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Sample records for non-schistosomal bladder tumors

  1. Interplay between CKS2, N-cadherin, and PD-ECGF in Non-Schistosomal and Schistosomal-Associated Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Comparative Study in the Egyptian Population

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    Sanaa Shawky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study investigated the possible role of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2; the angiogenic factor, plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor; and the cell adhesive molecule, neural cadherin, as prognostic factors in schistosomal and non-schistosomal-associated urothelial carcinomas. We also investigated the possible correlation between cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, neural cadherin, tumor grade, and stage. Methods: The study included 40 patients with primary bladder cancer (25 nonschistosomal- associated and 15 schistosomal-associated who had no prior anticancer treatment. Tumor specimens were collected at the time of the transurethral resection. The vivid portions of the resected tumors were subjected to routine pathological examinations to determine stage, grade, and schistosomal infestation. Control bladder tissues (5 cases were obtained by cystoscopic biopsies from patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and neural cadherin protein expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by PCR using cyclindependent kinases regulatory subunit-2 specific primers. Relative expression was detected by a comparison of the expression in normal and tumor samples relative to GAPDH (housekeeping gene expression. Results:We detected a positive correlation between neural cadherin and plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor proteins in schistosomal-associated and non-schistosomal-associated bladder cancer. Significant overexpression of relative cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2 gene, neural cadherin, and plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor proteins were detected in invasive stages and higher grades of bladder cancer. Differential expressions of neural cadherin and

  2. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  3. Brunn nests masquerading as bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Jeon, Ji Min

    2005-01-01

    Brunn nests are the most common proliferative lesions of the bladder uroepithelium, but exuberant proliferation can mimic bladder tumor on radiologic imaging and cystoscopy. We describe a case of pathologically proven Brunn nests in a 34-year-old man, misdiagnosed as bladder tumor on preoperative imaging studies

  4. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

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    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  5. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

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    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  6. Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography

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    Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo

    2004-07-01

    This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.

  7. Computerized tomography and staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, A.; Luongo, A.; Nogueira, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) has been employed in 13 patients with bladder tumors; 8 of them subsequently underwent surgery. Concordance between CT and pathological staging ranged in 90% of accurate results. Our data are discussed and compared to those of other authors in the literature. Staging was carried out according to the International Union Against Cancer. CT proved to be very accurate in the assessment of local and regional spread of tumor, limphatic progression and early detection of ureteral obstruction, as well as diagnosis of distant metastasis in selected patients. In poor candidates for surgery CT provided invaluable data to be used for localizing fields of radiation therapy. CT is a very well tolerated procedure, it is therefore suitable in subsequent treatment control. (Author) [pt

  8. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy

  9. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

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    Pos, Floris J; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy.

  10. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

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    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (Pcancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  11. RARE CASE OF DESMOID TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

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    Chalapathy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor which belongs to a family of myofibroblastic fibromatoses. Occasionally, desmoid tumors have an unusual site of occurrence . We describe a case of incisional hernia in postmenopausal women with an intra operative incidental finding of a desmoid tumor from anterior wall of urinary bladder for which a wide excision was performed

  12. Antibacterial activity of probiotics in bladder tumor patients

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    Molchanov R.N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chronic urinary tract infection (UTI is a risk factor that worsens a natural course of bladder tumors. Using of probiotics, possessing antagonistic influence on pathogenic microflora and immunocorrection effect, for preventive maintenance and treat¬ment of a chronic UTI in bladder tumor patients is an actual and perspective direction. The goal of the research was studying antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effect of a single bladder instillation of either lactobacilli or aerococci in bladder tumor patients. In the preoperative period a single bladder instillation with either lactobacterin or a-bacterin preparation to 35 bladder tumor patients was done. Bacteriuria, leucocyturia, lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine were measured before and in 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours after instillation. Decrease in bacteriuria level in both groups of patients was revealed. Lactobacilli and aerococci count in urine gradually decreased up to complete elimination in 24 hours (in 1 patient who received lactobacterin (12,5 % and in 9 patients who received a-bacterin. (40,9 %. Leucocyturia study did not show statistically confidence dynamics throughout the observation period in both groups. Thus, bladder instillation with lactobacterin or a-bacterin leads to suppression of uropathogenic microflora in bladder tumor patients; in the majority of patients spontaneous elimination of lactobacilli and aerococci occurs within 24 hours.

  13. Cobalt teletherapy of urinary bladder tumors

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    Kamprad, F.; Pfeiffer, J.; Oelssner, W.

    1978-01-01

    Based on results obtained from patients with urinary bladder carcinomas who were subjected to cobalt teletherapy at the Radiological Clinic of the Karl Marx University from 1969 to 1971, the influence of total dumor dose, of single tumor dose, and of nominal standard dose (NSD) on the frequency of radiation-induced vesicorectal changes as well as on the frequency of local recurrences was investigated in a catamnestic study. Under the conditions of a small volume pendulum irradiation there is a considerable increase in the rate of late effects above a total dose of 6,000 rad, with single doses of more than 180 rad per day and with a NSD of more than 1,750 ret. These dose limits should not be exceeded because a further dose increase does not essentially decrease the number of local recurrences. Higher tumor doese, for instance in stationary therapy, result in radiation-induced late effects even after low dosage. Therefore, the limiting values have to be lowered for this type of irradiation. (author)

  14. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  15. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

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    Lotz, Heidi T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duppen, Joop C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to {approx}0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall.

  16. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  17. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder: Report of Two Cases

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    Kim, Han Na; Oh, Soon Nam; Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Young Joon; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Chan Kwon; Choi, Yeong Jin [Catholic University of Korea St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare condition of unknown origin. Pathologically, the lesion is composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells accompanied by an inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. We report two cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder which showed different imaging features and was falsely diagnosed as malignant tumors. We discuss the imaging findings along with a literature review

  18. Serum and Urinary Cytokeratin 19 and Bladder Tumor Antigen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Urinary CYFRA 21-1 and BTA stat are valuable non-invasive urinary markers for the detection of bladder cancer with a high sensitivity compared to urine cytology. Key Words cytokeratin, complement H, BTA, CYFRA 21-1, BTA stat. Résumé Cytokeratin 19 Sérique et Urinaire et Antigen Tumoral Vésical dans le ...

  19. Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor

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    Sachin Narain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

  20. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  1. Calcitonin-producing well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder: case report

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    De Rosa Gaetano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of calcitonin-secreting primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Case presentation The case of a 68-year-old male with carcinoid tumor arising in the urinary bladder is presented. Transurethral resection of a polypoid small tumor 0.4 cm in diameter was performed. Immunohistochemical study using neuroendocrine markers allowed a straightforward diagnosis of a low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated calcitonin immunoreactivity in the most of the tumor cells. Conclusion This tumor shows specific clinical, macroscopical and histological features and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bladder neoplasms.

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder in a child: a case report

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    Araujo Filho, Jose de Arimateia Batista, E-mail: ariaraujocg@hotmail.com [Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Instituto do Coracao (InCor) - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martines, Joao Augusto dos Santos; Martines, Brenda Margatho Ramos [Imaging Unit of Hospital Universitario - Universidade de Sao Paulo (HU-USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cavalcanti, Marcella Santos [Pathology, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Department of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors rarely affect the urinary tract or children, and frequently mimic malignancy on imaging studies. According to the recent literature, only 35 cases of such bladder tumors in children have been reported. The authors present the case of a child with a bladder myofibroblastic tumor with favorable progression following complete surgical resection. (author)

  3. Comparison of the efficacy and feasibility of laser enucleation of bladder tumor versus transurethral resection of bladder tumor: a meta-analysis.

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    Yang, Huan; Wang, Ning; Han, Shanfu; Male, Musa; Zhao, Chenming; Yao, Daqiang; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    The transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) remains the most widely used method in the surgical treatment of the non-muscle invasive bladder tumor (NMIBT). Despite its popularity, the laser technique has been widely used in urology as an alternative, via the application of transurethral laser enucleation of bladder tumor. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and feasibility between transurethral laser enucleation and transurethral resection of bladder tumor. A systematic search of the following databases was conducted: PubMed, Wed of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google scholar, and Medline. The search included studies up to the 1st of January 2017. The outcomes of interest that were used in order to assess the two techniques included operation time, catheterization time, hospitalization time, obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irritation, 24-month-recurrence rate, and the postoperative adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy. A total of 13 trials with 2012 participants were included, of which 975 and 1037 underwent transurethral laser enucleation and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, respectively. No significant difference was noted in the operation time between the two groups, although significant differences were reported for the variables catheterization time, hospitalization time, obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irritation, and 24-month-recurrence rate. In the mitomycin and epirubicin subgroups, no significant differences were observed in the laser enucleation and TURBT methods with regard to the 24-month-recurrence rate. The laser enucleation was superior to TURBT with regard to the parameters obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, catheterization time, hospitalization time, and 24-month-recurrence rate. Moreover, laser enucleation can offer a more accurate result of the tumor's pathological stage and grade.

  4. Bladder cancer: Analysis of the 2004 WHO classification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Bladder cancer (BCA) is aworldwide disease and shows a wide range of geographical variation. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of schistosomal and non-schistosomal associated BCA as well as compare our findings with the 2004 WHO consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms and ...

  5. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  6. Factors related to recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Dong; Koo, Bong Sik; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Park, Byung Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choi, Jong Cheol; Lee, Ki Nam; Lee, Young Il; Chung, Duck Hwan

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors related to the recurrence of TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) in the urinary bladder after transurethal resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We retrospectively reviewed 54 patients in whom TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) after TUR-BT had been confirmed. Recurrence was evaluated by US, CT, cystoscopy and urine smear during the follow-up period of 6 months. The multiplicity, shape, size, and calcification of TCC, as revealed by radiologic studies, were evaluated retrospectively before TUR-BT. After TUR-BT, the histologic grade and pathologic stage of TCC were evaluated. Radiologically, multiple and/or sessile type TCC had a higher recurrence rate than the single and/or pedunculated type. Pathologically, when the grade and stage of bladder tumor were higher, recurrent rates were higher. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder: A case series among more than 2,000 urinary bladder tumor cases

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    Mohamed M Elawdy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Inflammatory pseudotumor” (IPT has infrequently been reported in the medical journals. A retrospective analysis was conducted among more than 2,000 bladder tumor cases from January 1999 to December 2012 looking for patients with IPT in the final diagnosis. Six patients were found with median tumor size of 3.5 cm (range: 3–8 cm; computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose the tumor. All patients had complete resection of the tumors. On a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2–10 years, no recurrences for IPT have been observed in all patients. We concluded that IPT is a rare disease of the urinary bladder and should be regarded with a high degree of suspicion. Although an extensive workup may be needed for definite diagnosis, it is worth to avoid unnecessary chemoradiotherapy or radical surgeries.

  8. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review

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    Glas, Afina S.; Roos, Daphne; Deutekom, Marije; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Kurth, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We systematically reviewed the available evidence, and obtained and compared summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of cytology and the urine based markers bladder tumor antigen, BTA stat (Polymedco, Redmond, Washington), BTA TRAK (Polymedco), NMP22 (Matritech, Cambridge,

  9. Folate receptor expression in bladder cancer and its correlation with tumor behaviors and clinical outcome

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    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In addition to tumor grade and stage, the expression of FR in bladder cancer is related to cellular differentiation. However, no correlation with patient survival was seen in this limited study.

  10. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY BLADDER CANCER ANTIGEN FOR DIAGNOSIS OF BLADDER TUMOR;A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH URINARY CYTOLOGY

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    K. Radkhah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystoscopy and urinary cytology are currently the basis for diagnosis and ‎follow-up of bladder tumors. Research to find a sensitive and specific tumor ‎marker for diagnosis of bladder tumor is actively underway, however, due to low sensitivity ‎and high cost of cytology. This cross-sectional study was performed in 65 patients to evaluate whether urinary bladder ‎cancer (UBC antigen level can predict the presence of active bladder tumor. In patients with ‎inactive tumor, UBC antigen level was determined in addition to standard cystoscopy ‎and cytology for follow-up. Patients with active tumor were ‎subjected to standard treatment and UBC antigen level determination. UBC antigen ‎ levels were measured by ELISA, using monoclonal antibodies ‎specific for UBC antigen. As a control group, UBC antigen level ‎was also determined in 65 persons who had been referred for urinalysis for other reasons. ‎UBC antigen level more than 1 μg/L which was regarded as ‎positive was found in 49.4% of the patients. In control group, 96.9% had UBC antigen < 1μg/L‎. Mean UBC antigen level in patients was ‎3.77 μg/L while it was 0.508 μg/L in controls (P < 0.0001. Sensitivity of ‎UBC antigen was 53.3% and its specificity was 40%. Sensitivity and specificity of urinary cytology was 17.3% and 88.2%, respectively. This difference was statistically ‎significant (P < 0.001. UBC antigen is more sensitive than urinary cytology, although cytology still ‎retains its priority in specificity. It is not yet recommended to replace UBC antigen for ‎cytology due to its low specificity and not favorable sensitivity.

  11. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  12. Study of Arachidonic Acid Pathway in Human Bladder Tumor

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    Masahide Matsuyama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments have demonstrated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs reduce the incidence of colorectal carcinoma. Cyclooxygenase (COX is the principal target of NSAIDs. COX is the first oxidase in the process of prostaglandin production from arachidonic acid. COX enzyme may be involved in the initiation and/or the promotion of tumorigenesis due to NSAIDs inhibition of COX. Lipoxygenase (LOX is also an initial enzyme in the pathway for producing leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. Similar to COX, LOX enzyme may also be involved in the initiation and/or promotion of tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator activator-receptor (PPAR-γ is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor belonging to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPAR-γ plays a role in both adipocyte differentiation and tumorigenesis. PPAR-γ is one target for cell growth modulation of NSAIDs. In this review, we report the expression of COX-2, LOX and PPAR-γ in human bladder tumor tissues as well as the effects of COX-2 and LOX inhibitors and PPAR-γ ligand.

  13. Polypoid cystitis mimicking bladder tumor: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pil Yeob; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Jong Kuk

    2002-01-01

    Polypoid cystitis without a history of catheterization is rare. We report a case in which the condition occurred in a 16-year-old girl complaining of dysuria, urgency, frequency, and a residual urine sensation. Cystography revealed a large intravesical filling defect with bladder distension, while sonography and CT demonstrated a large, inhomogeneously enhancing solid mass in the urinary bladder

  14. Incidence of urinary bladder tumors in the control Beagle dog population at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Kusewitt, D.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The report reviews the incidence and types of urinary bladder tumors in 94 dogs that have died in a population of 250 control dogs (median life span 14.0 years). Six bladder tumors, two papillomas and four transitional cell carcinomas, were found. The cumulative incidence for bladder tumors was 10.5 percent at 16 to 19 years of age; this was a 20 percent age-specific incidence

  15. Sixteen-slice multidetector computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy in the evaluation of a patient with suspected bladder tumor and history of bladder carcinoma operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Muzaffer; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tanriverdi, Orhan; Cay, Esra; Aydin, Mustafa; Miroglu, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation. Thirty-six patients (29 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 24-88 years) with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation were included in this prospective study. Virtual cystoscopy was performed by 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. The bladder was filled with diluted contrast material solution through a Foley catheter. Then, all patients underwent conventional cystoscopy examination. Two reviewers found 18 lesions detected by virtual cystoscopy by consensus, whereas 19 lesions were depicted by conventional cystoscopy. At virtual and conventional cystoscopies, the conditions of 3 patients, 2 with chronic inflammations and 1 with foreign body reaction, were wrongly diagnosed as tumors. At conventional cystoscopy, one patient's result was wrongly interpreted as normal. In pathologic evaluation, all tumors were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor can be noninvasively diagnosed using virtual cystoscopy. Use of virtual cystoscopy should be considered inpatients who present with hematuria or have histories of bladder carcinoma operation and are for follow-up because of its lesser complication risk and its being a less invasive, easily applied procedure without need of anesthesia. In the future, owing to the development of the CT technology and image processing technique, virtual cystoscopy may have a part in the detection of bladder cancer.

  16. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerod, Frederikke Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben F; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Brünner, Nils; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Egr-1 (early growth response-1 transcription factor) has been proposed to be involved in invasion and metastasis processes of human bladder cancer, but Egr-1 protein expression levels in human bladder cancer have not been investigated. In the present study we investigated the expression levels of Egr-1 protein in early stages of human bladder cancer and correlated it to later progression. Expression of Egr-1 protein in human bladder cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry, on a tissue microarray constructed from tumors from 289 patients with non-muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer. The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling were found to localize at the tumor front in some of the tumor biopsies. The results from this study support a potential involvement of Egr-1 in the progression from non-muscle invasive bladder cancers to muscle invasive bladder cancer

  17. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

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    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  18. Inflammatory pseudo tumor (pseudo sarcoma) of the urinary bladder: clinical aspects and computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Bueno, A.; Trigo, J.E.; Torres, A.

    1998-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudo tumor (pseudosarcoma) of the urinary bladder is an uncommon lesion with benign histopathological features. It consists of large cell proliferation, spindle-cell morphology (myofibroblasts) deriving from the bladder sub mucosa. It can present in patients of either sex and of any age; on occasion, it has been related to a history of surgery or previous bladder injury. Both the clinical and radiological features are nonspecific in that they do not differentiate this lesion from malignant disease; its diagnosis can only be definitively established by histopathological study. We present a case of inflammatory bladder pseudo tumor in a young girl, describing the clinical and radiological features of this lesion, which only rarely has been dealt with in the literature, particularly that concerning radiology. (Author) 13 refs

  19. Targeting EGFR with photodynamic therapy in combination with Erbitux enhances in vivo bladder tumor response

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    Soo Khee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising cancer treatment modality that involves the interaction of the photosensitizer, molecular oxygen and light of specific wavelength to destroy tumor cells. Treatment induced hypoxia is one of the main side effects of PDT and efforts are underway to optimize PDT protocols for improved efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of PDT plus Erbitux, an angiogenesis inhibitor that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, on human bladder cancer model. Tumor-bearing nude mice were assigned to four groups that included control, PDT, Erbitux and PDT plus Erbitux and tumor volume was charted over 90-day period. Results Our results demonstrate that combination of Erbitux with PDT strongly inhibits tumor growth in the bladder tumor xenograft model when compared to the other groups. Downregulation of EGFR was detected using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. Increased apoptosis was associated with tumor inhibition in the combination therapy group. In addition, we identified the dephosphorylation of ErbB4 at tyrosine 1284 site to play a major role in tumor inhibition. Also, at the RNA level downregulation of EGFR target genes cyclin D1 and c-myc was observed in tumors treated with PDT plus Erbitux. Conclusion The combination therapy of PDT and Erbitux effectively inhibits tumor growth and is a promising therapeutic approach in the treatment of bladder tumors.

  20. Can immediate second resection be an alternative to standardized second transurethral resection of bladder tumors?

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    Engin Doğantekin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of an immediate second transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT protocol on residual tumor status at the initial TURBT session and the recurrence rate in the primary resection area. We prospectively evaluated and randomized 47 consecutive patients who underwent TURBT sessions for bladder cancer. In accordance with the inclusion criteria, of the 47 consecutive patients, 19 (Group I underwent immediate second resection of the tumor bed after complete TUR and 28 (Group II did not. After standard TURBT, Group I underwent a second cystoscopy and resection of the bed of the tumor or an ignored tumor, which was performed by a different urologist. After 4–6 weeks, delayed second TURB was performed, and all pathological results were evaluated. Tumors were detected in two patients during the immediate second resection. Of these, one was a misdiagnosed tumor, whereas the other was diagnosed at the bed of the tumor by pathological examination. Tumors were detected in nine patients at the delayed second TURB, of which only one was part of Group I, while the others were part of Group II (p = 0.04. The results of this study demonstrated that residual tumors may remain after initial TURB, either in the tumor bed or in a different location within the bladder. Although this was a pilot study enrolling only a small number of patients, our initial results supported the assertion that immediate second resection can be an alternative to standard second TURBT.

  1. Lewis antigen mediated adhesion of freshly removed human bladder tumors to E-selectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorsteensgaard, Karna; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Langkilde, Niels

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Twenty fresh surgical specimens of human bladder tumors were tested for their ability to adhere to recombinant P and E-selectin. The adhesion was correlated to immunological detection of carbohydrate structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A static titertray assay with immobilized selectins.......003), whereas no correlation was found to secretor and Lewis genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: These data on clinical specimens indicate that Lewis antigen mediated E-selectin adhesion may play a role in the human bladder cancer disease....

  2. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a primary bladder tumor: a case report

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    Molinos-Castro Sonia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary lymphoma of the bladder represents 0.2% of all bladder malignancies. Secondary involvement of the bladder by malignant lymphoma occurs in 10% to 50% of cases. Most lymphomas of the bladder are non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the B-cell type, with preponderance among women. The impact of positron emission tomography (PET on tumor staging has recently become very important due to its use in the study of diagnosis extension and individual therapy design. Case presentation We report the case of a 79-year-old Caucasian man with intermittent haematuria as the presenting symptom of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bladder. He was first diagnosed with primary lymphoma of the bladder using the current staging method, but a positron emission tomography study subsequently revealed that he instead had a secondary involvement of the bladder. Conclusion The staging of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, which is useful in order to plan accurate therapy, has been changing since the introduction of positron emission tomography scanning. Primary lymphomas of the bladder, although very rare, may be even more uncommon when this imaging technique is used to assess the extension of the disease. Although the interpretation of this technique has some limitations that should be taken into account, the extensive use of positron emission tomography should nonetheless help improve the diagnosis of this disease.

  3. High frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 protein expression in human bladder cancer is associated with disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Frederikke N S Lihme; Bartels, Annette; Fristrup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    bladder cancer. RESULTS: The frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling correlated to bladder cancer stage, grade and to later progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (T2-4). Stage T1 tumors exhibited significantly higher frequencies of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...... than Ta tumors (P = 0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a high frequency of tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling was significantly associated with a higher risk of progression to stage T2-4 (log-rank test, P = 0.035). Tumor cells with nuclear Egr-1 immunolabelling...

  4. Intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation in the prophylactic treatment of recurring bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumio; Kan, Masaharu; Tsujimura, Haruhiro; Nakajima, Mikio

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of the recurrence of bladder tumors was attempted in 45 patients by intravesical instillation of Adriamycin plus irradiation (20 Gy). 30 ml saline solution containing ADM 30mg was instilled into the bladder and then irradiation was performed every day for 10 days. Patients' ages ranged from 36 to 84 years with a mean of 66.5 years; the sex ratio was 3(M) : 1(F). The recurrence rate following therapy was 8.1% after 1 year, 29.4% after 2 years and 29.4% after 3 years. The recurrence rate was low in patients with low grade tumors, those with single tumors and those who received this combination therapy after surgery. Only one patient was obliged to interrupt the therapy due to a bladder irritation. (author)

  5. Trace metals and over-expression of metallothioneins in bladder tumoral lesions: a case-control study

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    Cymbron Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have provided some evidence of a possible association between cancer and metallothioneins. Whether this relates to an exposure to carcinogenic metals remains unclear. Methods In order to examine the association between the expression of metallothioneins and bladder tumors, and to compare the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in animals with bladder tumors and animals without bladder tumors, 37 cases of bovine bladder tumors and 17 controls were collected. The detection and quantification of metallothioneins in bladder tissue of both cases and controls was performed by immunohistochemistry. And the quantification of metals in tissue and hair was assessed by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry. Results Increased expression of metallothioneins was associated with bladder tumors when compared with non-tumoral bladder tissue (OR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.0 – 480. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair of cases were significantly higher than those of controls. However, as for the concentration of metals in bladder tissue, the differences were not significant. Conclusion Though the sample size was small, the present study shows an association between bladder tumors and metallothioneins. Moreover, it shows that concentrations of metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel in hair may be used as a biomarker of exposure.

  6. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  7. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Epithelioid variant of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (malignant schwannoma) of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltoum, I A; Moore, R J; Cook, W; Crowe, D R; Rodgers, W H; Siegal, G P

    1999-10-01

    Sarcoma represents less than 2% of all neoplasms diagnosed or recognized in effusions. Epithelioid peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare tumor that is difficult to differentiate from other epithelioid tumors without the use of ancillary studies. A 39-year-old paraplegic man presented with hematuria and a bladder mass that extended to involve the pelvic peritoneum. Light microscopy using hematoxylin-eosin, Papanicolaou, and immunohistochemical stains as well as transmission electron microscopy showed features of epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdoid features and an accompanying eosinophilic infiltrate. Cytologic smears confirmed the similarities between the primary tumor in the bladder and the cells in the pelvic fluid and excluded the possibility of reactive changes related to postsurgical radiation. Ancillary studies were critical in narrowing the differential diagnoses and reaching the final conclusion.

  9. Comparison of the efficacy and feasibility of en bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumor versus conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Lin, Ting-Ting; Chen, Shao-Hao; Xu, Ning; Wei, Yong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Sun, Xiong-Lin; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Xue, Xue-Yi; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the feasibility of en bloc transurethral resection of bladder tumor (ETURBT) versus conventional transurethral resection of bladder tumor (CTURBT). Relevant trials were identified in a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using appropriate search terms. All comparative studies reporting participant demographics, tumor characteristics, study characteristics, and outcome data were included. Seven trials with 886 participants were included, 438 underwent ETURBT and 448 underwent CTURBT. There was no significant difference in operation time between 2 groups (P = 0.38). The hospitalization time (HT) and catheterization time (CT) were shorter in ETURBT group (mean difference[MD] -1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.63 to -0.80, P analysis, and 24-month RR in CTURBT is higher than that in ETURBT in mitomycin intravesical irrigation group (P = 0.02). The first meta-analysis indicates that ETURBT might prove to be preferable alternative to CTURBT management of nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma. ETURBT is associated with shorter HT and CT, less complication rate, and lower recurrence-free rate. Moreover, it can provide high-qualified specimen for the pathologic diagnosis. Well designed randomized controlled trials are needed to make results comparable.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Bladder Cancer

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    Belmiro Parada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids have been tested on prevention and treatment of several cancer types, but the efficacy on “in vivo” bladder cancer has not been analyzed yet. This study aimed at evaluating the chemopreventive efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA mixture in an animal model of bladder cancer. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups during a 20-week protocol: control; carcinogen—N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN; ω-3 (DHA + EPA; and ω-3 + BBN. BBN and ω-3 were given during the initial 8 weeks. At week 20 blood and bladder were collected and checked for the presence of urothelium lesions and tumors, markers of inflammation, proliferation, and redox status. Incidence of bladder carcinoma was, control (0%, ω-3 (0%, BBN (65%, and ω-3 + BBN (62.5%. The ω-3 + BBN group had no infiltrative tumors or carcinoma in situ, and tumor volume was significantly reduced compared to the BBN (0.9 ± 0.1 mm3 versus 112.5 ± 6.4 mm3. Also, it showed a reduced MDA/TAS ratio and BBN-induced serum CRP, TGF-β1, and CD31 were prevented. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of premalignant and malignant lesions in a rat model of bladder cancer, which might be due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic properties.

  11. Preliminary Porcine in vivo Evaluation of a Telerobotic System for Transurethral Bladder Tumor Resection & Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Nima; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; De, Smita; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Simaan, Nabil

    2018-03-27

    Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT) can be a challenging procedure, primarily due to limitations in tool-tip dexterity, visualization and lack of tissue depth information. A transurethral robotic system was developed to revolutionize TURBT by addressing some of these limitations. The results of three pilot in-vivo porcine studies using the novel robotic system are presented and potential improvements are proposed based on experimental observations. A transvesical endoscope with a mounted optically-tracked camera was placed through the bladder of the swine under general anesthesia. Simulated bladder lesions were created by injecting HistoGel processing gel mixed with blue dye trans-abdominally into various locations in the bladder wall under endoscopic visualization. A seven-degree-of-freedom (DoF) robot was then used for transurethral resection/ablation of these simulated tumors. An independent two-DoF distal laser arm (DLA) was deployed through the robot for laser ablation and was assisted by a manually controlled gripper for en-bloc resection attempts. Lesions were successfully created and ablated using our novel endoscopic robot in the swine bladder. Full accessibility of the bladder, including the bladder neck and dome, was demonstrated without requiring bladder deflation or pubic compression. Simulated lesions were successfully ablated using the Holmium laser. En-bloc resection was demonstrated using the DLA and a manual grasper. Feasibility of robot-assisted en-bloc resection was demonstrated. Main challenges were lack of depth perception and visual occlusion induced by the transvesical endoscope presented challenges. Recommendations are given to enhance robot-assisted TURBT. Lessons learned through these pilot swine studies verify the feasibility of robot-assisted TURBT while informing designers about critical aspects needed for future successful clinical deployment.

  12. Evaluation of transurethral ultrasonography and computed tomography in the staging of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kensuke; Hoshina, Akira; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1987-01-01

    A definitive pathologic diagnosis was made in 47 patients with bladder tumors from cystectomy specimens or by surgical exploration. The tumor was staged in 35 cases by transurethral ultrasonography and in 39 cases by computed tomography. We obtained the following results : the accuracy was 83 % using transurethral sonography, 77 % using computed tomography. Although transurethral ultrasonography is more advantageous than computed tomography in the low stage in regard to accuracy, computed tomography is excellent method to obtain information about the tumor invasion and/or metastases. Of 25 cases combind with computed tomography and transurethral sonography. tumors were correctly staged by both methods in 18 cases (72 %). Histopathological stage was consistent with neither ultrasonographic stage nor computed tomographic stage in 2 cases, and any of these tumors was correctly staged by either of these methods. Although transurethral ultrasonography and computed tomography improve the clinical stage of the bladder tumors separately, some limitations and problems was recognized on using together with these methods for staging the bladder tumors. (author)

  13. Hemodynamic analysis of bladder tumors using T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Sato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hemodynamics of bladder tumors, we developed a method to calculate change in R 1 value (ΔR 1 ) from T 1 -dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI). Materials and methods: On a 1.5-T MR system, T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI was performed. This study was applied to 12 patients with urinary bladder tumor, i.e. urothelial carcinoma. We compared ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time between a peak in the ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time curve occurred during the first pass within 60 s. Next, we assessed the slope of increase for 180 s after CA injection (Slope 0–180 ). Results: The mean slope of the first pass was significantly higher for bladder tumors on both the ΔR 1 –time and the ΔSI–time curve compared with normal bladder walls. Moreover, a significant difference was apparent between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls on the mean Slope 0–180 in the ΔR 1 -time curve. However, no significant difference in the mean Slope 0–180 was observed on the ΔSI-time curve between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls. Conclusion: T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI offers three advantages: quantitative analysis; high-quality (i.e., artifact-free) images; and high temporal resolution even for SE images. Use of ΔR 1 analysis with T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI allows more detailed information on the hemodynamics of bladder tumors to be obtained and assists in differentiation between bladder tumors and the normal bladder wall.

  14. Relook TURBT in superficial bladder cancer: its importance and its correlation with the tumor ploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Udai S; Kumar, Abhay; Das, Suren K; Trivedi, Sameer; Kumar, Mohan; Sunder, Shyam; Singh, Pratap B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate various prognostic factor predictors of residual growth in Relook transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in superficial bladder cancer. Also, to evaluate the role of Relook TURBT along with the ploidy for prediction of recurrence and stage progression in these patients. Fifty patients with superficial bladder cancer underwent TURBT after complete evaluation. Ploidy of the tumor specimen was evaluated by flow cytometry. After 4 to 6 weeks of initial TURBT, these patients underwent Relook TURBT. Final treatment was given after the results of the histological evaluation of these specimens. Patients who underwent bladder sparing treatment were followed-up. Of the patients, 28.5% had residual tumor in Relook TURBT. Growth was found to be at the same site in 66.7% and at a different site 33.3%; 75% had single while 25% had multiple residual growth. Residual malignant tissue had a statistically significant correlation with size of the tumor (>3 cm), appearance (solid tumor), number (>3), grade (high), and multiple previous resections. Overall, the up-migration of stage and grade leads to change in treatment in 41.6%; 5 underwent radical cystectomy and 1 opted for radiotherapy; in 2 patients, intravesical BCG was given. In follow-up of mean 11.5 months, 16.6% had recurrence. Presence of residual growth in Relook TURBT along with number, size, morphology, and multiple previous resections were found to have significant correlation with the recurrence in these patients. Ploidy and grade of the tumor were not found to have correlation. Multiple, more than 3 cm, solid high grade tumor with > 3 previous resections were predictors of presence of residual tumor in Relook TURBT. Presence of residual growth is a significant risk factor for recurrence. Ploidy was not found to be significantly correlated with recurrence.

  15. Renin-Angiotensin Inhibitors Decrease Recurrence after Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

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    Blute, Michael L; Rushmer, Timothy J; Shi, Fangfang; Fuller, Benjamin J; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Downs, Tracy M

    2015-11-01

    Prior reports suggest that renin-angiotensin system inhibition may decrease nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer recurrence. We evaluated whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker treatment at initial surgery was associated with decreased recurrence or progression in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Using an institutional bladder cancer database we identified 340 patients with data available on initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Progression was defined as an increase to stage T2. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations with recurrence-free and progression-free survival. Median patient age was 69.6 years. During a median followup of 3 years (IQR 1.3-6.1) 200 patients (59%) had recurrence and 14 (4.1%) had stage progression. Of those patients 143 were receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers at the time of the first transurethral resection. On univariate analysis factors associated with improved recurrence-free survival included carcinoma in situ (p = 0.040), bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (p = 0.003) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.87, p = 0.002) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, p = 0.005) were less likely to experience tumor recurrence. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 45.6% for patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers and 28.1% in those not treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (p = 0.009). Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer pathology (Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ) in 85 patients on bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy alone and in

  16. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

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    Chantal Scheepbouwer

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics.

  17. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Favaro, Francine P; Camargo, João Lauro V; Oliveira, Maria Luiza CS; Goldberg, José; Rainho, Cláudia A; Salvadori, Daisy MF

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  18. Microsatellite instability as prognostic marker in bladder tumors: a clinical significance

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    Mittal RD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of urinary bladder is one of the leading causes of death in India. Successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on the early detection & specific diagnostic approaches. In the present study, microsatellite instability (MSI has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in patients with superficial urinary bladder cancer in lower urinary tract for determining risk of recurrence. Methods A total of 44 patients with bladder tumors diagnosed with Transitional Cell Carcinomas [TCC] from lower urinary tract were selected for the study. Tumors were staged and graded according to AJCC-UICC (1997 classification and patients were followed with cystoscopy as per the protocol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was done to amplify microsatellite sequences at mononucleotide BAT – 26, BAT – 40, TGFβ RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, BAX and dinucleotide D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci in blood (control and tumor DNA. PCR products were separated on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by autoradiography. Results MSI was observed in 72.7% of tumors at BAT – 26, BAT – 40, D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci. Good association of MSI was seen with tumor stage and grade. MSI – High (instability at > 30% of loci was frequently observed in high stage (40.6% and high grade (59.4% tumors. Of 24 tumors of Ta-T1 stage with different grades, 11 (9/18 high grade and 2/6 low grade tumors recurred in the mean duration of 36 months. MSI positivity was significantly high in patients who had one or more recurrences (p = 0.02 for high grade and 0.04 for low grade tumors. Conclusions MSI may be an independent prognostic marker for assessing risk of recurrence in superficial tumors irrespective of the grade. Further studies on progression would help in stratifying the patients of T1G3 for early cystectomy vs bladder preservation protocol.

  19. Targeting bladder tumor cells in voided urine of Chinese patients with FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand

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    Jia XY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xing-You Jia1, Qi Yu2, Zhe-Hui Zhang3, Xiao-Feng Yang11School of the First Clinical Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 2Department of Information Management, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Research Center for Philosophy of Science and Technology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, ChinaObjective: To study the practicality of the FITC-CSNRDARRC peptide ligand (containing the Cys–Ser–Asn–Arg–Asp–Ala–Arg–Arg–Cys nonapeptide in diagnosing and monitoring bladder tumors.Materials and methods: Between March 2011 and September 2011, 80 consecutive patients with radiographic abnormalities, localizing hematuria, other symptoms, or signs were studied using the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand, urinary cytology (UC, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The sensitivity and specificity of these three technologies were determined and compared. Cystoscopy and tissue biopsy were taken as the “gold standards” for bladder tumor diagnosis in this study.Results: Twenty-nine out of 80 patients were diagnosed with a bladder tumor via histopathological examination. The FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was positive in 23 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in six (20.69% patients. The UC was positive in six out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in 23 (79.31% patients. The FISH was positive in 21 out of 29 bladder tumor patients and produced false negatives in eight (27.59% patients. The overall sensitivity as verified by the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand was much higher than in UC (79.31% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001 and was slightly higher than in FISH (79.31% versus 72.41%, P = 0.625. The sensitivity of FISH was significantly higher than that of UC (72.41% versus 20.69%, P < 0.001. Sensitivities of the FITC-CSNRDARRC ligand and UC by grade were 58.33% versus 8.3% for low-grade (LG tumors (P = 0.031 and 94.12% versus 29.41% for high-grade (HG tumors (P = 0.003, respectively

  20. Automatic T1 bladder tumor detection by using wavelet analysis in cystoscopy images

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    Freitas, Nuno R.; Vieira, Pedro M.; Lima, Estevão; Lima, Carlos S.

    2018-02-01

    Correct classification of cystoscopy images depends on the interpreter’s experience. Bladder cancer is a common lesion that can only be confirmed by biopsying the tissue, therefore, the automatic identification of tumors plays a significant role in early stage diagnosis and its accuracy. To our best knowledge, the use of white light cystoscopy images for bladder tumor diagnosis has not been reported so far. In this paper, a texture analysis based approach is proposed for bladder tumor diagnosis presuming that tumors change in tissue texture. As is well accepted by the scientific community, texture information is more present in the medium to high frequency range which can be selected by using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Tumor enhancement can be improved by using automatic segmentation, since a mixing with normal tissue is avoided under ideal conditions. The segmentation module proposed in this paper takes advantage of the wavelet decomposition tree to discard poor texture information in such a way that both steps of the proposed algorithm segmentation and classification share the same focus on texture. Multilayer perceptron and a support vector machine with a stratified ten-fold cross-validation procedure were used for classification purposes by using the hue-saturation-value (HSV), red-green-blue, and CIELab color spaces. Performances of 91% in sensitivity and 92.9% in specificity were obtained regarding HSV color by using both preprocessing and classification steps based on the DWT. The proposed method can achieve good performance on identifying bladder tumor frames. These promising results open the path towards a deeper study regarding the applicability of this algorithm in computer aided diagnosis.

  1. Multimodal in vivo MRI and NIRF imaging of bladder tumor using peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Exact detection and complete removal of cancer is a key point to minimize cancer recurrence. However, it is currently very difficult to detect small tumors inside human body and continuously monitor tumors using a non-invasive imaging modality. Presently, positron emission tomography (PET) can provide the most sensitive cancer images in the human body. However, PET imaging has very limited imaging time because they typically use isotopes with short halflives. PET imaging cannot also visualize anatomical information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide highresolution images inside the body but it has a low sensitivity, so MRI contrast agents are necessary to enhance the contrast of tumor. Near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has a good sensitivity to visualize tumor using optical probes, but it has a very limited tissue penetration depth. Therefore, we developed multi-modality nanoparticles for MRI based diagnosis and NIRF imaging based surgery of cancer. We utilized glycol chitosan of 350 nm as a vehicle for MRI contrast agents and NIRF probes. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles were conjugated with NIRF dye, Cy5.5 and bladder cancer targeting peptides to increase the internalization of cancer. For MR contrast effects, iron oxide based 22 nm nanocubes were physically loaded into the glycol chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in bladder tumor bearing mice. Our study suggests the potential of our nanoparticles by both MRI and NIRF imaging for tumor diagnosis and real-time NIRF image-guided tumor surgery.

  2. Tumor-Associated Macrophages Provide Significant Prognostic Information in Urothelial Bladder Cancer.

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    Minna M Boström

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of carcinogenesis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can be associated with either poor or improved prognosis, depending on their properties and polarization. Current knowledge of the prognostic significance of TAMs in bladder cancer is limited and was investigated in this study. We analyzed 184 urothelial bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor or radical cystectomy. CD68 (pan-macrophage marker, MAC387 (polarized towards type 1 macrophages, and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 (type 2 macrophages and lymphatic/blood vessels were detected immunohistochemically. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. High macrophage counts associated with a higher pT category and grade. Among patients undergoing transurethral resection, all studied markers apart from CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 were associated with increased risk of progression and poorer disease-specific and overall survival in univariate analyses. High levels of two macrophage markers (CD68/MAC387+/+ or CD68/CLEVER-1+/+ groups had an independent prognostic role after transurethral resection in multivariate analyses. In the cystectomy cohort, MAC387, alone and in combination with CD68, was associated with poorer survival in univariate analyses, but none of the markers were independent predictors of outcome in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophage phenotypes provide significant independent prognostic information, particularly in bladder cancers undergoing transurethral resection.

  3. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome

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    Antonio Marte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS. We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia.

  4. Prevention of bladder tumor implantion after fluorescence-guided TUR with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrahmoune, Saoussen; Bezdetnaya, Lina; de Witte, Peter; Leroux, Agnès; Dumas, Dominique; Guillemin, François; D'Hallewin, Marie Ange

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of bladder cancer is very high, due to its high recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer (30 to 85%), which is the staging of approximately 80% of the patients at first diagnosis. Risk of recurrence and progression is associated with grade, stage, presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ, size and number of lesions, as well as time to first recurrence. Recurrences can be partly attributed to new occurrences but also to residual tumors after resection. Incomplete tumor removal has been observed in 30 to 50% of TUR's, especially when dealing with T1 or poorly visible malignant or pre-malignant disease1. Fluorescence guided resection with 5 amino levulinic acid (ALA) or its hexyl ester derivative (Hexvix, has now unequivocally been demonstrated to increase detection rate and a growing number of studies indicate this has a positive impact on recurrence and progression ratesImplantation of viable tumor cells, dispersed during resection, is a third factor influencing bladder cancer recurrence. The aim of early intravesical therapy is to interfere with cell viability and thus reduce implantation risks.

  5. Intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy to treat T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor: results of a retrospective study

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    Zhang Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhang,1,* Linguo Xie,1,* Tao Chen,1,* Wanqin Xie,2 Zhouliang Wu,1 Hao Xu,1 Chen Xing,1 Nan Sha,1 Zhonghua Shen,1 Yunkai Qie,1 Xiaoteng Liu,1 Hailong Hu,1 Changli Wu1 1Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin, 2Key Laboratory of Genetics and Birth Health of Hunan Province, The Family Planning Research Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The management of stage 1 and grade 3 (T1G3 bladder cancer continues to be controversial. Although the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT followed by intravesical chemotherapy is a conservative strategy for treatment of T1G3 bladder cancer, a relatively high risk of tumor recurrence and progression remains regarding the therapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder cancer after TURBT surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 457 patients who were newly diagnosed with T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma between January 2009 and March 2014. After TURBT, 281 patients received intravesical chemotherapy alone, whereas 176 patients underwent intravesical chemotherapy in combination with intravenous chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence and progression were monitored periodically by urine cytology and cystoscopy in follow-up. Recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival of the two chemotherapy strategies following TURBT were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox hazards analyses were performed to predict the prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and progression. Results: The tumor recurrence rate was 36.7% for patients who received intravesical chemotherapy alone after TURBT, compared with 19.9% for patients who received intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy after

  6. WHO/ISUP classification of the urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder

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    Zdenka Ovčak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors present the current classification of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. The classification of urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of 1973 was despite some imperfection relatively successfuly used for more than thirty years. The three grade classification of papillary urothelial tumors without invasion has been based on evaluation of variations in architecture of covering epithelium and tumor cell anaplasia. As reccomended by the International Society of Urological Pathologists (ISUP, the World Health Organisation (WHO accepted the new WHO/ ISUP classification in 1998 that was revised in 2002 and finally published in 2004. With intention to avoid unnecessary diagnosis of cancer in patients having papillary urothelial tumors with rare invasive or metastastatic growth, this classification introduced a new entity, the papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential (PUNLMP. The additional change in classification was the division of invasive urothelial neoplasms only to low and high grade urothelial carcinomas.Conclusions: The authors’ opinion is that although the old classification is not recommended for use anymore the new one is not solving the elementary reproaches to previous classification such as terminological unsuitability and insufficient scientific reasoning. Our proposed solution in classification of papillary urothelial neoplasms would be the application of criteria analogous to that used in diagnostics of papillary noninvasive tumors of the head and neck or alimentary tract.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of urinary bladder carcinoma: tumor staging and gadolinium contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringer, E.; Joos, H.; Forstner, R.; Schmoller, H.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with urinary bladder carcinomas underwent pre-operative examinations using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The results of the MR examinations were correlated with the clinical-pathological findings following transurethral resection (TUR) and bimanual palpation (n = 47) or radical cystectomy (n = 2). The results of pre-contrast MR tumor staging (T1, T2), viewing stages Tis-T2 collectively, and subsequent to separate assessments of stages T3b-T4b, were correct 76.6% of the time. Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) contrast-enhanced examinations (pre-contrast T1 and after Gd-DTPA) showed a staging accuracy rate of 85.7%. T2-weighted images did not indicate any advantage when compared to T1-weighted images following Gd-DTPA. The signal intensity ratios of tumor/fat and tumor/muscle tissue were measured on T1-weighted pre-contrast images and following Gd-DTPA and then evaluated statistically, whereby the increased tumor signal intensity was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.01). Due to the relatively short examination time needed for T1-weighted images and the specific tumor enhancement, the administration of Gd-DTPA proves valuable in the diagnosis of bladder carcinomas. T2-weighted images are not necessary. (orig.)

  8. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the primary tumor in muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Patients with muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder were examined with contrast-enhanced CT of the primary tumor. A specially designed technique was developed to increase the diagnostic potential of CT. The most important points about the technique were controlled filling of the bladder, the use of thin slices, series of scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium, and long scanning times in the precontrast series. The absorbed dose to the patient resulting from the new technique was found to be within the range of the dose from urography or barium enema. This dose was considered to be acceptable given the diagnostic gain of the procedure. Features of irradiated bladder tumors were analysed to find which parameter correlated with persistent malignancy. High contrast enhancement of a tumor relative to the bladder wall was found to be the best indicator of a malignant tumour after irradiation. 127 refs

  9. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

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    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  10. Gamma-Klotho exhibits multiple roles in tumor growth of human bladder cancer.

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    Hori, Shunta; Miyake, Makito; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Morizawa, Yosuke; Nakai, Yasushi; Onishi, Sayuri; Onishi, Kenta; Iida, Kota; Gotoh, Daisuke; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2018-04-13

    Alpha-Klotho (KLα) and beta-Klotho (KLβ) have recently been reported to correlate with cancer prognosis in some malignancies and we previously reported the association between KLα, KLβ, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB), indicating that KLβ acts as a tumor promoter. However, the association between gamma-Klotho (KLγ) and cancer prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association between KLγ and UCB. To evaluate the effect of KLγ on human bladder cancer cell lines in vitro assays were performed. Exogenous KLγ increased the ability of human bladder cancer cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, form colonies, and provide anchorage-independent growth potential. In in vivo assays, eighteen mice bearing xenografts inoculated using UM-UC-3, were randomly divided into three groups and treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) by intratumoral administration once a week for four weeks. Knockdown of KLγ with siRNA led to a dramatic change in tumor growth and suggested that KLγ had effects on tumor growth, including promotion of cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To confirm the study, human tissue samples were used and patients were divided into two groups according to KLγ expression level. High expression of KLγ was significantly associated with higher stage and grade cancer and the presence of lymphovascular invasion compared to patients with lower expression of KLγ. Our results suggest that KLγ plays an important role in tumor invasion and progression and these results may lead to the development of new therapies and diagnostic methods for UCB.

  11. Centrosome clustering and cyclin D1 gene amplification in double minutes are common events in chromosomal unstable bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Javier del; Prat, Esther; Ponsa, Immaculada; Lloreta, Josep; Gelabert, Antoni; Algaba, Ferran; Camps, Jordi; Miró, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Aneuploidy, centrosome abnormalities and gene amplification are hallmarks of chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer. Yet there are no studies of the in vivo behavior of these phenomena within the same bladder tumor. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded bladder tumors were analyzed by conventional comparative genome hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cyclin D1 gene (CCND1)/centromere 11 dual-color probe. Immunofluorescent staining of α, β and γ tubulin was also performed. Based on the CIN index, defined as the percentage of cells not displaying the modal number for chromosome 11, tumors were classified as CIN-negative and CIN-positive. Fourteen out of 21 tumors were considered CIN-positive. All T1G3 tumors were included in the CIN-positive group whereas the majority of Ta samples were classified as CIN-negative tumors. Centrosome clustering was observed in six out of 12 CIN-positive tumors analyzed. CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions was present in six out of 14 CIN-positive tumors; three of them also showed amplification of this gene in double minutes. Complex in vivo behavior of CCND1 amplicon in bladder tumor cells has been demonstrated by accurate FISH analysis on paraffin-embedded tumors. Positive correlation between high heterogeneity, centrosome abnormalities and CCND1 amplification was found in T1G3 bladder carcinomas. This is the first study to provide insights into the coexistence of CCND1 amplification in homogeneously staining regions and double minutes in primary bladder tumors. It is noteworthy that those patients whose tumors showed double minutes had a significantly shorter overall survival rate (p < 0.001)

  12. Expression of RFC/SLC19A1 is associated with tumor type in bladder cancer patients.

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    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder cancer (UBC ranks ninth in worldwide cancer. In Egypt, the pattern of bladder cancer is unique in that both the transitional and squamous cell types prevail. Despite much research on the topic, it is still difficult to predict tumor progression, optimal therapy and clinical outcome. The reduced folate carrier (RFC/SLC19A1 is the major transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. RFC is also the primary means of cellular uptake for antifolate cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, however, membrane transport of antifolates by RFC is considered as limiting to antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression level of RFC/SLC19A1 in urothelial and non-urothelial variants of bladder carcinomas. Quantification of RFC mRNA in the mucosa of 41 untreated bladder cancer patients was performed using RT-qPCR. RFC mRNA steady-state levels were ∼9-fold higher (N = 39; P<0.0001 in bladder tumor specimens relative to normal bladder mRNA. RFC upregulation was strongly correlated with tumor type (urothelial vs. non-urothelial; p<0.05 where median RFC mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the urothelial (∼14-fold compared to the non-urothelial (∼4-fold variant. This may account for the variation in response to antifolate-containing regimens used in the treatment of either type. RFC mRNA levels were not associated with tumor grade (I, II and III or stage (muscle-invasive vs. non-muscle invasive implying that RFC cannot be used for prognostic purposes in bladder carcinomas and its increased expression is an early event in human bladder tumors pathogenesis. Further, RFC can be considered as a potential marker for predicting response to antifolate chemotherapy in urothelial carcinomas.

  13. Evaluation of Urinary Nuclear Matrix Protein-22 as Tumor Marker Versus Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen in Bilharzial and Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.A.; El-Kabany, H.

    2004-01-01

    Urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP-22) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) were determined as potential marker for early detection of bladder tumors in patients with high risk (Bilharzial-patients), monitoring and follow up bladder cancer patients. The objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of markers for bilharzial and cancer lesions. The levels of two parameters were determined pre and post operation. A total of 110 individuals, 20 healthy, 20 bilharzial patients and 70 bladder cancer patients with confirmed diagnosis were investigated. Urine samples were assayed for NMP-22 and TPS test kits. Some bladder cancer patients were selected to follow up. NMP-22 showed highly significant increase (P,0.001) more than TPS (P<0.01) in bladder cancer patients when compared with bilharzial and control group. Overall sensitivity is 7.8% for TPS and 98.5% for NMP-22

  14. Malignant degree of tumor and degree of trauma after HOLBT and TURBT treatment of superficial bladder cancer

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    Yi-Qin Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the malignant degree of tumor and degree of trauma after holmium laser resection of bladder tumor (HOLBT and transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Methods: A total of 76 cases of patients with superficial bladder cancer were included for study and divided into observation group 38 cases and control group 38 cases according to different surgical methods. Control group received TURBT, observation group received HOLBT, and then differences in the values of postoperative serum illness-related indicators, bladder cancer-related mRNA expression, bladder cancer tissue-related protein expression, surgical trauma-related indicators, etc. were compared between two groups. Results: Postoperative serum CIP2A, HGF, SE-cad, TSGF, DKK-1, YKL-40 and sFas values of observation group were lower than those of control group; postoperative focus HSG, p16 and MRP-1/CD9 mRNA expression levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while Med-19 mRNA expression level was lower than that of control group; postoperative focus ZEB1, Cripto-1, Sox2, Survivin, Livin and zeste protein expression levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while E-cadherin expression level was higher than that of control group; early postoperative FBG and HOMA-IR values of observation group were lower than those of control group while PTA and FIB values were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: HOLBT can effectively remove superficial bladder cancer foci and reduce the malignant degree of tumor, causes less surgical trauma and is an ideal surgical treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  15. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

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    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  16. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Bladder: 2 Rare Cases Managed with Laparoscopic Partial Cystectomy

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    Sofia Santos Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT of the bladder are reported here. Both patients were male and presented with macroscopic hematuria; in the first case terminal hematuria was associated with irritative voiding symptoms. The second case was a smoker with hematuria unresponsive to medical treatment and anemia. Clinical presentation, pathological features, treatment, and prognosis are discussed. Due to rarity of this pathological condition, there are no guidelines concerning treatment and follow-up. We present our follow-up scheme and highlight the use of laparoscopic partial cystectomy as a successful treatment approach.

  17. Orthotopic ureterocele masquerading as a bladder tumor in a woman with pelvic pain

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    David D. Thiel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Single system orthotopic ureteroceles often present in adulthood are associated with characteristic radiographic findings. We present the case of a 54 year old woman with 8 months of urgency/frequency and pelvic pain that has the cystoscopic appearance of a bladder tumor. Cystoscopic images, radiographs and intraoperative photos demonstrate the work-up, evaluation, and treatment of this unique single system orthotopic ureterocele containing a calculus. This patient demonstrates the need for cystoscopy accompanied by upper tract imaging in patients with new onset pelvic pain, urgency/frequency, and frequent urinary tract infections.

  18. The effect of chemotherapy with or without radiation on the accuracy of MR imaging for evaluating tumor infiltration into the bladder wall in cases of advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazushige; Satou, Yuji; Nannri, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Staging of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall is one of the critical points in decision-making for optimal treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We studied the correlation of MR findings with pathological diagnosis in cases of invasive bladder cancer which had been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation. Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with invasive bladder tumors who underwent either partial cystectomy or radical cystectomy were entered into the study. Eight cases had received chemotherapy after staging biopsy (Group A), 6 cases had undergone chemo-radiation therapy following staging biopsy (Group B), and 7 cases had received no adjuvant therapy except for staging biopsy preoperatively (Group C). All cases had MR imaging study before surgical treatment. The pathological stage was assessed by examining the whole layer of the resected bladder wall. Pathological diagnosis was pT0 in 4 cases, pT1 in 2 cases, pT2b in 5 cases, pT3a in 2 cases and pT3b in 8 cases. Staging with MR imaging was consistent with pathological findings in 14 of the 21 cases (66.7%), while MR imaging produced over-staging in 6 cases and under-staging in 1 case. Of the 6 cases with over-staging, 2 cases had received chemo-radiation therapy, 2 cases had received chemotherapy, and 2 cases had received staging biopsy alone preoperatively. The one case with under-staging had received chemo-radiation therapy preoperatively. The accuracy in staging with MR imaging was 75.0% (6/8), 50.0% (3/6), and 71.4% (5/7) in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Imaging study with MR is useful for the staging of invasive bladder cancer. However, care should be taken in the staging of invasive bladder tumors which have been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, because inflammatory infiltration and/or fibrous change caused by the chemo-radiation make accurate staging with MR imaging difficult. (author)

  19. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Walker, M.C.; Masters, J.R.; Hill, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  20. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  1. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  2. Hypoxic exosomes facilitate bladder tumor growth and development through transferring long non-coding RNA-UCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Chen, Wei; Xiang, An; Wang, Ruiqi; Chen, He; Pan, Jingjing; Pang, Huan; An, Hongli; Wang, Xiang; Hou, Huilian; Li, Xu

    2017-08-25

    To overcome the hostile hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, tumor cells secrete a large number of non-coding RNA-containing exosomes that facilitate tumor development and metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms of tumor cell-derived exosomes during hypoxia are unknown. Here, we aim to clarify whether hypoxia affects tumor growth and progression by transferring long non-coding RNA-urothelial cancer-associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) enriched exosomes secreted from bladder cancer cells. We used bladder cancer 5637 cells with high expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as exosome-generating cells and bladder cancer UMUC2 cells with low expression of lncRNA-UCA1 as recipient cells. Exosomes derived from 5637 cells cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions were isolated and identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting analysis. These exosomes were co-cultured with UMUC2 cells to evaluate cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We further investigated the roles of exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 derived from hypoxic 5637 cells by xenograft models. The availability of lncRNA-UCA1 in serum-derived exosomes as a biomarker for bladder cancer was also assessed. We found that hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and hypoxic exosomal RNAs could be internalized by three bladder cancer cell lines. Importantly, lncRNA-UCA1 was secreted in hypoxic 5637 cell-derived exosomes. Compared with normoxic exosomes, hypoxic exosomes derived from 5637 cells showed the higher expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1. Moreover, Hypoxic exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 could promote tumor growth and progression though epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the expression levels of lncRNA-UCA1 in the human serum-derived exosomes of bladder cancer patients were higher than that in the healthy controls. Together, our results demonstrate that hypoxic bladder cancer cells remodel tumor

  3. Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Induced Cell Apoptosis and S Phase Arrest in Bladder Tumor

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    Xi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs on the viability and apoptosis of human bladder cancer cells. EJ and T24 cells were cocultured with ADSCs or cultured with conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM, respectively. The cell counting and colony formation assay showed ADSCs inhibited the proliferation of EJ and T24 cells. Cell viability assessment revealed that the secretions of ADSCs, in the form of conditioned medium, were able to decrease cancer cell viability. Wound-healing assay suggested ADSC-CM suppressed migration of T24 and EJ cells. Moreover, the results of the flow cytometry indicated that ADSC-CM was capable of inducing apoptosis of T24 cells and inducing S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot revealed ADSC-CM increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, indicating that ADSC-CM induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent way. PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins were involved in the mechanism of this reaction. Our study indicated that ADSCs may provide a promising and practicable manner for bladder tumor therapy.

  4. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

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    D. A. Golovina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  5. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

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    D. A. Golovina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  6. Bladder cancers respond to intravesical instillation of HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Gustafsson, Lotta; Månsson, Wiking; Ljunggren, Eva; Svanborg, Catharina

    2007-09-15

    We studied if bladder cancers respond to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) to establish if intravesical HAMLET application might be used to selectively remove cancer cells in vivo. Patients with nonmuscle invasive transitional cell carcinomas were included. Nine patients received 5 daily intravesical instillations of HAMLET (25 mg/ml) during the week before scheduled surgery. HAMLET stimulated a rapid increase in the shedding of tumor cells into the urine, daily, during the 5 days of instillation. The effect was specific for HAMLET, as intravesical instillation of NaCl, PBS or native alpha-lactalbumin did not increase cell shedding. Most of the shed cells were dead and an apoptotic response was detected in 6 of 9 patients, using the TUNEL assay. At surgery, morphological changes in the exophytic tumors were documented by endoscopic photography and a reduction in tumor size or change in tumor character was detected in 8 of 9 patients. TUNEL staining was positive in biopsies from the remaining tumor in 4 patients but adjacent healthy tissue showed no evidence of apoptosis and no toxic response. The results suggest that HAMLET exerts a direct and selective effect on bladder cancer tissue in vivo and that local HAMLET administration might be of value in the future treatment of bladder cancers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Bladder cancer in patients after previous irradiation for treatment of tumors of the organs of the lesser pelvis

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    O. S. Strel’tsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article presents clinical cases of bladder cancer (BC developed after previous irradiation and diagnosed in flat suspicious area by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT based on analysis of characteristics of scattered light, and with histological material confirmed by nonlinear microscopy.Objective: to present clinical cases and features of BC diagnosis in presence of radiation-induced changes.Materials and methods. Intra-vitam examination of the bladder mucosa was performed using the OKT 1300-U system (Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhniy Novgorod. Areas that appeared malignant per CP-OCT data were biopsied. Apart from traditional examination of histological samples with hematoxylin and eosin staining, tissue samples were analyzed using nonlinear microscopy in the mode of second harmonic generation (collagen state analysis and emission of two-photon fluorescence excitation (elastin state analysis.Results are presented through 2 cases of BC in patients with side effects of radiation therapy of varying severity. CP-OCT allowed in-life differentiation of areas of post-radiation inflammatory changes and malignant tumors developed as a result. Nonlinear microscopy provided information on the state of connective tissue matrix of the bladder in the context of radiation changes and transition to tumor.Conclusion. Radiation changes of the bladder mucosa, especially severe ones, can conceal development of malignant tumors. Use of optical methods helps in differential diagnosis of cancer and post-radiation changes of the bladder. CP-OCT is an optimal noninvasive method of examination of the bladder mucosa during cystoscopy. Demonstration of clinical material is aimed at practicing urologists to increase their vigilance in relation to possible BC in patients who underwent radiation therapy of the organs of the lesser pelvis.

  8. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

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    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D{sub 99%} for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V{sub 95%} for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD{sub 99%} (D{sub 99%,} {sub option} {sub n} - D{sub 99%,} {sub treatment} {sub plan}) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD{sub 99%} of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD{sub 99%} for PTV{sub bladder} was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V{sub 95%} for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective

  9. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D 99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V 95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD 99% (D 99%, option n - D 99%, treatment plan ) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD 99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD 99% for PTV bladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V 95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on tumor for the boost separately gives on average the best

  10. LncRNA-SNHG16 predicts poor prognosis and promotes tumor proliferation through epigenetically silencing p21 in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianxiang; Xu, Jing; Yue, Dong

    2018-02-01

    More and more evidences have ensured the crucial functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in multiple tumors. It has been discovered that lncRNA-SNHG16 is involved in many tumors. Even so, it is still necessary to study SNHG16 comprehensively in bladder cancer. In terms of our study, the level of SNHG16 both in the tumor tissues and cell lines was measured and the relationship among SNHG16, clinicopathological traits and prognosis was explored. Interference assays were applied to determine the biological functions of SNHG16. It was discovered that the level of SNHG16 was evidently enhanced both in tissues and cell lines of bladder cancer. Patients with highly expressed SNHG16 suffered from poor overall survival. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis implied that highly expressed SNHG16 could be used as an independent prognostic marker. It could be known from functional assays that silenced SNHG16 impaired cell proliferation, owing to the effects of SNHG16 on cell cycle and apoptosis. Finally, mechanism experiments revealed that SNHG16 could epigenetically silence the expression of p21. The facts above pointed out that lncRNA-SNHG16 might be quite vital for the diagnosis and development of bladder cancer, and could even become an important therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

  11. Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors: Next-generation Virtual Reality Training for Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eva; Mayer, Julian; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Amend, Bastian; Rausch, Steffen; Deininger, Susanne; Harland, Niklas; da Costa, Inês Anselmo; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Stenzl, Arnulf; Kruck, Stephan; Bedke, Jens

    2018-05-22

    The number of virtual reality (VR) simulators is increasing. The aim of this prospective trial was to determine the benefit of VR cystoscopy (UC) and transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT) training in students. Medical students without endoscopic experience (n=51, median age=25 yr, median 4th academic year) were prospectively randomized into groups A and B. After an initial VR-UC and VR-TURBT task, group A (n=25) underwent a video-based tutorial by a skilled expert. Group B (n=26) was trained using a VR training program (Uro-Trainer). Following the training, every participant performed a final VR-UC and VR-TURBT task. Performance indicators were recorded via the simulator. Data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test. VR cystoscopy and TURBT. No baseline and post-training differences were found for VR-UC between groups. During baseline, VR-TURBT group A showed higher inspected bladder surface than group B (56% vs 73%, p=0.03). Subgroup analysis detected differences related to sex before training (male: 31.2% decreased procedure time; 38.1% decreased resectoscope movement; p=0.02). After training, significant differences in procedure time (3.9min vs 2.7min, p=0.007), resectoscope movement (857mm vs 529mm, p=0.005), and accidental bladder injury (n=3.0 vs n=0.88, p=0.003) were found. Male participants showed reduced blood loss (males: 3.92ml vs females: 10.12ml; p=0.03) after training. Measuring endoscopic skills within a virtual environment can be done easily. Short training improved efficacy and safety of VR-TURBT. Nevertheless, transfer of improved VR performance into real world surgery needs further clarification. We investigated how students without endoscopic experience profit from simulation-based training. The safe environment and repeated simulations can improve the surgical training. It may be possible to enhance patient's safety and the training of surgeons in long term. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Maarten CCM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. Methods For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1, correction on bony anatomy (option 2, on tumor only (option 3 and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4. For each method we analyzed the D99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. Results CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD99% (D99%, option n - D99%, treatment plan for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD99% for PTVbladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Conclusions Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on

  13. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cell detection in bladder and urothelial cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The diagnostic value and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in patients with bladder cancer is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to consolidate current evidence regarding the use of CTC detection assays to diagnose bladder and other urothelial cancers and the association of CTC positivity with advanced, remote disease. Studies that investigated the presence of CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with bladder cancer and/or urothelial cancer were identified and reviewed. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive (LR+) and negative likelihood ratios (LR-) of CTC detection in individual studies were calculated and meta-analyzed by random effects model. Overall odds ratio of CTC positivity in patients with advanced disease versus those with organ-confined cancer was also calculated. Overall sensitivity of CTC detection assays was 35.1% (95%CI, 32.4-38%); specificity, LR+, and LR- was 89.4% (95%CI, 87.2-91.3%), 3.77 (95%CI, 1.95-7.30) and 0.72 (95%CI, 0.64-0.81). CTC-positive patients were significantly more likely to have advanced (stage III-IV) disease compared with CTC-negative patients (OR, 5.05; 95%CI, 2.49-10.26). CTC evaluation can confirm tumor diagnosis and identify patients with advanced bladder cancer. However, due to the low overall sensitivity, CTC detection assays should not be used as initial screening tests

  14. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  15. Bladder cancer: The combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    1996-01-01

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery irradiation, and cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Many recent publications have now documented the efficacy of combined modality treatment protocols employing all three of these modalities together. All employ a selective approach in which the patients only receive full-dose radiation if they have had a complete response to induction CMT. Overall survival data for T2-T3a patients are certainly as good as any reported cystectomy series of similarly clinically staged and similar aged patients. Radiation adds very significantly to the transurethral resection and systemic chemotherapy to maintain the bladder free of tumor. Substantially higher rates of pathologic confirmation of complete response are found following transurethral surgery and chemoradiation when compared with transurethral surgery and chemotherapy omitting the radiation. Overall survival is as good as cystectomy based approaches at 48-54% and over 80% of these long-term survivors keep their bladders. Following such therapies, 20-30% will subsequently develop superficial tumors. These patients may still be well treated by standard methods using transurethral resection and intravesical drugs. The concern of urologists that the conserved irradiated bladder functions poorly has also been answered by recent reports using modern radiation techniques. The instance of cystectomy for bladder shrinkage is repeatedly below 2%. Furthermore, sexual function is commonly preserved. The systemic morbidity of the chemotherapy is relatively high, but new approached using anti-emetics and GCSF now allow this to be reduced. In many

  16. The role of succinylcholine in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesur, M.; Erdem, Ali F.; Alici, Haci A.; Yuksek, Mustafa S.; Yapanoglu, T.; Aksoy, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to present our 8 year experience in the prevention of the obturator nerve reflex during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. This study was performed in Ataturk University Hospital between 1999 and 2007. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 89 patients with inferolateral bladder tumors, who underwent transurethral resection under epidural or general anesthesia and requested obturator nerve reflex inhibition. Epidural anesthesia was administered to 57 patients, while the remaining 32 patients underwent general anesthesia via mask; and succinylcholine was administered prior to resection. Of the 57 patients received epidural anesthesia, 18 were diagnosed as inferolateral bladder tumors during endoscopy and had to undergo general anesthesia. Obturator nerve block was attempted preoperatively in 39 patients. However, a nerve identification failure, hematoma and 4 obturator nerve reflex events, despite the block, were observed and these patients were subjected to general anesthesia with succinylcholine. Fifty-six patients (32 patients initially had general anesthesia and 24 converted from epidural to general anesthesia) were all given succinylcholine prior to resection. Due to its mechanisms of action, succinylcholine is completely effective and represents a simple alternative to obturator nerve block. No contraction was observed in any patient given succinylcholine. (author)

  17. Clinical usefulness of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 as tumor markers for urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Hirai, Masaru; Matsuzaki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 levels for the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 were measured in 85 patients with bladder cancer. The absolute level of each marker and the positive rate were compared with the clinical stage and histological grade of the tumor. Changes of the markers were assessed in patients with or without disease progression, and the correlations between survival and positivity/negativity of these markers were also evaluated. A higher serum level of CYFRA 21-1 was significantly correlated with higher tumor stage (p CEA and CA19-9 levels did not differ significantly among each stage and grade. The CYFRA 21-1 level increased significantly along with disease progression (from 7.33 ± 13.3 to 55.9 ± 127 ng/ml, p marker of advanced- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. It is useful for monitoring this disease and for predicting the prognosis. In contrast, the clinical usefulness of CEA and CA19-9 as tumor markers was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A radiologic evaluation of bladder tumors on barium air double contrast cystography and triple-fractionated cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, W. J.; Jang, H. Y.; Sol, C. H.; Kim, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically bladder tumors can be easily diagnosed on cystoscopic examination and biopsy in the patients with silent hematuria, terminal dribbling and dysuria. But for the evaluation of the extent of tumor invasion, the authors performed both barium-air double contrast and triple-fractionated cystography on 16 patients suspected to be bladder tumor on cystoscopic examination in the radiologic department of B.N.U.H. from September 1982 to August 1983. The obtained results were summarized as follows. 1. On barium-air double contrast cystography and triple-fractionated cystography, 13 cases were concluded as bladder tumor, and 3 cases were consistent with the findings of chronic inflammation out of the total 16 cases. 2. After operation of 15 cases, 12 cases were confirmed pathologically as transitional cell carcinoma, 1 case as prostatic hypertrophy, and 2 cases as chronic inflammation. Remaining one was biopsied on cystoscopic examination, and confirmed as chronic inflammation. 3. Among 9 cases of transitional cell carcinoma having the evidence of muscle invasion on triple- fractionated cystography, 8 cases were confirmed as more than stage B 1 on pathologic study, and the other as chronic inflammation. 4. In detecting multiplicity, presence of ulceration, and evaluation of nature of tumor surface, barium- air double contrast cystogrpahy was more excellent than cystoscopic results. 5. Cases presenting both ulceration and cauliflower appearance on barium- air double contrast cystography was more than grade III on microscopic evaluation. 6. In conclusion, the authors considers the barium-air double contrast and triple-fractionated cystography are easy to perform, reasonable in price and have relatively high accuracy in tumor detection, staging and grading.

  19. [Descriptive study of bladder tumors in the district of Levante-Alto Almanzora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita Rosino, E; Jiménez Verdejo, A; Mellado Mesa, P; López Hidalgo, J; Sánchez Fornieles, E; Grau Civit, J

    2001-06-01

    We present our series of operater bladder cancers in this District and the annual incidence in the period 1996 at 1998, as web as they are distributed by sex, age and smoking in the population; neoplasic stage and relapse were also studied. 61 patients were treated and un found global half incidence of 19.8 for 10(5) inhabitant-year (h-a), while for sexes it was of 4.22 for 10(5) h-y for women and of 15.58 for 10(5) h-y males. 78.69% was male with a masculinity rate of 3.69. The most frequent age group was starting from the seventh decade with 50.81% of our series. There was 36% of intervened patients that they were smoking, while 29.5% had relationship with other factors of risk like hydrocarbons and pesticidas. The superficial tumors were the most frequent with 86.88% of the cases, on the other hand the undifferentiated neoplastics was not very frequent with 13.21%, increasing these neoplastics with the age. In the follow up there were relapses in 36% of the people, being bigger in the T1 of our series. The occupational factors in this district can explain the high frequency in the female sex, although analytic studies are needed to check it.

  20. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  1. Prospective evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on the bladder tumor-associated (BTA) urine test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Clark, Maureen M.; Bissonette, Eric A.; Theodorescu, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the results of the bladder tumor-associated antigen (BTA) test. By examining this question, we sought to determine its potential use as a monitoring test for the detection of recurrent transitional carcinoma of the bladder in patients who have received prior radiotherapy for bladder preservation. Materials and Methods: Between February 1996 and April 1997, 18 patients with nonbladder pelvic malignancies and no history of bladder cancer, received irradiation to the bladder. These patients were prospectively evaluated using the BTA test at the end of the external-beam radiation (EBRT) and at 3-month follow-up intervals. Urine cytology was analyzed in 16 of the 18 patients at the end of EBRT. A median of 3 separate measurements were made (range 1-6) on each patient. The median dose of EBRT was 50.4 Gy (range 30-68Gy). Seven patients underwent brachytherapy as part of their treatment course. BTA results and time intervals were recorded and analyzed using univariate and Kaplan-Meyer methodologies. Results: A total of 10 (56%) of the 18 patients had a positive BTA test at some time following completion of EBRT. Of the 10 positive tests, 9 returned to negative in a median of 42 weeks from completion of EBRT. Treatment with chemotherapy, brachytherapy, calculated bladder dose, and total external beam dose did not significantly influence either the number of positive tests or the time to resolution of the positive test in this small group of patients. All screened urine samples were negative for malignant cells and 11 (69%) of 16 showed changes consistent with ionizing radiation. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that ionizing radiation can cause transient positive results in the BTA test, but that these normalize with time. Although it requires further testing, it seems that the BTA test may be useful in the detection of recurrence in patients with bladder cancer who have been treated with

  2. Levels of some molecular and biochemical tumor markers in Egyptian patients with different grades and stages of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-elgoad, E.I.; Elkashef, H.S.; Hanfy, A.; El-maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    This study enrolled 64 patients with bladder cancer disease, 54 of them treated by surgery and 10 by radiotherapy. The patients were classified according to their clinical data that include infection with bilharziasis, grade, stage and type of tumor. The present study included determination of telomerase activity in tissue and urine using molecular methods and the levels of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and fibronectin in urine. The applied tumor markers showed significant differences in malignant patients compared to control. The same picture was noticed in case of patients received radiotherapy but less pronounced. The results revealed that there is significant correlation between the three tumor markers and the grade of tumor, while NMP22 and fibronectin correlated with stage. Moreover, fibronectin only have significant correlation with the infection with the bilharziasis. The results indicated that determination of telomerase, fibronectin and NMP22 can give clear idea about the development of malignancy and may help in the prediction of cancer recurrence

  3. Role of Loss of Heterozygosity on Chromosomes 8 and 9 in the Development and Progression of Cancer Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, A.A.; El-Husseini, M.I.; Abo-Zeid, H.I.; Ismail, M.; El-Khor, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor samples is believed to be a marker for the absence of a functional tumor suppressor gene. Non-random chromosome deletion and LOH at specific chromosomal regions are identified in a number of common human cancers including carcinoma of the bladder, which is considered the most predominant cancer in Egypt due to the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Purpose: The main objective of the present study is to clarify the role of chromosomes 8 and 9 in the establishment and/or progression of schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer through detection of LOH of 8 micro satellite markers on both chromosomes. It also aims to compare the LOH pattern of the tested markers between schistosomiasis-associated and non schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Material and Methods: To achieve this purpose, DNA was extracted from the tumor specimens and the corresponding peripheral blood samples of 42 primary bladder cancer patients (schistosomal and non schistosomal). Twenty nine of these were diagnosed as squamous cell type (SCC), II were transitional (TCC), and 2 were adenocarcinoma (with different stages and grades). LOH at chromosomes 8 and 9 was evaluated for 8 highly polymorphic micro satellite markers distributed at different regions of both chromosomes using the dinucleotide repeat-PCR technique. The overall percentage of LOH in chromosome 8 was 74% in at least one marker. The highest incidence of LOH was recorded for D8S84 (41 %) followed by 37% for D8S87, 29% for D8S85, and 25% for D8S88. Deletions at chromosome 8 were shown to be associated with high grade of the tumor and LOH at D8S85 was associated with metastatic lymph nodes. The overall percentage of LOH in chromosome 9 was 54% and its highest incidence was for D9S 126 (36%), followed by 26%, 21 %, 19% for D9S166, D9S128 and D9S180, respectively. Fifty nine percent (59%) of the cases with LOH at 9q were diagnosed as squamous cell type (SCC), whereas 9% only were transitional cell type

  4. Design of peptide-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) in vivo imaging of bladder tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects for tumor treatment have been utilized as a representative strategy to accumulate untargeted nanoparticles in the blood vessels around tumors. However, the EPR effect itself was not sufficient for the nanoparticles to penetrate into cancer cells. For the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of cancer using nanoparticles, many more nanoparticles need to specifically enter cancer cells. Otherwise, can leave the tumor area and not contribute to treatment. In order to enhance the internalization process, specific ligands on nanoparticles can help their specific internalization in cancer cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. We previously developed glycol chitosan based nanoparticles that suggested a promising possibility for in vivo tumor imaging using the EPR effect. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles showed a long circulation time beyond 1 day and they were accumulated predominantly in tumor. In this study, we evaluated two peptides for specific targeting and better internalization into urinary bladder cancer cells. We conjugated the peptides on to the glycol chitosan nanoparticles; the peptide-conjugated nanoparticles were also labeling with near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye, Cy5.5, to visualize them by optical imaging in vivo. Importantly real-time NIRF imaging can also be used for fluorescence (NIRF)-guided surgery of tumors beyond normal optical penetration depths. The peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles were characterized with respect to size, stability and zeta-potential and compared with previous nanoparticles without ligands in terms of their internalization into bladder cancer cells. This study demonstrated the possibility of our nanoparticles for tumor imaging and emphasized the importance of specific targeting peptides.

  5. Androgenic dependence of exophytic tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer: a role for thrombospondin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jorge L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Steroid hormones influence mitogenic signaling pathways, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoints, and it has long been known that incidence of bladder cancer (BC in men is several times greater than in women, a difference that cannot be attributed to environmental or lifestyle factors alone. Castration reduces incidence of chemically-induced BC in rodents. It is unclear if this effect is due to hormonal influences on activation/deactivation of carcinogens or a direct effect on urothelial cell proliferation or other malignant processes. We examined the effect of castration on BC growth in UPII-SV40T transgenic mice, which express SV40 T antigen specifically in urothelium and reliably develop BC. Furthermore, because BC growth in UPII-SV40T mice is exophytic, we speculated BC growth was dependent on angiogenesis and angiogenesis was, in turn, androgen responsive. Methods Flat panel detector-based cone beam computed tomography (FPDCT was used to longitudinally measure exophytic BC growth in UPII-SV40T male mice sham-operated, castrated, or castrated and supplemented with dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Human normal bladder and BC biopsies and mouse bladder were examined quantitatively for thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 protein expression. Results Mice castrated at 24 weeks of age had decreased BC volumes at 32 weeks compared to intact mice (p = 0.0071 and castrated mice administered DHT (p = 0.0233; one-way ANOVA, JMP 6.0.3, SAS Institute, Inc.. Bladder cancer cell lines responded to DHT treatment with increased proliferation, regardless of androgen receptor expression levels. TSP1, an anti-angiogenic factor whose expression is inhibited by androgens, had decreased expression in bladders of UPII-SV40T mice compared to wild-type. Castration increased TSP1 levels in UPII-SV40T mice compared to intact mice. TSP1 protein expression was higher in 8 of 10 human bladder biopsies of normal versus malignant tissue from the same patients. Conclusion

  6. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in an Arab woman with history of squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Meshaan, Mohd Khaled; Nayef, Marwan; Kwaider, Talal; Otto, Wolfgang; Katchy, Ken C

    2009-04-29

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the urinary bladder are rare and tend to occur in an older age group than do their counterparts in bones and soft tissue. We report a case of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old woman of Arab origin. She had undergone transurethral resection followed by chemotherapy because of pulmonary metastasized muscle-invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in 2005. One year later, she first presented with a history of repeated hematuria in our institution. Performing cystoscopy any tumor could be detected. Control cystoscopy two months later showed a tumor mass of 3 cm in diameter at another location than described for the first tumor. After perforating by transurethral resection partial bladder resection had to be done. Tissue specimen after pathological analysis revealed a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor with tumor cells reactive to cluster of differentiation 99, neuron-specific enolase and S100 protein and stained negative for other markers such as cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, smooth muscle actin, chromogranin and leucocyte common antigen. Staging computerized tomography was especially free from any hint on organ metastasis, but the patient died due to a cardiac problem only a few months later. To the best of our knowledge, we report the eighth case of bladder peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in literature and the first concerning an Arab patient. It is also the first presentation of a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor patient with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. As in other cases, expression of single-chain-type 1 glycoprotein and neural markers was positive and the disease was at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.

  7. Three-dimensional CT virtual endoscopy in the detection of simulated tumors in a novel phantom bladder and ureter model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shane T; Kawashima, Akira; Vrtiska, Terri J; LeRoy, Andrew J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; Hartman, Robert P; Slezak, Jeffrey M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Chow, George K; King, Bernard F

    2005-03-01

    Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy have limitations in the evaluation for urothelial tumors, and both are invasive. We studied the utility of three-dimensional (3D) CT virtual endoscopy in phantom models. A phantom pelvis was constructed of Plexiglas, porcine pelvic bones, and processed animal fat and scanned at various table speeds in a four detector-row CT machine for ability to detect "tumors" of Solidwater plastic polymer. Images were reconstructed at slice thicknesses of 2.5 to 5.0 mm and reconstructed in 3D for evaluation by two radiologists with no knowledge of the scanning parameters or tumor location. Similar studies were performed with a ureter model. With 5-mm slices, the sensitivity for bladder tumors ranged from 67% for 2-mm tumors to 100% for 4-mm tumors, with 12 false-positive findings. The overall sensitivity was 86% with 3.75-mm slices with one false positive, and with 2.5-mm slices, the sensitivity was 93%, again with one false positive. For the ureteral tumors, the overall sensitivities and numbers of false positives were 88.9% and eight with 5.0-mm collimation, 88.9% and four with 3.75-mm collimation, and 100% and three with 2.5-mm collimation. The effective radiation dose for all studies was equivalent to that of a standard abdomen/pelvis scan. Although virtual endoscopy traditionally has had difficulty detecting tumors <5 mm, the multidetector-row CT protocols used in this study could detect most lesions smaller than this. The scan also depicts the other tissues of the pelvis, which is valuable for staging. The 3D images were produced using data from the CT urogram parameters standard at our institution.

  8. Bladder tumors in Benin city: a 15 year histopathological study | Olu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant neoplasms (40 cases) accounted for 88.9% of the bladder tumours and 1.85% of all malignant neoplasms seen during the study period. Contrary to most reports, the malignant neoplasms were predominantly transitional cell carcinoma constituting 27(67.2%) cases, with peak in the 7th and 8th decades, mean age ...

  9. Prospective phase II study of image-guided local boost using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system with fiducial markers has the advantage that it can be used to verify the localization of the markers during radiation delivery in real-time. We conducted a prospective Phase II study of image-guided local-boost radiotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for positioning, and here we report the results regarding the safety and efficacy of the technique. Twenty patients with a T2-T4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were clinically inoperable or refused surgery were enrolled. Transurethral tumor resection and 40 Gy irradiation to the whole bladder was followed by the transurethral endoscopic implantation of gold markers in the bladder wall around the primary tumor. A boost of 25 Gy in 10 fractions was made to the primary tumor while maintaining the displacement from the planned position at less than ±2 mm during radiation delivery using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The toxicity, local control and survival were evaluated. Among the 20 patients, 14 were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 55.5 months. Urethral and bowel late toxicity (Grade 3) were each observed in one patient. The local-control rate, overall survival and cause-specific survival with the native bladder after 5 years were 64, 61 and 65%. Image-guided local-boost radiotherapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system can be safely accomplished, and the clinical outcome is encouraging. A larger prospective multi-institutional study is warranted for more precise evaluations of the technological efficacy and patients' quality of life. (author)

  10. Kaempferol Promotes Apoptosis in Human Bladder Cancer Cells by Inducing the Tumor Suppressor, PTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Zhou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaempferol (Kae, a natural flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Previous studies have identified Kae as a possible cancer preventive and therapeutic agent. We found Kae to exhibit potent antiproliferation and anti-migration effects in human bladder cancer EJ cells. Kaempferol robustly induced apoptosis in EJ cells in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased cleavage of caspase-3. Furthermore, we found Kae-induced apoptosis in EJ cells to be associated with phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on the chromosome 10 (PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Kae significantly increased PTEN and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Kae-induced apoptosis was partially attenuated in PTEN-knockdown cells. Our findings indicate that Kae could be an alternative medicine for bladder cancer, based on a PTEN activation mechanism.

  11. Satisfactory spinal anesthesia with a total of 1.5 mg of bupivacaine for transurethral resection of bladder tumor in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Yoshimichi; Yamakage, Michiaki; Tanaka, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Spinal anesthesia is popular for endoscopic urological surgery. Many patients undergoing urological surgery are elderly. It is important to limit the dose to reduce any resultant hemodynamic effect. We present a case in which incremental administration of 0.1 % bupivacaine up to 1.5 mg was sufficient to produce satisfactory spinal anesthesia for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).

  12. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  13. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  14. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  15. The Prognostic Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Ferro, Matteo; Del Giudice, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Chung, Benjamin I; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Borghesi, Marco; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess the efficacy and reliability of 2 different CTC isolation methods. Globally, 155 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC were included (pT1G3 with or without carcinoma in situ) and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. A total of 101 patients (Group A) had their samples analyzed with the CellSearch automated system, and 54 (Group B) had their samples analyzed with the CELLection Dynabeads manual system. Patients were followed for 28 months, and during this interval, there were a total of 65 (41.9%) recurrences, 27 (17.4%) disease progressions, and 9 (5.8%) lymph node and/or bone metastasis. In our CTC analysis, there were 20 (19.8%) positive patients in Group A and 24 in Group B (44.4%). In our analysis, we found a strong correlation between CTC presence and time to first recurrence; in Group A, we observed an incidence of recurrence in 75% of CTC-positive patients and in Group B of 83% of CTC-positive patients. The time to progression was also strongly correlated with CTCs: 65% and 29%, respectively, of those patients who progressed in those with CTCs in Group A and B. The study demonstrates the potential role of CTCs as a prognostic marker for risk stratification in patients with NMIBC, to predict both recurrence and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle invasive bladder cancer in Upper Egypt: the shift in risk factors and tumor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzour, Ali H; Selim, Mohie; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Hameed, Diaa A; AbdelAziz, Mohammad A

    2008-01-01

    In Egypt, where bilharziasis is endemic, bladder cancer is the commonest cancer in males and the 2 nd in females; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest type found, with a peculiar mode of presentation. The aim of this study is to identify and rank the risk factors of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Upper Egypt and describe its specific criteria of presentation and histopathology. This is an analytical, hospital based, case controlled study conducted in south Egypt cancer institute through comparing MIBC cases (n = 130) with age, sex and residence matched controls (n = 260) for the presence of risk factors of MIBC. Data was collected by personal interview using a well designed questionnaire. Patients' records were reviewed for histopathology and Radiologic findings. The risk factors of MIBC were positive family history [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.7], exposure to pesticides [AOR = 6.2], bladder stones [AOR = 5], consanguinity [AOR = 3.9], recurrent cystitis [AOR = 3.1], bilharziasis [odds ratio (OR) = 5.8] and smoking [OR = 5.3]. SCC represented 67.6% of cases with burning micturition being the presenting symptom in 73.8%. MIBC in Upper Egypt is usually of the SCC type (although its percentage is decreasing), occurs at a younger age and presents with burning micturition rather than hematuria. Unlike the common belief, positive family history, parents' consanguinity, exposure to pesticides and chronic cystitis seem to play now more important roles than bilharziasis and smoking in the development of this disease in this area

  17. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  18. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  19. Arctigenin anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer T24 cell line through induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shucai; Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jianbing; Lv, Xiaohong; Li, Xinlei; Yang, Huike; Liu, Ying; Feng, Sijia; Zhang, Yafang

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti-tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32-7.01% and 3.07-7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Blood flow in transplantable bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selman, S.H.; Kreimer-Birnbaum, M.; Klaunig, J.E.; Goldblatt, P.J.; Keck, R.W.; Britton, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Following hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photochemotherapy, blood flow to transplantable N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thia-zolyl] formamide-induced urothelial tumors was determined by a radioactive microsphere technique using either 103 Ru or 141 Ce. Two tumors were implanted s.c. on the abdominal wall of Fischer 344 weanling rats. HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered 24 hr prior to phototherapy (red light, greater than 590 nm; 360 J/sq cm). One of the two tumors was shielded from light exposure and served as an internal control. Blood flows were determined in control animals that received no treatment (Group 1), HPD only (Group 2), or light only (Group 3). In Groups 4 and 5, animals received the combination of HPD and light but differed in the time interval between treatment and blood flow determinations (10 min and 24 hr, respectively). Only blood flow to tumors treated with HPD and light showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) when compared with their internal controls both at 10 min (Group 4) and 24 hr (Group 5) after completion of phototherapy. These studies suggest that disruption of tumor blood flow may be an important mechanism of action of this method of cancer therapy

  1. The feasibility of the concomitant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of the bladder infiltrating tumors; La faisabilite de la chimioradiotherapie concomitante dans le traitement des tumeurs infiltrantes de la vessie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amireche, A.; Djemaa, A.; Sahli, B. [Centre Anticancereux, Constantine (Algeria)

    2007-11-15

    The study of the results showed the profit of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of infiltrating tumors of the bladder by allowing a preservative treatment and by assuring in parallel the local control. (N.C.)

  2. Modulated Raman spectroscopy for enhanced identification of bladder tumor cells in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Mazilu, Michael; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Carruthers, Antonia E; Dholakia, Kishan; Neilson, Sam; Sargeant, Harry; Briscoe, Tina; Herrington, C Simon; Riches, Andrew C

    2011-03-01

    Standard Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a noninvasive technique that is used in the biomedical field to discriminate between normal and cancer cells. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background detracts from the use of SRS in real-time clinical applications. Recently, we have reported a novel modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) technique to extract the Raman spectra from the background. In this paper, we present the first application of MRS to the identification of human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder cancer cells (MGH) in urine samples. These results are compared to those obtained by SRS. Classification using the principal component analysis clearly shows that MRS allows discrimination between Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (95%). MRS is also used to distinguish between SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells after exposure to urine for up to 6 h. We observe a marked change in the MRS of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with time in urine, indicating that the conditions of sample collection will be important for the application of this methodology to clinical urine samples.

  3. Detection and recurrence rate of transurethral resection of bladder tumors by narrow-band imaging: Prospective, randomized comparison with white light cystoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bin Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of narrow-band imaging (NBI as a diagnostic tool for detecting bladder tumors during cystoscopy compared with white light cystoscopy (WLC. Materials and Methods: From December 2013 to June 2017, a randomized prospective study was conducted on 198 patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor by a single surgeon. The patients were divided into two groups according to diagnostic method. In Group I, WLC only was performed. In Group II, NBI was additionally performed after WLC. We analyzed the rate of detection of bladder tumors as a primary endpoint. In addition, we evaluated rates of recurrence in each group. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in characteristics except hypertension. In the analysis of rates of detection, the probability of diagnosing cancer was 80.9% (114/141 in the WLC group, and the probability of diagnosing cancer using WLC in the NBI group was 85.5% (159/186. After switching from WLC to NBI for second-look cystoscopy in the NBI group, NBI was shown to detect additional tumors with a detection rate of 35.1% (13/37 from the perspective of the patients and 42.2% (27/64 from the perspective of the tumors. The 1-year recurrence-free rate was 72.2% in the WLC group and 85.2% in the NBI group (p=0.3. Conclusions: NBI had benefits for detecting tumors overlooked by WLC. Although the difference in the 1-year recurrence-free rate was not statistically significant, our results showed a trend for higher recurrence in the NBI group.

  4. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the placenta of pregnant cows affected with urinary bladder tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Corteggio, Annunziata; Tatè, Rosarita; Cermola, Michele; Paciello, Orlando; Roperto, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are believed to be highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within stratified epithelia. In vitro, various PVs appear to complete their entire life-cycle in different trophoblastic cell lines. In this study, infection by and protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) in the uterine and chorionic epithelium of the placenta has been described in four cows suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. E5 oncoprotein was detected both by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemically. It appears to be complexed and perfectly co-localized with the activated platelet-derived growth factor ß receptor (PDGFßR) by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The activated PDGFßR might be involved in organogenesis and neo-angiogenesis rather than in cell transformation during pregnancy. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection has been detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the uterine and chorionic epithelium. Trophoblastic cells appear to be the major target for L1 protein expression. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be expressed during a productive infection, has been detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected viral particles in nuclei of uterine and chorionic epithelium. This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the placenta of pregnant cows can occur in vivo.

  5. Immunological tumor status may predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and outcome after radical cystectomy in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahartiala, Minna; Taimen, Pekka; Mirtti, Tuomas; Koskinen, Ilmari; Ecke, Thorsten; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Boström, Peter J

    2017-10-04

    Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common cancer worldwide. Radical cystectomy (RC) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is recommended for muscle-invasive BC. The challenge of the neoadjuvant approach relates to challenges in selection of patients to chemotherapy that are likely to respond to the treatment. To date, there are no validated molecular markers or baseline clinical characteristics to identify these patients. Different inflammatory markers, including tumor associated macrophages with their plastic pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic functions, have extensively been under interests as potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers in different cancer types. In this immunohistochemical study we evaluated the predictive roles of three immunological markers, CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1, in response to NAC and outcome of BC. 41% of the patients had a complete response (pT0N0) to NAC. Basic clinicopathological variables did not predict response to NAC. In contrast, MAC387 + cells and CLEVER-1 + macrophages associated with poor NAC response, while CLEVER-1 + vessels associated with more favourable response to NAC. Higher counts of CLEVER-1 + macrophages associated with poorer overall survival and CD68 + macrophages seem to have an independent prognostic value in BC patients treated with NAC. Our findings point out that CD68, MAC387, and CLEVER-1 may be useful prognostic and predictive markers in BC.

  6. Comparison between the distribution of the calculated dose and the media with thermoluminescent dosemeters 7 LiF in bladder tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de.

    1974-01-01

    For the central plane of an assumed malignant tumor of the bladder, Cobalt - 60 treatment plans were calculated from published isodose curves. The calculation was done for the three field technique, unbalanced and balanced, and for 120 degree rotational therapy with wedge filter. A Rando-Alderson phantom and calibrated encapsulated 7 LiF dosimeters with a standard deviation better than 3% of each were used to verify the treatment plans. Furthermore the dose distribution to an assumed extension of the tumor and to the rectum were measured. (author)

  7. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  8. Evaluation of the relationship between compliance with the follow-up and treatment protocol and health literacy in bladder tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Ali Riza; Demirci, Hakan; Coban, Soner; Guzelsoy, Muhammet; Toprak, Erdem; Aydos, Mustafa Murat; Ture, Deniz Azkan; Ustundag, Yasemin

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the relationship between the compliance of bladder cancer patients with cystoscopic follow-up and the treatment protocol, and their health literacy. Patients who underwent transurethral resection surgery for bladder tumor were found to have non-muscular invasive bladder carcinoma on pathology examination and then underwent cystoscopic follow-up for 1 year or more were included in the study. Cystoscopic follow-up was recommended to the low- and high-risk groups in terms of progression and recurrence. The patients were evaluated with the Health Literacy Survey-European Union scale. The mean age of the patients was 67.13 ± 10.77 years. The treatment continuity rate was 80.50% (n = 33) in the adequate health literacy group (n = 41) and significantly higher than the 56.50% (n = 48) rate in the inadequate health literacy group (n = 85) (p = .008). The health literacy results revealed that the health promotion and general index score was higher in the group of patients under the age of 65. Adequate health literacy in bladder cancer patients is associated with better compliance with the treatment protocol. Young patients show better compliance with the follow-up protocol recommended by the physician. Increasing the follow-up protocol compliance of elderly patients with inadequate health literacy is necessary.

  9. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelven Weijing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6 cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different.

  10. Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Adult Urinary Bladder: A Rare Case Report of Misclassification as Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kelven Weijing; Wu, Fiona Mei Wen; Lee, Victor Kwan Min; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the adult urinary bladder is a rare malignant tumour. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) of the bladder is a benign genitourinary tumour that may appear variable histologically but usually lacks unequivocal malignant traits. Techniques like flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry may be used to differentiate these two tumours. Our patient, a 46-year-old male, had rapidly recurring lower urinary tract symptoms after two transurethral resections of the prostate. He subsequently underwent a transvesical prostatectomy which showed IMT on histology. However, his symptoms did not resolve and an open resection done at our institution revealed a 6 cm tumour arising from the right bladder neck. This time, histology was ERMS with diffuse anaplasia of the bladder. Rapid recurrence of urinary symptoms with prostate regrowth after surgery is unusual. Differential diagnoses of uncommon bladder malignancies should be considered if there is an inconsistent clinical course as treatment approaches are different. PMID:25737794

  11. Comparative Analysis of 3D Bladder Tumor Spheroids Obtained by Forced Floating and Hanging Drop Methods for Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson L. F. Amaral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell-based assays using three-dimensional (3D cell cultures may reflect the antitumor activity of compounds more accurately, since these models reproduce the tumor microenvironment better.Methods: Here, we report a comparative analysis of cell behavior in the two most widely employed methods for 3D spheroid culture, forced floating (Ultra-low Attachment, ULA, plates, and hanging drop (HD methods, using the RT4 human bladder cancer cell line as a model. The morphology parameters and growth/metabolism of the spheroids generated were first characterized, using four different cell-seeding concentrations (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL, and then, subjected to drug resistance evaluation.Results: Both methods generated spheroids with a smooth surface and round shape in a spheroidization time of about 48 h, regardless of the cell-seeding concentration used. Reduced cell growth and metabolism was observed in 3D cultures compared to two-dimensional (2D cultures. The optimal range of spheroid diameter (300–500 μm was obtained using cultures initiated with 0.5 and 1.25 × 104 cells/mL for the ULA method and 2.5 and 3.75 × 104 cells/mL for the HD method. RT4 cells cultured under 3D conditions also exhibited a higher resistance to doxorubicin (IC50 of 1.00 and 0.83 μg/mL for the ULA and HD methods, respectively compared to 2D cultures (IC50 ranging from 0.39 to 0.43.Conclusions: Comparing the results, we concluded that the forced floating method using ULA plates was considered more suitable and straightforward to generate RT4 spheroids for drug screening/cytotoxicity assays. The results presented here also contribute to the improvement in the standardization of the 3D cultures required for widespread application.

  12. Comparative Analysis of 3D Bladder Tumor Spheroids Obtained by Forced Floating and Hanging Drop Methods for Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Robson L F; Miranda, Mariza; Marcato, Priscyla D; Swiech, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cell-based assays using three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures may reflect the antitumor activity of compounds more accurately, since these models reproduce the tumor microenvironment better. Methods: Here, we report a comparative analysis of cell behavior in the two most widely employed methods for 3D spheroid culture, forced floating (Ultra-low Attachment, ULA, plates), and hanging drop (HD) methods, using the RT4 human bladder cancer cell line as a model. The morphology parameters and growth/metabolism of the spheroids generated were first characterized, using four different cell-seeding concentrations (0.5, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 × 10 4 cells/mL), and then, subjected to drug resistance evaluation. Results: Both methods generated spheroids with a smooth surface and round shape in a spheroidization time of about 48 h, regardless of the cell-seeding concentration used. Reduced cell growth and metabolism was observed in 3D cultures compared to two-dimensional (2D) cultures. The optimal range of spheroid diameter (300-500 μm) was obtained using cultures initiated with 0.5 and 1.25 × 10 4 cells/mL for the ULA method and 2.5 and 3.75 × 10 4 cells/mL for the HD method. RT4 cells cultured under 3D conditions also exhibited a higher resistance to doxorubicin (IC 50 of 1.00 and 0.83 μg/mL for the ULA and HD methods, respectively) compared to 2D cultures (IC 50 ranging from 0.39 to 0.43). Conclusions: Comparing the results, we concluded that the forced floating method using ULA plates was considered more suitable and straightforward to generate RT4 spheroids for drug screening/cytotoxicity assays. The results presented here also contribute to the improvement in the standardization of the 3D cultures required for widespread application.

  13. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  14. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  15. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  16. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  17. Capsaicin Inhibits Multiple Bladder Cancer Cell Phenotypes by Inhibiting Tumor-Associated NADH Oxidase (tNOX and Sirtuin1 (SIRT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among males, and its poor survival rate reflects problems with aggressiveness and chemo-resistance. Recent interest has focused on the use of chemopreventatives (nontoxic natural agents that may suppress cancer progression to induce targeted apoptosis for cancer therapy. Capsaicin, which has anti-cancer properties, is one such agent. It is known to preferentially inhibit a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX that is preferentially expressed in cancer/transformed cells. Here, we set out to elucidate the correlation between tNOX expression and the inhibitory effects of capsaicin in human bladder cancer cells. We showed that capsaicin downregulates tNOX expression and decreases bladder cancer cell growth by enhancing apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin was found to reduce the expression levels of several proteins involved in cell cycle progression, in association with increases in the cell doubling time and enhanced cell cycle arrest. Capsaicin was also shown to inhibit the activation of ERK, thereby reducing the phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK, which leads to decreased cell migration. Finally, our results indicate that RNA interference-mediated tNOX depletion enhances spontaneous apoptosis, prolongs cell cycle progression, and reduces cell migration and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also observed a downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 in these tNOX-knockdown cells, a deacetylase that is important in multiple cellular functions. Taken together, our results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells by inhibiting tNOX and SIRT1 and thereby reducing proliferation, attenuating migration, and prolonging cell cycle progression.

  18. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  19. Bladder cancer: the combination of chemotherapy and irradiation in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.

    1995-01-01

    In the USA the recommended treatment for patients with muscle-invading transitional cell cancer of the bladder is usually radical cystectomy. Conservative surgery (transurethral resection and partial cystectomy), irradiation, and cis-platinum based systemic chemotherapy are, however, each effective for some patients. Although they provide the opportunity for bladder preservation, each modality, when used alone, is inferior to radical cystectomy in terms of local control and, perhaps, survival. Initial response and local control rates are improved when a multimodality approach is used. Up to 85% of patients selected for bladder sparing therapy on the basis of their initial response to chemo-radiation may keep their bladders. This figure could increase further when other powerful prognostic factors, such as the presence of hydronephrosis or carcinoma in situ, are taken into account in initial patient selection. Deferring the patient from immediate cystectomy does not appear to compromise survival. The most appropriate sequencing of radiation and chemotherapy is yet to be established. Concomitant cis-platinum and irradiation improves local control and bladder preservation when compared with irradiation alone but does not decrease the metastatic rate. It is hoped that the well recognized activity of cis-platinum based combination chemotherapy in advanced disease will translate into effective eradication of micrometastatic disease (known to be present in up to 40% of patients at diagnosis). This has yet to be clearly demonstrated in a randomized trial. The addition of combination chemotherapy to radiation does not increase bladder morbidity but carries a considerable systemic risk. Thus, despite promising phase II studies, until a survival benefit is proven in a randomized trial, neoadjuvant or adjuvant combination chemotherapy in conjunction with irradiation should continue to be regarded as experimental

  20. Tumor heterogeneity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in invasive bladder cancer: implications for perioperative anti-FGFR3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, D; Neuzillet, Y; Mertens, L S; van der Heijden, M S; de Jong, J; Sanders, J; Peters, D; Leroy, K; Manceau, A; Maille, P; Soyeux, P; Moktefi, A; Semprez, F; Vordos, D; de la Taille, A; Hurst, C D; Tomlinson, D C; Harnden, P; Bostrom, P J; Mirtti, T; Horenblas, S; Loriot, Y; Houédé, N; Chevreau, C; Beuzeboc, P; Shariat, S F; Sagalowsky, A I; Ashfaq, R; Burger, M; Jewett, M A S; Zlotta, A R; Broeks, A; Bapat, B; Knowles, M A; Lotan, Y; van der Kwast, T H; Culine, S; Allory, Y; van Rhijn, B W G

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an actionable target in bladder cancer. Preclinical studies show that anti-FGFR3 treatment slows down tumor growth, suggesting that this tyrosine kinase receptor is a candidate for personalized bladder cancer treatment, particularly in patients with mutated FGFR3. We addressed tumor heterogeneity in a large multicenter, multi-laboratory study, as this may have significant impact on therapeutic response. We evaluated possible FGFR3 heterogeneity by the PCR-SNaPshot method in the superficial and deep compartments of tumors obtained by transurethral resection (TUR, n = 61) and in radical cystectomy (RC, n = 614) specimens and corresponding cancer-positive lymph nodes (LN+, n = 201). We found FGFR3 mutations in 13/34 (38%) T1 and 8/27 (30%) ≥T2-TUR samples, with 100% concordance between superficial and deeper parts in T1-TUR samples. Of eight FGFR3 mutant ≥T2-TUR samples, only 4 (50%) displayed the mutation in the deeper part. We found 67/614 (11%) FGFR3 mutations in RC specimens. FGFR3 mutation was associated with pN0 (P < 0.001) at RC. In 10/201 (5%) LN+, an FGFR3 mutation was found, all concordant with the corresponding RC specimen. In the remaining 191 cases, RC and LN+ were both wild type. FGFR3 mutation status seems promising to guide decision-making on adjuvant anti-FGFR3 therapy as it appeared homogeneous in RC and LN+. Based on the results of TUR, the deep part of the tumor needs to be assessed if neoadjuvant anti-FGFR3 treatment is considered. We conclude that studies on the heterogeneity of actionable molecular targets should precede clinical trials with these drugs in the perioperative setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  3. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D. Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg; and a fast T2W* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2W* signal intensity under carbogen (T+ was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2W* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  4. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  5. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  6. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)...

  7. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  8. Combined effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ionizing radiation on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baierlein, S.A.; Distel, L.; Sieber, R.; Weiss, C.; Roedel, C.; Sauer, R.; Roedel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Apoptosis can be induced by distinct but overlapping pathways. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis by an ''intrinsic'', mitochondria-dependent pathway. Ligation of tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-)α, FAS (CD95) or TRAIL receptors are typical representatives of an extrinsic, death-receptor-mediated pathway. In this study the effect of irradiation, treatment with the cytokine TNF-α, or a combination of both on the induction of apoptosis and clonogenic survival of bladder carcinoma cells was investigated. Material and Methods: 5637 bladder carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant TNF-α (0-10 ng/ml), irradiated with single doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 Gy, or a combination of both modalities. Apoptotic cells were quantified by the TUNEL assay up to 96 h following treatment, clonogenic cell survival by a clonogenic assay. Synergistic effects of both modalities were evaluated using isobolographic analysis. Results: Irradiation of 5637 carcinoma cells resulted in a discontinuous dose dependence of the apoptotic fraction with a pronounced increase in the range of 0-2 Gy and a slighter increase at 2-10 Gy. The percentage of apoptotic carcinoma cells also increased continuously after treatment with lower concentrations of TNF-α reaching a plateau at concentrations of 5.0-10.0 ng/ml. Isobolographic analysis revealed a supraadditive interrelationship between irradiation and TNF-α in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 ng/ml, and an additive effect for TNF-α concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml. The additive effects were confirmed in clonogenic survival assays with reduced survival fractions following combined TNF-α administration and irradiation. Conclusion: The combination of two apoptosis-inducing modalities resulted in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis in 5637 bladder carcinoma cells. Although a radiosensitizing effect still has to be proven in animal models, combined-modality treatment may increase the

  9. Treatment of non muscle invasive bladder tumor related to the problem of bacillus Calmette-Guerin availability. Consensus of a Spanish expert's panel. Spanish Association of Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, J M; Carballido-Rodríguez, J; Cozar-Olmo, J M; Palou-Redorta, J; Solsona-Narbón, E; Unda-Urzaiz, J M

    2013-01-01

    Since June 2012, the has been a worldwide lack of available of the Connaught strain. In December 2012, a group of experts met in the Spanish Association of Urology to analyze this situation and propose alternatives. To present the work performed by said committee and the resulting recommendations. An update has been made of the principal existing evidence in the treatment of middle and high risk tumors. Special mention has been made regarding the those related with the use of BCG and their possible alternative due to the different availability of BCG. In tumors with high risk of progression, immediate cystectomy should be considered when BCG is not available, with dose reduction or alternating with chemotherapy as methods to economize on the use of BCG when availability is reduced. In tumors having middle risk of progression, chemotherapy can be used, although when it is associated to a high risk of relapse, BCG would be indicated if available with the mentioned savings guidelines. BCG requires maintenance to maintain its effectiveness, it being necessary to optimize the application of endovesical chemotherapy and to use systems that increase its penetration into the bladder wall (EMDA) if they are available. Due to the scarcity of BCG, it has been necessary to agree on a series of recommendations that have been published on the web page of the Spanish Association of Urology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  11. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  12. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the

  13. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  14. What factors are associated with unplanned return following transurethral resection of bladder tumor? An analysis of a large single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Fady; Moses, Rachel A; Raffin, Eric; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to evaluate factors associated with unplanned hospital return (UR) following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), the largest source of readmission among ambulatory urological procedures. A retrospective review of TURBTs at a single academic institution between April 2011 and August 2014 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, length of stay, tumor size and multiple other factors were recorded. UR was recorded within 30 days of surgery. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors associated with UR. Among 708 patients undergoing TURBT, 23.9% were female with a mean age of 70 years. The rate of UR was 10.9%. The most common cause of UR was gross hematuria, accounting for 70%. On bivariate analysis, Foley catheter placement in the operating room, non-aspirin anticoagulation and index length of stay longer than 24 h were associated with hematuria-related UR (p hematuria-related UR (p  0.05). On multivariable analysis, only Foley placement in the operating room remained associated with higher rates of hematuria-related UR, while preoperative antibiotics, female gender and aspirin therapy remained associated with a lower likelihood of this event. UR following TURBT is common and typically results from gross hematuria. Patients with postoperative Foley catheterization in the operating room may require additional counseling or supervision before discharge, and should be considered for discharge with a Foley rather than having a prompt voiding trial.

  15. The Curie–Da Vinci Connection: 5-Years' Experience With Laparoscopic (Robot-Assisted) Implantation for High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy of Solitary T2 Bladder Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der, E-mail: E.vanderSteen-Banasik@radiotherapiegroep.nl [Radiotherapiegroep, Arnhem (Netherlands); Smits, Geert A.H.J. [Department of Urology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem (Netherlands); Oosterveld, Bernard J.; Janssen, Theo; Visser, Andries G. [Radiotherapiegroep, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To report experience and early results of laparoscopic implantation for interstitial brachytherapy (BT) of solitary bladder tumors and the feasibility of a high-dose-rate (HDR) schedule. Methods and Materials: From December 2009 to April 2015, 57 patients with a T2 solitary bladder tumor were treated in Arnhem with transurethral bladder resection followed by external beam irradiation, applied to the bladder and regional iliac lymph nodes, 40 Gy in 20 fractions, 5 fractions per week, and within 1 week interstitial HDR BT, in selected cases combined with partial cystectomy and lymph node dissection. The BT catheters were placed via a transabdominal approach with robotic assistance from a Da Vinci robot after a successful initial experience with a nonrobotic laparoscopic approach. The fraction schedule for HDR was 10 fractions of 2.5 Gy, 3 fractions per day. This was calculated to be equivalent to a reference low-dose-rate schedule of 30 Gy in 60 hours. Data for oncologic outcomes and toxicity (Common Toxicity Criteria version 4) were prospectively collected. Results: These modifications resulted in an average postoperative hospitalization of 6 days, minimal blood loss, and no wound healing problems. Two patients had severe acute toxicity: 1 pulmonary embolism grade 4 and 1 cardiac death. Late toxicity was mild (n=2 urogenital grade 3 toxicity). The median follow-up was 2 years. Using cumulative incidence competing risk analysis, the 2-year overall, disease-free, and disease-specific survival and local control rates were 59%, 71%, 87%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusions: The benefits of minimally invasive surgery for implantation of BT catheters and the feasibility of HDR BT in bladder cancer are documented. The patient outcome and adverse events are comparable to the best results published for a bladder-sparing approach.

  16. Building tools for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, X.

    2012-01-01

    From this thesis, we can conclude that the injection of lipiodol markers into the bladder wall is a feasible method to track bladder tumors for IGRT of partial bladder. We succeeded in developing a biomechanical bladder model and bladder segmentation methods for online CBCT, which are useful tools

  17. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  18. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  19. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI; IRM et leiomyome vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A. [Hopital Avicenne, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-08-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  20. Molecular evolution of multiple recurrent cancers of the bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. van Tilborg (Angela); A. de Vries (Annie); M. de Bont (Maarten); L.E. Groenfeld (Lilian); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe describe the reconstruction of bladder tumor development in individual patients spanning periods of up to 17 years. Genomic alterations detected in the tumors were used for hierarchical cluster analysis of tumor subclones. The cluster analysis

  1. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  2. Gender-specific differences in cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in pathologic tumor stage T4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias; Bastian, Patrick J; Brookman-May, Sabine; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Tilki, Derya; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Gilfrich, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Herrmann, Edwin; Moritz, Rudolf; Tiemann, Arne; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian G; Wieland, Wolf F; Höfner, Thomas; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haferkamp, Axel; Roigas, Jan; Zacharias, Mario; Nuhn, Philipp; Burger, Maximilian

    2013-10-01

    Bladder cancer (UCB) staged pT4a show heterogeneous outcome after radical cystectomy (RC). No risk model has been established to date. Despite gender-specific differences, no comparative studies exist for this tumor stage. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 245 UCB patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy staged pT4a, pN0-2, M0 after RC were analyzed in a retrospective multi-center study. Seventeen patients were excluded from further analysis due to carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra and/or positive surgical margins. Average follow-up period was 30 months (IQR: 14-45). The influence of different clinical and histopathologic variables on CSS was determined through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Two risk groups were generated using factors with independent effect in multivariate models. Internal validity of the prediction model was evaluated by bootstrapping. Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 192) were male; 72% (n = 165) showed lymphovascular invasion (LVI). The 5-year CSS rate was 31%, and significantly different between male and female (35% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression modeling, female gender (HR = 1.83, P = 0.008), LVI (HR = 1.92, P = 0.005), and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, P = 0.020) significantly worsened CSS. Two risk groups were generated using these 3 criteria, which differed significantly between each other in CSS (5-year-CSS: 46% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). The c-index value of the risk model was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68, P < 0.001). Prognosis in UCB staged pT4a is heterogeneous. Female gender and LVI are adverse factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve outcome. The present analysis establishes the first risk model for this demanding tumor stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  4. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  5. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  6. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  7. Searching urinary tumor-associated proteins for bladder transitional cell carcinoma in southwestern Taiwan using gel-based proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Su

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: In this paper, 11 de-regulated proteins were observed in the urinary specimens of BTTC patients from the southwestern coast of Taiwan where Blackfoot disease is endemic and the unusually high incidence of BTTC in this area might attribute to high arsenic content in the drinking water. It is possible that long-term arsenic-induced alteration of these de-regulated proteins, most of which were extracellularmatrix – (ECM related proteins which may play roles in regulating the immune response, signal transduction and tumor invasions, might be involved in BTTC development in southwestern Taiwan.

  8. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  9. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  10. Comparison of ultrasound and computed tomography in staging of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Bunzo

    1982-01-01

    Preoperative staging of bladder cancer is very important for decision of treating methods and prognostication. The present author used ultrasound via the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of 83 patients with bladder cancer. I estimated the extent of bladder tumor infiltration by ultrasound via the abdominal wall according to Shiraishi's criteria. Ultrasound scans, pelvic angiograms and CT scans were reviewed to determine their accuracy in staging of bladder tumors. Ultrasound scans were excellent in staging of non-infiltrated bladder tumors, while pelvic angiograms and CT scans were excellent in staging of infiltrated bladder tumors. (author)

  11. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  12. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. [Leiomyoma of the bladder causing the destruction of a kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare benign tumor deemed to have a good prognosis after surgical treatment. This is unfortunately not always true. We report the case of a 33 year-old patient who consulted for lumbar pain on right side. Exploration of patient revealed bladder floor solid tumor with non-functioning right kidney and left urinary tract dilation. Cystoscopy objectified solid tumor of the right perimeatal bladder. Tumor biopsies were performed together with the insertion of a left double J stent. Anatomo-pathologic study showed leiomyoma of the bladder. The patient underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological effect and sequelae was complete distruction of kidney.

  14. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) E5 oncoprotein binds to the subunit D of the V₁-ATPase proton pump in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Sante; Russo, Valeria; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Urraro, Chiara; Lucà, Roberta; Esposito, Iolanda; Riccardi, Marita Georgia; Raso, Cinzia; Gaspari, Marco; Ceccarelli, Dora Maria; Galasso, Rocco; Roperto, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Active infection by bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2) was documented for fifteen urinary bladder tumors in cattle. Two were diagnosed as papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), nine as papillary and four as invasive urothelial cancers. In all cancer samples, PCR analysis revealed a BPV-2-specific 503 bp DNA fragment. E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the virus, was shown both by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical analysis. E5 was found to bind to the activated (phosphorylated) form of the platelet derived growth factor β receptor. PDGFβR immunoprecipitation from bladder tumor samples and from normal bladder tissue used as control revealed a protein band which was present in the pull-down from bladder cancer samples only. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry as "V₁-ATPase subunit D", a component of the central stalk of the V₁-ATPase vacuolar pump. The subunit D was confirmed in this complex by coimmunoprecipitation investigations and it was found to colocalize with the receptor. The subunit D was also shown to be overexpressed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence also revealed that E5 oncoprotein was bound to the subunit D. For the first time, a tri-component complex composed of E5/PDGFβR/subunit D has been documented in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the BPV-2 E5 oncoprotein binds to the proteolipid c ring of the V₀-ATPase sector. We suggest that the E5/PDGFβR/subunit D complex may perturb proteostasis, organelle and cytosol homeostasis, which can result in altered protein degradation and in autophagic responses.

  15. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarcoma is quite good in terms of morbidity, and conservative surgery is generally recommended. However, in cases originating in the bladder neck, tumorectomy or partial cystectomy has adverse effects on bladder function. A 2-year-old girl underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-BT, chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide, and radiotherapy. She was in remission for 3 years when frequent urination became evident. Her bladder capacity and compliance were low; however, her urinary symptom was controlled using anticholinergic medication. Accordingly, TUR-BT could be an optional approach for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Transurethral resection, Conservative surgery

  16. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  17. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  18. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  19. A role of multimodality bladder-preserving therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer plus hydronephrosis with or without pelvic nodal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chiang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: With trimodality treatment involving visually complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor, cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy, and CCRT, patients with unfavorable factors maintained satisfactory bladder preservation but not systemic control.

  20. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  1. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  2. Incidence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of transvaginal scan (TVS) in ... bladder tumors in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. ... tumor (malignant transitional cell cancer) were found.

  3. Knockdown of Ki-67 by dicer-substrate small interfering RNA sensitizes bladder cancer cells to curcumin-induced tumor inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakamasundari Pichu

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder is the most common cancer of the urinary tract. Most of the TCC cases are of the superficial type and are treated with transurethral resection (TUR. However, the recurrence rate is high and the current treatments have the drawback of inducing strong systemic toxicity or cause painful cystitis. Therefore, it would be of therapeutic value to develop novel concepts and identify novel drugs for the treatment of bladder cancer. Ki-67 is a large nucleolar phosphoprotein whose expression is tightly linked to cell proliferation, and curcumin, a phytochemical derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess powerful anticancer properties. In this study, we evaluated the combined efficacy of curcumin and a siRNA against Ki-67 mRNA (Ki-67-7 in rat (AY-27 and human (T-24 bladder cancer cells. The anticancer effects were assessed by the determination of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Ki-67-7 (10 nM and curcumin (10 µM, when treated independently, were moderately effective. However, in their combined presence, proliferation of bladder cancer cells was profoundly (>85% inhibited; the rate of apoptosis in the combined presence of curcumin and Ki-67-7 (36% was greater than that due to Ki-67-7 (14% or curcumin (13% alone. A similar synergy between curcumin and Ki-67-7 in inducing cell cycle arrest was also observed. Western blot analysis suggested that pretreatment with Ki-67-7 sensitized bladder cancer cells to curcumin-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by p53- and p21-independent mechanisms. These data suggest that a combination of anti-Ki-67 siRNA and curcumin could be a viable treatment against the proliferation of bladder cancer cells.

  4. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  5. Induction of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive foci in liver and epithelial hyperplasia in urinary bladder, but no tumor development in male Fischer 344 rats treated with monomethylarsonic acid for 104 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Salim, Elsayed I.; Wei Min; Doi, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Kaoru; Endo, Ginji; Morimura,; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), a major metabolite of inorganic arsenics in human and experimental animals, was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. A total of 129 rats at 10 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups and received drinking water containing MMA(V) at doses of 0 (Control), 50, and 200 ppm ad libitum for 104 weeks. No significant differences were found between the control and the MMA(V)-treated groups regarding clinical signs, mortality, hematological, and serum biochemistry findings. Quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in liver revealed a significant increase of numbers and areas in the 200 ppm MMA(V)-treated group. In the urinary bladder MMA(V) induced simple hyperplasia and significantly elevated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive index in the urothelium. A variety of tumors developed in rats of all groups, including the controls, but all were histologically similar to those known to occur spontaneously in F344 rats and there were no significant differences among the groups. Thus, it could be concluded that, under the present experimental conditions, MMA(V) induced lesions in the liver and urinary bladder, but did not cause tumor development in male F344 rats even after 2 years exposure

  6. Comparing Image Perception of Bladder Tumors in Four Different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System Modalities Using the íSPIES App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Guido M.; de Bruin, D. Martijn; Brandt, Martin J.; Knoll, Thomas; Conort, Pierre; Lapini, Alberto; Dominguez-Escrig, Jose L.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the variation of interpretation of the same bladder urothelium image in different Storz Professional Image Enhancement System (SPIES) modalities. SPIES contains a White light (WL), Spectra A (SA), Spectra B (SB), and Clara and Chroma combined (CC) modality. An App for the iPAD retina was

  7. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Hamid Nasrollahi; Majdaddin Rajaei; Maral Mokhtari; Seyed Hasan Hamedi; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei; Niloofar Ahmadloo

    2017-01-01

    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymp...

  8. A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Naoto; Akaza, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki

    2000-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2-3N0M0, were included in the study. lntra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2-3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. (author)

  9. Prospective Study Delivering Simultaneous Integrated High-dose Tumor Boost (≤70 Gy) With Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Radical Treatment of Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Shaista, E-mail: Shaista.Hafeez@icr.ac.uk [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Warren-Oseni, Karole [The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); McNair, Helen A.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Jones, Kelly; Tan, Melissa; Khan, Attia [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Harris, Victoria; McDonald, Fiona; Lalondrelle, Susan; Mohammed, Kabir; Thomas, Karen; Thompson, Alan; Kumar, Pardeep [The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: Image guided adaptive radiation therapy offers individualized solutions to improve target coverage and reduce normal tissue irradiation, allowing the opportunity to increase the radiation tumor dose and spare normal bladder tissue. Methods and Materials: A library of 3 intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created (small, medium, and large) from planning computed tomography (CT) scans performed at 30 and 60 minutes; treating the whole bladder to 52 Gy and the tumor to 70 Gy in 32 fractions. A “plan of the day” approach was used for treatment delivery. A post-treatment cone beam CT (CBCT) scan was acquired weekly to assess intrafraction filling and coverage. Results: A total of 18 patients completed treatment to 70 Gy. The plan and treatment for 1 patient was to 68 Gy. Also, 1 patient's plan was to 70 Gy but the patient was treated to a total dose of 65.6 Gy because dose-limiting toxicity occurred before dose escalation. A total of 734 CBCT scans were evaluated. Small, medium, and large plans were used in 36%, 48%, and 16% of cases, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation rate of intrafraction filling at the start of treatment (ie, week 1) was 4.0 ± 4.8 mL/min (range 0.1-19.4) and at end of radiation therapy (ie, week 5 or 6) was 1.1 ± 1.6 mL/min (range 0.01-7.5; P=.002). The mean D{sub 98} (dose received by 98% volume) of the tumor boost and bladder as assessed on the post-treatment CBCT scan was 97.07% ± 2.10% (range 89.0%-104%) and 99.97% ± 2.62% (range 96.4%-112.0%). At a median follow-up period of 19 months (range 4-33), no muscle-invasive recurrences had developed. Two patients experienced late toxicity (both grade 3 cystitis) at 5.3 months (now resolved) and 18 months after radiation therapy. Conclusions: Image guided adaptive radiation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy to deliver a simultaneous integrated tumor boost to 70 Gy is feasible, with acceptable toxicity, and will be

  10. Adenoma-carcinoma Sequence in the Bladder After Augmentation Cystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Naito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 64-year-old woman showing multistep progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma in the bladder 46 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for tuberculous contracted bladder at 18 years. After 44 years, tubulovillous adenomas were found and resected at the ileovesical anastomosis site. After 2 more years, bladder tumors recurred and revealed adenocarcinomas. Finally, radical cystectomy was required because of frequent recurrence and tumor extensiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating adenoma-carcinoma sequence histopathologically in the bladder after augmentation cystoplasty, indicating multistep carcinogenesis similar to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  11. A case of bladder leiomyoma with literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Sihui; Chen Zhiguang; Liang Biling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Preliminarily analysis of the MRI features of bladder leiomyoma. Methods: The MRI manifestations were analyzed with review of previous released literatures in a case of bladder leiomyoma, which was confirmed by pathology. Results: The lesion manifested homogeneous intermediate signal intensity both on non-enhanced T 1 WI and T 2 WI, and intermediate enhancement on contrast enhanced T 1 WI. There was no pedicle on the tumor and the tumor-bladder junction had an acute angle, indicating its benign nature. Conclusion: Non-epithelial tumor has characteristic signals in non-enhanced MRI, in which the leiomyoma of bladder is the most frequent benign neoplasm encountered. Considering enhanced MRI findings, the morphology and growth pattern of the tumor, accurate diagnosis can be made in some cases of bladder leiomyoma, providing valuable informations for surgical planning. (authors)

  12. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  13. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  14. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  15. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  16. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  17. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  18. The emerging role of the androgen receptor in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Alan P; Mudryj, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Men are three to four times more likely to get bladder cancer than women. The gender disparity characterizing bladder cancer diagnoses has been investigated. One hypothesis is that androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved in the etiology and progression of this disease. Although bladder cancer is not typically described as an endocrine-related malignancy, it has become increasingly clear that AR signaling plays a role in bladder tumors. This review summarizes current findings regarding the role of the AR in bladder cancer. We discuss work demonstrating AR expression in bladder cancer and its role in promoting formation and progression of tumors. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting the AR in this disease. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Phosphorylated hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met is associated with tumor growth and prognosis in patients with bladder cancer: correlation with matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Sagara, Yuji; Kanda, Shigeru; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kanetake, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met is associated with malignant aggressiveness and survival in various cancers including bladder cancer. Although phosphorylation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met is essential for its function, the pathologic significance of phosphorylated hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met in bladder cancer remains elusive. We investigated the clinical significance of its expression, and its correlation with cancer cell progression-related molecules. The expression levels of 2 tyrosine residues of hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met (pY1234/1235 and pY1349) were examined immunohistochemically in 133 specimens with nonmetastatic bladder cancer. We also investigated their correlation with matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -7, and -14; urokinase-type plasminogen activator; E-cadherin; CD44 standard, variant 3, and variant 6; and vascular endothelial growth factor. Expression of phosphorylated hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met was detected in cancer cells, but was rare in normal urothelial cells. Although hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met, pY1234/1235 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met, and pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met were associated with pT stage, multivariate analysis identified pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-met expression only as a significant factor for high pT stage. Expression of pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met was a marker of metastasis and (P = .001) and cause-specific survival (P = .003). Expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-7, and E-cadherin correlated with pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met expression. Our results demonstrated that pY1349 hepatocyte growth factor receptor/c-Met plays an important role in tumor development, and its expression is a significant predictor of metastasis and survival of patients with bladder cancer. The results suggest that these activities are mediated, at least in part, by matrix

  20. Carcinoma of the bladder - the present situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, T W [9050155GB:Coventry and Warwickshire Hospital (UK). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology

    1979-04-01

    Occupational exposure to carcinogens can result in the development of malignancies after a latent period as long as 45 years. New cases are therefore still being detected, although known carcinogens have been banned for some 30 years. Presenting symptoms, investigative techniques, types of bladder carcinoma and methods of spread are all discussed. Criteria for treatment selection are based on the stage of development of the tumor. Radiotherapy requires preliminary localization of the bladder in relation to external marks. A mercury-filled balloon is carefully positioned in the bladder at the internal meatus, and fluoroscopy provides films which are used in final calculations of dose distribution. A dose of 6000 rad is given by a 300 deg rotational technique over 6 weeks to the tumor volume contained within the 90% isodose curves. The advantages of the technique are discussed, and survival rates given for different tumors at various stages of development.

  1. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-03-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects of the photosensitizer. We present a novel optical design of the endoscopic PDD procedure that allows the procedure to be performed in the outpatient department (OPD) and not only in the OR. Thereby, inpatient procedures lasting 1-2 days may be replaced by a few hours lasting procedure in the OPD. Urine blurs the fluorescence during PDD used in the OPD. Urine contains fluorescent metabolites that are excited by blue light giving an opaque green fluorescence confounding the desired red fluorescence (PDD) from the tumour tissue. Measurements from the clinical situation has shown that some systems for PPD based on blue light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR.

  2. Long non-coding RNA urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a tumor biomarker for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zichun; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Zhang, Daming; Yu, Yongchun; Cai, Licheng; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 as a urine biomarker in urinary bladder cancer patients by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted by the databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, and Web of Science. The quality of eligible studies was scored with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. The bivariate meta-analysis model was used to pool the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio. Receiver operating characteristic curves and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models were employed to check the overall test performance in this meta-analysis. Seven publications involving 678 patients and 563 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity was 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-0.88), specificity was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.94), positive likelihood ratio was 6.5 (95% confidence interval: 3.10-13.62), negative likelihood ratio was 0.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.13-0.25), and diagnostic odds ratio was 36 (95% confidence interval: 13-99). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-0.91). Our results indicated that urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 was a potential diagnostic biomarker with good specificity and sensitivity in urinary bladder cancer. Further prospective studies with larger cohorts are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 for urinary bladder cancer.

  3. Prognostic factors in invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulard-Durdux, C.; Housset, M.

    1998-01-01

    In France, invasive bladder cancer is the more frequent urologic malignancy after prostate carcinoma. Treatment of bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. New therapeutic approaches such as chemo-radiation combination for a conservative procedure, neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy are still developing. In this way, a rigorous selection of patients is needed. This selection is based on prognostic criteria that could be divided into four groups: the volume of the tumor including the tumor infiltration depth, the nodal status, the presence or not of hydronephrosis and the residual tumor mass after trans-urethral resection; the histologic aspects of the tumor including histologic grading, the presence or not of an epidermoid metaplasia, of in situ carcinoma or of thrombi; the expression of tumor markers tissue polypeptide antigen, bladder tumor antigen; the biologic aspects of the tumor as ploidy, cytogenetic abnormalities, expression of Ki67, expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, expression of tumor antigens or growth factor receptors. This paper reviews the prognostic value of the various parameters. (authors)

  4. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor and presents less than 0.06% of all urinary bladder tumors. Case report. We presented a 49-year-old female patient with a history of daily paroxysmal hypertension accompanied with flushing of the face and upper chest, palpitations and excessive sweating prior to micturition. Ultrasonography reported a 3 cm bladder wall tumor. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG scan showed a pathological isotope accumulation in the projection of the bladder. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy. One year following the operation the patient was normotensive and without recurrence. Conclusion. The most efficient treatment option for bladder pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. The most important fact in the diagnostics is suspicion on this rare condition.

  5. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Norio; Yamashita, Atsushi; Kinbara, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kiminobu; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an endorectal surface coil has been evaluated basically and clinically. This new modality obtained increased resolution magnetic resonance images of the pathologic conditions of the prostate and bladder. Compared with images obtained with a body coil, the surface coil images clearly demonstrate prostatic intraglandular zonal anatomy. The clear images of prostatic capsule and neurovascular bundle seen on the surface coil may contribute to the local staging of prostate cancer. The staging diagnosis of bladder tumor located in the bladder neck will be the best candidate for endorectal MRI. Enhancement with gadolinium may improve the ability to differentiate superficial from deep bladder-wall tumors. We concluded that endorectal MRI is safely performed and is extremely useful for the local staging of prostate cancer and bladder neck tumor. Further studies will be required to evaluate the clinical significance of this new modality. (author)

  6. The value of computed tomography in the management of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karrer, P.; Zingg, E.; Vock, P.; Fischedick, A.; Haertel, M.; Fuchs, W.A.; Bern Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 77 patients suffering from bladder cancer histopathological staging and CT-staging are compared. The invasion of bladder and lymph nodes by the tumor is confirmed by histological examination. The CT-results correspond with the pathological findings in 78% for the primary tumor and in 89% for the glands. CT is valuable help to establish the extent and staging of bladder tumors. (orig.) [de

  7. Relationship of PCNA, C-erbB2 and CD44s expression with tumor grade and stage in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ayhan; Kösem, Mustafa; Sayar, İlyas; Gelincik, İbrahim; Yavuz, Alparslan; Bozkurt, Aliseydi; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Bayram, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the intention was to reveal the relationship of histological grade and stage with c-erbB2, CD44s, and PCNA immunoreactivity in bladder urothelial carcinomas (UC). In our study, we evaluated 46 items of transurethral resection material of patients submitted by YYU Faculty of Medicine, Main Department of Pathology, with a mass revealed in their bladder after clinical and radiological studies at our laboratories and who were diagnosed with urothelial carcinomas. PCNA, c-erbB2, and CD44s were applied in an immunohistochemical manner comprised from nine low-malignant potential papillary urothelial neoplasia, 23 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 14 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. Immunostaining was scored according to the percentage of positive cells. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the c-erbB2 and PCNA staining ratio increased when an increase occurred in stage and grade. The CD44s staining ratio decreased. C-erbB2, PCNA, and CD44s appear to be a useful marker in the assessment of the prognosis and treatment options in urothelial carcinomas. PMID:25035774

  8. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  9. Oral chemoprevention with acetyl salicylic Acid, vitamin d and calcium reduces the risk of tobacco carcinogen-induced bladder tumors in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2013-01-01

    , and diet with chemoprevention (acetyl salicylic acid, 1-alpha 25(0H)2-vitamin D3 and calcium). There were significantly fewer tumors (0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-2), p = .045) and fewer animals with tumors (0/20 vs. 5/20, p = .045) in the chemoprevention group compared with controls. Thus, chemoprevention diet...

  10. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Halil; Ceylan, Kadir; Harman, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Temizoz, Osman; Can, Saban

    2006-01-01

    Objective: assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy.Materials and methods: eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. Results: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88%) of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The masses ranged from 0.4 to 7.0 cm in diameter. While conventional cystoscopy could not evaluate interior part of the diverticulum, virtual CT cystoscopy could demonstrate clearly within it. There were no false-positive findings in our series. Conclusion: virtual CT cystoscopy is a promising technique to be used in the detection of bladder lesions. It should be considered especially at the evaluation of bladder diverticula. In the future, it may be possible or even advantageous to incorporate into the imaging algorithm for evaluation of bladder lesion. (author)

  11. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT

  12. Selective bladder preservation with curative intent for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Fumitaka; Kihara, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    Radical cystectomy plus urinary diversion, the reference standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, associates with high complication rates and compromises quality of life as a result of long-term effects on urinary, gastrointestinal and sexual function, and changes in body image. As a society ages, the number of elderly patients unfit for radical cystectomy as a result of comorbidity will increase, and thus the demand for bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer will also inevitably increase. Trimodality bladder-sparing approaches consisting of transurethral resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Σ55-65 Gy) yield overall survival rates comparable with those of radical cystectomy series (50-70% at 5 years), while preserving the native bladder in 40-60% of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients, contributing to an improvement in quality of life for such patients. Limitations of the trimodality therapy include muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence in the preserved bladder, which most often arises in the original muscle-invasive bladder cancer site; potential lack of curative intervention for regional lymph nodes; and increased morbidity in the event of salvage radical cystectomy for remaining or recurrent disease as a result of high-dose pelvic irradiation. Consolidative partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection followed by induction chemoradiotherapy at lower dose (exempli gratia (e.g.) 40 Gy) is a rational strategy for overcoming such limitations by strengthening locoregional control and reducing radiation dosage. Molecular profiling of the tumor and functional imaging might play important roles in optimal patient selection for bladder preservation. Refinement of radiation techniques, intensified concurrent or adjuvant chemotherapy, and novel sensitizers, including molecular targeting agent, are also expected to improve outcomes and consequently provide more muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with favorable

  13. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when ... and potential progressive renal damage because of high bladder ... creatinine level, can also be used to assess kidney function. Urodynamic ...

  14. Pure primary small cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: A rare diagnostic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm accounting for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. Since the tumor is very rare, pathogenesis is uncertain. Small cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder are mixed with classic urothelial carcinomas or adenocarcinomas of the bladder in 68% cases, making pure primary small cell carcinoma even a rarer entity. The unknown etiology and natural history of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represent a challenge both to the pathologist and urologists for its diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

  15. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Antara; Adelson, Martin E; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Mordechai, Eli; Sidi, Abraham A; Trama, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  16. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  17. Systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma initially presenting as a bladder mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder lymphomas are rare lesions which may be primary bladder lymphomas or part of systemic lymphoma with bladder involvement. We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL in a 73-year-old female who presented with bladder tumor which on evaluation revealed NHL with extensive systemic involvement. The management of such an advanced case is discussed here with literature review.

  18. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  19. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  20. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  1. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  2. Bladder leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jun; Lai, Hai-Ping; Lin, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Qing-Quan; Shao, Chu-Xiao; Jin, Lie; Lei, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare tumor arising from the submucosa. Most patients with bladder leiomyoma may present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. However, there are a few cases of bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. We herein report an unusual case of coexisting bladder leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. A 44-year-old Asian female presented to urologist and complained that she had experienced dyspareunia over the preceding several months. A pelvic ultrasonography revealed a mass lesion located in the trigone of urinary bladder. The mass lesion was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT scan also revealed a lobulated and enlarged uterus consistent with uterine leiomyoma. Then, the biopsies were then taken with a transurethral resection (TUR) loop and these biopsies showed a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in a connective tissue stroma suggestive of bladder leiomyoma. An open local excision of bladder leiomyoma and hysteromyomectomy were performed successfully. Histological examination confirmed bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma. This case highlights a rare presentation of bladder leiomyoma, dyspareunia, as the chief symptom in a patient who had coexisting uterine leiomyoma. Bladder leiomyomas coexisting with uterine leiomyomas are rare and can present with a wide spectrum of complaints including without symptoms, irritative symptoms, obstructive symptoms, or even dyspareunia.

  3. [A Case of Primary Schwannoma of the Urinary Bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Waku, Natsui; Kawai, Koji; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Ishitsuka, Ryutaro; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Sakashita, Mai; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a bladder tumor. She was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally detected with radiological imaging performed during treatment of cervical cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a solitary submucosal tumor located in the anterior wall of the urinary bladder, with homogeneous contrast enhancement. Cystoscopy showed a submucosal tumor covered by normal mucosa. A paraganglioma was considered in the differential diagnosis, but symptoms suggesting hypercatecholaminemia were not apparent. Moreover, she did not have a family history or symptoms associated with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). She underwent partial cystectomy with a preliminary diagnosis of submucosal bladder tumor. Histopathological diagnosis confirmed a schwannoma arising from the bladder wall. She was followed up without intravesical recurrence or metastases for 6 months. In the literature, only 12 cases of bladder schwannoma have been reported. There was no reported family history or symptoms associated with NF-1 in any of the cases. Although the number of cases is limited, literature review showed a favorable prognosis for bladder schwannoma with local tumor resection in patients without NF-1.

  4. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  5. Intravesical Gemcitabine for Treatment of Superficial Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the mainstay of treatment and prophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer (SBC) as it reduces tumor recurrence and disease progression. About one-third of patients do not respond to BCG. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intravesical ...

  6. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  7. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  8. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with paraganglioma of the urinary bladder, underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor 10 years ago. He was lost to follow-up after the operation but was recently admitted to our hospital for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, refractory hypertension with palpitation was noted and a computed tomography scan revealed a round, well-defined mass at the right pelvic region. Retroperitoneal tumor excision surgery was performed and a subsequent pathological analysis revealed paraganglioma. The diagnosis of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis was confirmed and his blood pressure returned to normal level without medication after the operation.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of etanidazole (SR-2508) in bladder and cervical cancer: evidence of diffusion from urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, H.K.; el Badawy, S.; abd el Baki, H.; Zaghloul, M.; el Moneim Osman, A.; Akoush, H.; Fairchild, K.

    1989-01-01

    Following an IV infusion of 2.0 g/m2 of Etanidazole, the mean tumor concentration 40 min after injection was 126 micrograms/g in bladder cancer and 65 micrograms/g in cervical cancer. The tumor/plasma concentration ratio was 1.88 in bladder and 0.85 in cervical cancer. This high tumor concentration in bladder cancer could be accounted for by diffusion from a highly concentrated urine. This renders bladder cancer a suitable clinical model for testing this sensitizer

  10. Rare malignancies of the bladder: Case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Numan Yıkılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients who operated the diagnosis with bladder cancer were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with a rare pathology was determined. Rare tumors of the bladder was investigated by examining the literature. Our clinic diagnosis and treatment algorithms were compared with the literature. A rare tumor of the bladder cannot be recognized by most urologists and pathologists. Therefore, it can cause difficulties during diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Invasive bladder cancer: treatment strategies using transurethral surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy with selection for bladder conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Kaufman, Donald S.; Althausen, Alex F.; Heney, Niall M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Combined modality therapy has become the standard oncologic approach to achieve organ preservation in many malignancies. Methods and Materials: Although radical cystectomy has been considered as standard treatment for invasive bladder carcinoma in the United States, good results have been recently reported from several centers using multimodality treatment, particularly in patients with clinical T2 and T3a disease who do not have a ureter obstructed by tumor. Results: The components of the combined treatment are usually transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Following an induction course of therapy a histologic response is evaluated by cystoscopy and rebiopsy. Clinical 'complete responders' (tumor site rebiopsy negative and urine cytology with no tumor cells present) continue with a consolidation course of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. Those patients not achieving a clinical complete response are recommended to have an immediate cystectomy. Individually the local monotherapies of radiation, TURBT, or multidrug chemotherapy each achieve a local control rate of the primary tumor of from 20 to 40%. When these are combined, clinical complete response rates of from 65 to 80% can be achieved. Seventy-five to 85% of the clinical complete responders will remain with bladders free of recurrence of an invasive tumor. Conclusions: Bladder conservation trials using combined modality treatment approaches with selection for organ conservation by response of the tumor to initial treatment report overall 5-year survival rates of approximately 50%, and a 40-45% 5-year survival rate with the bladder intact. These modern multimodality bladder conservation approaches offer survival rates similar to radical cystectomy for patients of similar clinical stage and age. Bladder-conserving therapy should be offered to patients with invasive bladder carcinoma as a realistic alternative to radical

  12. Clinical epidemiology of nonurothelial bladder cancer: analysis of the Netherlands Cancer Registry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Schoenberg, M.P.; Witjes, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nonurothelial malignancies represent a small fraction of bladder malignancies and are less extensively studied, resulting in sparse empirical data on these tumors. We sought insight into tumor characteristics and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the nationwide

  13. Clinical features and outcomes of nontransitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder: Analysis of 125 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Prognosis of urinary bladder tumors was directly related to histological type and stage of the tumor. CT or radiotherapy has limited response rates. Early radical cystectomy should be performed to improve prognosis.

  14. Guidelines for radiation therapy in clinical research on bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; VanderSchueren, E.; Kitagawa, T.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Frommhold, H.; Magno, L.; Mochizuki, S.; VanderBogaert, W.; VanderWerf-Messing, B.

    1986-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease and that there are important tumor characteristics that will predict significant differences in radiation responsiveness. These should in all instances be well documented prospectively in any treatment protocol. However, in this chapter the authors stress a number of factors related to the tumor at presentation as well as the administration of the radiation therapy that can importantly affect the efficacy of the radiation on the patient's tumor, as well as on his or her normal tissues. As Radiation Oncologists, they are most interested in the conducting and reporting of prospective clinical investigations in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma who will be treated with planned preservation of their bladder, but whose radiation therapy may be combined with additional planned bladder-sparing surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

  15. A subclass of HER1 ligands are prognostic markers for survival in bladder cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Helle-Merete Vissing; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family have been suggested as prognostic markers in patients with bladder cancer. Thus far, there has been no consensus on their usefulness. We report an analysis of six ligands and two receptors of which a subset correlate to tumor stage and survival...... of the EGF family, especially EPI, may be potential bladder tumor markers....

  16. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, L.; Mansilla, F.; Mansilla, M.D.; Marin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  18. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  19. Urothelial carcinoma arising within bladder diverticulum—Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-En Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder diverticulum is an outpouching of bladder mucosa through the musculature of the bladder wall. The incidence of bladder diverticulum in Taiwan is about 1.7% in children and 23.4% in adults. Intradiverticular carcinoma of urinary bladder is uncommon. It ranges from 0.8% to 14.3%. Here we report a case of urothelial carcinoma within a bladder diverticulum. A 60-year-old male patient had history of BPH under medical treatment and right ureteral stone treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. He presented with painless gross hematuria about 3 months after ESWL. Intravenous pyelography showed a filling defect within the bladder diverticulum. Histopathological diagnosis of low grade urothelial carcinoma arising from the bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopic biopsy. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence was found not from the previous diverticulum but from another area during regular cystoscopy at the 6-month postoperative follow up. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Pathology revealed a noninvasive, high grade urothelial carcinoma. There was no further bladder tumor recurrence during the 1-year follow-up period. Bladder-sparing surgery with close cystoscopy follow up for intradiverticular urothelial carcinoma can be applied as an alternative treatment modality.

  20. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  1. A study of an effective sunitinib–chemotherapeutic combination regimen for bladder cancer treatment using a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Combination of the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor sunitinib with gemcitabine chemotherapy synergistically enhances tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a new treatment modality for advanced bladder cancer.

  2. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  3. Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Arshad A; Shah, Zafar A; Siddiqi, Mushtaq A

    2013-05-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  6. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...... staining on tissue arrays of bladder cancers. The presence and relative amount of ADAM12 in the urine of cancer patients were determined by Western blotting and densitometric measurements, respectively. RESULTS: ADAM12 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in bladder cancer, as determined...

  7. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  8. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  9. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  10. Long-term survival of bladder preservation therapy with radiation and chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Sumio; Takase, Kazunori; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Mitsunobu; Yao, Masahiro; Hosaka, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    The prognoses and prognostic factors of the 54 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer who underwent bladder preservation therapy at Yokohama City University Hospital between 1977 and 1995 were analyzed statistically. The therapeutic modalities of bladder preservation were mainly radiation or chemotherapy. The prognosis for the patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy was worse than that for the patients who underwent total cystectomy. The prognostic factors of these patients were size and grade of tumor, presence of hydronephrosis and performance status (PS) of the patients by univariate analysis. Tumor grade was the most predictable prognostic factor using multivariate analysis. Only 17 patients survived more than 5 years after treatment; 78% of the survivors had good PS (0 or 1). Five of them died of cancer and two patients were alive with cancer. All of them had G3 tumors. These results suggest that patients with locally invasive G2 tumor could be candiates for bladder preservation therapy and patients who underwent bladder preservation therapy should be evaluated at 10 years post-therapy. (author)

  11. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  12. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  13. Intramural leiomyomas of the bladder in asymptomatic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto I. Lopes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bladder leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumors, which account for less than 0.43% of all bladder tumors with approximately 200 cases described in the literature. These tumors may be classified into 3 different locations: endovesical, intramural and extravesical. Endovesical is the most common form, accounting for 63-86% of the cases, while intramural occurs in 3-7% and extravesical in 11-30%. The intramural form, especially small tumors, may not produce symptoms hardening detection. We report two cases of intramural bladder leiomyomas in asymptomatic men observed incidentally by transabdominal ultrasonography during the follow-up of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We discuss the diagnosis and management of these lesions.

  14. Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkali, Z.; Chan, T.; Manoharan, M.; Algaba, F.; Busch, C.; Cheng, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kriegmair, M.; Montironi, R.; Murphy, W.M.; Sesterhenn, I.A.; Tachibana, M.; Weider, J.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a

  15. Recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2007-01-01

    individually contributed to the management of the disease. However, the development of high-throughput techniques for simultaneous assessment of a large number of markers has allowed classification of tumors into clinically relevant molecular subgroups beyond those possible by pathological classification. Here......Bladder cancer is the fifth most common neoplasm in industrialized countries. Due to frequent recurrences of the superficial form of this disease, bladder cancer ranks as one of the most common cancers. Despite the description of a large number of tumor markers for bladder cancers, none have......, we review the recent advances in high-throughput molecular marker identification for superficial and invasive bladder cancers....

  16. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi; Tochigi, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  17. Urology and nephrology update: bladder and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Fox, Cara-Louise

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that bladder and kidney cancers would be diagnosed in approximately 140,000 Americans in 2013, with approximately 30,000 dying from these cancers. Urinary tract cancers affect men more commonly than they do women, and the median age at diagnosis is 65 years. Major risk factors for these cancers include tobacco smoking, certain chemical exposures, family history, age, and obesity. Unexplained hematuria in adults should be evaluated to exclude bladder and kidney cancer. Staging of bladder and kidney cancer should be based on the TNM staging system, which, along with tumor grade, provides important treatment and prognostic information. Urothelial cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer; it also can occur in the kidneys or ureters. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Treatment options for bladder cancer vary widely, depending on the grade of the cancer. Early non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer may be removed cystoscopically and/or treated with intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, whereas patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors typically require surgery. Management of kidney cancer is almost always surgical, unless the patient is too ill to undergo surgery or chooses palliative care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Nomograms Predicting Response to Therapy and Outcomes After Bladder-Preserving Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@harthosp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaufman, Donald S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heney, Niall M. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Spiegel, Daphne Y.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Selective bladder preservation by use of trimodality therapy is an established management strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Individual disease features have been associated with response to therapy, likelihood of bladder preservation, and disease-free survival. We developed prognostic nomograms to predict the complete response rate, disease-specific survival, and likelihood of remaining free of recurrent bladder cancer or cystectomy. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2009, 325 patients were managed with selective bladder preservation at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and had complete data adequate for nomogram development. Treatment consisted of a transurethral resection of bladder tumor followed by split-course chemoradiation. Patients with a complete response at midtreatment cystoscopic assessment completed radiation, whereas those with a lesser response underwent a prompt cystectomy. Prognostic nomograms were constructed predicting complete response (CR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and bladder-intact disease-free survival (BI-DFS). BI-DFS was defined as the absence of local invasive or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, bladder cancer-related death, or radical cystectomy. Results: The final nomograms included information on clinical T stage, presence of hydronephrosis, whether a visibly complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed, age, sex, and tumor grade. The predictive accuracy of these nomograms was assessed. For complete response, the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.69. The Harrell concordance index was 0.61 for both DSS and BI-DFS. Conclusions: Our nomograms allow individualized estimates of complete response, DSS, and BI-DFS. They may assist patients and clinicians making important treatment decisions.

  19. Molecular profiling of ADAM12 in human bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Reidar; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Rudkjaer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: We have previously found ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, to be an interesting biomarker for breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of ADAM12 in different grades and stages of bladder cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ADAM12...... gene expression was evaluated in tumors from 96 patients with bladder cancer using a customized Affymetrix GeneChip. Gene expression in bladder cancer was validated using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical...

  20. The Rare Togetherness of Bladder Leiomyoma and Neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Cem; Budak, Salih; Kisa, Erdem; Celik, Orcun; Kozacioglu, Zafer

    2018-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Von Recklinghausen disease) is a common, autosomal dominant hereditary disorder characterized by involvement of multiple tissues derived from the neural crest. Urinary system involvement in neurofibromatosis is a rare condition. Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor. In this case, our experience and approach regarding the bladder leiomyoma development in a patient diagnosed with neurofibromatosis are presented and the literature data has been reviewed.

  1. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  2. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBazzaz Pishtewan H

    2009-01-01

    The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations. (author)

  3. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  4. Artificial intelligence and bladder cancer arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P J; Catto, J W F; Abbod, M F; Linkens, D A; Herr, A; Pilarsky, C; Wissmann, C; Stoehr, R; Denzinger, S; Knuechel, R; Hamdy, F C; Hartmann, A

    2007-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is a heterogenous disease whose management is dependent upon the risk of progression to muscle invasion. Although the recurrence rate is high, the majority of tumors are indolent and can be managed by endoscopic means alone. The prognosis of muscle invasion is poor and radical treatment is required if cure is to be obtained. Progression risk in non-invasive tumors is hard to determine at tumor diagnosis using current clinicopathological means. To improve the accuracy of progression prediction various biomarkers have been evaluated. To discover novel biomarkers several authors have used gene expression microarrays. Various statistical methods have been described to interpret array data, but to date no biomarkers have entered clinical practice. Here, we describe a new method of microarray analysis using neurofuzzy modeling (NFM), a form of artificial intelligence, and integrate it with artificial neural networks (ANN) to investigate non-muscle invasive bladder cancer array data (n=66 tumors). We develop a predictive panel of 11 genes, from 2800 expressed genes, that can significantly identify tumor progression (average Logrank p = 0.0288) in the analyzed cancers. In comparison, this panel appears superior to those genes chosen using traditional analyses (average Logrank p = 0.3455) and tumor grade (Logrank, p = 0.2475) in this non-muscle invasive cohort. We then analyze panel members in a new non-muscle invasive bladder cancer cohort (n=199) using immunohistochemistry with six commercially available antibodies. The combination of 6 genes (LIG3, TNFRSF6, KRT18, ICAM1, DSG2 and BRCA2) significantly stratifies tumor progression (Logrank p = 0.0096) in the new cohort. We discuss the benefits of the transparent NFM approach with respect to other reported methods.

  5. Distinct pattern of p53 mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spruck, C H; Rideout, W M; Olumi, A F

    1993-01-01

    A distinct mutational spectrum for the p53 tumor suppressor gene in bladder carcinomas was established in patients with known exposures to cigarette smoke. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene showed inactivating mutations in 16 of 40 (40%) bladder...... tumors from smokers and 13 of 40 (33%) tumors from lifetime nonsmokers. Overall, 13 of the 50 (26%) total point mutations discovered in this and previous work were G:C-->C:G transversions, a relatively rare mutational type in human tumors. In six tumors, identical AGA (Arg)-->ACA (Thr) point mutations...... double mutations, four of which were tandem mutations on the same allele. No double mutations were found in tumors from nonsmoking patients. None of the mutations in smokers were G:C-->T:A transversions, which would be anticipated for exposure to the suspected cigarette smoke carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl...

  6. Bladder Cancer Stem-Like Cells: Their Origin and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Ohishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer (BC, the most common cancer arising from the human urinary tract, consists of two major clinicopathological phenotypes: muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MIBC frequently metastasizes and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. A certain proportion of patients with metastatic BC can achieve a remission with systemic chemotherapy; however, the disease relapses in most cases. Evidence suggests that MIBC comprises a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which may be resistant to these treatments and may be able to form new tumors in the bladder or other organs. Therefore, the unambiguous identification of bladder CSCs and the development of targeted therapies are urgently needed. Nevertheless, it remains unclear where bladder CSCs originate and how they are generated. We review recent studies on bladder CSCs, specifically focusing on their proposed origin and the possible therapeutic options based on the CSC theory.

  7. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  8. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  9. Bladder perforations in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... Mean recovery time for patients was 15 days. ... fracture.[1,2] Isolated bladder perforations are rare, and they .... PA, perineal injury, pelvic fracture. Trauma .... Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients.

  10. Discoidin domain receptor 1 activity drives an aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xin; Rui, Wenbin; He, Wei; Shao, Yuan; Sun, Fukang; Zhou, Wenlong; Wu, Yuxuan; Zhu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which utilizes collagen as a ligand to regulate the interaction between cancer cells and tumor stroma. However, the clinical relevance of DDR1 expression in bladder cancer as well as its molecular regulation have not been previously investigated. Here, we assessed the role of DDR1 in bladder cancer. The DDR1 levels in bladder cancer specimens were examined by Western blot, compared to the paired adhesive normal controls. The eff...

  11. A place for precision medicine in bladder cancer: targeting the FGFRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, Erica; Tomlinson, Darren C; Williams, Sarah V; Knowles, Margaret A

    2016-10-01

    Bladder tumors show diverse molecular features and clinical outcome. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer has poor prognosis and novel approaches to systemic therapy are urgently required. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has good prognosis, but high recurrence rate and the requirement for life-long disease monitoring places a major burden on patients and healthcare providers. Studies of tumor tissues from both disease groups have identified frequent alterations of FGFRs, including mutations of FGFR3 and dysregulated expression of FGFR1 and FGFR3 that suggest that these may be valid therapeutic targets. We summarize current understanding of the molecular alterations affecting these receptors in bladder tumors, preclinical studies validating them as therapeutic targets, available FGFR-targeted agents and results from early clinical trials in bladder cancer patients.

  12. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mameghan, Hedy; Fisher, Richard; Mameghan, Jill; Brook, Susan

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy.

  13. Analysis of failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameghan, Hedy; Fisher, Richard; Mameghan, Jill; Brook, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess prognostic factors for bladder relapse and distant failure following definitive radiotherapy for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients treated in the period 1977 to 1990 by definitive radiotherapy. The factors studied included age, sex, T stage, histological grade, tumor multiplicity, ureteric obstruction, total radiation dose, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The endpoints studied were bladder relapse and distant failure. Results: There were 342 patients with a mean follow-up time of 7.9 years. Bladder relapse was observed in 159 patients. The overall actuarial bladder relapse rate at 5 years was 55% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher bladder relapse rate were: tumor multiplicity (p < 0.001), presence of ureteric obstruction (p = 0.001), and higher T stage (p 0.044). Distant failure occurred in 39 patients. The overall actuarial distant failure rate at 5 years was 28% (SE = 3%). Prognostic factors for a higher distant failure rate were: ureteric obstruction (p = 0.003) and higher T stage (p = 0.030). Conclusion: In our study, patients with invasive bladder TCC fell into distinct prognostic groups determined by the three independent factors, ureteric obstruction, tumor multiplicity, and T stage. These factors provided estimated risks of bladder relapse by 5 years which ranged from 34% to 91%. Knowledge of these prognostic factors can help in the selection of patients more suited for bladder preservation by definitive radiotherapy

  14. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF INTERSPECIES CONCORDANCE OF MECHANISMS OF ARSENIC INDUCED BLADDER CANCER BY GENE EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen that induces urinary bladder cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed for arsenic-induced cancer. Although inorganic arsenic (iAs) does not induce tumors in adult rodents, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), a major metabolite of iAs, is a rat bladder c...

  16. Activation of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.M. van Oers (Johanna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of frequent FGFR3 mutations in superficial bladder cancer suggests that mutation of the FGFR3 gene is a key genetic event in the development of noninvasive bladder tumors. Furthermore, FGFR3 mutations were associated with a good prognosis, suggesting that the

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor targeting of replication competent adenovirus enhances cytotoxicity in bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, HG; Molenaar, B; van Beusechem, VW; Haisma, HJ; Rodriguez, R; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR

    Purpose: We evaluated the delivery and oncolytic potential of targeted replication competent adenoviruses in bladder cancer lines. Materials and Methods: Seven established human bladder cancer tumor lines (5637, SW800, TCCsup, J82, Scaber, T24 and 253J) were studied for the expression of integrins

  18. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  19. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity {>=}G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity.

  20. Concomitant boost radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a concomitant partial bladder boost schedule in radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, coupling a limited boost volume with shortening of the overall treatment time. Methods and materials: Between 1994 and 1999, 50 patients with a T2-T4 N0M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder received radiotherapy delivered in a short overall treatment time with a concomitant boost technique. With this technique a dose of 40 Gy in 2-Gy fractions was administered to the small pelvis with a concomitant boost limited to the bladder tumor area plus margin of 15 Gy in fractions of 0.75 Gy. The total tumor dose was 55 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks. Toxicity was scored according to EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: The feasibility of the treatment was good. Severe acute toxicity ≥G3 was observed in seven patients (14%). Severe late toxicity ≥G3 was observed in six patients (13%). Thirty-seven patients (74%) showed a complete and five (10 %) a partial remission after treatment. The actuarial 3-year freedom of local progression was 55%. Conclusion: In external radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer a concomitant boost technique coupling a partial bladder boost with shortening of the overall treatment time provides a high probability of local control with acceptable toxicity

  1. Long-term follow-up of advanced bladder adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Korkes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate patients treated with primary bladder adenocarcinoma at our institution. Methods: A review of 30 patients diagnosed with bladder adenocarcinoma at a single institution from 1994 of 2005 was undertaken. Cases of primary bladder adenocarcinoma were retrospectively evaluated. Rresults: Out of 490 patients with bladder carcinoma, 30 had bladder adenocarcinoma: 22 metastatic tumors, eight (1.6% primary adenocarcinoma. Of these, three (0.6% were primary non-urachal and five (1.0% were urachal adenocarcinoma. All patients were men with mean age of 55.8 years (range 37-83. Dysuria and hematuria were the main symptoms reported. Of the total, four patients had cancer-related mortality. Cconclusion: Primary bladder adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm, observed in 1.6% patients with bladder malignancies. Late diagnosis limits therapeutic possibilities. Partial cystectomy seems to have unsatisfactory results and radical cystectomy, although remains as the gold standard, have no proven efficacy. New methods of adjuvant treatment must be studied to improve treatment outcomes, as high mortality is observed despite treatment.

  2. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  3. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  4. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3 H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection. 3 H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  5. Natural biology and management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Tyson, Mark D; Clark, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... in low-risk patients. SUMMARY: NMIBC represents a variety of disease states and continues to pose management challenges. As our understanding of tumor biology improves and technology advances, achieving better outcomes through individualized care may be possible.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the natural biology of noninvasive bladder cancer and its management strategies while summarizing the most recent advances in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a tendency to recur and progress. Risk stratification has...... helped triage patients but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced endoscopy with photodynamic imaging, narrow band imaging, optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification and disease monitoring. Attempts at better...

  6. Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer: Who, what and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Christopher; Apolo, Andrea B.; Agarwal, Piyush K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment for non-metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. A number of factors can impact the likelihood of long term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy, and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting, but remain an area of active study. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity. PMID:25882559

  7. Bladder cancer: what’s new in 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Karyakin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bladder cancer has been a complicated problem. Low survival for regional and metastatic disease remains. In recent years,  the efforts of doctors, biologists, diagnosticians were aimed at development of new technologies in these spheres and improvement of treatment results for this pathology. In this review, current views on diagnosis, the role of repeated surgical interventions in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, etc. are presented. Advances in molecular biology allowed to differentiate subtypes of urothelial bladder cancer. Importantly, the results of biomolecular studies allowed to identify different responses to drug treatment. Moreover, in some cases these results have a follow-up period of up to 3 years. Based on other data characterizing the tumor, the effectiveness of new drugs for treatment of regional, metastatic and post-cisplatin therapy bladder cancer was evaluated. These results allow to hope for increased life span and quality of life for patients with this severe disease.

  8. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder carcinoma. Development of novel bladder preservation approach, Osaka Medical College regimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ibuki, Naokazu; Nomi, Hayahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Ubai, Takanobu

    2012-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been widely used in a neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant setting. Furthermore, trimodal approaches including complete transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by combined chemotherapy and radiation have generally been performed as bladder preservation therapy. However, none of the protocols have achieved a 5-year survival rate of more than 70%. Additionally, the toxicity of chemotherapy and/or a decreased quality of life due to urinary diversion cannot be ignored, as most patients with bladder cancer are elderly. We therefore newly developed the novel trimodal approach of ''combined therapy using balloon-occluded arterial infusion of anticancer agent and hemodialysis with concurrent radiation, which delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the site of a tumor without systemic adverse effects (''Osaka Medical College regimen'' referred to as the OMC regimen). We initially applied the OMC regimen as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer. However, since more than 85% of patients with histologically-proven urothelial cancer achieved complete response with no evidence of recurrence after a mean follow-up of 170 (range 21-814) weeks, we have been applying the OMC-regimen as a new approach for bladder sparing therapy. We summarize the advantage and/or disadvantage of chemotherapy in neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant settings, and show the details of our newly developed bladder sparing approach OMC regimen in this review. (author)

  9. Review of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, many patients cannot empty their bladders within an acceptable duration. Common complaints include weak urinary stream and incomplete emptying, which may affect quality of life. Bladder emptying requires sufficient detrusor contractile power, velocity, and durability. The urodynamic term for inadequate detrusor contraction is detrusor underactivity (DU. Although this definition was provided by the ICS, it may not be clinically practical. Analogous to the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO, the symptom complex caused by DU is termed underactive bladder (UAB. Many conditions lead to UAB, such as advanced age, neurogenic bladder and BOO, but the definite pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is still being widely studied without a widely-accepted consensus. The preferred mainstream treatment for increased residual urine volume caused by UAB is intermittent catheterization, while pharmacotherapy is still disappointing after decades of development. There are no studies on surgical treatment for UAB with an acceptable level of evidence. We reviewed the recent literature on UAB and DU to provide a comprehensive discussion of the related presentation, etiology, diagnosis and management.

  10. Transvaginal Resection of a Bladder Leiomyoma Misdiagnosed with a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Fen Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor and it could be easily misdiagnosed with many other pelvic diseases, especially obstetrical and gynecological diseases; abdominal, laparoscopic, and transurethral resection of bladder leiomyoma have been reported. Herein, we present a case of bladder leiomyoma misdiagnosed with a vaginal mass preoperatively; the mass was isolated, enucleated from the bladder neck, and removed transvaginally; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intramural leiomyoma of bladder neck that has been enucleated transvaginally only without cystotomy.

  11. A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwaljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder.

  12. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten; Lebesque, Joos; Lotz, Heidi; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Moonen, Luc; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV CONV ). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV ART ). The GTV ART was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV ART . Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV ART . Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV ART . On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV ART with PTV CONV (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes

  13. Adaptive radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lotz, Heidi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Moonen, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) in combination with a partial bladder irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with solitary T1-T4 N0M0 bladder cancer were treated to the bladder tumor + 2 cm margin planning target volume (PTV{sub CONV}). During the first treatment week, five daily computed tomography (CT) scans were made immediately before or after treatment. In the second week, a volume was constructed encompassing the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) on the planning scan and the five CT scans (GTV{sub ART}). The GTV{sub ART} was expanded with a 1 cm margin for the construction of a PTV{sub ART}. Starting in the third week, patients were treated to PTV{sub ART}. Repeat CT scans were used to evaluate treatment accuracy. Results: On 5 of 91 repeat CT scans (5%), the GTV was not adequately covered by the PTV{sub ART}. On treatment planning, there was only one scan in which the GTV was not adequately covered by the 95% isodose. On average, the treatment volumes were reduced by 40% when comparing PTV{sub ART} with PTV{sub CONV} (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The adaptive strategy for bladder cancer is an effective way to deal with treatment errors caused by variations in bladder tumor position and leads to a substantial reduction in treatment volumes.

  14. Lymphocytic infiltration of bladder after local cellular immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Bishai, M B; Techy, G B; Narayan, K S; Saroufeem, R; Yazan, O; Marshall, C E

    2000-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient who received cellular immunotherapy, in the form of local injections of autologous stimulated lymphocytes (ASL) into individual tumors in the urinary bladder. A major consideration in cellular immunotherapy being the ability of immune cells to reach all target areas, we hypothesized that direct delivery of effector cells into individual bladder tumors might assure such access. ASL were generated by exposing the patient's PBL to phytohemagglutinin and culturing them in the presence of IL-2 to expand the population. ASL were injected into the base of individual bladder tumors three times at intervals of 3 weeks. The patient died of a myocardial infarct, unrelated to cell therapy, 20 days after the third injection. An autopsy was performed. Histological sections of the bladder showed extensive lymphocytic infiltration of virtually the entire organ. No conclusions about the therapeutic efficacy of local immunotherapy using ASL are possible. Nevertheless, the observations reported, taken together with reports of therapeutic efficacy of other immunotherapy regimens in the management of bladder cancer, suggest that ready access of stimulated lymphocytes to all regions of the organ may account, in part, for the relatively high rate of therapeutic success reported for various immunotherapy regimens for this malignancy.

  15. Discordance Between Preoperative and Postoperative Bladder Cancer Location: Implications for Partial-Bladder Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Tucker, Kai; Conway, Robert Greg; He, Jiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Guzzo, Thomas [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Malkowicz, S. Bruce [Department of Urology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Christodouleas, John, E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is strong interest in partial-bladder radiation whether as a boost or definitive therapy to limit long-term toxicity. It is unclear that a standard preoperative examination can accurately identify all sites of disease within the bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between preoperative localization of bladder tumors with postoperative findings to facilitate partial-bladder radiation techniques when appropriate. Methods and Materials: We examined patients with clinically staged T1-T4 invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or TCC with variant histology with no history of radiation or partial cystectomy undergoing radical cystectomy. Patients were scored as “under-detected” if a bladder site was involved with invasive disease (≥T1) at the time of cystectomy, but not identified preoperatively. Patients were additionally scored as “widely under-detected” if they had postoperative lesions that were not identified preoperatively in a given site, nor in any adjacent site. Rates of under-detected and widely under-detected lesions, as well as univariate and multivariate association between clinical variables and under-detection, were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: Among 222 patients, 96% (213/222) had at least 1 area of discordance. Fifty-eight percent of patients were under-detected in at least 1 location, whereas 12% were widely under-detected. Among 24 patients with a single site of disease on preoperative evaluation, 21/24 (88%) had at least 1 under-detected lesion and 14/24 (58%) were widely under-detected. On multivariate analysis, only solitary site of preoperative disease was associated with increased levels of under-detection of invasive disease (OR = 4.161, 95% CI, 1.368-12.657). Conclusion: Our study shows a stark discordance between preoperative and postoperative localization of bladder tumors. From a clinical perspective, incomplete localization of all sites of disease within the bladder

  16. Clinical outcome of chemoradiotherapy for T1G3 bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaharu; Ishioka, Jun-ichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Yukio; Saito, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Yotsuo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of a bladder-sparing approach using chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for T1G3 bladder cancer. Between May 2000 and August 2007, 11 patients with T1G3 bladder cancer and who were negative for macroscopic residual tumor were treated by CRT after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt). Pelvic irradiation was given at a dose of 40 Gy in 4 weeks. Intra-arterial administration of cisplatin and systemic administration of methotrexate were carried out in the first and third weeks of radiotherapy. One month after CRT, response was evaluated by restaging TUR-Bt. For persistent tumor after CRT or tumor recurrence, patients received additional treatment. Median follow-up was 21.2 months. Complete response was achieved in 10 of 11 patients (90.9%). Local recurrence for the entire group of 11 patients was 22.1% at both 2 and 5 years. Tumor progression was 0% at 5 years. Disease-specific survival rates were 100% at 5 years. All of survivors retained functioning bladders. Bladder preservation by CRT is a curative treatment option for T1G3 bladder cancer and a reasonable alternative to intravesical treatment or early cystectomy. (author)

  17. Prognostic factors in non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors - I. Clinical prognostic factors: A review of the experience of the EORTC genito-urinary group - II. Biologic prognostic markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, Karl-Heinz; Sylvester, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To summarize the most important clinical prognostic factors of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as assessed by the European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genito-Urinary Group, to present biologic markers involved in urothelial cell carcinoma, and to address

  18. The results of treatments and complications of immunotherapy (BCG and alpha-interferon in superficial TCC of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabalameli P

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of choice for bladder tumors is TUR, but because of high incidence of recurrence in these tumors, various treatments are suggested. In one study, 32 patients involved with superficial T.C.C. of bladder selected and divided in two equal groups. In the first group, after T.U.R, 10 million IU of a alpha-interferon was injected into the bladder through a catheter and in the other group, after TUR, they treated with injection of BCG into bladders. The results of these two drugs in prevention of recurrence and their side effects were studied and compaired

  19. Mucinous Bladder Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mello R. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare type of bladder cancer, with aggressive behavior and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The symptoms are similar to those of other bladder tumors. Surgery is the main treatment and remains the only curative option. There may be a progression from mucinous metaplasia to mucinous adenoma and then mucinous adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent lower urinary tract infections, submitted to imaging tests, which showed a bladder tumor. After transurethral resection, pathology showed intestinal mucinous carcinoma. Metastatic work-up was negative. New surgical procedure showed metaplasia but no recurrence of the carcinoma. The patient is now using antibiotic prophylaxis and will undergo a cystoscopy every 3 months and computed tomography in one year.

  20. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  1. A Giant Pedunculated Urothelial Polyp Mimicking Bladder Mass in a Child: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral fibroepithelial polyps are rarely seen benign tumors with mesodermal origin. These polyps can involve kidney, pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The most common symptoms are hematuria and flank pain. The choice of treatment is either endoscopic or surgical resection of polyp by sparing kidney. Here, we presented a pediatric case with giant, fibroepithelial polyp that mimics bladder tumor, originating from middle segment of the ureter.

  2. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival outcome in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate survival rates and prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes after bladder preserving therapy including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in bladder cancer with a curative intent. We retrospectively studied 50 bladder cancer patients treated with bladder-preserving therapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 1999 to December 2010. Age ranged from 46 to 89 years (median, 71.5 years). Bladder cancer was the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II, III, and IV in 9, 27, and 14 patients, respectively. Thirty patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 20 patients with RT alone. Nine patients received chemotherapy prior to CCRT or RT alone. Radiation was delivered with a four-field box technique (median, 63 Gy; range, 48.6 to 70.2 Gy). The follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 169 months (median, 34 months). Thirty patients (60%) showed complete response and 13 (26%) a partial response. All patients could have their own bladder preserved. Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 37.2%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 30.2%. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade and CCRT were statistically significant in OS. Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor related to OS. CCRT is also considered to improve survival outcomes. Further multi-institutional studies are needed to elucidate the impact of RT in bladder cancer

  3. Lymphatic vessel density and function in experimental bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, Marcia R; Wu, Xue-Ru; Saban, Ricardo; Towner, Rheal; Smith, Nataliya; Abbott, Andrew; Neeman, Michal; Davis, Carole A; Simpson, Cindy; Maier, Julie; Mémet, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The lymphatics form a second circulatory system that drains the extracellular fluid and proteins from the tumor microenvironment, and provides an exclusive environment in which immune cells interact and respond to foreign antigen. Both cancer and inflammation are known to induce lymphangiogenesis. However, little is known about bladder lymphatic vessels and their involvement in cancer formation and progression. A double transgenic mouse model was generated by crossing a bladder cancer-induced transgenic, in which SV40 large T antigen was under the control of uroplakin II promoter, with another transgenic mouse harboring a lacZ reporter gene under the control of an NF-κB-responsive promoter (κB-lacZ) exhibiting constitutive activity of β-galactosidase in lymphatic endothelial cells. In this new mouse model (SV40-lacZ), we examined the lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and function (LVF) during bladder cancer progression. LVD was performed in bladder whole mounts and cross-sections by fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) using LYVE-1 antibody. LVF was assessed by real-time in vivo imaging techniques using a contrast agent (biotin-BSA-Gd-DTPA-Cy5.5; Gd-Cy5.5) suitable for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, IHC of Cy5.5 was used for time-course analysis of co-localization of Gd-Cy5.5 with LYVE-1-positive lymphatics and CD31-positive blood vessels. SV40-lacZ mice develop bladder cancer and permitted visualization of lymphatics. A significant increase in LVD was found concomitantly with bladder cancer progression. Double labeling of the bladder cross-sections with LYVE-1 and Ki-67 antibodies indicated cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis. MRI detected mouse bladder cancer, as early as 4 months, and permitted to follow tumor sizes during cancer progression. Using Gd-Cy5.5 as a contrast agent for MRI-guided lymphangiography, we determined a possible reduction of lymphatic flow within the tumoral area. In addition, NIRF

  4. Disruption of the FA/BRCA pathway in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveling, K; Kalb, R; Florl, A R; Herterich, S; Friedl, R; Hoehn, H; Hader, C; Hartmann, F H; Nanda, I; Steinlein, C; Schmid, M; Tonnies, H; Hurst, C D; Knowles, M A; Hanenberg, H; Schulz, W A; Schindler, D

    2007-01-01

    Bladder carcinomas frequently show extensive deletions of chromosomes 9p and/or 9q, potentially including the loci of the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes FANCC and FANCG. FA is a rare recessive disease due to defects in anyone of 13 FANC genes manifesting with genetic instability and increased risk of neoplasia. FA cells are hypersensitive towards DNA crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin that are commonly employed in the chemotherapy of bladder cancers. These observations suggest the possibility of disruption of the FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway in bladder tumors. However, mutations in FANCC or FANCG could not be detected in any of 23 bladder carcinoma cell lines and ten surgical tumor specimens by LOH analysis or by FANCD2 immunoblotting assessing proficiency of the pathway. Only a single cell line, BFTC909, proved defective for FANCD2 monoubiquitination and was highly sensitive towards mitomycin C. This increased sensitivity was restored specifically by transfer of the FANCF gene. Sequencing of FANCF in BFTC909 failed to identify mutations, but methylation of cytosine residues in the FANCF promoter region was demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR, HpaII restriction and bisulfite DNA sequencing. Methylation-specific PCR uncovered only a single instance of FANCF promoter hypermethylation in surgical specimens of further 41 bladder carcinomas. These low proportions suggest that in contrast to other types of tumors silencing of FANCF is a rare event in bladder cancer and that an intact FA/BRCA pathway might be advantageous for tumor progression. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without gross hematuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wanqiu; Luan, Yang; Jin, Lu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Ruibao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu

    2015-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is a rare and aggressive form of bladder cancer with poor prognosis. Hematuria is the main symptom of this malignancy, and most patients have a history of smoking. The disease incidence of malignant bladder tumors in China is approximately 0.74%. Early and accurate diagnosis of SCCB can ensure timely and appropriate treatment of this malignant disease. Oncologic surgery is the standard treatment; however, it may not be a curative approach. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be performed following surgical removal. This case report describes a patient with a single neoplasm diagnosed as SCCB that arose because of recurrence of bladder cancer after bladder tumor resection. In contrast to previously reported cases, this patient had no gross hematuria and no history of smoking.

  6. Unrecognized paraganglioma of the urinary bladder as a cause for basilar-type migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Heidegger, Isabel; Klinglmair, Gerald; Kroiss, Alexander; Uprimny, Christian; Gasser, Rudolf Wolfgang; Schäfer, Georg; Steiner, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Extra-adrenal paraganglioma with isolated localization in the urinary bladder is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Although the typical symptoms like headache, nausea, weight loss, flushing, heart palpitation or paroxysmal hypertension during micturition are well established, we present an unusual case of bladder paraganglioma, 'misdiagnosed' with basilar-type migraine due to headache for the past 8 years. As urologists linked the presence of a tumor (by CT) and symptoms connected with micturition, no cystoscopy and no transurethral resection of the bladder was performed prior to detailed diagnostic workup. After diagnosis of an extra-adrenal paraganglioma, the patient was scheduled for open partial cystectomy. In consideration of the fact that bladder paraganglioma is an infrequent genitourinary cancer, this case report clearly points out the importance of an exact anamnesis and clinical examination to minimize the probability of misdiagnosis with possible fatal consequences in any case with clinical suspicion of bladder paraganglioma. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Characterization of Uptake and Internalization of Exosomes by Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Franzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder tumors represent a special therapeutic challenge as they have a high recurrence rate requiring repeated interventions and may progress to invasive or metastatic disease. Exosomes carry proteins implicated in bladder cancer progression and have been implicated in bladder cancer cell survival. Here, we characterized exosome uptake and internalization by human bladder cancer cells using Amnis ImageStreamX, an image cytometer. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from bladder cancer culture conditioned supernatant, labeled with PKH-26, and analyzed on the ImageStreamX with an internal standard added to determine concentration. Exosomes were cocultured with bladder cancer cells and analyzed for internalization. Using the IDEAS software, we determined exosome uptake based on the number of PKH-26+ spots and overall PKH-26 fluorescence intensity. Using unlabeled beads of a known concentration and size, we were able to determine concentrations of exosomes isolated from bladder cancer cells. We measured exosome uptake by recipient bladder cancer cells, and we demonstrated that uptake is dose and time dependent. Finally, we found that uptake is active and specific, which can be partially blocked by heparin treatment. The characterization of cellular uptake and internalization by bladder cancer cells may shed light on the role of exosomes on bladder cancer recurrence and progression.

  8. Malign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Bladder: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižbrahim Bozkurt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant fibrous histocytoma is a mesenchimal tumor, which was described in 1964. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in patients over the age of 40 years. There were very few reports about malignant fibrous histocytoma in urinary tract especially in bladder with 30 patients. Patients usually present with gross hematuria. Because of its agressive characteristics; recurrences, progressions and metastasis are likely. Tumor grade, tumor size, amount of invasion and histological type are the risk factors for metastasis. Early radical cystectomy is the first treatment option because of poor prognosis of these tumors but usually can not be sufficient. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are used to as an alternative treatment or adjuvant treatment with surgery. We would like to present a bladder malignant fibrous histocytoma case to contribute to the lirature.

  9. Angiogenesis in urinary bladder carcinoma as defined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Among the patients with bladder cancer, a group is still at risk of disease recurrence, progression, and death from their cancer after curative treatment. Angiogenesis is a crucial pathogenic mechanism for this type of urothelial carcinoma and is a potential therapeutic target. Objectives: To quantify tumor ...

  10. Pure Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma Originating from the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nagai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder (LELCB is a rare variant of infiltrating urothelial carcinoma. We report a case of LELCB in a 43-year-old man. Ultrasonography and cystoscopy revealed two bladder tumors, one on the left side of the trigone and the other on the right side of the trigone. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed and pathological analysis revealed undifferentiated carcinoma. We therefore performed radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization as found for previous cases of LELCB. The final pathological diagnosis was a lymphoepithelioma-like variant of urothelial carcinoma with perivesical soft tissue invasion. For adjuvant systemic chemotherapy, three courses of cisplatin were administered. The patient subsequently became free of cancer 72 months postoperatively. Based on the literature, pure or predominant LELCB types show favorable prognoses due to their sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. An analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values of bladder tumors examined in our institution revealed that the ADC value measured for this LELCB was relatively low compared to conventional urothelial carcinomas. This suggests that measuring the ADC value of a lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma prior to operation may be helpful in predicting LELCB.

  11. Role of radiation therapy in bladder cancer in the Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochet, F.; Barrette, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Bladder cancer is more frequent in Quebec, especially in Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean than in other Canadian provinces and in the USA. From 1983 to 1996, only 78 patients presenting with bladder cancer received external beam radiation therapy. Sixty-eight were treated with curative intent Overall survival rates were 70% at 3 years, 66% at 5 years, and 40% at 10 years. Retrospective analysis of these cases and literature review show that preoperative radiation therapy is useful in the management of bladder cancer, especially in T3 tumors. It is also useful for patients whose tumor objectively responds to radiation therapy, without an increase in morbidity. (authors)

  12. Frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Yaoting; Guo, Guangwu; Huang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    frequently in tumors of low stages and grades, highlighting its potential role in the classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Our results provide an overview of the genetic basis of TCC and suggest that aberration of chromatin regulation might be a hallmark of bladder cancer.......Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of bladder cancer. Here we sequenced the exomes of nine individuals with TCC and screened all the somatically mutated genes in a prevalence set of 88 additional individuals with TCC with different tumor stages and grades. In our study, we...

  13. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiajia [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhu, Xi [Department of Urology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangjiebjmu@163.com [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  14. CXCL5 knockdown expression inhibits human bladder cancer T24 cells proliferation and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Zhu, Xi; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We first demonstrated CXCL5 is highly expressed in human bladder tumor tissues and cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in T24 cells. • CXCL5 knockdown inhibits Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in T24 cells. • CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression. - Abstract: CXCL5 (epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78) which acts as a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophil function was reported to play a multifaceted role in tumorigenesis. To investigate the role of CXCL5 in bladder cancer progression, we examined the CXCL5 expression in bladder cancer tissues by real-time PCR and Western blot, additionally, we used shRNA-mediated silencing to generate stable CXCL5 silenced bladder cancer T24 cells and defined its biological functions. Our results demonstrated that mRNA and protein of CXCL5 is increased in human bladder tumor tissues and cell lines, down-regulation of CXCL5 in T24 cells resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and increased cell apoptosis in vitro through Snail, PI3K-AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These data suggest that CXCL5 is critical for bladder tumor growth and progression, it may represent a potential application in cancer diagnosis and therapy

  15. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression of bladder carcinomas are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene is located on the q arm of X chromosome (q11-12) and considered as a ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. The Androgen plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of the normal urinary bladder. The AR is also involved in the development and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma, which is the most common type of carcinoma. Mutation in AR alters the ligand binding ability that may cause the progression and development of bladder cancer. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are thought to result from changes in the function of hormonal receptor gene. The accumulation of the changes in AR expressions, determines the tumor's phenotype and ultimately the patient's clinical outcome. The early detection of which may help in management and prediction, how will it behave and respond to the therapeutic regimen. The present review aimed to study the mechanism and alteration of AR gene that play a vital role in the tumorIgenesis of bladder carcinoma.

  16. PDT for malignant tumors: a clinical analysis of 152 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Li, Xin; Zhang, Changjun; Wang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Da-Ren

    1993-03-01

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied for the patients of 152 cases of malignant tumors, including tumors of the lip, tongue, esophagus, urinary bladder, skin, larynx, vagina, etc. Since early 1981 good results have been obtained.

  17. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  19. Androgen receptor activation: a prospective therapeutic target for bladder cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Taichi; Tirador, Kathleen A; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Patients with non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing surgery and currently available conventional therapy remain having a high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, respectively. Novel targeted molecular therapy is therefore expected to improve patient outcomes. Meanwhile, substantially higher incidence of bladder cancer in men has prompted research on androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this malignancy. Indeed, preclinical evidence has suggested that AR signaling plays an important role in urothelial carcinogenesis and tumor outgrowth as well as resistance to some of the currently available conventional non-surgical therapies. Areas covered: We summarize and discuss available data suggesting the involvement of AR and its potential downstream targets in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Associations between AR signaling and sensitivity to cisplatin/doxorubicin or bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are also reviewed. Expert opinion: AR activation is likely to correlate with the promotion of urothelial carcinogenesis and cancer outgrowth as well as resistance to conventional therapies. Molecular therapy targeting the AR may thus provide effective chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches for urothelial cancer. Accordingly, bladder cancer can now be considered as an endocrine-related neoplasm. Clinical application of various anti-AR therapies available for AR-dependent prostate cancer to bladder cancer patients is anticipated.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at different stages of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Hanne; von der Maase, Hans; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cell cycle is known to be deregulated in cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of the cell cycle related proteins p21, p27, p16, Rb, and L-myc by immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumors.METHODS: The tissue material consisted of bladder tumors from three groups of patients......; group 1, 23 patients with recurrent stage Ta (non-invasive) tumors; group 2, 22 patients presenting at their first admission with T2-4 (muscle invasive) tumors; group 3, 24 patients who experienced disease progression from Ta or T1 (invasive in connective tissue) to a higher stage...

  1. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  2. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    % specificity. Since this is a small retrospective study using medium-throughput profiling, larger confirmatory studies are needed. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling across relevant cancer pathways appears to be a promising approach for Ta bladder tumor outcome prediction at initial diagnosis......Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...

  3. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  4. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer invading urinary bladder treated with preoperative mFOLFOX6 and urinary bladder conserving surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Katayama, Kazuhisa; Takahashi, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    A 69-year-old man visited our hospital because of melena and anemia. Colonoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor at sigmoid colon, and by abdominal CT, we detected a sigmoid colon cancer invading the urinary bladder with a single liver metastasis. The patient required sigmoidectomy with partial hepatectomy and total urinary bladder resection. Preoperative chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was initiated as a part of multidisciplinary therapy. After the 6th course was completed, CT revealed a reduction in the primary tumor's size and the disappearance of liver metastasis. After the 8th course was completed, we performed urinary bladder conserving sigmoidectomy. The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tub1, pSS, ly0, v0, pN0, and pStage II. Down-sizing chemotherapy might improve the quality of life(QOL)of colon cancer patients with extensive invasion of the urinary bladder.

  5. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  6. Significance Of Immunohistochemical Markers In Diagnostics Of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Medvedeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of surgical and biopsy material 106 patients with diseases of urinary bladder have been under study. They received treatment at Scientific Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Uronephrology of Saratov State Medical University. 13 immunohistochemical markers have been evaluated: markers of proliferative activity - Ki-67, PCNA, p63, suppressor of tumor growth - p53, markers of apoptosis - Bcl-2, Bax, receptor of epidermal growth factors - EGFR, cytokeratin profile - (CK7, CK8, CK10/13, CK 17, CK18, CK19, as well as their diagnostic significance for identifying the urinary bladder cancer

  7. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an infrequent lesion. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room with a history of 24-h gross hematuria. Imaging studies show a urinary bladder tumor with a 218 cc volume that during a 20-day period increased to 426 cc. Histopathological images with hematoxylin-eosin show an infiltrating solid mass with uneven borders. It is composed of neoplastic cells with evident nuclei predominance and scant cytoplasm (small cells). Chromogranin immunohistochemical staining shows a diffusely positive cytoplasmic granular pattern on neoplastic cells. High molecular weight cytokeratin staining shows a negative pattern on neoplastic cells along with a positive pattern on reporsurrounding normal urothelium. Tumoral mass is positive for synaptophysin and CD-56 and negative for CK-7 and CK-20. Patient therapy was based on radiation plus chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represents 0.35-0.70% of urinary bladder tumors. Histological and immunohistochemical identification are key elements in the diagnosis. Treatment approach is based on cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy, except when metastatic disease is present.

  8. Cystoscopic enucleation of bladder leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a rare case of bladder leiomyoma. A 61-year-old female patient was found to have a bladder mass during a work up of lower urinary tract symptoms. After full investigation, she underwent transurethral excision of the mass. The histopathology revealed typical feature of bladder leiomyoma. No recurrence was seen after a follow-up period of 12 months.

  9. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  10. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  11. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  12. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

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    Leifheit Erica C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. Methods MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA, anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Results Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376 secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. Conclusions This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma.

  13. Inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases proliferation and cytokine expression in bladder cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Leifheit, Erica C; Vera, Pedro L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of various inflammatory cytokines in maintaining tumor cell growth and viability is well established. Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has previously been associated with various types of adenocarcinoma. MIF IHC was used to localize MIF in human bladder tissue. ELISA and Western blot analysis determined the synthesis and secretion of MIF by human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells. The effects of MIF inhibitors (high molecular weight hyaluronate (HA), anti-MIF antibody or MIF anti-sense) on cell growth and cytokine expression were analyzed. Human bladder cancer cells (HT-1376) secrete detectable amounts of MIF protein. Treatment with HA, anti-MIF antibody and MIF anti-sense reduced HT-1376 cell proliferation, MIF protein secretion, MIF gene expression and secreted inflammatory cytokines. Our evidence suggests MIF interacts with the invariant chain, CD74 and the major cell surface receptor for HA, CD44. This study is the first to report MIF expression in the human bladder and these findings support a role for MIF in tumor cell proliferation. Since MIF participates in the inflammatory response and bladder cancer is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, these new findings suggest that neutralizing bladder tumor MIF may serve as a novel therapeutic treatment for bladder carcinoma

  14. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Visser, Jorrit; Jong, Rianne de; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Material and methods: Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Results: Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Other parameters for bowel and rectum remained unchanged. Conclusions: Daily plan selection compared to a non-adaptive strategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited

  15. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  16. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  17. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  18. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  20. Infiltrating T Cells Promote Bladder Cancer Progression via Increasing IL1→Androgen Receptor→HIF1α→VEGFa Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Le; Qiu, Jianxin; Jiang, Ming; Song, Wenbin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yu, Hong; Zang, Lijuan; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment impacts tumor progression and individual cells, including CD4(+) T cells, which have been detected in bladder cancer tissues. The detailed mechanism of how these T cells were recruited to the bladder cancer tumor and their impact on bladder cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using a human clinical bladder cancer sample survey and in vitro coculture system, we found that bladder cancer has a greater capacity to recruit T cells than surrounding normal bladder tissues. The consequences of higher levels of recruited T cells in bladder cancer included increased bladder cancer metastasis. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating T cells might function through secreting the cytokine IL1, which increases the recruitment of T cells to bladder cancer and enhances the bladder cancer androgen receptor (AR) signaling that results in increased bladder cancer cell invasion via upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)/VEGFa expression. Interruption of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signals with inhibitors of HIF1α or VEGFa partially reversed the enhanced bladder cancer cell invasion. Finally, in vivo mouse models of xenografted bladder cancer T24 cells with CD4(+) T cells confirmed in vitro coculture studies and concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells can promote bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signaling. Future clinical trials using small molecules to target this newly identified signaling pathway may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to better suppress bladder cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1943-51. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disruption Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract References Morey AF, Zhao LC. Genital and lower urinary tract trauma. In: Wein AJ, ...

  2. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  3. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiangfei, E-mail: x.chai@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B. van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Reijke, Theo M [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 +- 1.1 cm{sup 3}. The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  4. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  5. CXCL5 is a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Qiao, Yan; Liu, Weihua; Wang, Wenying; Shen, Hongliang; Lu, Yi; Hao, Gangyue; Zheng, Jiajia; Tian, Ye

    2016-04-01

    Chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 5 (CXCL5) is critical for bladder cancer growth and progression. Our previous study demonstrated that increase of CXCL5 in bladder cancer cell lines had an effect on tumor growth and progression. This study aims to investigate the expression of CXCL5 in tissue and urine of bladder cancer patients, in relation to clinicopathologic parameters, and as a predictive value in diagnosing and evaluating bladder cancer. Urothelial bladder cancer tissues from 255 patients were profiled for CXCL5 alterations by immunohistochemistry. Urine samples collected from patients with bladder cancer and urinary tract infections as well as healthy volunteers were analyzed by ELISA. High expression of CXCL5 in bladder cancer tissue was correlated with TNM stage (P = 0.012), cancer grade (P = 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). CXCL5 alterations were associated with overall survival (P = 0.007), progression free survival (P = 0.004), and recurrence free survival in muscle invasive bladder cancers (P = 0.026). CXCL5 expression in the urine of bladder cancer patients was significantly different from urinary tract infection patients (P = 0.001) and healthy volunteers. However, urine leukocytes may predict CXCL5 levels (β = 0.56, P bladder cancer TNM stage (P = 0.039), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.007), and tumor grade (P = 0.005). The sensitivity and specificity for CXCL5/creatinine in predicting bladder cancer were 80.4 and 61.3 %, respectively. These results suggest increased CXCL5 expression in cancer tissue predicts poor survival in bladder cancer patients. CXCL5 expression in urine is useful in a minimally invasive modality for bladder cancer diagnosis. However, urine leukocytes are significant predictors of CXCL5 levels and may affect its result in bladder cancer diagnosis.

  6. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15, 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  7. Adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder: A report of two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nitu; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Agrawal, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. Primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas of urinary bladder are morphologically similar, but histogenetically different. We present two cases, a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with follow-up and another of glandular adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder. Pathological evaluation and immunohistochemical panel of eight markers (E-cadherin, CK20, CK7, CDX2, estrogen receptor (ER), gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP15), 34bE12, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) provides a diagnostic confirmation of primary adenocarcinoma with the positive expression of E-cadherin and CK20 in case 1 and metastatic adenocarcinoma of prostate with profile of E-cadherin+, CK20-, GCDFP15+, 34bE12+, and PSA+ in case 2.

  8. Comparative Tissue Proteomics of Microdissected Specimens Reveals Novel Candidate Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Chung, Ting; Wu, Chih-Ching; Ng, Kwai-Fong; Yu, Jau-Song; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chang, Yu-Sun; Liang, Ying; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    More than 380,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide, accounting for ∼150,200 deaths each year. To discover potential biomarkers of bladder cancer, we employed a strategy combining laser microdissection, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling, and liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) analysis to profile proteomic changes in fresh-frozen bladder tumor specimens. Cellular proteins from four pairs of surgically resected primary bladder cancer tumor and adjacent nontumorous tissue were extracted for use in two batches of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments, which identified a total of 3220 proteins. A DAVID (database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery) analysis of dysregulated proteins revealed that the three top-ranking biological processes were extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and oxidation-reduction. Biological processes including response to organic substances, response to metal ions, and response to inorganic substances were highlighted by up-expressed proteins in bladder cancer. Seven differentially expressed proteins were selected as potential bladder cancer biomarkers for further verification. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly elevated levels of three proteins—SLC3A2, STMN1, and TAGLN2—in tumor cells compared with noncancerous bladder epithelial cells, and suggested that TAGLN2 could be a useful tumor tissue marker for diagnosis (AUC = 0.999) and evaluating lymph node metastasis in bladder cancer patients. ELISA results revealed significantly increased urinary levels of both STMN1 and TAGLN2 in bladder cancer subgroups compared with control groups. In comparisons with age-matched hernia urine specimens, urinary TAGLN2 in bladder cancer samples showed the largest fold change (7.13-fold), with an area-under-the-curve value of 0.70 (p < 0.001, n = 205). Overall, TAGLN2 showed the most significant

  9. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  10. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  11. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  12. Urinary long noncoding RNAs in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: new architects in cancer prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Daniela; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Carolina; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cimmino, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer. Although lncRNAs have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology, the biological functions and prognostic values in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that several lncRNAs expression profiles in bladder malignancies are associated with poor prognosis, and they can be detected in biological fluids, such as urines. Here, we review current progress in the biology and the implication of lncRNAs associated with bladder cancer, and we discuss their potential use as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in bladder malignancies with a focus on their role in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  14. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  15. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  16. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  17. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  18. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  20. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...... at initial presentation with three distinct clinical outcomes: absence of recurrence (n = 16), recurrence without progression (n = 16), and progression to carcinoma in situ or invasive disease (n = 16). Measurements: Expressions of 24 genes that feature in relevant pathways that are deregulated in bladder...

  1. Conditional Expression of the Androgen Receptor Increases Susceptibility of Bladder Cancer in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Johnson

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents a significant human tumor burden, accounting for about 7.7% and 2.4% of all cancer cases in males and females, respectively. While men have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer, women tend to present at a later stage of disease and with more aggressive tumors. Previous studies have suggested a promotional role of androgen signaling in enhancing bladder cancer development. To directly assess the role of androgens in bladder tumorigenesis, we have developed a novel transgenic mouse strain, R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+, in which the human AR transgene is conditionally expressed in bladder urothelium. Intriguingly, both male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice display a higher incidence of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC than the age and sex matched control littermates in response to the carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl nitrosamine (BBN. We detect expression of the human AR transgene in CK5-positive and p63-positive basal cells in bladder urothelium. Further analyses of UCC tissues from R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice showed that the majority of tumor cells are of urothelial basal cell origin. Positive immunostaining of transgenic AR protein was observed in the majority of tumor cells of the transgenic mice, providing a link between transgenic AR expression and oncogenic transformation. We observed an increase in Ki67 positive cells within the UCC lesions of transgenic AR mice. Manipulating endogenous androgen levels by castration and androgen supplementation directly affected bladder tumor development in male and female R26hARLoxP/+:Upk3aGCE/+ mice, respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that conditional activation of transgenic AR expression in bladder urothelium enhances carciongen-induced bladder tumor formation in mice. This new AR transgenic mouse line mimics certain features of human bladder cancer and can be used to study bladder tumorigenesis and for drug development.

  2. Optimal Treatment for Intermediate- and High-Risk, Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.M. van der Meijden

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to clinical and pathological factors the prognosis of a patient with non-muscle invasive bladder tumors can be assessed. The prognosis is determined by the likelihood of recurrence(30-70% and/or progression to muscle invasive bladder cancer(1-15%.Trans urethral resection of bladder tumors remains the initial therapy but adjuvant intravesical instillations are necessary.All patients benefit from a single immediate post operative instillation with a chemotherapeutic agent and for low risk tumors this is the optimal therapy.Patients with intermediate and high risk tumors need more intravesical chemo-or immunotherapy. Chemotherapy reduces recurrences but not progression. Intravesical immunotherapy(BCG prevents or delays progression. Patients at high risk for progression may need upfront cystectomy.

  3. Bladder outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOO; Lower urinary tract obstruction; Prostatism; Urinary retention - BOO ... these diseases increases greatly. Other common causes of BOO include: Pelvic tumors (cervix, prostate, uterus, rectum) Narrowing ...

  4. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  5. Deregulation of HOX B13 expression in urinary bladder cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, L; Cantile, M; Scognamiglio, G; Perdonà, S; La Mantia, E; Cerrone, M; Gigantino, V; Cillo, C; Caraglia, M; Pignata, S; Facchini, G; Botti, G; Chieffi, S; Chieffi, P; Franco, R

    2013-02-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy in industrialized countries. More than 90% of bladder cancer originates in the transitional cells. Bladder transitional cancer prognosis is, according to the most recent definition related to the level of tumor infiltration, characterized by two main phenotypes, Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (NMIBC) and Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cancer (MIBC). The genetic profile and the clinical course of the two subtypes are completely different, however among NMIBC the prognosis is not completely predictable, since 20% of the cases experience a relapse, even in the form of MIBC. It has recently been reported that the chromosomal region 12q13-15, containing crucial cancer genes such as MDM2, CDK4, GLI and an entire cluster of HOX genes, is amplified in bladder cancer. HOX genes codify for transcriptionl factor, involved in embryonal development and cancer progression, with main nuclear expression. Particularly it was also described the strong involvement of HOX B13 in several tumors of urogenital system. In this study we have been investigated, by immunohistochemisty and quantitative Real Time PCR, the HOX B13 expression in bladder cancer evolution and progression, evaluating its ability to discriminate between NMIBC and MBCI phenotypes. Cytoplasmic HOX B13 delocalization significantly relates with muscle invasion (p 0.004). In addition in the series of NMIBC nuclear HOX B13 expression loss is significantly associated to shorter disease free survival (p-value=0.038) defining a potential prognostic role. Overexpression of HOX B13 in more aggressive phenotype is also demonstrate at gene level by quantitative RT-PCR. The de-regulation and delocalization of HOX B13 in urinary bladder cancer supports again the important role of HOX genes in tumor evolution and represents a starting point to establish an integrated analysis, in which HOX genes represent important prognostic and predictive markers for bladder

  6. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  7. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnic, L. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Zietman, A. L.; Dallow, K. C.; Griffin, P. P.; Heney, N. M.; Althausen, A. F.; Shipley, W. U.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  8. Selective bladder preservation by combined modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachnic, L A; Kaufman, D S; Zietman, A L; Dallow, K C; Griffin, P P; Heney, N M; Althausen, A F; Shipley, W U

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the success of selective organ preservation or radical cystectomy in a large group of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with induction by combined transurethral resection (TURBT), systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: 106 patients (median age 68 years) were treated with induction by maximal TURBT and 2 cycles of chemotherapy (methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine - MCV) followed by 39.6 Gy irradiation in 1.8 Gy fractions with concomitant cisplatin. Tumor response was then evaluated by cystoscopy, rebiopsy, and urine cytology. Complete responders were consolidated with radiation to 64.8 Gy and further cisplatin. Any subsequent isolated invasive local relapse was managed by cystectomy. Patients with any less than a complete response (CR) were recommended cystectomy. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess outcome. Results: 74 CR patients (70%) and 7 non-cystectomy candidates with less than a CR (7%) received consolidation chemotherapy and radiation. 13 incomplete responders (12%) underwent immediate cystectomy. 6 patients underwent cystectomy because they could not tolerate induction chemo-radiation. 1 complete response patient underwent radical cystectomy. 83 patients completed their planned therapy but 5 died of treatment related toxicity during induction chemotherapy. Five year actuarial overall survival and disease-specific survival were 52% and 60% respectively. For T2 patients, actuarial overall survival was 63%, and for T3-4, 45%. Five year survival with an intact functioning bladder was 43%. Five year freedom from distant metastases was 66%. Of those who had a CR after TURBT and MCV, the risk of a subsequent invasive bladder relapse was 18% at 5 years. Of those who had a CR after the completion of induction chemotherapy and 39.6 Gy, this risk was 21%. 18 patients (17%) have experienced a non-invasive bladder relapse requiring further TUR and

  9. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer progression via regulation of β-catenin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Yunpeng; Jia, Zhuomin; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Chaofei; Yao, Yuanxin

    2017-07-01

    Bladder cancer has a considerable morbidity and mortality impact with particularly poor prognosis. Curcumin has been recently noticed as a polyphenolic compound separated from turmeric to regulate tumor progression. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer cells is not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect of curcumin on the bladder cancer as well as possible mechanisms of curcumin. The expression of β-catenin was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis in a series of bladder cancer tissues. In addition, bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were treated with different concentrations of curcumin. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin on cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The migration and invasion capacity of T24 and 5637 cells were measured by transwell assay. The effects of curcumin on expression levels of β-catenin and epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker were determined by western blotting. The β-catenin expression was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer tissues when compared with corresponding peri-tumor tissues. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the cell proliferation of T24 and 5637 cells, and curcumin reduced the migration and invasive ability of T24 and 5637 cells via regulating β-catenin expression and reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Curcumin may be a new drug for bladder cancer.

  10. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.

  11. Primary Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiem Boukettaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. In general, this tumor occurs in the middle age, and clinical presentation does not differ from transitional cell carcinomas. The prognosis is often poor, given the advanced stage at diagnosis. To our knowledge, <100 cases of signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder have been reported. We report 2 cases with bladder linitis plastica primitive, and we draw attention to its pathologic, anatomoclinical, and evolution specificity to optimize its therapeutic management.

  12. Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinikanth Ayyathurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper urinary tract (UUT transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

  13. Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder with exclusive heterologous component of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma at metastatic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Poojan; Pasricha, Sunil; Gupta, Gurudutt; Sharma, Anila; Mehta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder with divergent differentiation into rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an extremely uncommon aggressive phenomenon. We present a case of a 74-year-old male with bladder carcinoma which metastasized to the abdominal wall as epithelioid RMS. To the best knowledge of our literature searches, an oligometastasis of exclusive heterologous component has not been described before. The clinical, radiological, and immunohistochemistry profile of the patient supported the monoclonal nature of the tumor.

  14. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  15. miR-1182 inhibits growth and mediates the chemosensitivity of bladder cancer by targeting hTERT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Dai, Wenbin; Song, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis and proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we report that miR-1182 is deregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. To characterize the role of miR-1182 in bladder cancer cells, we performed functional assays. The overexpression of miR-1182 significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Moreover, its up-regulation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and mediated chemosensitivity to cisplatin in bladder cancer. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay and a rescue experiment indicated that miR-1182 directly targets hTERT by binding its 3′UTR. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that miR-1182 acts as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  16. miR-1182 inhibits growth and mediates the chemosensitivity of bladder cancer by targeting hTERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Dai, Wenbin, E-mail: daiwenbin271@163.com [Department of Urology, Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 221 Yan An Road(w), Shanghai 200040 (China); Song, Jianming [School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, No.3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland 97239-3098, OR (United States)

    2016-02-05

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis and proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. In this study, we report that miR-1182 is deregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. To characterize the role of miR-1182 in bladder cancer cells, we performed functional assays. The overexpression of miR-1182 significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Moreover, its up-regulation induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and mediated chemosensitivity to cisplatin in bladder cancer. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay and a rescue experiment indicated that miR-1182 directly targets hTERT by binding its 3′UTR. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that miR-1182 acts as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential biomarker for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Factors influencing treatment results of definitive radiotherapy following transurethral surgery for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tatsuyuki; Kanehira Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prognostic factors influencing the outcome of bladder cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy following transurethral tumor resection (TURBT). From March 1977 through August 1991, 83 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated with TURBT (as thoroughly as possible) and definitive radiotherapy (median total dose: 64 Gy, median fractional dose: 2 Gy). Cystectomy was performed when possible for the residual or recurrent invasive cancer following radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 76 months. The overall survival (OS) and bladder-preserving survival (BPS) rates at 5 years were 38% and 28%, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that depth of invasion (T2 vs T3), tumor diameter (<3 cm vs. ≥3 cm), and visible (R1) or not visible (R0) residual tumor after TURBT influenced both OS and BPS. In multivariate analysis, absence of visible residual tumor after TURBT was the only significant prognostic factor related to OS (p<0.001) and BPS (p=0.002). Five-year OS and BPS were 54% and 43% in T2-3R0 and 14% and 7% in T2-3R1, respectively. Absence of visible residual tumor after TURBT was significantly associated with better overall survival and bladder-preserving survival for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy following TURBT. (author)

  18. NMP22 BladderChek Test: point-of-care technology with life- and money-saving potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomera, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    A new, relatively obscure tumor marker assay, the NMP22 BladderChek Test (Matritech, Inc.), represents a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and management of urinary bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma). Specifically, BladderChek should be employed every time a cystoscopy is performed, with corresponding changes in the diagnostic protocol and the guidelines of the American Urological Association for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. Currently, cystoscopy is the reference standard and NMP22 BladderChek Test in combination with cystoscopy improves the performance of cystoscopy. At every stage of disease, BladderChek provides a higher sensitivity for the detection of bladder cancer than cytology, which now represents the adjunctive standard of care. Moreover, BladderChek is four-times more sensitive than cytology and is available at half the cost. Early detection of bladder cancer improves prognosis, quality of life and survival. BladderChek may be analogous to the prostate-specific antigen test and eventually expand beyond the urologic setting into the primary care setting for the testing of high-risk patients characterized by smoking history, occupational exposures or age.

  19. Allopurinol Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rat Urinary Bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and markedly elevates the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO and thus can serve as an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. Here, a rat model was used to assess the ability of allopurinol treatment to ameliorate the deleterious effects of urinary bladder I/R injury. I/R injury reduced the in vitro contractile responses of longitudinal bladder strips, elevated XO activity in the plasma and bladder tissue, increased the bladder levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduced the bladder levels of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, and decreased and increased the bladder levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. I/R injury also elevated lipid peroxidation in the bladder. Allopurinol treatment in the I/R injury was generated significantly ameliorating all I/R-induced changes. Moreover, an in situ fluorohistological approach also showed that allopurinol reduces the generation of intracellular superoxides enlarged by I/R injury. Together, the beneficial effects of allopurinol reducing ROS production may be mediated by normalizing the activity of the ERK, JNK, and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways and by controlling TNF-α expression.

  20. microRNA-495 promotes bladder cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Mingyue; Mu, Xingyu; Liu, Zhihong; Tao, Le; Wang, Jun; Ge, Jifu; Qiu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has linked deregulation of microRNA-495 (miR-495) to tumorigenesis; however, its function in tumor progression is controversial. This work was undertaken to explore the expression and biological roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer. The expression of miR-495 was examined in 67 pairs of bladder cancer and adjacent normal bladder tissues. The roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo were determined. Direct target gene(s) mediating the activity of miR-495 in bladder cancer cells was identified. It was found that miR-495 was expressed at greater levels in bladder tissues and cell lines. High expression of miR-495 was significantly associated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of miR-495 significantly promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas inhibition of miR-495 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion. PTEN, a well-defined tumor suppressor was identified to be a target gene of miR-495. A significant inverse correlation between miR-495 and PTEN expression was noted in bladder cancer tissues (r = −0.3094, P = 0.0125). Overexpression of miR-495 led to reduction of PTEN expression in bladder cancer cells. Rescue experiments showed that enforced expression of PTEN impaired miR-495-mediated bladder cancer proliferation and invasion. In vivo mouse studies demonstrated that overexpression of miR-495 accelerated the growth of subcutaneous bladder cancer xenografts, which was associated with downregulation of PTEN. Overall, these findings indicate that miR-495 upregulation contributes to bladder cancer cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis by targeting PTEN and offer a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. - Highlights: • miR-495 upregulation induces aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer. • miR-495 is inversely correlated with PTEN in bladder cancer. • miR-495 promotes bladder cancer cell

  1. Modulation of gene expression and cell-cycle signaling pathways by the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) in rat urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Liu, Pengyuan; Van den Bergh, Francoise; Zellmer, Victoria; James, Michael; Wen, Weidong; Grubbs, Clinton J; Lubet, Ronald A; You, Ming

    2012-02-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa has shown strong preventive efficacy in the N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) model of bladder cancer in the rat. To explore its antitumor mechanism, we implemented a systems biology approach to characterize gene expression and signaling pathways in rat urinary bladder cancers treated with Iressa. Eleven bladder tumors from control rats, seven tumors from rats treated with Iressa, and seven normal bladder epithelia were profiled by the Affymetrix Rat Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. We identified 713 downregulated and 641 upregulated genes in comparing bladder tumors versus normal bladder epithelia. In addition, 178 genes were downregulated and 96 genes were upregulated when comparing control tumors versus Iressa-treated tumors. Two coexpression modules that were significantly correlated with tumor status and treatment status were identified [r = 0.70, P = 2.80 × 10(-15) (bladder tumor vs. normal bladder epithelium) and r = 0.63, P = 2.00 × 10(-42) (Iressa-treated tumor vs. control tumor), respectively]. Both tumor module and treatment module were enriched for genes involved in cell-cycle processes. Twenty-four and twenty-one highly connected hub genes likely to be key drivers in cell cycle were identified in the tumor module and treatment module, respectively. Analysis of microRNA genes on the array chips showed that tumor module and treatment module were significantly associated with expression levels of let-7c (r = 0.54, P = 3.70 × 10(-8) and r = 0.73, P = 1.50 × 10(-65), respectively). These results suggest that let-7c downregulation and its regulated cell-cycle pathway may play an integral role in governing bladder tumor suppression or collaborative oncogenesis and that Iressa exhibits its preventive efficacy on bladder tumorigenesis by upregulating let-7 and inhibiting the cell cycle. Cell culture study confirmed that the increased expression of let-7c decreases Iressa-treated bladder tumor cell

  2. Enzalutamide inhibits androgen receptor-positive bladder cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ide, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Eiji; El-Shishtawy, Kareem A; Li, Yi; Reis, Leonardo O; Zheng, Yichun; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging preclinical evidence suggests that androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signals promote bladder cancer progression. However, little is known about the efficacy of an AR signaling inhibitor, enzalutamide, in the growth of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we compared the effects of enzalutamide and 2 other classic antiandrogens, flutamide and bicalutamide, on androgen-induced bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as tumor growth in vivo. Thiazolyl blue cell viability assay, flow cytometry, scratch wound-healing assay, transwell invasion assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reporter gene assay were performed in AR-positive (e.g., UMUC3, TCCSUP, and 647V-AR) and AR-negative (e.g., UMUC3-AR-short hairpin RNA [shRNA], TCCSUP-AR-shRNA, 647V) bladder cancer lines treated with dihydrotestosterone and each AR antagonist. We also used a mouse xenograft model for bladder cancer. Dihydrotestosterone increased bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion indicating that endogenous or exogenous AR was functional. Enzalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and bicalutamide showed similar inhibitory effects, without significant agonist activity, on androgen-mediated cell viability/apoptosis, cell migration, and cell invasion in AR-positive lines. No significant effects of dihydrotestosterone as well as AR antagonists on the growth of AR-negative cells were seen. Correspondingly, in UMUC3 cells, these AR antagonists down-regulated androgen-induced expression of AR, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and interleukin-6. Androgen-enhanced AR-mediated transcriptional activity was also blocked by each AR antagonist exhibiting insignificant agonist activity. In UMUC3 xenograft-bearing mice, oral gavage treatment with each antiandrogen retarded tumor growth, and only enzalutamide demonstrated a statistically significant suppression compared with mock treatment. Our current data support recent observations indicating the involvement of

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  5. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allory, Yves; Beukers, Willemien; Sagrera, Ana

    2014-01-01

    for detection of recurrences in urine in patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A set of 111 UBCs of different stages was used to assess TERT promoter mutations by Sanger sequencing and TERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse transcription...... surveillance after diagnosis of non-muscle-invasive UBC (n=194), was tested using a SNaPshot assay. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Association of mutation status with age, sex, tobacco, stage, grade, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation, progression-free survival, disease...... frequent among FGFR3 mutant tumors (p=0.0002). There was no association between TERT mutations and mRNA expression (p=0.3). Mutations were not associated with clinical outcome. In urine, TERT mutations had 90% specificity in subjects with hematuria but no bladder tumor, and 73% in recurrence-free UBC...

  6. Clinical implications in the shift of syndecan-1 expression from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Makito; Lawton, Adrienne; Dai, Yunfeng; Chang, Myron; Mengual, Lourdes; Alcaraz, Antonio; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic and prognostic capability of urinary and tumoral syndecan-1 (SDC-1) levels in patients with cancer of the urinary bladder. SDC-1 levels were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 308 subjects (102 cancer subjects and 206 non-cancer subjects) to assess its diagnostic capabilities in voided urine. The performance of SDC-1 was evaluated using the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assessed SDC-1 protein expression in 193 bladder specimens (185 cancer subjects and 8 non-cancer subjects). Outcomes were correlated to SDC-1 levels. Mean urinary levels of SDC-1 did not differ between the cancer subjects and the non-cancer subjects, however, the mean urinary levels of SDC-1 were reduced in high-grade compared to low-grade disease (p < 0.0001), and in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) compared to non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p = 0.005). Correspondingly, preliminary data note a shift from a membranous cellular localization of SDC-1 in normal tissue, low-grade tumors and NMIBC, to a distinctly cytoplasmic localization in high-grade tumors and MIBC was observed in tissue specimens. Alone urinary SDC-1 may not be a diagnostic biomarker for bladder cancer, but its urinary levels and cellular localization were associated with the differentiation status of patients with bladder tumors. Further studies are warranted to define the potential role for SDC-1 in bladder cancer progression

  7. [En bloc resection and vaporization techniques for the treatment of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, J P; Karl, A; Schwentner, C; Herrmann, T R W; Kramer, M W

    2018-04-12

    Modifications in resection techniques may overcome obvious limitations of conventionally performed transurethral resection (e. g., tumor fragmentation) of bladder tumors or provide an easier patient treatment algorithm (e. g., tumor vaporization). The present review article summarizes the current literature in terms of en bloc resection techniques, histopathological quality, complication rates, and oncological outcomes. A separate data search was performed for en bloc resection (ERBT, n = 27) and vaporization (n = 15) of bladder tumors. In most cases, ERBT is performed in a circumferential fashion. Alternatively, ERBT may be performed by undermining the tumor base via antegrade application of short energy impulses. Based on high rates of detrusor in specimens of ERBT (90-100%), a better histopathological quality is assumed. Significant differences in perioperative complication rates have not been observed, although obturator-nerve-based bladder perforations are not seen when laser energy is used. There is a nonstatistically significant trend towards lower recurrence rates in ERBT groups. Tumor vaporization may provide a less invasive technique for older patients with recurrences of low-risk bladder cancer. It can be performed in an outpatient setting. ERBT may provide better histopathological quality. Tumor vaporization is performed in health care systems where reimbursement is adequate.

  8. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  9. Consistent genomic alterations in carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder confirm the presence of two major pathways in bladder cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zieger, Karsten; Marcussen, Niels; Borre, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Bladder cancer develops through different pathways, provisionally entitled "papillary" and "invasive." Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is thought to be the precursor of invasive bladder cancer. However, little is known about chromosomal alterations of these clinically important lesions......, and the relationship between chromosomal alterations and the different pathways. We laser-microdissected 12 CIS and 4 dysplasia samples concomitant to invasive bladder cancer. We determined genome-wide chromosome copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using Mapping 10K SNP microarrays. We further...... examined 48 high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers using SNP microarrays to reveal characteristic changes correlated with the CIS-phenotype. DNA copy-number changes were further validated using QPCR in 77 independent tumor samples. CIS was found to be chromosomal unstable in 8 of 12 cases...

  10. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Helle, Peter A.; Koper, Peter C.M.; Jansen, Peter P.; Hanssens, Patrick E.J.; Boeken Kruger, Cornelis G.G.; Putten, Wim L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In our center interstitial radiation has played an important role in the treatment of bladder cancer patients for over 40 years. Radium needles, that were initially used, were replaced by caesium needles in 1983, whereas the afterloading iridium wire technique was adopted in 1989. Patients with solitary tumors (T1, T2 and T3) with a surface diameter of < 5 cm are considered for interstitial radiation. In this study we report on the results of the afterloading iridium wire technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: From May 1989 to September 1993 interstitial radiation using iridium wires was part of the treatment in 46 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (37 T2, 9 T3). The mean age was 67 years. After transurethral resection of all visible tumor (if possible), in most cases 40 Gy (20 x 2.0 Gy, midplane dose) external beam radiation was delivered to the true pelvis, followed by 30 Gy interstitial radiation using iridium-192 wires covering the tumor area in the bladder. Results: After a median follow-up of 26 months, bladder relapses occurred in 7 patients. In 5 of them the tumor relapsed in the initial area, in 1 patient elsewhere in the bladder and in 1 patient tumor recurred in and outside the initial site. Recurrence was superficial (T1) in 4 patients. A relapse in the urethra was found once. Metastases developed in 13 patients, in 8 without bladder relapse. During the observation period 17 patients died, 13 due to bladder cancer. The actuarial bladder relapse-free survival at 4 years was 74% and 82% for T2 and T3 tumors, respectively. The actuarial distant metastases-free survival was 65% for both categories. No serious toxicity was recorded. Conclusion: In a selected group of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer transurethral resection in combination with external beam and interstitial radiation provides an excellent opportunity to preserve the bladder with a high chance of success. Development of

  11. Molecular Landscape of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-11-13

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hurst et al. report an integrated analysis of non-invasive (stage Ta) bladder cancer. Two genomic subtypes are distinguished by chromosome 9q loss, resulting in increased AKT/PI3K/mTOR signaling. Tumors from female patients have a higher frequency of KDM6A mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical significance of the VEGF level in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Abhishek, Amar; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and micro-vessel density (MVD) with urinary bladder tumor and its stage. The study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. The study included screening of 122 patients at elevated risk for bladder cancer, of which 35 patients were finally enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of urine cytology, radiological investigation (ultrasound KUB, and CT-scan) and histopathology. Thirty-five normal cancer-free individuals were enrolled as controls. Human VEGF levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunoassay and protein content (pg/mg protein) by Lowry method. SPSS for Windows version 10.0.7 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis of the data. Mean urine VEGF level in the cases was significantly higher in comparison to the control group. There was a direct correlation between VEGF level and tumor stage. Mean urine VEGF values were minimum in the control group (22.75 ± 15.41 pg/mg creatinine) and maximum in stage IV patients (180.15 ± 75.93 pg/mg creatinine). Tissue VEGF levels also showed a similar trend of increase with increase in stage. Urine VEGF level also showed a correlation with tissue VEGF level. Similarly, MVD showed a significant increase with increase in tumor stage. A correlation between bladder cancer and MVD and VEGF suggest that the latter can serve as markers for therapeutic guidance. This is the first study from India on clinical and pathological correlation among urine VEGF, tumor tissue VEGF levels, and Micro Vessel Density (MVD) in urinary bladder cancer patients.

  13. Single-cell sequencing analysis characterizes common and cell-lineage-specific mutations in a muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Song, Luting

    2012-01-01

    sequencing of 66 individual tumor cells from a muscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Analyses of the somatic mutant allele frequency spectrum and clonal structure revealed that the tumor cells were derived from a single ancestral cell, but that subsequent evolution occurred, leading...... to two distinct tumor cell subpopulations. By analyzing recurrently mutant genes in an additional cohort of 99 TCC tumors, we identified genes that might play roles in the maintenance of the ancestral clone and in the muscle-invasive capability of subclones of this bladder cancer, respectively...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  16. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R. Colombo Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report our initial experiences with laparoscopic partial cystectomy for urachal and bladder malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2002 and October 2004, laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed in 6 cases at 3 institutions; 3 cases were urachal adenocarcinomas and the remaining 3 cases were bladder transitional cell carcinomas. All patients were male, with a median age of 55 years (45-72 years. Gross hematuria was the presenting symptom in all patients, and diagnosis was established with trans-urethral resection bladder tumor in 2 patients and by means of cystoscopic biopsy in the remaining 4 patients. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed using the transperitoneal approach under cystoscopic guidance. In each case, the surgical specimen was removed intact entrapped in an impermeable bag. One patient with para-ureteral diverticulum transitional cell carcinoma required concomitant ureteral reimplantation. RESULTS: All six procedures were completed laparoscopically without open conversion. The median operating time was 110 minutes (90-220 with a median estimated blood loss of 70 mL (50-100. Frozen section evaluations of bladder margins were routinely obtained and were negative for cancer in all cases. The median hospital stay was 2.5 days (2-4 and the duration of catheterization was 7 days. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Final histopathology confirmed urachal adenocarcinoma in 3 cases and bladder transitional cell carcinoma in 3 cases. At a median follow-up of 28.5 months (range: 26 to 44 months, there was no evidence of recurrent disease as evidenced by radiologic or cystoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic partial cystectomy in carefully selected patients with urachal and bladder cancer is feasible and safe, offering a promising and minimally invasive alternative for these patients.

  17. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  18. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lorenzi Marques

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder are uncommon and usually occur by contiguity with or hematogenic dissemination of other adenocarcinomas such as colorectal, prostate and gynecological tract carcinomas. Mucinous and signet-ring cell histological patterns are even rarer and it is often difficult to morphologically distinguish them from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. CASE REPORT: We present and discuss a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bladder with signet-ring cells in a 57-year-old male patient. Other primary sites for the tumor had been excluded and, in the absence of digestive tract tumor and for confirmation that it was a primary bladder tumor, an immunohistochemistry study was performed.

  19. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL is up-regulated in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongxue; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2015-01-01

    Antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a member of long non-coding RNAs and has been reported to be dysregulated in several human cancers. However, the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer remains unclear. This present study aimed to investigate whether and how ANRIL involved in bladder cancer. Our results showed up-regulation of ANRIL in bladder cancer tissues versus the corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues. To explore the specific mechanisms, ANRIL was silenced by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA transfection in human bladder cancer T24 and EJ cells. Knockdown of ANRIL repressed cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, along with decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expressions of Bax, cytoplasmic cytochrome c and Smac and cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. However, no change of cleaved caspase-8 level was observed. Furthermore, in vivo experiment confirmed that knockdown of ANRIL inhibited tumorigenic ability of EJ cells in nude mice. Meanwhile, in accordance with in vitro study, knockdown of ANRIL inhibited expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-9, but did not affect cleaved caspase-8 level. In conclusion, we first report that ANRIL possibly serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer and regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • We first report the role of ANRIL in bladder cancer. • ANRIL is obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. • ANRIL regulates bladder cancer cell proliferation and cell apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway.

  20. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  1. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  2. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  3. Sex differences in the MB49 syngeneic, murine model of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gilbertson, Shai; Davis, Megan; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina; Kasman, Laura M

    The MB49 syngeneic, murine model of bladder cancer has been widely used for more than 35 years. In humans, bladder cancer is one third as prevalent in women as in men, with a trend toward lower prevalence in parous compared to nulliparous women. Our objective was to determine if the MB49 bladder cancer model reproduces the sex differences observed in humans, and to determine its sensitivity to testosterone and the pregnancy hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Male and female C57BL/6 mice were implanted with MB49 murine bladder cancer cells, and observed for tumor growth. MB49 dose responses to hCG and dihydrotestosterone were determined in vitro . MB49 tumor growth was significantly greater in male mice than female mice. Pregnancy did not affect MB49 tumor growth in female mice. MB49 cells did not proliferate in response to hCG in vitro and the functional receptor for gonadotropins was absent. Dihydrotestosterone strongly stimulated growth of MB49 cells in vitro . The MB49 murine model of bladder cancer reproduced some aspects of the sex differences observed in humans. Our results suggest that testosterone may stimulate MB49 cell proliferation, which may explain the more rapid MB49 tumor growth observed in male mice.

  4. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  5. NBI - plasma vaporization hybrid approach in bladder cancer endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, F; Geavlete, B; Georgescu, D; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-06-15

    A prospective study was performed aiming to evaluate the surgical efficacy, perioperative safety profile, diagnostic accuracy and medium term results of a multi-modal approach consisting in narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy and bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) when compared to the standard protocol represented by white light cystoscopy (WLC) and transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 260 patients with apparently at least one bladder tumor over 3 cm were included in the trial. In the first group, 130 patients underwent conventional and NBI cystoscopy followed by BPV, while in a similar number of cases of the second arm, classical WLC and TURBT were applied. In all non-muscle invasive bladder tumors' (NMIBT) pathologically confirmed cases, standard monopolar Re-TUR was performed at 4-6 weeks after the initial intervention, followed by one year' BCG immunotherapy. The follow-up protocol included abdominal ultrasound, urinary cytology and WLC, performed every 3 months for a period of 2 years. The obturator nerve stimulation, bladder wall perforation, mean hemoglobin level drop, postoperative bleeding, catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly reduced for the plasma vaporization technique by comparison to conventional resection. Concerning tumoral detection, the present data confirmed the NBI superiority when compared to standard WLC regardless of tumor stage (95.3% vs. 65.1% for CIS, 93.3% vs. 82.2% for pTa, 97.4% vs. 94% for pT1, 95% vs. 84.2% overall). During standard Re-TUR the overall (6.3% versus 17.4%) and primary site (3.6% versus 12.8%) residual tumors' rates were significantly lower for the NBI-BPV group. The 1 (7.2% versus 18.3%) and 2 (11.5% versus 25.8%) years' recurrence rates were substantially lower for the combined approach. NBI cystoscopy significantly improved diagnostic accuracy, while bipolar technology showed a higher surgical efficiency, lower morbidity and faster postoperative recovery. The combined

  6. A combination therapy of selective intraarterial anti-cancer drug infusion and radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Yumiko; Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Mikami, Koji; Takeuchi, Takumi; Matsuda, Izuru; Arahira, Satoko

    2017-01-01

    The gold standard for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer Without metastasis is radical cystectomy. However, there increase patients very elderly and with serious complications. They are not good candidates for invasive surgical operation. Intraarterial infusion of 70 mg/m"2 of cisplatin and 30 mg/m"2 of pirarubicin into bilateral bladder arteries was conducted for 5 patients diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancers without distant metastasis. Right and left distribution of anti-cancer drugs was determined based on the location of bladder tumor(s). External beam radiation therapy was commenced immediately following intraarterial infusion. The patients were followed up with clinical and radiographic investigations and bladderbiopsy was performed as needed. Patients were all males who are smoking or with smoking history ranging from 73 to 85 years of age (median 82). The duration between transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TUR-Bt) and intraarterial infusion of anti-cancer drugs was 47.4 days (range 26-68), the median follow-up period after intraarterial infusion was 21.5 months (range 87-547) without death. Total radiation dose was 59.2 ±3.0 Gy. Complete remission was accomplished in all cases. One patient showed intravesical recurrence of non muscle-invasive tumors 45.8 months following intraarterial infusion and underwent TUR-Bt. Two cases underwent bladder biopsies showing no tumors. All patients but one case with bladder recurrence were free of tumor recurrence with radiographic investigation. For adverse events, acute renal failure was in one case and leukocytopenia was in all 5 cases, Grade 2 for one and Grade 3 for 4 cases. Follow-up periods are not long enough, but early results of a combination therapy of selective intraarterial anti-cancer drug infusion and radiation therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer were good. (author)

  7. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care.

  8. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  9. [High oncogenic risk human papillomavirus and urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, O B; Sinyakova, L A; Gundorova, L V; Kosov, V A; Kosova, I V; Pogodina, I E; Kolbasov, D N

    2017-07-01

    To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV. Tumor tissue was sampled for PCR virus detection. Semi-quantitative analysis was used to evaluate the components of lymphocyte-plasmocyte and leukocyte infiltrates and cytopathic changes in tumor tissue. There were positive correlations between cytopathic cell changes (koylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions, as manifestations of HPV) and the level of antiviral antibodies, the presence of viruses in the tumor, as well as with the components of the lymphoid-plasmocyte infiltrate. Negative correlations were found between the presence of papillomatosis and the above changes. Human papillomavirus is believed to be a trigger for the initiation of a tumor in young patients with a latent infection (CMV and EBV, HSV, HPV). Cytopathic changes (kylocytosis and intranuclear inclusions) were associated with the activity and morphological features of herpes-viral infections. Their degree varied depending on the stage of the process, but not on the anaplasia degree. Papillomatosis is associated with a more favorable course of the tumor process.

  10. Superiority of fluorescent in situ hybridization over immunohistochemistry in detection of HER2 gene in carcinoma of the urinary bladder associated with and without schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Hindawi, All; Mosaad, Maha; Akl, Maha; Khalil, Heba; Al Ganzoury, Hossam; Badawy, Mohamed; Elesaily, Khaled

    2014-12-01

    HER2 is an oncogene encoding a type 1 tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor and the role of HER2 in the development of numerous types of human cancer is still understood and correlates with clinical outcome, poor prognosis, it is a predictor factor for poor response to chemotherapy. HER2 overexpression is associated with reduced disease free and overall survival. Patients who have HER2 negative expression have a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the accuracy of detection of expression of HER2 protein by two different techniques of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The two techniques were applied to sixty two patients that included different cell types of carcinoma of the bladder, benign bilharzial lesions and control. Characteristics of the 62 patients are: 10 chronic cystitis, 19 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with schistosomiasis, 33 urothelial carcinoma (UC) schistosomal and non-schistosomal, ten healthy individuals without schistosomiasis served as controls. Gene amplification of HER2 was done using FISH and protein expression of HER2 by IHC. The study was applied on archival data of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and patient clinical data and follow up for 5 years. Overexpression of HER2 protein was found in 30/52 (57.7%). Fourteen cases had score of 2+, and sixteen cases had score of 3+. Using FISH technique it showed more accurate detection of HER2 gene as those fourteen cases who had score of 2+ had been found to be 5 out of 14 were positive for gene over expression, the other sixteen who had score of 3+ all were positive for gene amplification. HER2 protein and gene was found to be significantly overexpressed in carcinoma of the bladder in both cell types SCC and UC with or without schistosomiasis compared to the benign lesions and control groups (P <0.01) by both techniques. There is significant increase in expression of HER2 protein and gene in SCC compared to

  11. The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: Review of 12 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Ballardo, C J; Gala-Solana, L; Portillo-Martin, J A; Azueta-Etxebarria, A; Truan-Cacho, D; Campos-Juanatey, F

    2015-01-01

    The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma is extremely rare and has a different biological behavior to other bladder tumors. The aim of this study is to analize if their behavior is as aggressive as has been described in the literature. Review of 12 diagnosed cases with nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma and analysis of demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, treatment options, analysis of recurrence and cancer-specific survival between January 1997 and December 2010 in our hospital. 50% of the cases had a pathologic stage ≥T2, with grade of differentiation G2 (50%) or G3 (50%). After the pathological result of the TUR (transurethral resection) Bladder, 5 cases underwent radical cystoprostatectomy, 3 a second TUR bladder and 4 cases with treatment chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (RT). Five out of 12 cases (41.7%) died due to bladder cancer and 3 died (25%) of other causes (urinary sepsis, respiratory failure, renal failure). With a median follow up of 40 months, the overall survival was 50% and cancer-specific survival of 65.6%. The nested variant of bladder transitional cell carcinoma is a disease with an advanced-stage presentation, with high recurrence and mortality rates despite the use of different treatments. So far there is not a clinical practice guideline for this variety of urothelial tumor. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary bladder cancer T-staging from T2-weighted MR images using an optimal biomarker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Chen, Jerry; Venigalla, Sriram; Odhner, Dewey; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Christodouleas, John; Torigian, Drew A.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used in clinical practice to stage patients with bladder cancer to help plan treatment. However, qualitative assessment of MR images is prone to inaccuracies, adversely affecting patient outcomes. In this paper, T2-weighted MR image-based quantitative features were extracted from the bladder wall in 65 patients with bladder cancer to classify them into two primary tumor (T) stage groups: group 1 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally confined to the bladder, and group 2 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally extending beyond the bladder. The bladder was divided into 8 sectors in the axial plane, where each sector has a corresponding reference standard T stage that is based on expert radiology qualitative MR image review and histopathologic results. The performance of the classification for correct assignment of T stage grouping was then evaluated at both the patient level and the sector level. Each bladder sector was divided into 3 shells (inner, middle, and outer), and 15,834 features including intensity features and texture features from local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix were extracted from the 3 shells of each sector. An optimal feature set was selected from all features using an optimal biomarker approach. Nine optimal biomarker features were derived based on texture properties from the middle shell, with an area under the ROC curve of AUC value at the sector and patient level of 0.813 and 0.806, respectively.

  13. Tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX is up-regulated in bladder cancer and predicts poor prognosis in patients with cystectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Guo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ETK/BMX has been reported in several solid tumors. In this report, we demonstrated that ETK expression is progressively increased during bladder cancer progression. We found that down-regulation of ETK in bladder cancer cells attenuated STAT3 and AKT activity whereas exogenous overexpression of ETK had opposite effects, suggesting that deregulation of ETK may attribute to the elevated activity of STAT3 and AKT frequently detected in bladder cancer. The survival, migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells were significantly compromised when ETK expression was knocked down by a specific shRNA. In addition, we showed that ETK localizes to mitochondria in bladder cancer cells through interacting with Bcl-XL and regulating ROS production and drug sensitivity. Therefore, ETK may play an important role in regulating survival, migration and invasion by modulating multiple signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarrays containing 619 human bladder tissue samples shows that ETK is significantly upregulated during bladder cancer development and progression and ETK expression level predicts the survival rate of patients with cystectomy. Taken together, our results suggest that ETK may potentially serve as a new drug target for bladder cancer treatment as well as a biomarker which could be used to identify patients with higher mortality risk, who may be benefited from therapeutics targeting ETK activity.

  14. Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; chang, Jong. w; Oh, Bong R.

    2005-01-01

    and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using mass spectrometry and database search. We found most extensive and reproducible down-regulation of NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase cytoplasmic (IDPc) and peroxiredoxin-II (Prx-II), in poorly differentiated T24 compared to well-differentiated RT4 bladder...... cancer cell line. Subsequent Western blotting analysis of human biopsy samples from bladder cancer patient revealed significant loss of IDPc and Prx-II in more advance tumor samples, in agreement with data on cell lines. These results suggest that loss of IDPc and Prx-II during tumor development may...

  15. Diagnosis of preoperative staging of bladder cancer by CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munechika, Hirotsugu; Saito, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Osamu; Tomiie, Fumitaka; Aihara, Toshinori

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and angiography in defining the extent of local invasion was studied retrospectively in 19 patients with surgically proven carcinoma of the bladder. The overall accuracy of CT and angiographic staging in these cases was 54 percent and 47 percent respectively. The diagnosis of carcinoma of the bladder by CT tended to do overstaging rather than understaging. A tangential view of the tumor-bearing area by the selective internal iliac arteriography allows an accurate estimation of the perivesical tumor extension. The topographic diagnosis should be made by CT prior to the angiographic study. (author)

  16. Alternating chemo-radiotherapy in bladder cancer: a conservative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsatti, Marco; Curotto, Antonio; Canobbio, Luciano; Guarneri, Domenico; Scarpati, Daniele; Venturini, Marco; Franzone, Paola; Giudici, Stefania; Martorana, Giuseppe; Boccardo, Francesco; Giuliani, Luciano; Vitale, Vito

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this Phase II study was to determine a bladder-sparing treatment in patients with invasive bladder cancer, allowing a better quality of life. Objectives were to test toxicity and disease-free and overall survival of patients given an alternated chemo-radiotherapy definitive treatment. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six patients with bladder cancer Stage T1G3 through T4 N0 M0 were entered in the same chemotherapy regimen (Cisplatin 20 mg/mq and 5-Fluorouracil 200 mg/mq daily for 5 days) alternated with different radiotherapy scheduling, the first 18 patients received two cycles of 20 Gy/10 fractions/12 days each; the second group of 58 patients received two cycles of 25 Gy/10 fractions/12 days each (the last 21 patients received Methotrexate 40 mg/mq instead of 5-Fluorouracil). Results: A clinical complete response was observed in 57 patients (81%), partial response in 7 patients (10%), and a nonresponse in 6 patients (9%). At a median follow-up of 45 months, 33 patients (47%) were alive and free of tumor. The 6-year overall survival and progression-free survival was 42% and 40%, respectively. Systemic side effects were mild, while a moderate or severe local toxicity was observed in 14 patients and 13 patients (about 20%), respectively. Conclusion: Our conservative combination treatment allowed bladder-sparing in a high rate of patients and resulted in a survival comparable to that reported after radical cystectomy

  17. Deciphering the Roles of Thiazolidinediones and PPARγ in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thiazolidinedione (TZD therapy in type II diabetic patients has proven useful in the lowering of blood glucose levels. However, recent investigations have shown that there may be potential health concerns associated, including the risk of developing bladder cancer as well as complications in the cardiovasculature. TZDs are ligands for the nuclear receptor PPARγ, and activation causes lipid uptake and insulin sensitization, both of which are critical processes for diabetic patients whose bodies are unable to utilize insulin effectively. Several studies have shown that PPARγ/TZDs decrease IGF-1 levels and, thus, reduce cancer growth in carcinomas such as the pancreas, colon, liver, and prostate. However, other studies have shed light on the potential of the receptor as a biomarker for uroepithelial carcinomas, particularly due to its stimulatory effect on migration of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, PPARγ may provide the tumor-promoting microenvironment by de novo synthesis of nutrients that are needed for bladder cancer development. In this review, we closely examine the TZD class of drugs and their effects on PPARγ in patient studies along with additional molecular factors that are positive modulators, such as protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, which may have considerable implications for bladder cancer therapy.

  18. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  19. Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Recurrence Based on Urinary Levels of EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, TWIST1, VIM, and ZNF154 Hypermethylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Thomas; Borre, Michael; Christiansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy and as many as 70% of patients experience relapse. Aberrant DNA methylation is present in all bladder tumors and can be detected in urine specimens. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation markers...

  20. Therapeutic effect of intravesical administration of paclitaxel solubilized with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) in an orthotopic bladder cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koetsu; Kikuchi, Eiji; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of intravesical administration of paclitaxel (PTX-30W), which was prepared by solubilization with a water-soluble amphiphilic polymer composed of PMB30W, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate, in an orthotopic bladder cancer model. The cytotoxicities of PMB30W were examined in MBT-2 cell cultures and the results were compared with those of the conventional paclitaxel solubilizer Cremophor. In an orthotopic MBT-2 bladder cancer model, the effect of intravesical administration of PTX-30W was compared with that of paclitaxel solubilized with Cremophor (PTX-CrEL). The paclitaxel concentration in bladder tumors after the intravesical treatment was also evaluated using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. In vitro, Cremophor exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards MBT-2 cells, whereas no cytotoxicity was observed with PMB30W. In the orthotopic bladder cancer model, intravesical administration of PTX-30W resulted in a significant reduction of bladder wet weight compared with that of PTX-CrEL. The paclitaxel concentration in bladder tumors after the intravesical treatment was significantly higher in PTX-30W treated mice than in PTX-CrEL treated mice. Intravesically administered PTX-30W can elicit stronger antitumor effects on bladder tumors than conventional paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor, presumably because of its better penetration into tumor cells. PTX-30W might be a promising antitumor agent for intravesical treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

  1. A novel role for drebrin in regulating progranulin bioactivity in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Qiong; Buraschi, Simone; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Shirao, Tomoaki; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Birbe, Ruth; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2015-05-10

    We recently established a critical role for the growth factor progranulin in bladder cancer insofar as progranulin promotes urothelial cancer cell motility and contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, progranulin expression is upregulated in invasive bladder cancer tissues compared to normal controls. However, the molecular mechanisms of progranulin action in bladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we searched for novel progranulin-interacting proteins using pull-down assays with recombinant progranulin and proteomics. We discovered that drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, bound progranulin in urothelial cancer cells. We characterized drebrin function in urothelial cancer cell lines and showed that drebrin is critical for progranulin-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways and modulates motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, drebrin regulates tumor formation in vivo and its expression is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to normal tissue controls. Our data are translationally relevant as indicate that drebrin exerts an essential functional role in the regulation of progranulin action and may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, drebrin may serve as novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  2. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  3. Clinical utility of urinary soluble Fas in screening for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anupam Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Dhramveer; Dalela, Divakar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma

    2016-06-01

    Early diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder remains a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Soluble Fas (sFas), a cell-surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, is frequently expressed in urinary bladder carcinoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the urinary sFas for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder. We examined urinary sFas concentration in 74 controls and 117 cases of TCC, both primary and recurrent disease, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared it with urinary cytology. Urinary sFas concentration was found to be significantly higher in the patient as compared to control group (P bladder cancer in comparison with cytology. Out of 15 node positive bladder cancer cases, 13 had high urinary sFas levels, whereas 12 were urinary cytology positive for malignancy. Urinary sFas can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC of urinary bladder, both for primary and recurrent disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The health economics of bladder cancer: an updated review of the published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Christina; Dinh, Tuan; Lee, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.

  5. Organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer: Brachytherapy, an alternative to cystectomy and combined modality treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris; Horenblas, Simon; Dom, Paul; Moonen, Luc; Bartelink, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our long-term results of bladder preservation with brachytherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 2000, 108 patients with T1-G3 and T2-T3a stages of bladder cancer were treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) and a course of external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions) followed by brachytherapy (40 Gy). All tumors were solitary lesions with a diameter ≤5 cm. Median follow-up was 54 months (range, 1-178 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 62% and 50%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 73% and 67%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate was 73% at 5 and 73% at 10 years, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for patients with a preserved bladder were 68% and 59%, respectively. Of all long-term surviving patients, 90% preserved their native bladders. The treatment was well tolerated. Acute toxicity was mild. Two patients experienced serious late toxicity: 1 patient developed a persisting vesicocutaneous fistula and the other a stricture of the urethra and ureters. Conclusion: For patients with solitary, organ confined invasive bladder cancer ≤5 cm, bladder preservation with brachytherapy is an excellent alternative to radical cystectomy and combined modality treatment

  6. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, A H.M.; Hulshof, M C.C.M.; Pieters, B R; Koning, C C.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, F J [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Inst., Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reijke, T.M. de [Dept. of Urology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was {>=} 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  7. Clinical results of a concomitant boost radiotherapy technique for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, A.H.M.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Pieters, B.R.; Koning, C.C.E.; Pos, F.J.; Reijke, T.M. de

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to update the results of external radiotherapy with a focal concomitant boost technique on local control and bladder function in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively evaluated 92 elderly or disabled patients with localized T2-4 N0-1 M0 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and a median age of 79 years, not suitable for radical surgery and treated between 1994 and 2005. Treatment consisted of a dose of 40 Gy/2 Gy to the small pelvis with a daily concomitant boost of 0.75 Gy to the tumor. Total dose was 55 Gy in 4 weeks. Results: complete remission rate after evaluation by means of cystoscopy at 3 months was 78%. 3-year local control rate amounted to 56%, and 3-year overall survival to 36%. The posttreatment bladder capacity was comparable with the pretreatment capacity and was ≥ 200 ml in 81% of the cases. Mean bladder capacity did not deteriorate at longer follow-up. Conclusion: the local control rate after external beam radiotherapy in elderly patients with a focal concomitant boost for localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer was 56% at 3 years. Functional bladder outcome was good. (orig.)

  8. Using Copy Number Alterations to Identify New Therapeutic Targets for Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Conconi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer represents the ninth most widespread malignancy throughout the world. It is characterized by the presence of two different clinical and prognostic subtypes: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs. MIBCs have a poor outcome with a common progression to metastasis. Despite improvements in knowledge, treatment has not advanced significantly in recent years, with the absence of new therapeutic targets. Because of the limitations of current therapeutic options, the greater challenge will be to identify biomarkers for clinical application. For this reason, we compared our array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH results with those reported in literature for invasive bladder tumors and, in particular, we focused on the evaluation of copy number alterations (CNAs present in biopsies and retained in the corresponding cancer stem cell (CSC subpopulations that should be the main target of therapy. According to our data, CCNE1, MYC, MDM2 and PPARG genes could be interesting therapeutic targets for bladder CSC subpopulations. Surprisingly, HER2 copy number gains are not retained in bladder CSCs, making the gene-targeted therapy less interesting than the others. These results provide precious advice for further study on bladder therapy; however, the clinical importance of these results should be explored.

  9. Initial Results of Retrospective Study: Preoperative Transurethral Excision Plus Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy and Trial of Bladder Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammal El-Deen, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    For patients with invasive bladder cancer the usual recommended treatment is radical cystectomy, although transurethral resection of the tumor, systemic chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are each effective in some patients. This retrospective study evaluated the experience of the Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital with combined modality treatment and selective bladder preservation in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer with assessment of its safety, tolerance, and efficacy to determine whether these treatments in combination might be as effective as radical cystectomy and thus might allow the bladder to be preserved and the cancer cured and to identify factors that may predict treatment response, risk of relapse and survival. Patients and Methods: Between January 2000 and January 2006, 55 consecutive patients with muscle invading bladder cancer (stages T2 through T4, NX M0) were treated with as complete transurethral surgery as possible, followed by induction combination chemotherapy, and irradiation with 4500 cGy with concurrent cisplatin administration. Urologic evaluation by cystoscopy, cytology, and re biopsy 2-3 weeks later of the tumor response directed further therapy: either radical cystectomy in the patients who had incomplete responses, or additional chemotherapy with the same drugs and doses and radiotherapy up to 6480 cGy in the patients who had complete responses. The median follow-up was 48 months. Results: In 37 patients (67.3%) the bladder was free of invasive tumor and functioning well, even though in 13(23.6%) a superficial tumor recurred and required further transurethral surgery and intravesical drug therapy. Of the 18 (32.7%) patients who still had detectable tumor after initial treatment, all of them underwent radical cystectomy. None of the patients had required a cystectomy for radiation toxicity. Of the 37 (67.3%) patients who had complete responses with no tumor detectable on urine cytology or re biopsy after

  10. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy. PMID:25929573

  11. Clinical outcome of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,2 1Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Linko, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taiwan, Republic of China Purpose: Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare malignant disease. It accounts for less than 1% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical features, the treatment modalities, and the overall survival of these patients. We also compare the clinical outcomes between patients of bladder small cell carcinoma (SCC and bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC. Materials and methods: We reviewed the charts of patients with bladder tumors from January 1995 to December 2012 in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 2421 malignant bladder tumor patients were reviewed and there were 18 patients who were diagnosed with primary bladder SCC. The patients' characteristics, including age, gender, smoking history, presented symptoms, tumor size, locations, clinical stages, treatment modalities, pathology appearance, recurrence conditions, and survival conditions were all recorded. We also compared the clinical outcomes and the overall survival rates between patients with bladder SCC and those with UC. Results: Bladder SCC accounted for about 0.74% of all bladder malignancies in our institution. The mean age at diagnosis was 70.67 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1. Thirteen patients had a history of cigarette smoking. All patients presented with symptoms of gross hematuria, and three of them had bladder tamponade requiring blood clot evacuation by cystoscopy. Only one patient had T1 disease, ten patients had stage III disease, and seven patients had lymph node or distant metastasis (stage IV disease. The mean tumor size was 4.29 cm in diameter. For the majority (61.11% of patients, SCC coexisted with UC components. The average survival time

  12. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG for immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, K R; Buss, J H; Collares, T; Seixas, F K

    2015-05-01

    In the past three decades, intravesical instillation of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used for treating bladder cancer and it still remains at the forefront of immunotherapy for cancer patients. Although BCG-based therapy is the most effective intravesical therapy for this kind of tumor and represents the only agent known to reduce progression into muscle invasive bladder cancer, BCG is ineffective in approximately 30-40 % of cases and disease recurs in up to 50 % of patients. Since that BCG is considered an effective vehicle for delivery of antigens due to its unique characteristics, the genetic manipulation of these mycobacteria has been appealing in the search for less toxic and more potent therapeutic agents for bladder cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we discuss current advances in recombinant BCG construction, research, concerns, and future directions to promote the development of this promising immunotherapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  13. Potential role of melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M gene expression in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Önalan, Ebru Etem; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Aydoğ, Gülten; Keleş, İbrahim; Tonyali, Şenol; Ceylan, Cavit

    2016-12-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities. The present study included a total of 47 subjects, of whom 40 were bladder cancer patients and 7 were controls. Following the histopathological evaluation for bladder carcinoma, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPM were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues, in order to determine whether there is a difference in the expression of these channels in tumor and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPM8 was observed in epithelial bladder cells in the two groups. RT-qPCR revealed a significant increase in TRPM7 expression in bladder cancer tissue compared to the controls (healthy bladder tissue), whereas no differences in TRPM2 or TRPM4 expression levels were observed. There were significant reductions in the expression levels of TRPM5 and TRPM8 in bladder cancer tissues. In the present study, the effects of TRP ion channels on the formation of bladder cancer was investigated. This study is instructive for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM7 and TRPM8 and their therapeutic role in bladder cancer. The results support the fact that these gens can be novel targets and can also be tested for during the treatment of bladder cancer.

  14. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  15. [The role of telomerase activity in non-invasive diagnostics of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, J G; Potoldykova, N V; Polyakovsky, K A; Vinarov, A Z; Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potentials of determining the telomerase activity (TA) in the cellular material of the urine for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Evaluation of TA was performed in the urine of 48 patients with bladder cancer (study group) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder wall (n=38), an open resection of the bladder (n=4), and cystectomy (n=6). TA was also evaluated in 48 tumor tissue samples obtained from these patients during removal of the bladder tumor. Each sample of the tumor tissue was separated into two parts, one of which was subjected to histological examination, and the latter was used to determine the telomerase activity. In all cases, the diagnosis of bladder cancer was confirmed morphologically. Determination of TA in the samples was performed by the modified TRAP-method (telomerase repeat amplification protocol), RT-PCR, PCR, and electrophoresis. As a control, cell material of the urine and tissue in 12 patients with chronic cystitis was investigated. TA before surgery was found in 45 (93.75%) of 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with suspected bladder cancer. BC was histologically verified in all patients in this group. In the postoperative period, TA was not observed in the 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with BC. In the control group of patients with histologically verified cystitis, weak TA was determined only in one sample of cellular material of the urine. The analysis indicates statistically significant predominance of patients with bladder cancer in case of TA in the urine (P=0.001). TA was detected in all samples of tumor tissue. We also analyzed the dependence of TA levels in urine and tissue on the degree of BC differentiation. In patients with highly differentiated BC, mean AT in the cellular materials of the urine was 0,61% (n=15), in patients with moderately differentiated BC - 0.95% (n=23), in patients with low-grade bladder cancer - 1.33% (n=10

  16. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  17. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  18. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  19. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  20. Novel bifunctional anthracycline and nitrosourea chemotherapy for human bladder cancer: analysis in a preclinical survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, D; Murray, M K; Raghavan, D

    1996-08-01

    A hybrid drug [N-2-chloroethylnitrosoureidodaunorubicin (AD312)] that combines structural and functional features of both anthracyclines and nitrosoureas was evaluated in a preclinical survival model of human bladder cancer. To measure the therapeutic activity of AD312, UCRU-BL13 transitional cell carcinoma cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, and tumor growth rates were compared after i.v. administration of the drug at three dose levels. AD312 treatment at 45 and 60 mg/kg achieved 7-10-fold inhibition of tumor growth and increased host survival by 156 and 249%, respectively. Doses of 60 mg/kg showed optimal therapeutic efficacy, with sustained tumor growth inhibition, an over 2-fold increase in life span, and 40% of mice tumor free ("cured") at 120 days. Tumors were unresponsive to maximum tolerated doses of doxorubicin, a standard anthracycline used as a single agent and in combination therapies for bladder cancer. 1,3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea was used as a control for the apparently enhanced response of human tumors in murine hosts to nitrosoureas. 1, 3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea administered in three injections of 20 mg/kg did not cure mice but temporarily inhibited tumor growth by 70% and prolonged survival by 55%; its activity in this model suggests that it may be included in the repertoire of alkylating agents currently used for treatment of bladder cancers. AD312 showed increased antitumor activity with less toxicity than doxorubicin, and its bifunctional properties provide the opportunity for simultaneous treatment of individual cancer cells with two cytotoxic modalities as well as treatment of heterogeneous populations typical of bladder cancers. This novel cytotoxic drug cured doxorubicin-refractory disease and should be investigated for the clinical management of bladder cancer.

  1. Combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroaki; Nomura, Yoshio; Terada, Katsuhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Ogata, Jiro

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with invasive bladder cancer (T2 in 17, T3 in 6) were treated initially with combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy. Cisplatin (50 mg) was infused into the internal iliac artery through a subcutaneous reservoir twice a week over three weeks while concurrent radiation therapy with 30 Gy, delivered in 15 fractions, was given. In 23 patients, 6 received additional cisplatin infusion and the other 17 had transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Two of the patients undergoing total cystectomy exhibited a complete response (CR). Thus overall response rate was 87% (CR in 13 and partial response in 7). CR was achieved in 53% for T2 patients and 67% for T3 patients. CR was slightly higher in patients with non-papillary cancer than those with papillary one. Toxic reaction included a decrease in bladder capacity in 2 patients and severe diarrhea due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colitis in one. The other toxicities, including nausea, vomiting, neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, were tolerable. All except for one are alive. Seven patients had a local recurrence of bladder cancer. One patient developed invasive bladder cancer reaching the prostatic urethra. One other patient had recurrence at the same site as the previous tumor. Five others had superficial bladder cancer and were managed by TURBT. Bladder function was preserved in 65% at a mean follow-up of 29 months. In conclusion, the combined intraarterial cisplatin infusion and radiation therapy is useful for the initial treatment of invasive bladder cancer. (N.K.)

  2. Prediction of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer using K-means clustering of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huyen T; Jia, Guang; Shah, Zarine K; Pohar, Kamal; Mortazavi, Amir; Zynger, Debra L; Wei, Lai; Yang, Xiangyu; Clark, Daniel; Knopp, Michael V

    2015-05-01

    To apply k-means clustering of two pharmacokinetic parameters derived from 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to predict the chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer at the mid-cycle timepoint. With the predetermined number of three clusters, k-means clustering was performed on nondimensionalized Amp and kep estimates of each bladder tumor. Three cluster volume fractions (VFs) were calculated for each tumor at baseline and mid-cycle. The changes of three cluster VFs from baseline to mid-cycle were correlated with the tumor's chemotherapeutic response. Receiver-operating-characteristics curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of each cluster VF change as a biomarker of chemotherapeutic response in bladder cancer. The k-means clustering partitioned each bladder tumor into cluster 1 (low kep and low Amp), cluster 2 (low kep and high Amp), cluster 3 (high kep and low Amp). The changes of all three cluster VFs were found to be associated with bladder tumor response to chemotherapy. The VF change of cluster 2 presented with the highest area-under-the-curve value (0.96) and the highest sensitivity/specificity/accuracy (96%/100%/97%) with a selected cutoff value. The k-means clustering of the two DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters can characterize the complex microcirculatory changes within a bladder tumor to enable early prediction of the tumor's chemotherapeutic response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pathogenic and Diagnostic Potential of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 Nuclear Proteins in Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder is one of the most common malignancies of genitourinary tract. Patients with bladder cancer need a life-long surveillance, directly due to the relatively high recurrence rate of this tumor. The use of cystoscopy represents the gold standard for the followup of previously treated patients. Nevertheless, several factors, including cost and invasiveness, render cystoscopy not ideal for routine controls. Advances in the identification of specific alterations in the nuclear structure of bladder cancer cells have opened novel diagnostic landscapes. The members of nuclear matrix protein family BLCA-1 and BLCA-4, are currently under evaluation as bladder cancer urinary markers. They are involved in tumour cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. In this paper, we illustrate the role of BLCA-1 and BLCA-4 in bladder carcinogenesis and their potential exploitation as biomarkers in this cancer.

  4. The effects of visual fluorescence marking induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid for endoscopic diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Koenig, Frank; Schnorr, Dietmar; Valdman, Alexander; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    During cystoscopy procedure, fluorescence diagnostics induced by 5-ALA improves visual detection of the bladder cancer. Macroscopic ALA-fluorescence allows visualizing of small flat tumors, carcinoma in situ, true neoplasm margins and dysplasias of the bladder. Following ALA instillation, cystoscopy has been performed under both standard and blue light illumination. Totally, 153 biopsies have been carried out at 53 patients with suspicion of bladder cancer. The results were compared to ALA-fluorescence data. In 13% of the patients, bladder cancer and dysplasia were found out in addition, due to red fluorescence. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-fluorescence technique aggregated 96% and 52% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of 5-ALA-fluorescent detection exceeded standard endoscopy under white light on 20%. The new method does not exclude a false positive and a false negative fluorescent luminescence. The ALA-based fluorescence detection system enhances the diagnosis of malignant/dysplastic bladder lesions significantly.

  5. Accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woranisarakul, Varat; Ramart, Patkawat; Phinthusophon, Kittipong; Chotikawanich, Ekkarin; Prapasrivorakul, Siriluck; Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopic findings for the diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer. Records of patients with colorectal cancer and a suspicion of bladder invasion, who underwent tumor resection with partial or total cystectomy between 2002 and 2013 at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, were reviewed. Correlations between preoperative urinary symptoms, urinalysis, cystoscopic finding, CT imaging and final pathological reports were analyzed. This study included 90 eligible cases (71% male). The most common site of primary colorectal cancer was the sigmoid colon (44%), followed by the rectum (33%). Final pathological reports showed definite bladder invasion in 53 cases (59%). Significant features for predicting definite tumor invasion were gross hematuria (OR 13.6, sensitivity 39%, specificity 73%), and visible tumor during cystoscopy (OR 5.33, sensitivity 50%, specificity 84%). Predictive signs in CT imaging were gross tumor invasion (OR 7.07, sensitivity 89%, specificity 46%), abnormal enhancing mass at bladder wall (OR 4.09, sensitivity 68%, specificity 66%), irregular bladder mucosa (OR 3.53, sensitivity 70%, specificity 60% ), and loss of perivesical fat plane (OR 3.17, sensitivity 81%, specificity 43%). However, urinary analysis and other urinary tract symptoms were poor predictors of bladder involvement. The present study demonstrated that the most relevant preoperative predictors of definite bladder invasion in patients with colorectal cancer are gross hematuria, a visible tumor during cystoscopy, and abnormal CT findings.

  6. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  7. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  8. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  9. En bloc urinary bladder resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer: a 17-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jimmy C M; Chong, Charing C N; Ng, Simon S M; Yiu, Raymond Y C; Lee, Janet F Y; Leung, Ka Lau

    2011-09-01

    En bloc bladder resection is often required for treating colorectal cancer with suspected urinary bladder invasion. Our aim was to review our institutional experience in en bloc resection of locally advanced colorectal cancer involving the urinary bladder over a period of 17 years. The hospital records of 72 patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer who underwent en bloc urinary bladder resection at our institution between July 1987 and December 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and oncologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up was 64.3 months. Genuine tumor invasion into the urinary bladder was confirmed in 34 patients (47%) by histopathology. Forty patients (56%) underwent primary closure of the urinary bladder, while 32 patients (44%) required various kinds of urologic reconstructive procedures. Operative mortality occurred in four patients (6%). The overall postoperative morbidity rate was significantly higher in patients undergoing urologic reconstruction (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.002) when compared to that in patients undergoing primary closure. This was mostly attributable to significantly higher rates of urinary anastomotic leak (21.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) and urinary tract infection (50% vs. 18%, p = 0.003) in the urologic reconstruction group. For the 57 patients (79%) who underwent curative resection, the 5-year overall survival rate was 59%, and the local recurrence at 5 years was 15%. Both parameters were not significantly affected by the presence of pathologic bladder invasion or the extent of surgical procedures. En bloc bladder resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer involving the urinary bladder can produce reasonable long-term local control and patient survival.

  10. Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Kanojia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Majority of bladder cancer deaths are caused due to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC which is the most prevalent and chemoresistant malignancy of urinary bladder. Therefore, we analyzed the role of Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9 in bladder TCC. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We examined SPAG9 expression and humoral response in 125 bladder TCC patients. Four bladder cancer cell lines were assessed for SPAG9 expression. In addition, we investigated the effect of SPAG9 ablation on cellular proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion in UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cells by employing gene silencing approach. Our SPAG9 gene and protein expression analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in 81% of bladder TCC tissue specimens. High SPAG9 expression (>60% SPAG9 positive cells was found to be significantly associated with superficial non-muscle invasive stage (P = 0.042 and low grade tumors (P = 0.002 suggesting SPAG9 putative role in early spread and tumorigenesis. Humoral response against SPAG9 was observed in 95% of patients found positive for SPAG9 expression. All four bladder cancer cell lines revealed SPAG9 expression. In addition, SPAG9 gene silencing in UM-UC-3 cells resulted in induction of G0-G1 arrest characterized by up-regulation of p16 and p21 and consequent down-regulation of cyclin E, cyclin D and cyclin B, CDK4 and CDK1. Further, SPAG9 gene silencing also resulted in reduction in cellular growth, and migration and invasion ability of cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data in clinical specimens indicated that SPAG9 is potential biomarker and therapeutic target for bladder TCC.

  11. Interleukin-4 receptor alpha overexpression in human bladder cancer correlates with the pathological grade and stage of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bharat H; Leland, Pamela; Lababidi, Samir; Varrichio, Frederick; Puri, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is overexpressed on a variety of human cancers and can serve as target for IL-4 immunotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin. However, its expression and association with grade and clinical stage of bladder cancer has not been studied. IL-4Rα expression was examined in human bladder cancer cell lines, mouse xenografts, and biopsy specimens at mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and IHC/ISH techniques. We also examined the effect of IL-4 on proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cell lines. For tissue microarray (TMA) results, we analyzed the precision data using exact binomial proportion with exact two-sided P-values. We used Cochran–Armitage Statistics with exact two-sided P-values to examine the trend analysis of IL-4Rα over grade or stage of the bladder cancer specimens. The influence of age and gender covariates was also analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. IL-4Rα is overexpressed in five bladder cancer cell lines, while normal bladder and human umbilical vein cell lines (HUVEC) expressed at low levels. Two other chains of IL-4 receptor complex, IL-2RγC and IL-13Rα1, were absent or weakly expressed. IL-4 modestly inhibited the cell proliferation, but enhanced cell invasion of bladder cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Bladder cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice also maintained IL-4Rα overexpression in vivo. Analysis of tumor biopsy specimens in TMAs revealed significantly higher IL-4Rα immunostaining (≥2+) in Grade 2 (85%) and Grade 3 (97%) compared to Grade 1 tumors (0%) (P ≤ 0.0001). Similarly, 9% stage I tumors were positive for IL-4Rα (≥2+) compared to 84% stage II (P ≤ 0.0001) and 100% stages III–IV tumors (P ≤ 0.0001). IL-13Rα1 was also expressed in tumor tissues but at low levels and it did not show any correlation with the grade and stage of disease. However, the IL-2RγC was not

  12. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  13. Effects and Mechanisms of Checkpoint Inhibitors (CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 Inhibitors as New Immunotherapeutic Agents for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Çelik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG began to be used for bladder cancer, our understanding of the importance of immune mechanisms in bladder cancer has steadily grown. With developments in immunotherapy in recent years, the use of new immunotherapeutic agents for bladder cancer, especially chemotherapy-resistant invasive and metastatic cancers, has opened the way for research in this area. Of these new therapeutic agents, this article reviews studies published on PubMed or listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website as of December 2017 regarding the effects and mechanisms of action of checkpoint inhibitors [cytotoxic t-lymphocyte associated protein-4, programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1 and PD-1 ligand inhibitors] on bladder cancer. Because checkpoint inhibitors were first used for chemotherapy-resistant bladder cancer after identification of positive expression in tumor cells and especially in tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells, significant objective response rates and survival advantages have been reported. Research continues regarding the use of these agents as first- and second-line treatment for metastatic disease in combination with chemotherapy; their efficacy in neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and bladder-preserving approaches to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC disease, and their use in non-muscle-invasize bladder cancer (NMIBC, especially BCG-refractory disease. Depending on the results of these ongoing studies, immunotherapy may direct the treatment of bladder cancer in the future.

  14. Outcome of urinary bladder cancer after combined therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, R M; Gales, L N; Trifanescu, O G

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth in women, being an important public health issue. Methods: : Medical files of 155 patients (132M/ 23F) with urinary bladder cancer treated between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range: 19-85 years). Disease free survival (DFS) for patients with complete tumor resection receiving adjuvant treatment and progression free survival (PFS) for patients with post-operative residual disease was estimated. Results: The distribution of the stage disease was: 50 patients (32.2%) stage II, 47 (30.3%) stage III, 58 (37.4%) stage IV. Radical cystectomy was performed in 56 patients (36.1%), while 99 patients (63.9%) underwent repeated transurethral resection of the urinary bladder tumor (TURBT). Postoperative treatment included multimodal therapy in 47 patients (30.3%) (chemotherapy and external beam radiation), external beam radiation alone in 57 patients (36.8%) and chemotherapy alone (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin-MVAC or gemcitabine+platinum) in 51 patients (32.9%). After a median follow-up of 31 months (range: 3-79 months), 51 patients (32.9%) presented local recurrence, 32 patients (21%) distant recurrence (metastases), 10 patients (6.4%) both local and distant recurrence, and 62 patients (40%) were free of disease. The median duration until progression was 27 months. Discussion: Despite the combined therapy approaches, urinary bladder carcinoma remains an aggressive disease, with a high relapse rate. Earlier diagnosis, aggressive radical surgery in intention to cure (cystectomy), and adjuvant multimodal treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) are needed for survival improvement.

  15. Gender and Bladder Cancer: A Collaborative Review of Etiology, Biology, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobruch, Jakub; Daneshmand, Siamak; Fisch, Margit; Lotan, Yair; Noon, Aidan P; Resnick, Matthew J; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer is three to four times greater in men than in women. However, women are diagnosed with more advanced disease at presentation and have less favorable outcomes after treatment. To review the literature on potential biologic mechanisms underlying differential gender risk for bladder cancer, and evidence regarding gender disparities in bladder cancer presentation, management, and outcomes. A literature search of English-language publications that included an analysis of the association of gender with bladder cancer was performed using Pubmed. Ninety-seven articles were selected for analysis with the consensus of all authors. It has been shown that the gender difference in bladder cancer incidence is independent of differences in exposure risk, including smoking status. Potential molecular mechanisms include disparate metabolism of carcinogens by hepatic enzymes between men and women, resulting in differential exposure of the urothelium to carcinogens. In addition, the activity of the sex steroid hormone pathway may play a role in bladder cancer development, with demonstration that both androgens and estrogens have biologic effects in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, gender differences exist in the timeliness and completeness of hematuria evaluation, with women experiencing a significantly greater delay in urologic referral and undergoing guideline-concordant imaging less frequently. Correspondingly, women have more advanced tumors at the time of bladder cancer diagnosis. Interestingly, higher cancer-specific mortality has been noted among women even after adjusting for tumor stage and treatment modality. Numerous potential biologic and epidemiologic factors probably underlie the gender differences observed for bladder cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, and outcomes. Continued evaluation to define clinical applications for manipulation of the sex steroid pathway and to improve the standardization of hematuria

  16. Development and Application of a Microfluidics-Based Panel in the Basal/Luminal Transcriptional Characterization of Archival Bladder Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Kim

    Full Text Available In the age of personalized medicine stratifying tumors into molecularly defined subtypes associated with distinctive clinical behaviors and predictable responses to therapies holds tremendous value. Towards this end, we developed a custom microfluidics-based bladder cancer gene expression panel for characterization of archival clinical samples. In silico analysis indicated that the content of our panel was capable of accurately segregating bladder cancers from several public datasets into the clinically relevant basal and luminal subtypes. On a technical level, our bladder cancer panel yielded robust and reproducible results when analyzing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. We applied our panel in the analysis of a novel set of 204 FFPE samples that included non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs, muscle invasive disease (MIBCs, and bladder cancer metastases (METs. We found NMIBCs to be mostly luminal-like, MIBCs to include both luminal- and basal-like types, and METs to be predominantly of a basal-like transcriptional profile. Mutational analysis confirmed the expected enrichment of FGFR3 mutations in luminal samples, and, consistently, FGFR3 IHC showed high protein expression levels of the receptor in these tumors. Our bladder cancer panel enables basal/luminal characterization of FFPE tissues and with further development could be used for stratification of bladder cancer samples in the clinic.

  17. Expression and Role of GPR87 in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kakehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The orphan GPR87 has recently been matched with its ligand LPA, which is a lipid mediator with multiple physiological functions, including cancer cell proliferation. This study aimed to clarify the role of GPR87 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. GPR87 expression was assessed in seven human bladder cancer cell lines. A replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing shRNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87, was constructed. Gene silencing was carried out using Ad-shGPR87. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for transurethral resection of bladder tumor samples from 71 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We observed GPR87 expression in five of the seven cell lines, and silencing GPR87 gene expression significantly reduced cell viability. GPR87 expression was positive in 38 (54% of 71 tumors. Ki-67 index was associated with positive GPR87 staining status (p < 0.0001. Patients with GPR87-positive tumors had shorter intravesical recurrence-free survival than those with GPR87-negative tumors (p = 0.010. Multivariate analysis revealed that GPR87 staining status was an independent prognostic parameter for intravesical recurrence (p = 0.041. Progression from non-muscle-invasive to muscle-invasive tumor was more frequently observed in patients with GPR87-positive tumors, although this trend did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.056. These results warrant further prospective studies to clarify the role of GPR87 expression in intravesical recurrence and progression in bladder cancer.

  18. Gene expression signatures predict outcome in non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma - a multi-center validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Zieger, Karsten; Real, Francisco X.

    2007-01-01

    and carcinoma in situ (CIS) and for predicting disease recurrence and progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed tumors from 404 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer in hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, England, Spain, and France using custom microarrays. Molecular classifications were compared with pathologic....... CONCLUSION: This multicenter validation study confirms in an independent series the clinical utility of molecular classifiers to predict the outcome of patients initially diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This information may be useful to better guide patient treatment....

  19. Initial Results of Bladder Preserving Approach by Chemo-Radiotherapy in Patients with Muscle Invading Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboziada, M.A.; Hamza, H.; Abdlrahem, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy and tolerability of trimodality treatment for invasive bladder cancer and to test the possibility of bladder sparing. Methods: This study had been carried out on 50 patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) stage T2- T3 tumors with adequate performance status and renal function. All patients were subjected to maximum transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). Patients were then subjected to chemo-radiation that was executed in two treatment phases. Phase I was external radiotherapy in the form of 46 Gy /23 fractions /5 weeks to whole pelvis with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m 2 weekly. Phase II was 20 Gy /10 fractions /2 weeks to the bladder tumor with concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly. After phase I, patients who had complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were subjected to phase II and patients who had stationary disease (SD) were subjected to salvage cystectomy. After the end of treatment, patients who had CR were subjected to bladder preservation. Radiological and cystoscopic reevaluation was done to assess the tumor response after phase I and phase II. After completion of the scheduled treatment, patients were under follow up for clinical examination, radiological, and cystoscopic assessment. Results: The treatment schedule was tolerable and was associated with infrequent incidence of moderate toxicity that was easily controlled without interruption of treatment. Bladder preservation was achieved in 72% of patients. The actuarial relapse free survival and overall survival at a median follow up 18 months for patients who were candidate for bladder preservation were 81% and 100%; respectively. Invasive recurrence (16%) sal-Jvaged with cystectomy and superficial recurrence (6%) successfully treated with Bacilles bilie de Calmette- Guerin. Conclusions: This study indicates that in spite of a relatively small number of patients and short follow-up period; the trimodality treatment could be an

  20. High expression of HEF1 is associated with poor prognosis in urinary bladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qi Zhang,1 Hui-Ju Wang,2 Da-Hong Zhang,1 Guo-Qing Ru,3 Xu-Jun He,2 Ying-Yu Ma2 1Department of Urology, 2Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology of Zhejiang Province, 3Department of Pathology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Human enhancer of filamentation 1 (HEF1 is a multidomain scaffolding protein that has been thought to play an important role in the tumor progression of various cancers. HEF1 expression has not previously been reported in urinary bladder carcinoma, and little is known about its prognostic significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of HEF1 in urinary bladder carcinoma and to investigate its prognostic significance. HEF1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray. A significant relationship between HEF1 expression and sex, tumor size, number of tumors, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis was found, and high expression of HEF1 was associated with worse overall survival when compared to low expression of HEF1. Multivariate analysis showed that HEF1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in urinary bladder carcinoma. We investigated HEF1 expression in urinary bladder carcinoma and found that high HEF1 expression was associated with advanced stage, large tumor size, and shortened progression-free survival. Although the biologic function of HEF1 in urinary bladder carcinoma remains unknown, the expression of HEF1 can provide new prognostic information for disease progression. Keywords: human enhancer of filamentation 1, progression-free survival, immunohistochemistry, metastasis, bladder cancer

  1. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Bondar, L; Zolnay, A G; Chai, X; Hulshof, M C C M; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2013-02-01

    Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined

  2. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A.; Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors’ unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  3. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Meiberdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  4. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  6. MicroRNA-490-5p inhibits proliferation of bladder cancer by targeting c-Fos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shiqi; Xu, Xianglai; Xu, Xin; Hu, Zhenghui; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hong; Mao, Yeqing; Lin, Yiwei; Luo, Jindan; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We examined the level of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer tissues and three cancer cell lines. •We are the first to show the function of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer. •We demonstrate c-Fos may be a target of miR-490-5p. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding sequences that play a crucial role in tumorigenesis by negatively regulating gene expression. Here, we found that miR-490-5p is down-regulated in human bladder cancer tissue and cell lines compared to normal adjacent tissue and a non-malignant cell line. To better characterize the function of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer, we over-expressed miR-490-5p in bladder cancer cell lines with chemically synthesized mimics. Enforced expression of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer cells significantly inhibited the cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. Further studies found the decreased c-Fos expression at both mRNA and protein levels and Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that c-Fos is a direct target of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer. These findings indicate miR-490-5p to be a novel tumor suppressor of bladder cancer cell proliferation through targeting c-Fos

  7. Allelic deletions of cell growth regulators during progression of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, H; von der Maase, H; Christensen, M

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth regulators include proteins of the p53 pathway encoded by the genes CDKN2A (p16, p14arf), MDM2, TP53, and CDKN1A (p21) as well as proteins encoded by genes like RB1, E2F, and MYCL. In the present study we investigated allelic deletions of all these genes in each recurrent bladder tumor...... difference in the numbers of gene loci hit by deletions muscle-invasive versus noninvasive tumors (P = 0.0000002), with the genes most often hit by deletions in muscle-invasive tumors being TP53, RB1, and MYCL. A number of novel findings were made. Losses of MYCL and RB1 alleles were more pronounced...... that a characteristic difference between recurrent noninvasive and recurrent progressing bladder tumors is loss of cell cycle-regulatory genes in the latter group....

  8. Clinical Outcomes With Dose-Escalated Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: vmurthy@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Masodkar, Renuka; Kalyani, Nikhil; Mahantshetty, Umesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Bakshi, Ganesh; Prakash, Gagan [Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar [Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India); Ghonge, Sujata; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai (India)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility, clinical outcomes, and toxicity in patients with bladder cancer treated with adaptive, image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder preservation as a part of trimodality treatment. The role of dose escalation was also studied. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with localized bladder cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent maximal safe resection of bladder tumor and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with large tumors were offered induction chemotherapy. Radiation therapy planning was done using either 3 (n=34) or 6 (n=10) concentrically grown planning target volumes (PTV). Patients received 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the whole bladder and 55 Gy to the pelvic nodes and, if appropriate, a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed to 68 Gy (equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions assuming α/β of 10 [EQD2]{sub 10} = 68.7 Gy). Daily megavoltage (MV) imaging helped to choose the most appropriate PTV encompassing bladder for the particular day (using plan-of-the-day approach). Results: Most patients (88%) had T2 disease. Sixteen patients (36%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A majority of the patients (73%) received prophylactic nodal irradiation, whereas 55% of the patients received escalated dose to the tumor bed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were 78%, 66%, and 67%, respectively. The bladder preservation rate was 83%. LRC (87% vs 68%, respectively, P=.748) and OS (74% vs 60%, respectively, P=.36) rates were better in patients receiving dose escalation. Instances of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was seen in 5 (11%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. There was no acute or late RTOG grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: Adaptive IGRT using plan-of-the-day approach for bladder

  9. Clinical Outcomes With Dose-Escalated Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Urinary Bladder Cancer: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Vedang; Masodkar, Renuka; Kalyani, Nikhil; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Bakshi, Ganesh; Prakash, Gagan; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar; Ghonge, Sujata; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess feasibility, clinical outcomes, and toxicity in patients with bladder cancer treated with adaptive, image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder preservation as a part of trimodality treatment. The role of dose escalation was also studied. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with localized bladder cancer were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent maximal safe resection of bladder tumor and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with large tumors were offered induction chemotherapy. Radiation therapy planning was done using either 3 (n=34) or 6 (n=10) concentrically grown planning target volumes (PTV). Patients received 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the whole bladder and 55 Gy to the pelvic nodes and, if appropriate, a simultaneous integrated boost to the tumor bed to 68 Gy (equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions assuming α/β of 10 [EQD2] 10  = 68.7 Gy). Daily megavoltage (MV) imaging helped to choose the most appropriate PTV encompassing bladder for the particular day (using plan-of-the-day approach). Results: Most patients (88%) had T2 disease. Sixteen patients (36%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A majority of the patients (73%) received prophylactic nodal irradiation, whereas 55% of the patients received escalated dose to the tumor bed. With a median follow-up of 30 months, the 3-year locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival, and overall survival (OS) were 78%, 66%, and 67%, respectively. The bladder preservation rate was 83%. LRC (87% vs 68%, respectively, P=.748) and OS (74% vs 60%, respectively, P=.36) rates were better in patients receiving dose escalation. Instances of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 3 genitourinary toxicity was seen in 5 (11%) and 2 (4%) patients, respectively. There was no acute or late RTOG grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions: Adaptive IGRT using plan-of-the-day approach for bladder preservation

  10. Telomerase Activity, Cytokeratin 20 and Cytokeratin 19 in Urine Cells of Bladder Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, M.I.; Youssef, A.I.; El-Sedafi, A.S.; Ghazal, A.A.; Zaher, E.R.; Hassouna, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the Study: This work aims to search for markers suitable for the screening of bladder cancer, which should be specific, sensitive, reproducible, non-invasive and at acceptable cost. Patients and Methods: The study included 50 patients diagnosed as bladder cancer (35 TCC, 15 SCC) of different stages and grades, 30 patients with various urothelial diseases, besides 20 apparently healthy subjects of matched age and sex to the malignant group. A random midstream urine sample was collected in a sterile container for the determination of telomerase by RT-PCR, keratin 19 by ELSA CYFRA 21-1 IRMA kit, keratin 20 by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and urine cytology. Results: For all parameters (telomerase, K19, K20 and cytology) the malignant group was significantly different from both the benign and the control groups. None of the four studied parameters was correlated to the stage of the disease, and when it comes to grade, only KI9 showed a significant positive correlation with grade both in TCC and SCe. When ROC curves for all parameters were compared, K 19 had the largest area under the curve, and then comes K20 . o Conclusion: K 19 may be used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. K 19 could not be used for differential diagnosis of different types of bladder cancer, meanwhile it could be a marker for differentiation that decreases in less differentiated tumors. As a tumor marker, K20 reflects inability to differentiate tumor type or grade in TCC, while in SCC of the bladder it is correlated with the grade. As a method, RT-PCR is superior to immunostaining for the detection of bladder cancer, meanwhile K20 immunohistochemistry ([HC) results were much better than urine cytology as a bladder cancer screening test. haematuria and inflammation reduced the specificity of telomerase assay, which reduced its validity as a tumor marker of bladder cancer. K 19 and K20 are the best candidates as screening tests for the diagnosis of bladder

  11. Evaluating the need for transurethral bladder biopsy at first follow up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Patients with high-risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder have a lifelong risk of progression and require particular attention. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is recommended as a first-choice adjuvant treatment to reduce the risk of progression of high-grade tumors and ...

  12. Circular RNA expression is abundant and correlated to aggressiveness in early-stage bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Trine Line Hauge; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Hamilton, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The functions and biomarker potential of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in various cancer types are a rising field of study, as emerging evidence relates circRNAs to tumorigenesis. Here, we profiled the expression of circRNAs in 457 tumors from patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We...

  13. Indicence of bladder cancer in a one-stop clinic | Yakasai | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of transvaginal scan (TVS) in the detection of bladder tumors in patients presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. Materials and Methods: We examined the case records of all patients that attended a one-stop clinic between September 2001 and May 2004.

  14. Selection of microsatellite markers for bladder cancer diagnosis without the need for corresponding blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A G van Tilborg

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are used for loss-of-heterozygosity, allelic imbalance and clonality analyses in cancers. Usually, tumor DNA is compared to corresponding normal DNA. However, normal DNA is not always available and can display aberrant allele ratios due to copy number variations in the genome. Moreover, stutter peaks may complicate the analysis. To use microsatellite markers for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer, we aimed to select markers without stutter peaks and a constant ratio between alleles, thereby avoiding the need for a control DNA sample. We investigated 49 microsatellite markers with tri- and tetranucleotide repeats in regions commonly lost in bladder cancer. Based on analysis of 50 blood DNAs the 12 best performing markers were selected with few stutter peaks and a constant ratio between peaks heights. Per marker upper and lower cut off values for allele ratios were determined. LOH of the markers was observed in 59/104 tumor DNAs. We then determined the sensitivity of the marker panel for detection of recurrent bladder cancer by assaying 102 urine samples of these patients. Sensitivity was 63% when patients were stratified for LOH in their primary tumors. We demonstrate that up-front selection of microsatellite markers obliterates the need for a corresponding blood sample. For diagnosis of bladder cancer recurrences in urine this significantly reduces costs. Moreover, this approach facilitates retrospective analysis of archival tumor samples for allelic imbalance.

  15. Bladder squamous cell carcinomas express psoriasin and externalize it to the urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1996-01-01

    were confined chiefly to the "squamous pearls." The presence of psoriasin in the urine of the 4 SCC patients was demonstrated by two-dimensional gel immunoblotting. Similar analysis of 43 urines from patients with bladder tumors other than SCC revealed 7 positives, some of which may reflect squamous...

  16. Low dose intravesical heparin as prophylaxis against recurrent noninvasive (stage Ta) bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitsch, M; Hermann, G G; Andersen, J P

    1990-01-01

    A controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of topical low dose heparin (0.125 gm./l., 25,000 units per l.) as prophylaxis against recurrent noninvasive (stage Ta) transitional cell bladder cancer. Transurethral tumor resection was done with irrigation fluid conta...

  17. Molecular Detection of Bladder Cancer by Fluorescence Microsatellite Analysis and an Automated Genetic Analyzing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel Halachmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the ability of an automated fluorescent analyzing system to detect microsatellite alterations, in patients with bladder cancer. We investigated 11 with pathology proven bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC for microsatellite alterations in blood, urine, and tumor biopsies. DNA was prepared by standard methods from blood, urine and resected tumor specimens, and was used for microsatellite analysis. After the primers were fluorescent labeled, amplification of the DNA was performed with PCR. The PCR products were placed into the automated genetic analyser (ABI Prism 310, Perkin Elmer, USA and were subjected to fluorescent scanning with argon ion laser beams. The fluorescent signal intensity measured by the genetic analyzer measured the product size in terms of base pairs. We found loss of heterozygocity (LOH or microsatellite alterations (a loss or gain of nucleotides, which alter the original normal locus size in all the patients by using fluorescent microsatellite analysis and an automated analyzing system. In each case the genetic changes found in urine samples were identical to those found in the resected tumor sample. The studies demonstrated the ability to detect bladder tumor non-invasively by fluorescent microsatellite analysis of urine samples. Our study supports the worldwide trend for the search of non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. We have overcome major obstacles that prevented the clinical use of an experimental system. With our new tested system microsatellite analysis can be done cheaper, faster, easier and with higher scientific accuracy.

  18. Long-term results of radiation combined with cisplatin in localized muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takahiro; Nishijima, Jun; Miyachika, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Sakano, Shigeru; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Naito, Katsusuke

    2011-01-01

    Although radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for localized muscle invasive-bladder cancer, bladder preservation therapies have been tried for selective patients in several institutes. However, the indication of bladder preservation therapy remains controversial. To select patients who are good candidates for bladder preservation therapy, we evaluated our long-term experience with radiation therapy (conformal radiotherapy (CRT)) combined with cisplatin. Between 1994 and 2009, 90 patients with bladder cancer (clinical stage T2-4N0M0) with no evidence of upper urinary tract cancer were treated with CRT. The response was evaluated by transurethral resection (TUR) of the tumor, urine cytology and CT scan. Thirty-seven cases (41.1%) achieved pathological complete response (CR) which was defined as no microscopic residual tumor in the bladder. After TUR, 74 cases (82.2%) achieved local control of the cancer that was considered as clinical CR. Among 16 patients for whom clinical CR was not achieved, 8 cases were treated with immediate radical cystectomy. We evaluated the long-term results of CRT in 82 cases with bladder preservation. The median follow-up was 36.6 months (range, 4.1-155.1). The five-year overall survival rate and the 5-year progression-free survival rate were 73.0% and 59.2%, respectively. Clinical T stage and type of tumor (primary or recurrent) were prognostic factors for overall survival (p=0.003 and p=0.017). Likewise, clinical T stage and type of tumor were prognostic factors for progression-free survival (p=0.022 and p=0.033). In addition, primary cT2 cases had a significantly better prognosis than those with other T stage and recurrence in overall survival and progression-free survival (p=0.007 and p=0.018). Based on these data, we concluded that primary cT2 tumors were good candidates for radiation combined with cisplatin for bladder preservation therapy. (author)

  19. Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl-Elmula, Imad; Kytola, Soili; Leithy, Mona EL; Abdel-Hameed, Mohamed; Mandahl, Nils; Elagib, Atif; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Larsson, Catharina; Heim, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors. DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results. Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion. Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries

  20. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24 compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1 or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7. We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer.

  1. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Wen, Sheng-I; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24) compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1) or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7). We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Appraisal of diagnostic ability of UCA1 as a biomarker of carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Singh, P K; Rath, S K; Dalela, D; Goel, M M; Bhatt, M L B

    2014-11-01

    Initial diagnosis of carcinoma of the urinary bladder remains to be a challenge. Urine cytology, as an adjunct to cystoscopy, is less sensitive for low-grade tumors. Urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1) is a novel non-coding RNA gene, which plays a pivotal role in bladder cancer progression. Our aim is to investigate the significance of urinary UCA1 for the non-invasive diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. We examined UCA1 expression in a bladder cancer cell line (T24) and in urine of 28 healthy individuals, 46 patients of non-malignant disorders, and 117 cases (69 primary and 48 recurrent cases) of histologically proven TCC prior to transurethral resection by using real-time PCR and compared it with voided urinary cytology. UCA1 expression was found in T24 cell line and also found to be significantly higher in the cancer group as compared to the controls (p0.05). UCA1 can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for TCC bladder as an adjunct to cytology in the early diagnosis of primary urinary bladder cancer.

  3. [The diagnostic value of microsatellite LOH analysis and the prognostic relevance of angiogenic gene expression in urinary bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarvas, Tibor

    2009-12-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting the urinary system. Currently, histology is the only tool that determines therapy and patients' prognosis. As the treatment of non-invasive (Ta/T1) and muscle invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors are completely different, correct staging is important, although it is often hampered by disturbing factors. Molecular methods offer new prospects for early disease detection, confirmation of unclear histological findings and prognostication. Applying molecular biological methods, the present study is searching for answers to current diagnostic and prognostic problems in bladder carcinoma. We analyzed tumor, blood and/or urine samples of 334 bladder cancer patients and 117 control individuals. Genetic alterations were analyzed in urine samples of patients and controls, both by PCR-based microsatellite loss of heterozigosity (LOH) analysis using 12 fluorescently labeled primers and by DNA hybridization based UroVysion FISH technique using 4 probes, to assess the diagnostic values of these methods. Whole genome microsatellite analysis (with 400 markers) was performed in tumor and blood specimens of bladder cancer patients to find chromosomal regions, the loss of which may be associated with tumor stage. Furthermore, we assessed the prognostic value of Tie2, VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and -2. We concluded that DNA analysis of voided urine samples by microsatellite analysis and FISH are sensitive and non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. Furthermore, we established a panel of microsatellite markers that could differentiate between non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer. However, further analyses in a larger cohort of patients are needed to assess their specificity and sensitivity. Finally, we identified high Ang-2 and low Tie2 gene expression as significant and independent risk factors of tumor recurrence and cancer related survival.

  4. CT in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumi, Yoshifumi; Mitani, Takashi; Kuriyama, Keiko

    1988-01-01

    CT findings of 8 operated cases with squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder were reviewed. All of them had advanced stage tumor with invasion into perivesical fat or organs (≥ T3b), and with or without lymphnode involvement. We compared them with 15 operated cases with advavced transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder (≥ T3b) especially in regard to the direction of tumor growth, and the frequency of invasion into perivesical organs and lymphnode involvement. Futhermore, we studied a relation between CT findings and histopathological stages of the squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder showed predominant extravesical growth as the stage advanced, while transitional cell carcinoma generally showed predominant intravesical growth. Squamous cell carcinoma invaded into perivesical organs and metastasized to lymphnodes more frequently than transitional cell carcinoma of control group. Accuracy of CT staging of squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder was found to be 100 % in T stage and 75 % in N stage. (author)

  5. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from urinary bladder adenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Katsuji; Hayashi, Masahiro; Sakai, Naoto; Sasaki, Motoko; Koshino, Yoshifumi

    2005-03-01

    We report a 73-year-old male patient with leptomeningeal metastasis from urinary bladder adenocarcinoma. He was presented with prominent hyperactive delirium during the course of the disease. Meningeal carcinomatosis was detected 5 days before his death, but the primary site of the malignant tumor could not be determined. Necropsy revealed leptomeningeal infiltration of many adenocarcinoma cells that covered the cerebrum. The leptomeninges of the right middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobe were most severely affected by tumor cell infiltration. Cerebral edema was found to extensively cover the basal part of the temporal lobe. In the cerebrum, tumor cells were clustered in the perivascular spaces and had invaded localized areas of the frontal lobe. Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression was detected in the small vessels of the cerebral upper cortical layers and of temporal subcortical u-fibers. Numerous astrocytes positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were found in the frontal and temporal lobes. Meningeal carcinomatosis from urinary bladder adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and up-regulation of the adhesion molecules in the meningeal adenocarcinoma was confirmed.

  6. Efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, Woo Jung; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Jeong, Byong Chang

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. In a prospective design, we included patients who had a bladder lesion suggesting bladder cancer. Patients with massive hematuria, urethral Foley catheter insertion, chronic retention state, or urinary tract infection were excluded. After the bladder was emptied, hexaminolevulinate was gently administered into the bladder. One hour later, cystoscopy under white light and blue light was performed. After marking the lesions confirmed with white light or blue light, transurethral resection of the bladder lesion and pathologic confirmation were done. Transurethral resection of the lesions that were negative in both white and blue light was also performed. From April 2010 to September 2010, 30 patients were enrolled. From the total of 30 patients (25 men and 5 women; mean age, 60.4±9.22 years), 134 specimens were extracted. Among these, 101 specimens showed positive results by blue light cystoscopy (BLC). The sensitivity of BLC and white light cystoscopy (WLC) was 92.3% and 80.8%, respectively (p=0.021). The specificity of BLC and WLC was 48% and 49.1%, respectively (p>0.05). The positive and negative predictive v