but also a reference point for the atomic scale.

  16. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  17. Symbolic computation in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a prototype environment for decision analysis implemented on the PC using an object-oriented LISP. A unique feature of this environment is the extensive use of symbolic computation and object oriented programming. Models, e.g. contaminant transport and uptake, are built with the environment, itself recognizing new parameters, uncertainties and functions as they first appear and can be modified at any time with the appropriate changes propagated throughout the environment. The environment automatically generates and executes a complete interactive input sequence during the model construction. In addition to a primary decision criterion, secondary criteria or constraints may be used to define any decision

  18. Symbolic complexity for nucleotide sequences: a sign of the genome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-García, R; Ugalde, E

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for estimating the complexity function (which counts the number of observable words of a given length) of a finite symbolic sequence, which we use to estimate the complexity function of coding DNA sequences for several species of the Hominidae family. In all cases, the obtained symbolic complexities show the same characteristic behavior: exponential growth for small word lengths, followed by linear growth for larger word lengths. The symbolic complexities of the species we consider exhibit a systematic trend in correspondence with the phylogenetic tree. Using our method, we estimate the complexity function of sequences obtained by some known evolution models, and in some cases we observe the characteristic exponential-linear growth of the Hominidae coding DNA complexity. Analysis of the symbolic complexity of sequences obtained from a specific evolution model points to the following conclusion: linear growth arises from the random duplication of large segments during the evolution of the genome, while the decrease in the overall complexity from one species to another is due to a difference in the speed of accumulation of point mutations. (paper)

  19. Symbolic trephinations and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szathmáry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous.

  20. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  1. Symbolic dynamics of noisy chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchfield, J P; Packard, N H

    1983-05-01

    One model of randomness observed in physical systems is that low-dimensional deterministic chaotic attractors underly the observations. A phenomenological theory of chaotic dynamics requires an accounting of the information flow fromthe observed system to the observer, the amount of information available in observations, and just how this information affects predictions of the system's future behavior. In an effort to develop such a description, the information theory of highly discretized observations of random behavior is discussed. Metric entropy and topological entropy are well-defined invariant measures of such an attractor's level of chaos, and are computable using symbolic dynamics. Real physical systems that display low dimensional dynamics are, however, inevitably coupled to high-dimensional randomness, e.g. thermal noise. We investigate the effects of such fluctuations coupled to deterministic chaotic systems, in particular, the metric entropy's response to the fluctuations. It is found that the entropy increases with a power law in the noise level, and that the convergence of the entropy and the effect of fluctuations can be cast as a scaling theory. It is also argued that in addition to the metric entropy, there is a second scaling invariant quantity that characterizes a deterministic system with added fluctuations: I/sub 0/, the maximum average information obtainable about the initial condition that produces a particular sequence of measurements (or symbols). 46 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  2. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  3. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    OpenAIRE

    Munyangeyo, Théophile

    2012-01-01

    The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although th...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated VF—greenish...

  5. Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed

  6. HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    2012-04-01

    Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique.

  7. Applied cartographic communication: map symbolization for atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the symbolization used on general-purpose atlas reference maps. It indicates how theories of cartographic communication can be put into practice. Two major points emerge. First, that a logical scheme can be constructed from existing cartographic research and applied to an analysis of the choice of symbolization on a map. Second, the same structure appears to allow the cartographer to specify symbolization as a part of map design. An introductory review of cartographic communication is followed by an analysis of selected maps' usage of point, area and line symbols, boundaries, text and colour usage.-after Author

  8. Can symbols be ‘promoted’ or ‘demoted’?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: this-worldly (profane and the other-worldly (sacred. The means of communication and reference between these two worlds are symbols. Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions under which these processes can occur are investigated.

  9. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  10. Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L

    1998-01-01

    Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported

  11. Dynamics of the Attentional Control of Word Retrieval: Analyses of Response Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2008-01-01

    Since W. Wundt (1904) and H. J. Watt (1906), researchers have found no agreement on how goals direct word retrieval. A prevailing associative account (E. K. Miller & J. D. Cohen, 2001) holds that goals bias association strength, which determines retrieval latency and whether irrelevant words interfere. A symbolic account (A. Roelofs, 2003) holds…

  12. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  13. On the Babylonian Origin of Symbolic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The logical reasoning first appeared within the Babylonian legal tradition established by the Sumerians in the law codes which were first over the world: Ur-Nammu (ca. 2047 – 2030 B.C.; Lipit-Ishtar (ca. 1900 – 1850 B.C., and later by their successors, the Akkadians: Hammurabi (1728 – 1686 B.C.. In these codes the casuistic law formulation began first to be used: “If/when (Akkadian: šumma this or that occurs, this or that must be done” allowed the Akkadians to build up a theory of logical connectives: “... or…”, “… and…”, “if…, then…”, “not…” that must have been applied in their jurisprudence. So, a trial decision looked like an inference by modus pones and modus tollens or by other logical rules from (i some facts and (ii an appropriate article in the law code represented by an ever true implication. The law code was announced by erecting a stele with the code or by engraving the code on a stone wall. It was considered a set of axioms announced for all. Then the trial decisions are regarded as claims logically inferred from the law code on the stones. The only law code of the Greeks that was excavated is the Code of Gortyn (Crete, the 5th century B.C.. It is so similar to the Babylonian codes by its law formulations; therefore, we can suppose that the Greeks developed their codes under a direct influence of the Semitic legal tradition: the code was represented as the words of the stele and the court was a logic application from these words. In this way the Greek logic was established within a Babylonian legal tradition, as well. Hence, we can conclude that, first, logic appeared in Babylonia and, second, it appeared within a unique legal tradition where all trial decisions must have been transparent, obvious, and provable. The symbolic logic appeared first not in Greece, but in Mesopotamia and this tradition was grounded in the Sumerian/Akkadian jurisprudence.

  14. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-06-02

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  15. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Queralt-Rosinach, Nú ria

    2017-01-01

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  16. Logic-Symbolic and Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dair Aily Franco de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to recoup the ideas and the proposal of H. Furth (1973, pointing it as another option to try to work with the children’s difficulties in the alphabetization process. The author considers the substitution of “schools of the language” for “schools of the thought”, that is, to substitute the option of the teacher in the reading-writing education, in its traditional form, of how to transform graphical signals into sonorous and vice-versa, for that one of the thought consolidation, feeding the intellect in development of the child by exercises of “symbolic logic”. For theoretical basing, we still present some aspects of the psychogenetic theory, as well as other works carried through more recently on the subject, that even so “transvestite” (disguised with new clothing, still find their beddings in the J. Piaget’s basis.

  17. Representation Learning of Logic Words by an RNN: From Word Sequences to Robot Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Yamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of human language is compositionality. We can efficiently express a wide variety of real-world situations, events, and behaviors by compositionally constructing the meaning of a complex expression from a finite number of elements. Previous studies have analyzed how machine-learning models, particularly neural networks, can learn from experience to represent compositional relationships between language and robot actions with the aim of understanding the symbol grounding structure and achieving intelligent communicative agents. Such studies have mainly dealt with the words (nouns, adjectives, and verbs that directly refer to real-world matters. In addition to these words, the current study deals with logic words, such as “not,” “and,” and “or” simultaneously. These words are not directly referring to the real world, but are logical operators that contribute to the construction of meaning in sentences. In human–robot communication, these words may be used often. The current study builds a recurrent neural network model with long short-term memory units and trains it to learn to translate sentences including logic words into robot actions. We investigate what kind of compositional representations, which mediate sentences and robot actions, emerge as the network's internal states via the learning process. Analysis after learning shows that referential words are merged with visual information and the robot's own current state, and the logical words are represented by the model in accordance with their functions as logical operators. Words such as “true,” “false,” and “not” work as non-linear transformations to encode orthogonal phrases into the same area in a memory cell state space. The word “and,” which required a robot to lift up both its hands, worked as if it was a universal quantifier. The word “or,” which required action generation that looked apparently random, was represented as an

  18. The Rhetoric of Disenchantment through Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyangeyo, Théophile

    2012-01-01

    The symbolism of "flowers" has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an…

  19. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  20. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  1. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means...

  2. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  3. Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment.

  4. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  5. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate symbol(s) on areas, such as wildlife management areas and fishing access facilities, acquired..., losses and damages arising out of any allegedly unauthorized use of any patent, process, idea, method or... and also from any claims, suits, losses and damages arising out of alleged defects in the articles or...

  6. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study I people drank more of a beverage

  7. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; van Knippenberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study 1 people drank more of a beverage

  8. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  9. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  10. Symbolic initiative and its application to computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellerman, L

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews the role of symbolic initiative in mathematics and then defines a sense in which computers compute mathematical functions. This allows a clarification of the semantics of computer and communication data. Turing's view of machine intelligence is examined in terms of its use of symbolic initiative. 12 references.

  11. The Symbolic Meaning of Legal Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessers, D.; van Klink, B.; van Beers, B.; Poort, L.

    2016-01-01

    The legitimacy of the law is not to be found, as is often claimed, in procedural justice, but in the core function of the law: the symbolic insertion of every new generation into the community of legal subjects. This symbolic function is most ambitiously expressed in the Universal Declaration of

  12. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  13. Symbolic math for computation of radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Datta, D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation transport calculations for shielding studies in the field of accelerator technology often involve intensive numerical computations. Traditionally, radiation transport equation is solved using finite difference scheme or advanced finite element method with respect to specific initial and boundary conditions suitable for the geometry of the problem. All these computations need CPU intensive computer codes for accurate calculation of scalar and angular fluxes. Computation using symbols of the analytical expression representing the transport equation as objects is an enhanced numerical technique in which the computation is completely algorithm and data oriented. Algorithm on the basis of symbolic math architecture is developed using Symbolic math toolbox of MATLAB software. Present paper describes the symbolic math algorithm and its application as a case study in which shielding calculation of rectangular slab geometry is studied for a line source of specific activity. Study of application of symbolic math in this domain evolves a new paradigm compared to the existing computer code such as DORT. (author)

  14. Exact computation of the 9-j symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shantao; Chiu Jingnan

    1992-01-01

    A useful algebraic formula for the 9-j symbol has been rewritten for convenient use on a computer. A simple FORTRAN program for the exact computation of 9-j symbols has been written for the VAX with VMS version V5,4-1 according to this formula. The results agree with the approximate values in existing literature. Some specific values of 9-j symbols needed for the intensity and alignments of three-photon nonresonant transitions are tabulated. Approximate 9-j symbol values beyond the limitation of the computer can also be computed by this program. The computer code of the exact computation of 3-j, 6-j and 9-j symbols are available through electronic mail upon request. (orig.)

  15. Universal Lyndon Words

    OpenAIRE

    Carpi, Arturo; Fici, Gabriele; Holub, Stepan; Oprsal, Jakub; Sciortino, Marinella

    2014-01-01

    A word $w$ over an alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a Lyndon word if there exists an order defined on $\\Sigma$ for which $w$ is lexicographically smaller than all of its conjugates (other than itself). We introduce and study \\emph{universal Lyndon words}, which are words over an $n$-letter alphabet that have length $n!$ and such that all the conjugates are Lyndon words. We show that universal Lyndon words exist for every $n$ and exhibit combinatorial and structural properties of these words. We then defi...

  16. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message

  17. SYMBOL AND LOGO. THE WAY IN WHICH YOUNG PEOPLE IN KRAKOW PERCEIVE SYMBOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Jarzyna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbols are essential elements of each culture. Thanks to them the meaning is created and tradition is kept alive. Advertising and marketing specialist quite often use the meanings of the symbols to create trademarks. In this way specialists refer to the assotiations rooted in the tradition.In my article I am trying to answer following questions: Has logo become symbol? Has logo taken over all the function of the symbol? Can we tell the difference between the meaning of the advertisement and the cultural meaning? I also want to find out, what people understand through the meaning of the symbol. Therfore I have conducted the survey among the high school students and the customers of three banks of Krakow. My researches have shown that most young people find it difficult to define the meaning of the symbol. Moreover high school students cannot show the difference between the symbol and the trade mark.

  18. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  19. Non-intentional but not automatic: reduction of word- and arrow-based compatibility effects by sound distractors in the same categorical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, James D; Proctor, Robert W

    2009-10-01

    In the current study, we show that the non-intentional processing of visually presented words and symbols can be attenuated by sounds. Importantly, this attenuation is dependent on the similarity in categorical domain between the sounds and words or symbols. Participants performed a task in which left or right responses were made contingent on the color of a centrally presented target that was either a location word (LEFT or RIGHT) or a left or right arrow. Responses were faster when they were on the side congruent with the word or arrow. This bias was reduced for location words by a neutral spoken word and for arrows by a tone series, but not vice versa. We suggest that words and symbols are processed with minimal attentional requirements until they are categorized into specific knowledge domains, but then become sensitive to other information within the same domain regardless of the similarity between modalities.

  20. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  1. Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

  2. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  3. Concomitant use of the matrix strategy and the mand-model procedure in teaching graphic symbol combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Ravi; Schlosser, Ralf W; Lloyd, Lyle L

    2006-09-01

    Matrix strategies employing parts of speech arranged in systematic language matrices and milieu language teaching strategies have been successfully used to teach word combining skills to children who have cognitive disabilities and some functional speech. The present study investigated the acquisition and generalized production of two-term semantic relationships in a new population using new types of symbols. Three children with cognitive disabilities and little or no functional speech were taught to combine graphic symbols. The matrix strategy and the mand-model procedure were used concomitantly as intervention procedures. A multiple probe design across sets of action-object combinations with generalization probes of untrained combinations was used to teach the production of graphic symbol combinations. Results indicated that two of the three children learned the early syntactic-semantic rule of combining action-object symbols and demonstrated generalization to untrained action-object combinations and generalization across trainers. The results and future directions for research are discussed.

  4. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SYMBOLS IN THE SOAP OPERA OF TUKANG BUBUR NAIK HAJI AT RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is a very influential media and important tool in capital accumulation. This study aims to reveal the use of Islamic and Betawi ethnic symbols, workers, and also the audiences of Tukang Bubur Naik Haji (TBNH soap opera at RCTI. This research used a political economy of communication perspective. The data were collected by using interview, observation, documentation, and literature study. The result shows that the religious symbols of Islam and Betawi culture have been exploited as comodity to be traded. Those symbols have been commercialized dan manipulated through the use of sensational, provocative, and hyperbole words or sentences to entertain audiences and to attract the advertisers. The hyper-comercialization and politicization of symbols caused the soap opera workers and Moslem audiences have been exploited.

  5. Designing and evaluating symbols for electronic displays of navigation information : symbol stereotypes and symbol-feature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the electronic display of navigation information. The wide range of display technology and the different functions these displays support makes it difficult to design symbols that are easily recogni...

  6. Symbolic Understanding of Pictures in Low-Functioning Children with Autism: The Effects of Iconicity and Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether symbolic understanding of pictures in low-functioning children with autism is mediated by iconicity and language. In Experiment 1, participants were taught novel words paired with unfamiliar pictures that varied in iconicity (black-and-white line drawings, greyscale photographs, colour line drawings, colour…

  7. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  8. Democratisation of AAC Symbol Choices Using Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Wald, Mike; Zeinoun, Nadine; Banes, David

    2017-01-01

    The use of an online voting system has been developed to enable democratic choices of newly designed symbols to support speech, language and literacy skills in a localisation situation. The system works for those using and supporting Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) symbols on electronic systems by the provision of simplified scales of acceptance and adapted grids. The methodology and results highlighted the importance of user participation at the outset and concrete examples of symbol adaptations that were found necessary to ensure higher levels of user satisfaction. Design changes included appropriate local dress codes, linguistic nuances, social settings, the built environment and religious sensitivities.

  9. Symbolic structure in the architecture of the temple – introduction into theology of the sacred art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Uścinowicz

    2014-11-01

    contemporary copulas solutions, in the range of preservation the traditional status of copula in the orthodox temple.In short draft, across calling of form of dome and her hermeneutical partition was tried to appear rule of working of symbolism of sacred arts and her possibilities as special kind of theology of artistic word in architecture.A person’s life is marked with symbols. There is no lay art and all crises of art are not so much of aesthetic nature as of religious character. They are caused by disappearing symbolism, and, consequently, by debasement of the sense of mystic sacrum.We need tradition and the canons, we need to be reminded of holy symbols. If the sacral art is to provide an authentic description of teophanic reality and, at the same time, if it is to be a source of all human metaphysical experience and not only intellectual speculation or a mere naturalistic representation of things, we have to find a way of regaining harmony with former symbols.“Beauty shall save the world” – as Fiodor Dostoyevsky rightly said. In art, redemption is realized by holy symbols. Thanks to them “Mute art is able speak” (St. Gregory of Nyssa.

  10. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  11. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  12. A test of the symbol interdependency hypothesis with both concrete and abstract stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lori

    2018-01-01

    In Experiment 1, the symbol interdependency hypothesis was tested with both concrete and abstract stimuli. Symbolic (i.e., semantic neighbourhood distance) and embodied (i.e., iconicity) factors were manipulated in two tasks—one that tapped symbolic relations (i.e., semantic relatedness judgment) and another that tapped embodied relations (i.e., iconicity judgment). Results supported the symbol interdependency hypothesis in that the symbolic factor was recruited for the semantic relatedness task and the embodied factor was recruited for the iconicity task. Across tasks, and especially in the iconicity task, abstract stimuli resulted in shorter RTs. This finding was in contrast to the concreteness effect where concrete words result in shorter RTs. Experiment 2 followed up on this finding by replicating the iconicity task from Experiment 1 in an ERP paradigm. Behavioural results continued to show a reverse concreteness effect with shorter RTs for abstract stimuli. However, ERP results paralleled the N400 and anterior N700 concreteness effects found in the literature, with more negative amplitudes for concrete stimuli. PMID:29590121

  13. A test of the symbol interdependency hypothesis with both concrete and abstract stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Simritpal Kaur; Buchanan, Lori

    2018-01-01

    In Experiment 1, the symbol interdependency hypothesis was tested with both concrete and abstract stimuli. Symbolic (i.e., semantic neighbourhood distance) and embodied (i.e., iconicity) factors were manipulated in two tasks-one that tapped symbolic relations (i.e., semantic relatedness judgment) and another that tapped embodied relations (i.e., iconicity judgment). Results supported the symbol interdependency hypothesis in that the symbolic factor was recruited for the semantic relatedness task and the embodied factor was recruited for the iconicity task. Across tasks, and especially in the iconicity task, abstract stimuli resulted in shorter RTs. This finding was in contrast to the concreteness effect where concrete words result in shorter RTs. Experiment 2 followed up on this finding by replicating the iconicity task from Experiment 1 in an ERP paradigm. Behavioural results continued to show a reverse concreteness effect with shorter RTs for abstract stimuli. However, ERP results paralleled the N400 and anterior N700 concreteness effects found in the literature, with more negative amplitudes for concrete stimuli.

  14. Remembering that big things sound big: Sound symbolism and associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Melissa A; Coane, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    According to sound symbolism theory, individual sounds or clusters of sounds can convey meaning. To examine the role of sound symbolic effects on processing and memory for nonwords, we developed a novel set of 100 nonwords to convey largeness (nonwords containing plosive consonants and back vowels) and smallness (nonwords containing fricative consonants and front vowels). In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants rated the size of the 100 nonwords and provided definitions to them as if they were products. Nonwords composed of fricative/front vowels were rated as smaller than those composed of plosive/back vowels. In Experiment 2, participants studied sound symbolic congruent and incongruent nonword and participant-generated definition pairings. Definitions paired with nonwords that matched the size and participant-generated meanings were recalled better than those that did not match. When the participant-generated definitions were re-paired with other nonwords, this mnemonic advantage was reduced, although still reliable. In a final free association study, the possibility that plosive/back vowel and fricative/front vowel nonwords elicit sound symbolic size effects due to mediation from word neighbors was ruled out. Together, these results suggest that definitions that are sound symbolically congruent with a nonword are more memorable than incongruent definition-nonword pairings. This work has implications for the creation of brand names and how to create brand names that not only convey desired product characteristics, but also are memorable for consumers.

  15. Helping children express grief through symbolic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R M

    1984-12-01

    Communication barriers erected by grieving children delay problem resolution. Use of the expressive arts--music, art, and body movement--in symbolic communication helps them to express overwhelming feelings and cope with trauma and stress.

  16. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  17. Multi-core symbolic bisimulation minimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Tom van; Pol, Jaco van de

    2017-01-01

    We introduce parallel symbolic algorithms for bisimulation minimisation, to combat the combinatorial state space explosion along three different paths. Bisimulation minimisation reduces a transition system to the smallest system with equivalent behaviour. We consider strong and branching

  18. Specification for symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Malaysia Standard specification specifies a symbol recommended for use only to signify the actual or potential presence of ionizing radiation (#betta#, α, #betta# only) and to identify objects, devices, materials or combinations of materials which emit such radiation. (author)

  19. Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1993-01-01

    Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

  20. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools. The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to daily rituals or micro rituals that are ratified in institutions. Methodologically, interviews and non-participant observation in school interaction spaces were used. Based on the findings, it may be stated that the nuclear family, rooted in the Christian image in which authority is a central point, becomes a fundamental factor in shaping institutional life as well as the imaginary linked to school parties.

  1. The symbolism of Mesopotamian cult images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Ringgren

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Is. 44: 12-20 contains a satirical description of the way the pagans, i.e., the Babylonians, make their "gods", i.e., their idols. "The ironsmith fashions it and works it over the coals; he shapes it with hammers, and forges it with his strong arm ... The carpenter stretches a line, he marks it out with a pencil; he fashions it with planes, and marks it with a compass; he shapes it into the figure of a man, with the beauty of a man, to dwell in a house. He cuts down cedars, he plants holm trees and oaks and lets them grow. Some he uses for fuel to warm himself or to bake bread, of others "he makes a god and worships it. With these and similar words the prophet ridicules those who make cult images. This might of course be an independent literary creation—and perhaps it is—but interestingly enough there is a Babylonian text that could well have served as the prophet's model. In a ritual for the akitu festival in Babylon from Seleucid times we read about the third day as follows: "When it is three hours after sunrise, he shall call a metalworker and give him precious stones and gold from the treasury of the god Marduk to make two images for (the ceremonies of the sixth day. He shall call a woodworker and give him (some cedar and tamarisk (pieces. He shall call a goldsmith and give him (some gold." It is obvious that the images in question are not cult images in a real sense, i.e., images to be set up in a temple to receive sacrifices and worship, but images intended to be used in a "magical" ceremony: they represent evil forces that shall be annihilated by means of destroying their images in fire. At the same time, the text shows that it was well known how these images were made, but also that this did not detract from their symbolic, or magical, value.

  2. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  3. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]∞ bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]∞-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]∞-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ∞ error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]∞-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]∞ metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]∞ error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates.

  4. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  5. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Tamar; Rubinsten, Orly

    2012-11-28

    The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information) is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots) or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals) has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4) which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4) which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task) or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task) while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic). Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  6. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  7. Multi-core symbolic bisimulation minimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Tom van; Pol, Jaco van de

    2017-01-01

    We introduce parallel symbolic algorithms for bisimulation minimisation, to combat the combinatorial state space explosion along three different paths. Bisimulation minimisation reduces a transition system to the smallest system with equivalent behaviour. We consider strong and branching bisimilarity for interactive Markov chains, which combine labelled transition systems and continuous-time Markov chains. Large state spaces can be represented concisely by symbolic techniques, based on binary...

  8. Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The premise of the written work on the subject of Symbolism and Advertising in Pop Art is to reveal that the thread of symbolism, in advertisement and other forms of media, whether it be ancient or contemporary, has been an intrinsic part of all artworks to date and that historically, movements in socio-economic structures of societies and their relative consumerism have been a catalyst in the direction of representational art works. I will first approach the conce...

  9. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed.

  10. Symbolic dynamics and description of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Bailin.

    1992-10-01

    Symbolic dynamics provides a general framework to describe complexity of dynamical behaviour. After a discussion of the state of the filed special emphasis will be made on the role of transfer matrix (the Stefan matrix) both in deriving the grammar from known symbolic dynamics and in extracting the rules from experimental data. The block structure of the Stefan matrix may serve as another indicator of complexity of the associated dynamics. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  11. New Map Symbol System for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Silvia T.

    2018-05-01

    In the last 10 years Bulgaria was frequently affected by natural and man-made disasters that caused considerable losses. According to the Bulgarian Disaster Management Act (2006) disaster management should be planned at local, regional and national level. Disaster protection is based on plans that include maps such as hazard maps, maps for protection, maps for evacuation planning, etc. Decision-making and cooperation between two or more neighboring municipalities or regions in crisis situation are still rendered difficult because the maps included in the plans differ in scale, colors, map symbols and cartographic design. To improve decision-making process in case of emergency and to reduce the number of human loss and property damages disaster management plans at local and regional level should be supported by detailed thematic maps created in accordance with uniform contents, map symbol system and design. The paper proposes a new symbol system for disaster management that includes a four level hierarchical classification of objects and phenomena according to their type and origin. All objects and phenomena of this classification are divided into five categories: disasters; infrastructure; protection services and infrastructure for protection; affected people and affected infrastructure; operational sites and activities. The symbols of these categories are shown with different background colors and shapes so that they are identifiable. All the symbols have simple but associative design. The new symbol system is used in the design of a series of maps for disaster management at local and regional level.

  12. Effect of word familiarity on visually evoked magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, N; Iwaki, S; Nakagawa, S; Yamaguchi, M; Tonoike, M

    2004-11-30

    This study investigated the effect of word familiarity of visual stimuli on the word recognizing function of the human brain. Word familiarity is an index of the relative ease of word perception, and is characterized by facilitation and accuracy on word recognition. We studied the effect of word familiarity, using "Hiragana" (phonetic characters in Japanese orthography) characters as visual stimuli, on the elicitation of visually evoked magnetic fields with a word-naming task. The words were selected from a database of lexical properties of Japanese. The four "Hiragana" characters used were grouped and presented in 4 classes of degree of familiarity. The three components were observed in averaged waveforms of the root mean square (RMS) value on latencies at about 100 ms, 150 ms and 220 ms. The RMS value of the 220 ms component showed a significant positive correlation (F=(3/36); 5.501; p=0.035) with the value of familiarity. ECDs of the 220 ms component were observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Increments in the RMS value of the 220 ms component, which might reflect ideographical word recognition, retrieving "as a whole" were enhanced with increments of the value of familiarity. The interaction of characters, which increased with the value of familiarity, might function "as a large symbol"; and enhance a "pop-out" function with an escaping character inhibiting other characters and enhancing the segmentation of the character (as a figure) from the ground.

  13. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge | Agbanusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolism, being the use of symbols to represent ideas, it is generally believed that symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However, recent developments have shown that symbolism can be an interesting companion and, in fact, a necessary complement, of science. This work X-Rays the ...

  14. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a facsimile...

  15. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The WordPress Bible provides a complete and thorough guide to the largest self hosted blogging tool. This guide starts by covering the basics of WordPress such as installing and the principles of blogging, marketing and social media interaction, but then quickly ramps the reader up to more intermediate to advanced level topics such as plugins, WordPress Loop, themes and templates, custom fields, caching, security and more. The WordPress Bible is the only complete resource one needs to learning WordPress from beginning to end.

  16. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  17. The symbol grounding problem revisited: a thorough evaluation of the ANS mapping account and the proposal of an alternative account based on symbol-symbol associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Reynvoet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the ‘symbol grounding problem’, i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the ANS mapping account, assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and Approximate Number System (ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1 there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2 non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3 non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4 non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgement tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  18. The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited: A Thorough Evaluation of the ANS Mapping Account and the Proposal of an Alternative Account Based on Symbol-Symbol Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the 'symbol grounding problem,' i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the approximate number system ( ANS ) mapping account , assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1) there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2) non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3) non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4) non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgment tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  19. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  20. Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Reigosa Crespo, Vivian; González Alemañy, Eduardo

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if children with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit a general deficit in magnitude representations or a specific deficit in the connection of symbolic representations with the corresponding analogous magnitudes. DD was diagnosed using a timed arithmetic task. The experimental magnitude comparison tasks were presented in non-symbolic and symbolic formats. DD and typically developing (TD) children showed similar numerical distance and size congruity effects. However, DD children performed significantly slower in the symbolic task. These results are consistent with the access deficit hypothesis, according to which DD children's deficits are caused by difficulties accessing magnitude information from numerical symbols rather than in processing numerosities per se.

  1. On the symbolism of the white coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A

    2014-12-01

    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  2. Symbolic dynamics of the Lorenz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hai-ping; Hao Bailin.

    1994-07-01

    The Lorenz equations are investigated in a wide range of parameters by using the method of symbolic dynamics. First, the systematics of stable periodic orbits in the Lorenz equations is compared with that of the one-dimensional cubic map, which shares the same discrete symmetry with the Lorenz model. The systematics is then ''corrected'' in such a way as to encompass all the known periodic windows of the Lorenz equations with only one exception. Second, in order to justify the above approach and to understand the exceptions, another 1D map with a discontinuity is extracted from an extension of the geometric Lorenz attractor and its symbolic dynamics is constructed. All this has to be done in light of symbolic dynamics of two-dimensional maps. Finally, symbolic dynamics for the actual Poincare return map of the Lorenz equations is constructed in a heuristic way. New periodic windows of the Lorenz equations and their parameters can be predicted from this symbolic dynamics in combination with the 1D cubic map. The extended geometric 2D Lorenz map and the 1D antisymmetric map with a discontinuity describe the topological aspects of the Lorenz equations to high accuracy. (author). 44 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Do handwritten words magnify lexical effects in visual word recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Gil-López, Cristina; Beléndez, Victoria; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    An examination of how the word recognition system is able to process handwritten words is fundamental to formulate a comprehensive model of visual word recognition. Previous research has revealed that the magnitude of lexical effects (e.g., the word-frequency effect) is greater with handwritten words than with printed words. In the present lexical decision experiments, we examined whether the quality of handwritten words moderates the recruitment of top-down feedback, as reflected in word-frequency effects. Results showed a reading cost for difficult-to-read and easy-to-read handwritten words relative to printed words. But the critical finding was that difficult-to-read handwritten words, but not easy-to-read handwritten words, showed a greater word-frequency effect than printed words. Therefore, the inherent physical variability of handwritten words does not necessarily boost the magnitude of lexical effects.

  4. Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Villasnor, John; Lee, Dong-U; Vales, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    A method of utilizing information available in the constraints imposed by a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has been proposed as a means of aiding the recovery of symbol timing in the reception of a binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signal representing such a code in the presence of noise, timing error, and/or Doppler shift between the transmitter and the receiver. This method and the receiver architecture in which it would be implemented belong to a class of timing-recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. Acquisition and tracking of a signal of the type described above have traditionally been performed upstream of, and independently of, decoding and have typically involved utilization of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, the LDPC decoding process, which is iterative, provides information that can be fed back to the timing-recovery receiver circuits to improve performance significantly over that attainable in the absence of such feedback. Prior methods of coupling LDPC decoding with timing recovery had focused on the use of output code words produced as the iterations progress. In contrast, in the present method, one exploits the information available from the metrics computed for the constraint nodes of an LDPC code during the decoding process. In addition, the method involves the use of a waveform model that captures, better than do the waveform models of the prior methods, distortions introduced by receiver timing errors and transmitter/ receiver motions. An LDPC code is commonly represented by use of a bipartite graph containing two sets of nodes. In the graph corresponding to an (n,k) code, the n variable nodes correspond to the code word symbols and the n-k constraint nodes represent the constraints that the code places on the variable nodes in order for them to form a valid code word. The decoding procedure involves iterative computation

  5. Production of graphic symbol sentences by individuals with aphasia: efficacy of a computer-based augmentative and alternative communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Rajinder; Corwin, Melinda; Hayes, Summer

    2005-01-01

    The study employed a single-subject multiple baseline design to examine the ability of 9 individuals with severe Broca's aphasia or global aphasia to produce graphic symbol sentences of varying syntactical complexity using a software program that turns a computer into a speech output communication device. The sentences ranged in complexity from simple two-word phrases to those with morphological inflections, transformations, and relative clauses. Overall, results indicated that individuals with aphasia are able to access, manipulate, and combine graphic symbols to produce phrases and sentences of varying degrees of syntactical complexity. The findings are discussed in terms of the clinical and public policy implications.

  6. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  7. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    . Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic......Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols...

  8. Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Santoro, P A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.

  9. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  10. Baby's first 10 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A

    2008-07-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers completed MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories and reported them to produce between 1 and 10 words. Analyses of individual words indicated striking commonalities in the first words that children learn. However, substantive cross-linguistic differences appeared in the relative prevalence of common nouns, people terms, and verbs as well as in the probability that children produced even one of these word types when they had a total of 1-3, 4-6, or 7-10 words in their vocabularies. These data document cross-linguistic differences in the types of words produced even at the earliest stages of vocabulary learning and underscore the importance of parental input and cross-linguistic/cross-cultural variations in children's early word-learning.

  11. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  12. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  13. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  14. The impact of symbolic and non-symbolic quantity on spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    Full Text Available An implicit mapping of number to space via a "mental number line" occurs automatically in adulthood. Here, we systematically explore the influence of differing representations of quantity (no quantity, non-symbolic magnitudes, and symbolic numbers and directional flow of stimuli (random flow, left-to-right, or right-to-left on learning and attention via a match-to-sample working memory task. When recalling a cognitively demanding string of spatial locations, subjects performed best when information was presented right-to-left. When non-symbolic or symbolic numerical arrays were embedded in these spatial locations, and mental number line congruency prompted, this effect was attenuated and in some cases reversed. In particular, low-performing female participants who viewed increasing non-symbolic number arrays paired with the spatial locations exhibited better recall for left-to-right directional flow information relative to right-to-left, and better processing for the left side of space relative to the right side of space. The presence of symbolic number during spatial learning enhanced recall to a greater degree than non-symbolic number--especially for female participants, and especially when cognitive load is high--and this difference was independent of directional flow of information. We conclude that quantity representations have the potential to scaffold spatial memory, but this potential is subtle, and mediated by the nature of the quantity and the gender and performance level of the learner.

  15. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  16. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  17. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7. These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7. This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  18. Word Processing for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Pupils with special educational needs are finding that the use of word processors can give them a new confidence and pride in their own abilities. This article describes the use of such devices as the "mouse," on-screen word lists, spell checkers, and overlay keyboards. (JDD)

  19. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  20. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of computational and mechanical processes towards an anesthetic. Each team received a single word, translating and evolving that word first into a double-curved computational surface, next a ruled computational surface, and then a physically shaped foam mold via a 6-axis robot. The foam molds then operated...

  1. Bioeconomy, Moral Friction and Symbolic Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    several competing agendas are at play and to understand the effects, we therefore need to investigate empirically what emerges through this friction between competing governmental ambitions. My discussion is based on studies of tissue exchange in Europe and seeks to integrate theories of symbolic law...

  2. Sigref - A Symbolic Bisimulation Tool Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, Ralf; Herbstritt, Marc; Hermanns, Holger; Strampp, Kelley; Becker, Bernd; Graf, Susanne; Zhang, Wenhui

    2006-01-01

    We present a uniform signature-based approach to compute the most popular bisimulations. Our approach is implemented symbolically using BDDs, which enables the handling of very large transition systems. Signatures for the bisimulations are built up from a few generic building blocks, which naturally

  3. Two Pieces of Wood: Symbols of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon Shockley; McKerrow, K. Kelly

    For 2 years, at least 2 days a week were spent by a researcher in observing, through the actions of the principal, the dynamics of cultural and ideologic conflict and the process of social control in an elementary school. This personal account analyzes the principal's use of corporal punishment, symbolized by the paddle, and positive…

  4. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  5. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self...

  6. The asymptotic expansion method via symbolic computation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  7. The Asymptotic Expansion Method via Symbolic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  8. Basic symbol for ionizing radiations (second revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Includes a detailed description of basic symbol for ionizing radiations to be used to prevent about the presence, or possibility of presence, of ionizing radiations (X-ray, gamma radiation, particles, electrons, neutrons and protons), as well as to identify radioactive devices and materials

  9. Categorical Design Departure and Symbolic Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    by showing how product form design can impact the selection of dominant technological designs within industries by enhancing the symbolic attributes of products. A longitudinal case study was carried out of the establishment of a new dominant technological architecture in the hearing aid industry...

  10. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  11. Strengthening National Identity through National Symbols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africans vacillate in their national identity and remain largely attached to their racial and ethnic group identities. The aim of this article is to illustrate the manner in which a sense of understanding, familiarity and pride with regard to national symbols and thus to national identity can be attained. The objective is that the ...

  12. Symbolic generation of finite difference formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Pereyra, V.

    1978-01-01

    Tables of coefficients for high order accurate, compact approximations to the first ten derivatives on and at the midpoints of uniform nets are presented. The exact rational weights are generated and tested by means of symbolic manipulation implemented through MACSYMA. These weights are required in the application of deferred corrections to new methods for solving higher order two point boundary value problems

  13. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    , especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones, we generalize the standard notions of regular-language and automata representations...

  14. Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

  15. Berezin symbols and Borel summability | Garayev | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We prove in terms of so-called Berezin symbols some theorems for Borel summability method for sequences and series of complex numbers. Namely, we characterize the Borel convergent sequences and series; prove regularity of Borel summability method, and prove a new Tauberian type theorem for Borel summability.

  16. Television and Children: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas P.; Cardwell, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that the effect of television can best be understood as part of the overall attempts by social scientists to understand the effects of the mass media. Argues that symbolic interactionism is the most viable theory for bringing together the pure and the applied aspects of this issue. (LLL)

  17. Symbolic Interactionism and Social Action Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrione, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    An explanation and elaboration of existing theory on interaction, this article describes a point of convergence between Parsons' Voluntaristic Theory of Action and Blumer's conceptualization of Symbolic Interactionism and develops specific problems of divergence in these normative and interpretive models of interaction. (JC)

  18. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  19. Symbolic approximate time-optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, Manuel; Tabuada, Paulo

    There is an increasing demand for controller design techniques capable of addressing the complex requirements of today's embedded applications. This demand has sparked the interest in symbolic control where lower complexity models of control systems are used to cater for complex specifications given

  20. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We

  1. Mythology, Weltanschauung , symbolic universe and states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, ...

  2. Symbolic Computing in Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present recent developments in applications of symbolic computing in probabilistic and stochastic analysis, and this is done using the example of the well-known MAPLE system. The key theoretical methods discussed are (i analytical derivations, (ii the classical Monte-Carlo simulation approach, (iii the stochastic perturbation technique, as well as (iv some semi-analytical approaches. It is demonstrated in particular how to engage the basic symbolic tools implemented in any system to derive the basic equations for the stochastic perturbation technique and how to make an efficient implementation of the semi-analytical methods using an automatic differentiation and integration provided by the computer algebra program itself. The second important illustration is probabilistic extension of the finite element and finite difference methods coded in MAPLE, showing how to solve boundary value problems with random parameters in the environment of symbolic computing. The response function method belongs to the third group, where interference of classical deterministic software with the non-linear fitting numerical techniques available in various symbolic environments is displayed. We recover in this context the probabilistic structural response in engineering systems and show how to solve partial differential equations including Gaussian randomness in their coefficients.

  3. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  4. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  5. Font Size Matters—Emotion and Attention in Cortical Responses to Written Words

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Mareike; Sommer, Werner; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2012-01-01

    For emotional pictures with fear-, disgust-, or sex-related contents, stimulus size has been shown to increase emotion effects in attention-related event-related potentials (ERPs), presumably reflecting the enhanced biological impact of larger emotion-inducing pictures. If this is true, size should not enhance emotion effects for written words with symbolic and acquired meaning. Here, we investigated ERP effects of font size for emotional and neutral words. While P1 and N1 amplitu...

  6. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  7. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  8. The impact of task demand on visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zevin, J

    2014-07-11

    The left occipitotemporal cortex has been found sensitive to the hierarchy of increasingly complex features in visually presented words, from individual letters to bigrams and morphemes. However, whether this sensitivity is a stable property of the brain regions engaged by word recognition is still unclear. To address the issue, the current study investigated whether different task demands modify this sensitivity. Participants viewed real English words and stimuli with hierarchical word-likeness while performing a lexical decision task (i.e., to decide whether each presented stimulus is a real word) and a symbol detection task. General linear model and independent component analysis indicated strong activation in the fronto-parietal and temporal regions during the two tasks. Furthermore, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and insula showed significant interaction effects between task demand and stimulus type in the pseudoword condition. The occipitotemporal cortex showed strong main effects for task demand and stimulus type, but no sensitivity to the hierarchical word-likeness was found. These results suggest that different task demands on semantic, phonological and orthographic processes can influence the involvement of the relevant regions during visual word recognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Pragmatic Functions and Cultural Differences of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊屹

    2015-01-01

    Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.

  10. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I examine two possible reasons, which are prominent but often not systematically discussed in the literature, for thinking even purely symbolic establishment problematic. These are considerations of alienation and symbolic equality. I am only concerned with ways in which establish...... establishment might be normatively problematic even if it does not infringe on religious freedom and does not involve material injustices in other respects....

  11. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However ... scholars are aware of this great epistemological base and potentiality of symbols and ... Similarly, in the traditional African setting, the theory of demonology, by.

  12. Linking somatic and symbolic representation in semantic memory: the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Jamie; Peelle, Jonathan E; Garcia, Amanda; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2016-08-01

    Biological plausibility is an essential constraint for any viable model of semantic memory. Yet, we have only the most rudimentary understanding of how the human brain conducts abstract symbolic transformations that underlie word and object meaning. Neuroscience has evolved a sophisticated arsenal of techniques for elucidating the architecture of conceptual representation. Nevertheless, theoretical convergence remains elusive. Here we describe several contrastive approaches to the organization of semantic knowledge, and in turn we offer our own perspective on two recurring questions in semantic memory research: (1) to what extent are conceptual representations mediated by sensorimotor knowledge (i.e., to what degree is semantic memory embodied)? (2) How might an embodied semantic system represent abstract concepts such as modularity, symbol, or proposition? To address these questions, we review the merits of sensorimotor (i.e., embodied) and amodal (i.e., disembodied) semantic theories and address the neurobiological constraints underlying each. We conclude that the shortcomings of both perspectives in their extreme forms necessitate a hybrid middle ground. We accordingly propose the Dynamic Multilevel Reactivation Framework-an integrative model predicated upon flexible interplay between sensorimotor and amodal symbolic representations mediated by multiple cortical hubs. We discuss applications of the dynamic multilevel reactivation framework to abstract and concrete concept representation and describe how a multidimensional conceptual topography based on emotion, sensation, and magnitude can successfully frame a semantic space containing meanings for both abstract and concrete words. The consideration of 'abstract conceptual features' does not diminish the role of logical and/or executive processing in activating, manipulating and using information stored in conceptual representations. Rather, it proposes that the materials upon which these processes operate

  13. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  14. Word learning mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Arunachalam, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms. We review some of these mechanisms to examine the relationship between the input that is available to learners and learners' intake of that input-that is, the organized, interpreted, and stored representations they form. We discuss how learners segment individual words from the speech stream and identify their grammatical categories, how they identify the concepts denoted by these words, and how they refine their initial representations of word meanings. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1435. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1435 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Psychology > Language. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The art of mystification: esotericism differentiated in the definition of Finnish symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kokkinen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Sarajas-Korte’s definitions that proved to be so significant to Finnish art history. In spite of the fact that her research still represents the most extensive and profound work on Finnish Symbolism, the aim here is to question some of her definitions and categorizations. Most of her concepts are puzzling, since she tends to use them in several different ways. One example of her conceptualizations is the way she uses the word esotericism and its derivatives. First of all, she seems to associate esotericism with secrecy and things hidden—in other words she follows the definition created already by the ancient Greeks. Secondly, she fuses esotericism with Symbolism as she herself defines it; hence Symbolist art is grounded on the ‘esoteric conceptions of symbols’. She also uses the word esotericism as though it would reflect the spirit of an age, as she writes for example about ‘the esoteric youth’ of the time. In addition to these three meanings, Sarajas-Korte seems to understand esotericism also by means of tradition. Her view of the esoteric tradition, however, is quite inclusive, since it seems to contain everything from the secret societies of Joséphin Péladan to the stories of the Bible and the Ramayana.

  16. [Understanding the symbolic values of Japanese onomatopoeia: comparison of Japanese and Chinese speakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryu, Etsuko; Zhao, Lihua

    2007-10-01

    Do non-native speakers of the Japanese language understand the symbolic values of Japanese onomatopoeia matching a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small sound made by a big/small object? In three experiments, participants who were native speakers of Japanese, Japanese-learning Chinese, or Chinese without knowledge of the Japanese language were shown two pictures. One picture was of a small object making a small sound, such as a small vase being broken, and the other was of a big object making a big sound, such as a big vase being broken. Participants were presented with two novel onomatopoetic words with voicing contrasts, e.g.,/dachan/vs./tachan/, and were told that each word corresponded to one of the two pictures. They were then asked to match the words to the corresponding pictures. Chinese without knowledge of Japanese performed only at chance level, whereas Japanese and Japanese-learning Chinese successfully matched a voiced/unvoiced consonant with a big/small object respectively. The results suggest that the key to understanding the symbolic values of voicing contrasts in Japanese onomatopoeia is some basic knowledge that is intrinsic to the Japanese language.

  17. Use of language in symbolic play of toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Knap, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine which materials encourage language development during symbolic play, how often do children in the first age group engage in symbolic play, and how can the teacher influence speech development during this activity. The theoretical part defines play, focusing on symbolic play. It also describes the role of the preschool teacher during play and explores the speech of younger children during symbolic play. The empirical part of the thesis examines whic...

  18. Analysing the Effectiveness of the Personality Symbols/Icons

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, İpek

    2012-01-01

    Personality symbol can cover all the identifications of the brand. It can be the face or the soul of the company. Their effect on the brand image is huge. The research focuses on calculating the roles and effectives of the personality symbols. It aims to bring in suggestions for developing a successful personality symbols and lists advantages and disadvantages of different types of personality symbols. It does a detailed copy testing. Apart from conducting focus groups to analyse how the targ...

  19. The Polish LGBT movement : symbolic conflict and stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Mossakowski, Tomek

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the political activities of the LGBT movement in Poland as it seeks to increase its position on the socio-political landscape and ultimately rid itself of stigma. Using ethnographic data collection at a non-governmental organisation in Warsaw, it discusses the use of symbols and the accumulation of what Bourdieu called symbolic capital. It draws heavily on the theory of Harrison's symbolic conflict and Schwimmer's notions of symbolic and direct competition, while bringing...

  20. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  1. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  2. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  3. Estimating valence from the sound of a word : Computational, experimental, and cross-linguistic evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Max; Qu, Zhan

    2017-01-01

    It is assumed linguistic symbols must be grounded in perceptual information to attain meaning, because the sound of a word in a language has an arbitrary relation with its referent. This paper demonstrates that a strong arbitrariness claim should be reconsidered. In a computational study, we showed

  4. Use Your Words: The Role of Language in the Development of Toddlers' Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire; Ayoub, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation emerges throughout early childhood, and predicts later success in socially and cognitively challenging situations. Vygotsky proposed that symbols, particularly words, serve as mental tools to be used in service of self-regulation. Cross-sectional research indicates a positive but inconsistent association between language and…

  5. Word, nonword and visual paired associate learning in Dutch dyslexic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messbauer, V.C.S.; de Jong, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Verbal and non-verbal learning were investigated in 21 8-11-year-old dyslexic children and chronological-age controls, and in 21 7-9-year-old reading-age controls. Tasks involved the paired associate learning of words, nonwords, or symbols with pictures. Both learning and retention of associations

  6. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  7. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  8. 7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially Tested By AMS § 91.102 Form of official identification symbols. Two...

  9. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302... REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions. (a) Each commercial container of... § 1308.31 of this chapter) shall have printed on the label the symbol designating the schedule in which...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  11. Different ritual symbols in Igbo traditional religion and their functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbols change in their value and functions and as a result of the changes in cultural appreciation. The change in the emphasis on the role of symbolism in general is partly consequence of cultural intellectual, social and economic transformation. All our actions are symbolic and we cannot do without interacting with each ...

  12. 40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.581 Section... Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart, not defined... solvent vapors emitted from the flexible vinyl or urethane rotogravure printing line. (b) All symbols used...

  13. Visual Symbolism in Contemporary Theatre Directing in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This difference is cropped from the director's perception, conception, imaginative and creative impetus. Visual symbolism in the theatre as a medium traverse forms, textures, symbols, lines, lighting, circles and balance in creating an everlasting theatre experience. Visual symbolism is influenced by style, concept, forms, ...

  14. 32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this subpart in support of the Privacy Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol DD-COMP(A)1379. ...

  15. The Creative Identity: Creative Behavior from the Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the motivation of certain creative behaviors from the perspective of symbolic interactionism. The fundamental tenets of symbolic interactionism are described and the mechanics of symbolic interactionist-based, role-identity theory are explained. Ways that the theory can be applied to the motivation of creative behavior are…

  16. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination color symbols. 29.3013 Section 29.3013..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... Type 93) § 29.3013 Combination color symbols. As applied to Burley, combination color symbols are as...

  17. Additive N-step Markov chains as prototype model of symbolic stochastic dynamical systems with long-range correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayzelis, Z.A.; Apostolov, S.S.; Melnyk, S.S.; Usatenko, O.V.; Yampol'skii, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    A theory of symbolic dynamic systems with long-range correlations based on the consideration of the binary N-step Markov chains developed earlier in Phys Rev Lett 2003;90:110601 is generalized to the biased case (non-equal numbers of zeros and unities in the chain). In the model, the conditional probability that the ith symbol in the chain equals zero (or unity) is a linear function of the number of unities (zeros) among the preceding N symbols. The correlation and distribution functions as well as the variance of number of symbols in the words of arbitrary length L are obtained analytically and verified by numerical simulations. A self-similarity of the studied stochastic process is revealed and the similarity group transformation of the chain parameters is presented. The diffusion Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution function of the L-words is explored. If the persistent correlations are not extremely strong, the distribution function is shown to be the Gaussian with the variance being nonlinearly dependent on L. An equation connecting the memory and correlation function of the additive Markov chain is presented. This equation allows reconstructing a memory function using a correlation function of the system. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simple model examples. Memory functions of concrete coarse-grained literary texts are found and their universal power-law behavior at long distances is revealed

  18. Additive N-step Markov chains as prototype model of symbolic stochastic dynamical systems with long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayzelis, Z.A. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Apostolov, S.S. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Melnyk, S.S. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Usatenko, O.V. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: usatenko@ire.kharkov.ua; Yampol' skii, V.A. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-10-15

    A theory of symbolic dynamic systems with long-range correlations based on the consideration of the binary N-step Markov chains developed earlier in Phys Rev Lett 2003;90:110601 is generalized to the biased case (non-equal numbers of zeros and unities in the chain). In the model, the conditional probability that the ith symbol in the chain equals zero (or unity) is a linear function of the number of unities (zeros) among the preceding N symbols. The correlation and distribution functions as well as the variance of number of symbols in the words of arbitrary length L are obtained analytically and verified by numerical simulations. A self-similarity of the studied stochastic process is revealed and the similarity group transformation of the chain parameters is presented. The diffusion Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution function of the L-words is explored. If the persistent correlations are not extremely strong, the distribution function is shown to be the Gaussian with the variance being nonlinearly dependent on L. An equation connecting the memory and correlation function of the additive Markov chain is presented. This equation allows reconstructing a memory function using a correlation function of the system. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simple model examples. Memory functions of concrete coarse-grained literary texts are found and their universal power-law behavior at long distances is revealed.

  19. Words that Pop!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shirley

    1988-01-01

    To excite students' appreciation of language, comic book words--onomatopoeia--are a useful tool. Exercises and books are suggested. A list of books for adults and children is recommended, and a reproducible page is provided. (JL)

  20. Decorporation: officially a word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D R

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  1. Decorporation: Officially a word

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition

  2. Decorporation: Officially a word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.

    2000-05-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition.

  3. Decorporation: Officially a word

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    1999-01-01

    This note is the brief history of a word. Decorporation is a scientific term known to health physicists who have an interest in the removal of internally deposited radionuclides from the body after an accidental or inadvertent intake. Although the word decorporation appears many times in the radiation protection literature, it was only recently accepted by the editors of the Oxford English Dictionary as an entry for their latest edition

  4. Phonemes as images : An experimental inquiry into shape-sound symbolism applied to the distinctive features of French

    OpenAIRE

    Nobile , Luca

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper attempts to improve the understanding of shape-sound symbolism by isolating the phonological features of the pseudo-words used in the experiments and the graphic features of the figures matched with them. In a first section, it analyses the classic maluma-takete effect from both an articulatory and acoustical point of view, showing that it is determined by several phonological features operating simultaneously. In a second section, two new experiments are pr...

  5. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  6. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  7. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and the Tradition of the Private Sphere: An Analysis of Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Shows how Kubler-Ross' schema functions as a symbol system. Analyzes the symbol "acceptance." Shows how that symbol is part of a strong American tradition of symbols of the private sphere. (Author/JAC)

  8. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  9. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Felicitas Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  10. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1985-01-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race

  11. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat , Sabine; Tabbone , Salvatore; Nourrissier , Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  12. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  13. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in certain languages that allow stand-alone vowelless open-class words. One such language is Berber (where t is indeed a word). Berber listeners here detected words affixed to nonsense contexts with or without vowels. Length effects seen in other languages replicated in Berber, but in contrast to prior findings, word detection was not hindered by vowelless contexts. When words can be vowelless, otherwise universal constraints disfavoring vowelless words do not feature in spoken-word recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  15. Diagrams benefit symbolic problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R

    2017-06-01

    The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Using the Voronoi tessellation for grouping words and multipart symbols in documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Mark J.; Monagan, Gladys

    1995-08-01

    We examine the importance of the definition of neighbors and neighborhoods for grouping in document understanding and list some previous definitions. We present a number of benefits to using the Voronoi neighborhood definition; however, we argue that definitions based upon the point Voronoi diagrams are insufficient in the general case (e.g. for grouping image elements in line drawings). We give the definition of a generalized (Euclidean distance measure, 2D Cartesian space, and an area based generator set) Voronoi tessellation and then present our algorithm for approximating this generalized tessellation. The algorithm is constructed from a normal point Voronoi tessellation algorithm. A parameterized Voronoi neighborhood graph (VNG) which can be derived from the tessellation is defined. A graph algorithm for grouping based on the VNG, its image elements, and Voronoi cell descriptors can then be easily derived. We show some results of how this algorithm was used in a map understanding system.

  17. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  18. General Symbol Machines: The First Stage in the Evolution of Symbolic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Dickins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans uniquely form stimulus equivalence (SE classes of abstract and unrelated stimuli, i.e. if taught to match A with B and B with C, they will spontaneously match B with A, and C with B, (the relation of symmetry, and A with C (transitivity. Other species do not do this. The SE ability is possibly the consequence of a specific selection event in the Homo lineage. SE is of interest because it appears to demonstrate a facility that is core to symbolic behavior. Linguistic symbols, for example, are arbitrarily and symmetrically related to their referent such that the term banana has no resemblance to bananas but when processed can be used to discriminate bananas. Equally when bananas are perceived the term banana is readily produced. This relation is arguably the defining mark of symbolic representation. In this paper I shall detail the SE phenomenon and argue that it is evidence for a cognitive device that I term a General Symbol Machine (GSM. The GSM not only sets the background condition for subsequent linguistic evolution but also for other symbolic behaviors such as mathematical reasoning. In so doing the GSM is not particularly domain-specific. The apparent domain-specificity of, for example, natural language is a consequence of other computational developments. This introduces complexity to evolutionary arguments about cognitive architecture.

  19. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  20. Finding words in a language that allows words without vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aissati, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring win in twin because t cannot be a word). However, the

  1. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran MinhHai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1 estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2 symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  2. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  3. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  4. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  5. Cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular interactions in cardiomyopathy patients using joint symbolic dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Beatriz F; Rodriguez, Javier; Caminal, Pere; Bayes-Genis, Antonio; Voss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in developed countries. Using electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP) and respiratory flow signals, we obtained parameters for classifying cardiomyopathy patients. 42 patients with ischemic (ICM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathies were studied. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was used to stratify patients with low risk (LR: LVEF>35%, 14 patients) and high risk (HR: LVEF≤ 35%, 28 patients) of heart attack. RR, SBP and TTot time series were extracted from the ECG, BP and respiratory flow signals, respectively. The time series were transformed to a binary space and then analyzed using Joint Symbolic Dynamic with a word length of three, characterizing them by the probability of occurrence of the words. Extracted parameters were then reduced using correlation and statistical analysis. Principal component analysis and support vector machines methods were applied to characterize the cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular interactions in ICM and DCM cardiomyopathies, obtaining an accuracy of 85.7%.

  6. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  7. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  8. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster ) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham ). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham ) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster ), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  9. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  10. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  11. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  12. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  13. A cross-species study of gesture and its role in symbolic development: Implications for the gestural theory of language evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen eGillespie-Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a naturalistic video database, we examined whether gestures scaffolded the symbolic development of a language-enculturated chimpanzee, a language-enculturated bonobo, and a human child during the second year of life. These three species constitute a complete clade: species possessing a common immediate ancestor. A basic finding was the functional and formal similarity of many gestures between chimpanzee, bonobo, and human child. The child’s symbols were spoken words; the apes’ symbols were lexigrams, noniconic visual signifiers. A developmental pattern in which gestural representation of a referent preceded symbolic representation of the same referent appeared in all three species (but was statistically significant only for the child. Nonetheless, across species, the ratio of symbol to gesture increased significantly with age. But even though their symbol production increased, the apes continued to communicate more frequently by gesture than by symbol. In contrast, by15-18 months of age, the child used symbols more frequently than gestures. This ontogenetic sequence from gesture to symbol, present across the clade but more pronounced in child than ape, provides support for the role of gesture in language evolution. In all three species, the overwhelming majority of gestures were communicative (paired with eye-contact, vocalization, and/or persistence. However, vocalization was rare for the apes, but accompanied the majority of the child’s communicative gestures. This finding suggests the co-evolution of speech and gesture after the evolutionary divergence of the hominid line. Multimodal expressions of communicative intent (e.g., vocalization plus persistence were normative for the child, but less common for the apes. This finding suggests that multimodal expression of communicative intent was also strengthened after hominids diverged from apes.

  14. The Least Costs Hypothesis: A rational analysis approach to the voluntary symbolic control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, Joseph R; Gibson, Bradley S

    2018-04-30

    Here we propose a rational analysis account of voluntary symbolic attention control-the Least Costs Hypothesis (LCH)-that construes voluntary control as a decision between intentional cue use and unguided search. Consistent with the LCH, the present study showed that this decision is sensitive to variations in cue processing efficiency. In Experiment 1, observers demonstrated a robust preference for using "easy-to-process" arrow cues but not "hard-to-process" spatial word cues to satisfy an easy visual search goal; Experiment 2 showed that this preference persisted even when the temporal costs of cue processing were neutralized. Experiment 3 showed that observers reported this cue type preference outside the context of a speeded task, and Experiment 4 showed empirical measures of this bias to be relatively stable over the course of the task. Together with previous evidence suggesting that observers' decision between intentional cue use and unguided search is also influenced by variations in unguided search efficiency, these findings suggest that voluntary symbolic attention control is mediated by ongoing metacognitive evaluations of demand that are sensitive to perceived variations in the time, effort, and opportunity costs associated with each course of action. Thus, voluntary symbolic attention control is far more complex than previously held. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  16. AARP Word 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2011-01-01

    It's a whole new Word - make the most of it! Here's exactly what you need to know to get going with Word 2010. From firing up Word, using the spell checker, and working with templates to formatting documents, adding images, and saving your stuff, you'll get the first and last word on Word 2010 with this fun and easy mini guide. So get ready to channel your inner writer and start creating Word files that wow! Open the book and find:Tips for navigating Word with the keyboard and mouseAdvice on using the RibbonHow to edit text and undo mistakesThings to know

  17. Symbolic aesthetics in steel structural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Abdul-Mun'em Khuraibet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic expression and its orders are important for steel structures forming. Steel structures are a compilation of structural elements, where its shapes have standard dimensions and pre-fabricated. As the steel construction systems not only aim to achieve the functional requirements for users, but must also have the symbolic aesthetics which provides visually and cognitive expression for viewers. In this sense the research interested in expressional aesthetics in these systems and highlights the importance of attention as structural items. Therefore the visual items which related with steel structures contain some of the most powerful forms of modern architecture, steel structures with a glass cladding, agility and accuracy in manufacture of structural elements as visual items, structural interest in the forms of spaces which have long span systems or in high buildings are different forms of expression and influence. So the research focuses on the study of those expressive patterns related with the steel construction properties, including the advantages of these systems at the level of strength and firmness, flexibility and economy as well as aesthetic and expression. Accordingly, the research problem concentrated on educational shortage in the study of the structural steel system aspects concerning constructional characteristic, expressive and aesthetic features, and how to deal with them as a language bearing the symbols and meanings which have clear structural style, because it the best ways to make those systems as communication means with users, by premise that the use of expressional symbol in steel construction increases the aesthetic value. Therefore the research aims to reveal the most structural and expressive patterns by analysis the expressional means and steel structural aesthetics.

  18. Cultural Image of Animal Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海燕

    2017-01-01

    This paper,after introducing the definition and forms of cultural image,focuses on the detailed comparison and analysis of cultural image of animal words both in English and in Chinese from four aspects,that is,same animal word,same cultural image;same animal word,different cultural images;different animal words,same cultural image;different animal words,different cultural images.

  19. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems. (paper)

  20. Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, S.; Itti, R.; Benjelloun, L.

    1986-01-01

    PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms. (orig.)

  1. MIMESIS OR THE FRUITION OF SYMBOLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Feron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mimesis seems to be coextensive to history of philosophy, and its re-visitation – from the perspective of a critical anthropology – should lead to the deconstruction of certain myths that structure metaphysics since Plato; among others, the stigma of the reproduction of a legitimate origin. Considering the work of Hans Blumenberg, this paper considers the possibility of an anthropology developed from the perspective of a symbolical dynamics that, from organic to imaginary, from unconscious to analytics of intellect, allows modern reason to understand its own exercise as a play, beyond any kind of anguish.

  2. Information measures and uncertainty of particular symbols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 144-163 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Information source * Information measure * Uncertainty modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/mares-information measures and uncertainty of particular symbols.pdf

  3. On the Symbolism of Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Tolmatchoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses Thomas Mann’s symbolism and its parameters as well as Mann’s interpretation of the crisis of European spiritual values. Тhe author examines the role of Nietzsche in Mann’s heritage as well as interconnections between Mann and Wilde, Mann and Gide. Buddenbrooks is interpreted as a novel about the end of the German Renaissance; duality of the modern artist is shown on the example of “Tonio Kröger” while the paradoxes of his eroticism are analyzed on the example of “Der Tod in Venedig.”

  4. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  5. SymPy: symbolic computing in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meurer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SymPy is an open source computer algebra system written in pure Python. It is built with a focus on extensibility and ease of use, through both interactive and programmatic applications. These characteristics have led SymPy to become a popular symbolic library for the scientific Python ecosystem. This paper presents the architecture of SymPy, a description of its features, and a discussion of select submodules. The supplementary material provide additional examples and further outline details of the architecture and features of SymPy.

  6. Symbolic Block Decomposition In Hexahedral Mesh Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Adamek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexahedral mesh generation for three-dimensional solid objects is often done in stages. Usually an object is first subdivided into simple-shaped subregions, which then are filled withhexahedral finite elements. This article presents an automatic subdividing method of polyhedron with planar faces. The subdivision is based on medial surface, axes and nodes of a solid.The main emphasis is put on creating a topology of subregions. Obtaining such a topologyinvolves defining a graph structure OMG which contains necessary information about medialsurface topology and object topology, followed by simple symbolic processing on it.

  7. [Symbolic meanings of patients with chronic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luz Angélica; Price, Yocelyn; Gambini, Liliana; Stefanelli, Maguida Costa

    2003-12-01

    The investigation presents three cultural universes of those suffering from arterial hypertension, diabetes and arthrosis, describing the different dimensions and interpreting their meaning. The ethnographic method was utilized, using the ethnographic interview and participant observation and for the interpretation, the symbolic interactionism and other authors. Convergences in the dimensions arise in which the three diseases are perceived: the loss of well-being and social support, fear of disability and death. perception of the family and accepting the chronicity, interest in alternative medicine. The informants of this study perceive nursing care with ambiguity.

  8. Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S; Itti, R; Benjelloun, L

    1986-06-01

    PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms.

  9. Wording in international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  10. Wording in International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the demise of philosophical foundationalism and that of the Aristotelian idea of an inner meaning of words, the scholarship about international law is no longer perceived as a mining activity geared towards the extraction of pre-existing meaning. Rather, international legal scholarship is in a

  11. A Life in Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  12. Have Words, Will Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  13. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  14. Getting the Word Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandou, Julian R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests public relations strategies which science educators can adopt to spread the word about the importance of good science teaching. These include preparing a fact sheet summarizing a project/course/organization, tips on creating a newsworthy event (awards, displays at a mall, and others), and what to submit to the news media. (Author/JN)

  15. Word Problem Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  16. Involuntary symbol manipulation (Pig Latin) from external control: Implications for thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyein; Zarolia, Pareezad; Gazzaley, Adam; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2016-05-01

    In ironic processing, one is more likely to think about something (e.g., white bears) when instructed to not think about that thing. Entry into consciousness of such content may be automatic, reflecting the 'encapsulated' nature of the generation of conscious contents. Based on this research, the Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) reveals that, following the activation of action sets, conscious contents can arise involuntarily and systematically in response to external stimuli. In the most basic version of this paradigm, participants are presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the names of the objects, which is challenging. Here, we addressed one criticism of the RIT-that the effect arises only for automatic processes (e.g., forms of cued-memory retrieval) and not for more complex processes (e.g., symbol manipulation). Participants were first trained to perform a word-manipulation task similar to the game of Pig Latin (e.g., "CAR" becomes "AR-CAY"). Such a task involves complex symbol manipulations that are associated with processes in frontal cortex. After training, participants were instructed to not transform stimulus words in this way. The RIT effect still arose under these conditions. This striking finding is relevant to theories of cognitive control, psychopathology, and conscious/unconscious processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  18. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  19. Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems.

  20. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interactionism to grounded theory research. In this article we discuss the symbolic interactionist concepts of mind, self, and society, and their applicability in grounded theorizing. Our purpose is to highlight foundational concepts of symbolic interactionism and their centrality in the processes of conducting grounded theory research.

  1. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Caneva, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate non-sense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with non-sense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional), each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb) sentence; in the second (holistic), each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words) was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and toward a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  2. Compositional symbol grounding for motor patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGreco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new experimental and simulative paradigm to study the establishing of compositional grounded representations for motor patterns. Participants learned to associate nonsense arm motor patterns, performed in three different hand postures, with nonsense words. There were two group conditions: in the first (compositional, each pattern was associated with a two-word (verb-adverb sentence; in the second (holistic, each same pattern was associated with a unique word. Two experiments were performed. In the first, motor pattern recognition and naming were tested in the two conditions. Results showed that verbal compositionality had no role in recognition and that the main source of confusability in this task came from discriminating hand postures. As the naming task resulted too difficult, some changes in the learning procedure were implemented in the second experiment. In this experiment, the compositional group achieved better results in naming motor patterns especially for patterns where hand postures discrimination was relevant. In order to ascertain the differential effect, upon this result, of memory load and of systematic grounding, neural network simulations were also made. After a basic simulation that worked as a good model of subjects performance, in following simulations the number of stimuli (motor patterns and words was increased and the systematic association between words and patterns was disrupted, while keeping the same number of words and syntax. Results showed that in both conditions the advantage for the compositional condition significantly increased. These simulations showed that the advantage for this condition may be more related to the systematicity rather than to the mere informational gain. All results are discussed in connection to the possible support of the hypothesis of a compositional motor representation and towards a more precise explanation of the factors that make compositional representations working.

  3. An electrophysiological investigation of memory encoding, depth of processing, and word frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jinhong; Fan, Silu; Paller, Ken A

    2004-02-12

    Memory encoding can be studied by monitoring brain activity correlated with subsequent remembering. To understand brain potentials associated with encoding, we compared multiple factors known to affect encoding. Depth of processing was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect animal names (deep encoding) or boldface (shallow encoding) in a series of Chinese words. Recognition was more accurate with deep than shallow encoding, and for low- compared to high-frequency words. Potentials were generally more positive for subsequently recognized versus forgotten words; for deep compared to shallow processing; and, for remembered words only, for low- than for high-frequency words. Latency and topographic differences between these potentials suggested that several factors influence the effectiveness of encoding and can be distinguished using these methods, even with Chinese logographic symbols.

  4. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Persian Gardens: Meanings, Symbolism, and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mahmoudi Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.

  6. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.

  7. Symbolic interactionism and the concept of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alex; Martin, Peter J

    2005-06-01

    Symbolic interactionism is often represented as a perspective which is limited by its restriction to 'micro' aspects of social organization. As such, it is allegedly unable to adequately conceptualize 'macro' phenomena such as social structure, patterns of inequality, and power. Such a view is routinely presented in undergraduate textbooks. This paper contests such a view through a consideration of the concept of power. We argue that the interactionist research tradition does show a fundamental concern with power phenomena, and that a reconsideration of the concept is timely in light of theoretical developments in sociology more generally. An increasing concern with the analysis of culture, the continuing influence of Foucault, the development of feminist perspectives, and the emerging consensus around neo-Weberian thought have all contributed to a renewal of interest in themes long ago explored by interactionists. As examples we suggest that interactionist studies in the fields of deviance and education have been concerned above all with the authoritative imposition of consequential identities, i.e., with the social processes through which power is enacted and institutionalized in real situations. Such developments have led some to argue that interactionism has now been incorporated into the mainstream of sociology. We conclude, however, by arguing that such a view runs the risk of granting to orthodox sociological thought a legitimacy which is analytically unwarranted, and which fails to recognize the alternative theoretical and philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionist thought.

  8. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  9. SEARCH FOR WORKERS AS SYMBOLIC CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yurevich Alasheev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The labour market is seen as a field of symbolic exchange where the main actors are employers and job applicants, whereas the objects of exchange are workplaces and professional competence of employees. The analysis is based on the observed behavioural practices and verbal expressions. An attempt has been made to consider the area of interaction between employers and jobseekers as a field of symbolic production and consumption and to describe methods of construction and perception of representations in the labour market. The analysis of several interviews has revealed significant characteristics of the image of an employee, the employer’s expectations and the specificity of perception of a job applicant.Search and recruitment is a communication process which forms an image of the profession. The use of various search channels imposes restrictions on the construction of the image of a required worker by the employer and determines the specificity of perception of the vacancy by job applicants.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-3

  10. Symbolism and rationality in the politics of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Psychoactive substances take on many symbolic meanings, and thus the politics of psychoactive substances has featured symbolic elements, or value-based rationality, alongside and often dominating instrumental rationality. Drawing particularly on the work of Joseph Gusfield and Nordic scholars, the chapter considers the symbolic dimension in the politics of substance use, even in Nordic countries celebrated for their societal commitment to knowledge-based policymaking, and its effects on the interplay of science and policy.

  11. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  12. Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1994-01-01

    Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

  13. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  14. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  15. SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPE OF CONSCIOUSNESS: MAN BETWEEN REPRESENTATIONALISM, FUNCTIONALISM AND RELATIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kretov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to clarify the changed interpretation of symbol in the context of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology and their correlation with the functioning of the semantic field of culture, and in particular with religious symbols. The paper also considers an epistemological-ideological positions of representationalism, functionalism and relativism with respect to philosopheme of symbol. Methodology. The authors implemented theoretical and conceptual analysis in synchronic and diachronic aspects, the methodology of comparative consideration of the character within the analytical and existential paradigms in the 20th century philosophy. Originality. The work presents the study of correlation between aspect consideration of the nature and specific character in representationalism, functionalism and relativism within the philosophical projects of the cognitive position. The authors substantiated the position of symbol ontologization in the contemporary cultural and philosophical anthropology and the importance of convergence of the symbol concept and philosopheme with the concepts of an object and a thing. They fixed the value of the ontological turn in cultural anthropology for philosophical anthropology. The authors specifically examined the correlation between the declared symbol interpretation, project of object-oriented ontology and the modern philosophy of science. They substantiated ontological concept of symbolic landscape of modern philosophical anthropology, social philosophy and philosophy of mind. The symbol and religious symbolism have the significant importance for human identity, the symbol is considered to be the tool of human’s self-knowledge. Conclusions. The paper outlines the specific character of existence of symbol philosopheme in communicative field of modern man, the social media space, in particular the role of religious symbols for the construction of

  16. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  17. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations apply to this part: ABTAveraging, banking, and trading. AECDauxiliary.... cylcylinder. disp.displacement. ECAEmission Control Area. EEZExclusive Economic Zone. EPAEnvironmental...

  18. Imagining and Remembering City: Memory, Space and Symbolism of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rogač Mijatović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary “runaway world”, cities are becoming the main reference point of social life, change and development. The author discusses the complex process of articulating city identity and memory, as well as the meanings that arise in the interaction of memory, space and symbols of the city, within urban symbolism and cultural memory approach. What are the strategies of activating the cultural memory through multiple symbol bearers of the city, both tangible and intangible? The case study of the city of Belgrade indicates how the narratives related to memory and symbol bearers can be used in fostering culturally sustainable development of the city.

  19. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  1. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  2. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  3. Symbolics in control design: prospects and research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The symbolic processor is targeted as a novel basic service in computer aided control system design. Basic symbolic tools are exemplified. A design process model is formulated for control design, with subsets manipulator, tools, target and goals. It is argued, that symbolic processing will give...... substantial contributions to future design environments, as it provides flexibility of representation not possible with traditional numerics. Based on the design process, views on research issues in the incorporation of symbolic processing into traditional numerical design environments are given...

  4. The effects of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design using the stereotype production method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design among older people, using the stereotype production method for collecting user ideas during the symbol design process. Thirty-one older adults were asked to draw images based on 28 public symbol referents and to indicate their familiarity with and ease with which they visualised each referent. Differences were found between the pictorial solutions generated by males and females. However, symbol design was not influenced by participants' education level, vividness of visual imagery, object imagery preference or spatial imagery preference. Both familiar and unfamiliar referents were illustrated pictorially without much difficulty by users. The more visual the referent, the less difficulty the users had in illustrating it. The findings of this study should aid the optimisation of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

  6. Symbolic Dynamics, Flower Automata and Infinite Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foryś, Wit; Oprocha, Piotr; Bakalarski, Slawomir

    Considering a finite alphabet as a set of allowed instructions, we can identify finite words with basic actions or programs. Hence infinite paths on a flower automaton can represent order in which these programs are executed and a flower shift related with it represents list of instructions to be executed at some mid-point of the computation.

  7. JOHANNINE METAPHORS/ SYMBOLS LINKED TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    logy of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel ... In modern Greek the word metaphor means “transport” or “transfer”. ..... most, almost half of these 21 occurrences (9 times), are to be found in chapter 4.

  8. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  9. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  10. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I...Acsorbento, Cartone, Celluloee, Compiti, Disegno, !)o- cuwe-m~to, Gnibinetto, Gihills, Goinma, Lete, Licer~ .a, l!ateri.Ble, Notp, Penna, Problema ...Ostiflato, flifatto, Ruvido, Seno, Somaro, Studio, Tavolo FACILITA’( 42,31) 36 Difficolth 7 Difficile, Semplicit~. 5 Problema 2 Grande, Impossibile

  11. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  12. Effects of providing word sounds during printed word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P.; Dongen, van A.J.N.; Custers, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the availability of the spoken sound of words along with the printed forms during reading practice. Firstgrade children from two normal elementary schools practised reading several unfamiliar words in print. For half of the printed words the

  13. Symbolic Analysis of the Cycle-to-Cycle Variability of a Gasoline–Hydrogen Fueled Spark Engine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Reyes-Ramírez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An study of temporal organization of the cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV in spark ignition engines fueled with gasoline–hydrogen blends is presented. First, long time series are generated by means of a quasi-dimensional model incorporating the key chemical and physical components, leading to variability in the time evolution of energetic functions. The alterations in the combustion process, for instance the composition of reactants, may lead to quantitative changes in the time evolution of the main engine variables. It has been observed that the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture leads to an increased laminar flame speed, with a corresponding decrease in CCV dispersion. Here, the effects of different hydrogen concentrations in the fuel are considered. First, it is observed that return maps of heat release sequences exhibit different patterns for different hydrogen concentrations and fuel–air ratios. Second, a symbolic analysis is used to characterize time series. The symbolic method is based on the probability of occurrence of consecutive states (a word in a symbolic sequence histogram (SSH. Modified Shannon entropy is computed in order to determine the adequate word length. Results reveal the presence of non-random patterns in the sequences and soft transitions between states. Moreover, the general behavior of CCV simulations results and three types of synthetic noises: white, log-normal, and a noisy logistic map, are compared. This analysis reveals that the non-random features observed in heat release sequences are quite different from synthetic noises.

  14. The art of words of Branko Miljković

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Slađana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The youngest poet of Serbian neosymbolism, Branko Miljković, established his version of national poetic tradition according to the well known model of Eliot's principle and was also always ready to accept something new, modern, the most avant-garde. He argued for the perfection of form as one of important elements of the symbolist poetry within his own poetics as well as within texts related to poetry, while as a poet and translator he was oriented toward modern European poetry of the poet of symbolism with a special talent for patriotic poetry. Branko Miljković presents the poem itself as the subject of his poetry where the power of poetic word can be perceived. That structure considers the improvement of lines, the improvement of the expressive power of words as well as the improvement of language. The words are a powerful framework of world for Miljković. He strived for returning their depth and intensive meaning. Furthermore, he found creative energy of words, its resurrection in the revival of semantic, evocative and expressive effect. He looked for the value of poetic words primarily within their superiority. In Miljković's world of poetry the words invent, shape, they become the only confirmation of our world. He regarded his poetic opinion and the very act of poet's creation as a necessary condition of the real poetic creativity: the author identified himself with the very act of writing being completely left at the mercy of words. The art of dying for this world is the art of spiritual living. At the same time it is the effort that differentiates the place of death and the place of life: the poison and the cure. These tendencies provided the poet with intellectual dimension, confirmed not only the power of poetry but the power of poet as well.

  15. The Training of Morphological Decomposition in Word Processing and Its Effects on Literacy Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Bar-Kochva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effects of a morpheme-based training on reading and spelling in fifth and sixth graders (N = 47, who present poor literacy skills and speak German as a second language. A computerized training, consisting of a visual lexical decision task (comprising 2,880 items, presented in 12 sessions, was designed to encourage fast morphological analysis in word processing. The children were divided between two groups: the one underwent a morpheme-based training, in which word-stems of inflections and derivations were presented for a limited duration, while their pre- and suffixes remained on screen until response. Another group received a control training consisting of the same task, except that the duration of presentation of a non-morphological unit was restricted. In a Word Disruption Task, participants read words under three conditions: morphological separation (with symbols separating between the words’ morphemes, non-morphological separation (with symbols separating between non-morphological units of words, and no-separation (with symbols presented at the beginning and end of each word. The group receiving the morpheme-based program improved more than the control group in terms of word reading fluency in the morphological condition. The former group also presented similar word reading fluency after training in the morphological condition and in the no-separation condition, thereby suggesting that the morpheme-based training contributed to the integration of morphological decomposition into the process of word recognition. At the same time, both groups similarly improved in other measures of word reading fluency. With regard to spelling, the morpheme-based training group showed a larger improvement than the control group in spelling of trained items, and a unique improvement in spelling of untrained items (untrained word-stems integrated into trained pre- and suffixes. The results further suggest some contribution of

  16. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    the ways we understand and classify behavioural, emotional and cognitive processes, such as gendered practices, to social fields of practice, and points to the consequences of not doing so. In order to develop the analysis of concrete difficulties victims experience Bourdieu’s concept will be supplemented......In Denmark and most Western countries the study of “psychological reactions” to trauma has been dominated by the diagnosis Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The concept is also being widely imported by other countries, as well as integrated in folk-psychological discourses. Yet the use of the concept...... has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects...

  17. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  18. Media traumatization, symbolic wounds and digital culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meek Allen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Do media images really traumatize the public? If they do not, then why do so many commentators - from those commemorating the Holocaust to those analysing the impact of 9/11 - claim that trauma can be transmitted to specific ethnic groups or entire societies? While these claims can be based on empirical data or used to justify political agendas, psychoanalysis also continues to influence conceptions of collective trauma and to offer important perspectives for evaluating these conceptions. This paper explores these questions of mediated trauma and collective identity by tracing a neglected historical trajectory back to the work of psychoanalyst and anthropologist Geza Roheim. Roheim produced studies of Australian Aboriginal culture that applied the theory of collective trauma outlined in Freud's Totem and Taboo. He also produced an ethnographic film, Subincision, documenting an initiation rite, that was subsequently used in psychological studies of so-called 'stress films'. Putting aside Roheim's psychoanalytic interpretations of indigenous culture, psychologists used his film to measure the impact of images of violence and pain. These studies from the 1960s have recently been rediscovered by scholars of Holocaust film and video testimony. This paper seeks to recover the concept of 'symbolic wounds' developed in psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim's later commentary on Roheim's work. The mass media of newspapers, film and television have supported the idea of cultural trauma shared by large societies. The concept of symbolic wounds that enhance group membership and mobilize collective action may be more useful for understanding how violent and shocking images are put to more diverse uses in digital culture.

  19. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  20. The European Union’s Institutionalisation of Symbols and Myths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    “The paper examines the formal institutionalisation of symbols and myths by EU institutions such as the Commission, Parliament and Council. It asks the question: What roles does the EU institutionalisation of symbols and myths play in the processes of European integration? The paper argues that i...... risk, and climate and resource concerns.”...

  1. Symbolic Interactionism and Ethnomethodology: A Perspective on Qualitiative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Daley, Patrick J.

    Methods employed in social science research must be true to the phenomena under investigation. Both symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology take everyday life as their fundamental premise. Symbolic interactionism, based primarily on the work of George Herbert Mead, is the peculiar and distinctive character of interaction as it takes place…

  2. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  3. Symbolic Form in the Pedagogical Implications of Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    The author with the help of analysis of symbolic forms and sociolinguistics explains the transformation of "homo communicans in conscious homo symbolicum." He points out the importance of etymological analysis Cassierer's philosophy of symbolic forms and its effects in the modern understanding of sociolinguistics. It is necessary their…

  4. The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

  5. Symbol Stream Combining in a Convolutionally Coded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.

  6. Adapting the Jukun Traditional Symbols for Textile Design and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uniqueness of Africa is not because of its geographical location, but because of its diverse rich cultural heritage, symbolic operation and adages that surround the entire spectrum of human learning, reasoning, and communication. This research work on adaptation of the Jukun cultural symbols for textile design gives a ...

  7. Different Grade Students' Use and Interpretation of Literal Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Gunes, Gonul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare 7th, 8th, and 9th grades students' level of use and interpret the literal symbols. In addition, students' responses to questions that require use of different roles of literal symbol were examined to identify the errors. For this purpose, Chelsea Diagnostics Algebra test developed by The Concepts…

  8. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  9. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  10. Experimental targeting of chaos via controlled symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Pethel, Shawn D.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we report experimental targeting in a chaotic system by controlling symbolic dynamics. We acquire and control an electronic circuit using small perturbations to elicit a desired objective state starting from an arbitrary, uncontrolled state. The control perturbations are calculated using a symbolic targeting sequence and applied using dynamic limiting control

  11. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  12. Meta-Modeling by Symbolic Regression and Pareto Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinstra, E.; Rennen, G.; Teeuwen, G.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a new approach to Symbolic Regression.Other publications on Symbolic Regression use Genetic Programming.This paper describes an alternative method based on Pareto Simulated Annealing.Our method is based on linear regression for the estimation of constants.Interval

  13. adapting the jukun traditional symbols for textile design and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theophilus

    weavers and dyers have already disappeared, and the technique of the craft is no longer in practice. ... social consequences. Symbols form .... Figure.13c. Figure 13a, b, c, is a mix media drawings of some extracted Jukun symbols drawn on .... Figure.30.Title; Adire asankweshi-(constructed calabash for music from fi 13b).

  14. Operator symbols in the description of observable-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    For the observable-state system of finite degree of freedom N topological properties of the kernels and symbols belonging to the considered operators are investigated. For the operators of the observable algebra of rho + (delta) kernels and symbols are distributions and for density matrices p they are smooth functions

  15. Digit Symbol Performance in Mild Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT), patients with major depression, and normal control subjects completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Symbol test of incidental memory. Though mild DAT and depressed patients had equivalent deficits in psychomotor speed, DAT patients recalled fewer digit-symbol items.…

  16. A clash of symbolic universes: Judeanism vs Hellenism | Cromhout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates how Judeans responded to Hellenism in order to maintain the integrity of their ethnic identity. Judeanism and Hellenism are regarded as alternative “symbolic universes”. It is shown that Judeans used various approaches to maintain their symbolic universe. This included Berger and Luckmann's ...

  17. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  18. Symbolic Play in the Treatment of Autism in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyat, Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Explores the role of symbolic play in the cognitive and psychic development of the normal child and describes the autistic child. Reviews a model treatment program for autism developed at the City College of New York, discussing the therapeutic role of symbolic play in that model. (Author/MJL)

  19. The Impact of Congenital Deafblindness on the Struggle to Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Most children who are congenitally deafblind are severely delayed in their communication development and many will not achieve symbolic understanding and expression. This article discusses developmental markers cited in the research literature as predictive of or facilitative of the development of symbolism. These markers include the growth toward…

  20. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  1. 1100 words you must know

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, Murray

    2018-01-01

    A Barron's best-seller for more than four decades! This brand-new edition has been expanded and updated with word lists and definitions, analogy exercises, words-in-context exercises, idiom indexes, a pronunciation guide, and more. It's the ideal way to strengthen word power!.

  2. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  3. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  4. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  5. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  6. SYMBOL LEVEL DECODING FOR DUO-BINARY TURBO CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Beeharry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of three different symbol level decoding algorithms for Duo-Binary Turbo codes. Explicit details of the computations involved in the three decoding techniques, and a computational complexity analysis are given. Simulation results with different couple lengths, code-rates, and QPSK modulation reveal that the symbol level decoding with bit-level information outperforms the symbol level decoding by 0.1 dB on average in the error floor region. Moreover, a complexity analysis reveals that symbol level decoding with bit-level information reduces the decoding complexity by 19.6 % in terms of the total number of computations required for each half-iteration as compared to symbol level decoding.

  7. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse. Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  8. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  9. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  10. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  11. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  12. Symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, K M; Allen, M N

    2001-02-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research rely on different epistemological assumptions about the nature of knowledge. However, the majority of nurse researchers who use multiple method designs do not address the problem of differing theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, symbolic interactionism has been viewed as one perspective underpinning qualitative research, but it is also the basis for quantitative studies. Rooted in social psychology, symbolic interactionism has a rich intellectual heritage that spans more than a century. Underlying symbolic interactionism is the major assumption that individuals act on the basis of the meaning that things have for them. The purpose of this paper is to present symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method designs with the aim of expanding the dialogue about new methodologies. Symbolic interactionism can serve as a theoretical perspective for conceptually clear and soundly implemented multiple method research that will expand the understanding of human health behaviour.

  13. Symbol, Mask and Myth in the Poetry of Resistance by Qaisar Aminpoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Rowshanfekr

    2013-05-01

    264. With using the name of Abel, Aminpoor, gives an objective and intellectual response to the cultural needs of war-torn community. He uses Abel's name as a symbol of the first man who was killed innocently.  Using of the masks, in addition to represents the poet's aim, should be include modernization features and if it doesn't able to interpret concerns of modern man, then it can be said that it doesn’t deserve to promote to an artistic element (Azzam, 1995: p 137.  Relationship between symbol and mask is the same as relation between parts to whole. When Aminpoor converts his mask into a symbol, his purpose is to relate his own experience to human experience and by this method bestow a depth sense to his poetry (Kenndy, 2003: pp. 65-66 and also provide a report of war against Iraq and its consequences.  The results of study show that (77 out of (306 Aminpoor's poetry (with respect to the version of Morwarid publication 1388 enjoys elements of symbol, mask and myth. Some of his poems, among (306 poetry, contains different samples that in determining percentages are considered. The word of 'Mirror', has been used in (18% of his poems and high frequency of this word can express the poet's mental and spiritual concerns about declining values such as truth, knowledge, and honesty in the community after war.  Natural section includes: colors, flowers, gardens, trees, forests, air, water, river, ocean, night, morning, sun, dust and desert.  The positive figures include: Adam, Abel, Ishmael, Joseph, Jesus, Imam Hussein and Hallaj and Shaban (shepherd.  Negative figures including Nimrod and is Zoulaikha.  The animals section includes: pigeon, Phoenix, swallow, bat and ant.  Other items include: mirrors, lights, axes, walls, windows, streets, childish, train, station and road.  After counting the symbolic aspects of Aminpoor's poems, it can be seen that there is a relative dominance of natural elements in contrast to other sections. Symbols that were selected from

  14. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two-word...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...

  15. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  16. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  18. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  19. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  20. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  1. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  2. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  3. Graphic symbols as "the mind on paper": links between children's interpretive theory of mind and symbol understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J; Liben, Lynn S

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)-the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their referents). Children (6-9 years; N = 80) made maps using either iconic or abstract symbols. After accounting for age, intelligence, vocabulary, and memory, iToM predicted children's success in communicating symbols' meaning to a naïve map-user when mapping tasks involved iconic (but not abstract) symbols. Findings suggest children's growing appreciation of alternative representations and of the intentional assignment of meaning, and support the contention that ToM progresses beyond mastery of false belief. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational g...

  5. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  6. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  7. Influence of colour on acquisition and generalisation of graphic symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, O E; Ne'eman, A

    2013-07-01

    Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. An alternating treatment design was employed to examine the learning and generalisation of 58 colour and grey-scale symbols by four preschool children with autism. The graphic symbols were taught via a meaning-based intervention using stories and educational games. Results demonstrate that all of the children were able to learn and maintain symbol identification over time for both symbol displays with no apparent differences. Differences were apparent for two of the children who exhibited better generalisation when learning grey-scale symbols first. The other two showed no noticeable difference, between displays when generalising from one display to the other. Implications and further research are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  8. Assessment of symbolic function in Mexican preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Jiménez Barreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of symbolic function is an important psychological formation of pre-school age and reflects the possibility of the child to use signs and symbols in a conscious way. Assessment of symbolic function can be used as one of preparation for school indicators. The objective of the present study is to characterize the level of symbolic function development in Mexican pre-school children. 59 children were included in the study. The ages of the children were between 5 and 6 years and all of them belonged to sub-urban pre-school institution. All 59 children participated in this study for the first time. Our assessment consisted of specific tasks with symbolic means on materialized, perceptive and verbal levels. Each child was tested individually. Results showed an insufficient development of the symbolic function in all evaluated children. More than 78% of the children showed difficulties during performance in the tasks of assessment; their drawings were undifferentiated and had few essential characteristics. The obtained results show the necessity to implement developmental strategies in order to guarantee the formation of the ability of constant conscious sage of symbolic means at the end of pre-school age.

  9. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  10. Remembering New Words: Integrating Early Memory Development into Word Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcik, Erica H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully acquire a new word, young children must learn the correct associations between labels and their referents. For decades, word-learning researchers have explored how young children are able to form these associations. However, in addition to learning label-referent mappings, children must also remember them. Despite the importance of memory processes in forming a stable lexicon, there has been little integration of early memory research into the study of early word lear...

  11. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  12. Symbolic analysis of spatio-temporal systems: The measurement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Tang, Xianzhu; Tracy, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring physical quantities using time-series observations. The approach taken is to validate theoretical models which are derived heuristically or from first principles. The fitting of parameters in such models constitutes the measurement. This is a basic problem in measurement science and a wide array of tools are available. However, an important gap in the present toolkit exists when the system of interest, and hence the models used, exhibit chaotic or turbulent behavior. The development of reliable schemes for analyzing such signals is necessary before one can claim to have a quantitative understanding of the underlying physics. In experimental situations, the number of independently measured time-series is limited, but the number of dynamical degrees of freedom can be large. In addition, the signals of interest will typically be embedded in a noisy background. In the symbol statistics approach, the time-series is coarse-grained and converted into a long, symbol stream. The probability of occurrence of various symbol sequences of fixed length constitutes the symbol statistics. These statistics contain a wealth of information about the underlying dynamics and, as we shall discuss, can be used to validate models. Previously, we have applied this symbolic approach to low dimensional systems with great success. The symbol statistics are robust up to noise/signal ∼20%. At higher noise levels the symbol statistics are biased, but in a relatively simple manner. By including the noise characteristics into the model, we were able to use the symbol statistics to measure parameters even when signal/noise is ∼ O(1). More recently, we have extended the symbolic approach to spatio-temporal systems. We have considered both coupled-map lattices and the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. This equation arises generically near the onset of instabilities

  13. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.

  14. [Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

    2007-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor.

  15. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  16. The word-length effect and disyllabic words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, P; Avons, S E; Masterson, J

    2000-02-01

    Three experiments compared immediate serial recall of disyllabic words that differed on spoken duration. Two sets of long- and short-duration words were selected, in each case maximizing duration differences but matching for frequency, familiarity, phonological similarity, and number of phonemes, and controlling for semantic associations. Serial recall measures were obtained using auditory and visual presentation and spoken and picture-pointing recall. In Experiments 1a and 1b, using the first set of items, long words were better recalled than short words. In Experiments 2a and 2b, using the second set of items, no difference was found between long and short disyllabic words. Experiment 3 confirmed the large advantage for short-duration words in the word set originally selected by Baddeley, Thomson, and Buchanan (1975). These findings suggest that there is no reliable advantage for short-duration disyllables in span tasks, and that previous accounts of a word-length effect in disyllables are based on accidental differences between list items. The failure to find an effect of word duration casts doubt on theories that propose that the capacity of memory span is determined by the duration of list items or the decay rate of phonological information in short-term memory.

  17. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  18. Symbol-stream Combiner: Description and Demonstration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Reder, L. J.; Russell, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A system is described and demonstration plans presented for antenna arraying by symbol stream combining. This system is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of a spacecraft signals by combining the detected symbol streams from two or more receiving stations. Symbol stream combining has both cost and performance advantages over other arraying methods. Demonstrations are planned on Voyager 2 both prior to and during Uranus encounter. Operational use is possible for interagency arraying of non-Deep Space Network stations at Neptune encounter.

  19. A Dynamic Perspective on Symbolic Co-branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Backhausen, Mia

    2016-01-01

    brand’s meaning—a challenge that is accentuated when multiple brands form alliances. Focusing on symbolic co-branding, this paper aims to understand how involved brands’ meaning arises from discursive interactions in stakeholder networks (including brand management). A netnographic study in the context...... of lifestyle and fashion blogs provides in-depth insights into the evolvement of two symbolic co-branding processes. The results highlight various stakeholders’ role in and discursive strategies of creating and transferring meaning between involved brands and add unprecedented insights into symbolic co-branding...

  20. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e......WOB and generate hypotheses about how consumers influence each other by means of behavior in online social environments. We present a conceptual framework for categorizing eWOB, and propose a novel research design for a randomized controlled field experiment. Specifically, the ongoing experiment aims to analyze...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service....

  1. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  2. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Voyage of Christian Medieval Astronomy: Symbolic, Ritual and Political Orientation of Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    2015-05-01

    According to the words of the early Christian writers, churches should be oriented, i.e., the priest should be facing east (oriens) while praying. However, this prescription offers a wide diversity of interpretations. This review aims at summarizing the work done so far regarding Church orientation with special emphasis on the work carried out in the last decades. A general eastern orientation appears common to all areas and epochs although it is far from clear what 'oriens' was intended. Some possibilities are explored. In contrast to the common picture of eastern orientations possible regional variations appear. It is discussed if these variations are due to local interpretations of the general rule or if they stem from the different methodological approaches carried out by the researchers. In those cases where a regional variation could be identified possible symbolic, ritual or political aspects are explored and contrasted.

  4. Unpacking symbolic number comparison and its relation with arithmetic in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Lyons, Ian M; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2017-08-01

    Symbolic number - or digit - comparison has been a central tool in the domain of numerical cognition for decades. More recently, individual differences in performance on this task have been shown to robustly relate to individual differences in more complex math processing - a result that has been replicated across many different age groups. In this study, we 'unpack' the underlying components of digit comparison (i.e. digit identification, digit to number-word matching, digit ordering and general comparison) in a sample of adults. In a first experiment, we showed that digit comparison performance was most strongly related to digit ordering ability - i.e., the ability to judge whether symbolic numbers are in numerical order. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that the relation between digit comparison and arithmetic was partly mediated by digit ordering and fully mediated when non-numerical (letter) ordering was also entered into the model. In a second experiment, we examined whether a general order working memory component could account for the relation between digit comparison and arithmetic. It could not. Instead, results were more consistent with the notion that fluent access and activation of long-term stored associations between numbers explains the relation between arithmetic and both digit comparison and digit ordering tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rolling element bearings diagnostics using the Symbolic Aggregate approXimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulas, George; Karvelis, Petros; Loutas, Theodoros; Stylios, Chrysostomos D.

    2015-08-01

    Rolling element bearings are a very critical component in various engineering assets. Therefore it is of paramount importance the detection of possible faults, especially at an early stage, that may lead to unexpected interruptions of the production or worse, to severe accidents. This research work introduces a novel, in the field of bearing fault detection, method for the extraction of diagnostic representations of vibration recordings using the Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX) framework and the related intelligent icons representation. SAX essentially transforms the original real valued time-series into a discrete one, which is then represented by a simple histogram form summarizing the occurrence of the chosen symbols/words. Vibration signals from healthy bearings and bearings with three different fault locations and with three different severity levels, as well as loading conditions, are analyzed. Considering the diagnostic problem as a classification one, the analyzed vibration signals and the resulting feature vectors feed simple classifiers achieving remarkably high classification accuracies. Moreover a sliding window scheme combined with a simple majority voting filter further increases the reliability and robustness of the diagnostic method. The results encourage the potential use of the proposed methodology for the diagnosis of bearing faults.

  6. Symbolics of the constellations of sagittarius and centaurus in russian traditional culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, R.

    2001-12-01

    Centaurus falls into the category of 'imaginary animals'. The Russian tradition used not only the symbol Sgr (a result of its acquaintance with the circle of Zodiac), but also the symbol Cen, which fact, as we shall demonstrate, is an evidence of certain mythological-astronomical conceptions. Both the constellations Sagittarius (Sgr) and Centaurus (Cen) are usually represented as versions of the picture of a fantastic being, a Centaur, shaped as man from head to waist, and as an animal, mostly, a horse, from waist down. 'Centaurus' (from the Greek word kev (or kevw)) for 'kill' and o, for 'bull') means 'bull killer', and is probably related to the opposition of the zodiacal constellations Taurus and Sagittarius. When the latter begins to rise on to the night sky, the former disappears completely from view. Sagittarius is represented at ancient monuments related to astronomy as a centaur holding a bow and pointing at certain stars. The constellation of Centaurus is also symbolised by a centaur, but holding not a bow, but a staff or a spear in one hand and an 'animal of sacrifice' in the other (Higinus, Astronomica, III, 37, 1; Chernetsov, 1975, Figure 1). The attributes stand for the Peliases Spear (The Mithological Dictionary, 1991), depicted in astrological maps as The Spear of Centaurus1, The Wolf (Lupus), the Panther or the Beast (Flammarion, 1994).

  7. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...... a different pattern: Letters are perceived more easily than words, and this is reflected both in perceptual processing speed and short term memory capacity. So even if single words do come easy, they seem to enjoy no advantage in visual short term memory....

  8. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  9. Symbolic mathematical computing: orbital dynamics and application to accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateman, R.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-assisted symbolic mathematical computation has become increasingly useful in applied mathematics. A brief introduction to such capabilitites and some examples related to orbital dynamics and accelerator physics are presented. (author)

  10. Symbolic Uses of the Berlin Wall, 1961-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines samples from public discourse during the period 1961-1989, which reveal several different symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall. Suggests these differences reflect the never-completed struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. (KEH)

  11. Pilot stereotypes for navigation symbols on electronic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-20

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the : electronic display of navigation information. The wide : range of display technologies and the different functions : these displays support make it difficult to design symbols : that are easil...

  12. Symbols for the General British English Vowel Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. Windsor

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the critique of Hans G. Hoffmann saying that the new phonetic symbols contained in A. S. Hornby's "Advanced Learner's Dictionary" (Oxford University Press, London, 1974) are harder to learn than the older system of transcription. (IFS/WGA)

  13. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  14. Symbolic BDD and ADD Algorithms for Energy Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Maoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy games, which model quantitative consumption of a limited resource, e.g., time or energy, play a central role in quantitative models for reactive systems. Reactive synthesis constructs a controller which satisfies a given specification, if one exists. For energy games a synthesized controller ensures to satisfy not only the safety constraints of the specification but also the quantitative constraints expressed in the energy game. A symbolic algorithm for energy games, recently presented by Chatterjee et al., is symbolic in its representation of quantitative values but concrete in the representation of game states and transitions. In this paper we present an algorithm that is symbolic both in the quantitative values and in the underlying game representation. We have implemented our algorithm using two different symbolic representations for reactive games, Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD and Algebraic Decision Diagrams (ADD. We investigate the commonalities and differences of the two implementations and compare their running times on specifications of energy games.

  15. Anomaly Detection and Diagnosis Algorithms for Discrete Symbols

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that arise...

  16. Directed forgetting of visual symbols: evidence for nonverbal selective rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Ozubko, Jason D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2009-12-01

    Is selective rehearsal possible for nonverbal information? Two experiments addressed this question using the item method directed forgetting paradigm, where the advantage of remember items over forget items is ascribed to selective rehearsal favoring the remember items. In both experiments, difficult-to-name abstract symbols were presented for study, followed by a recognition test. Directed forgetting effects were evident for these symbols, regardless of whether they were or were not spontaneously named. Critically, a directed forgetting effect was observed for unnamed symbols even when the symbols were studied under verbal suppression to prevent verbal rehearsal. This pattern indicates that a form of nonverbal rehearsal can be used strategically (i.e., selectively) to enhance memory, even when verbal rehearsal is not possible.

  17. Exact computation of the 3-j and 6-j symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shantao; Chiu Yingnan

    1990-01-01

    A simple FORTRAN program for the exaxt computation of 3-j and 6-j symbols has been written for the VAX with VMS version v5.1 in our university's computing center. It goes beyond and contains all of the 3-j and 6-j symbols evaluated in the book by M. Rotenberg, R. Bivins, N. Metropolis and J.K. Wooten Jr. The 3-j symbols up to (30/m 1 30/m 2 30/m 3 ) and 6-j symbols up to {20/20 20/20 20/20} can be computed exactly by this program. Approximate values for larger j's up to (200/m 1 200/m 2 200/m 3 ) and {200/200 200/200 200/220} can also be computed by this program. (orig.)

  18. Issues in symbol design for electronic displays of navigation information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-24

    An increasing number of electronic displays, ranging from small hand-held displays for general aviation to installed displays for air transport, are showing navigation information, such as symbols representing navigational aids. The wide range of dis...

  19. A Theory of Developing Competence with Written Mathematical Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, James

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a theory of how competence with written mathematical symbols develops, tracing a succession of cognitive processes that cumulate to yield competence. Arguments supporting the theory are drawn from the history, philosophy, and psychology of mathematics. (MNS)

  20. The relationship between symbolic interactionism and interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    In this article I explore the relationship between symbolic interactionist theory and interpretive description methodology. The two are highly compatible, making symbolic interactionism an excellent theoretical framework for interpretive description studies. The pragmatism underlying interpretive description supports locating the methodology within this cross-disciplinary theory to make it more attractive to nonnursing researchers and expand its potential to address practice problems across the applied disciplines. The theory and method are so compatible that symbolic interactionism appears to be part of interpretive description's epistemological foundations. Interpretive description's theoretical roots have, to date, been identified only very generally in interpretivism and the philosophy of nursing. A more detailed examination of its symbolic interactionist heritage furthers the contextualization or forestructuring of the methodology to meet one of its own requirements for credibility.