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Sample records for non-restrictive relative clauses

  1. Agreement and the structure of relative clauses

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    Boban Arsenijević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an account of asymmetries in agreement patterns that obtain in restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses headed by hybrid agreement nouns 'd(jeca '‘children’, 'braća '‘brothers’, and 'gospoda '‘gentry’ in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (BCS. We note that relative clauses headed by hybrid nouns display different possibilities of agreement morphology on the relative pronoun 'koji/a/e '‘which’, depending, on the one hand, on whether the relative clause is restrictive or non-restrictive and on the other, on the case of the relative pronoun. We argue that the observed differences are the result of a conspiracy of the following factors: (i hybrid number-agreement nouns introduce a null plural pronoun unspecified for gender (Postal 1966; den Dikken 2001; Torrego and Laga 2015, (ii all plural case forms of the relative pronoun except for nominative and accusative show full gender syncretism (Alsina and Arsenijević 2012b, and (iii non-restrictive relative clauses involve a null definite pronoun and attach to the head noun higher than the restrictive relative clauses (Postal 1994; de Vries 2002; 2006. We maintain that the facts discussed in the paper argue against analyses which derive the differences between restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses from their LF representations, rather than from their overt syntax.

  2. The Surface Structure of Relative Clauses

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    Lucas, Michael A.

    1974-01-01

    This article attempts to show that a more rigorous approach to surface structure analysis can reveal distinctions just as subtle as those discovered through analyzing deep structures or transformations. Relative clauses are examined in relation to nominal constructions, and alternatives to restrictive and non-restrictive classifications are…

  3. Teaching Relative Clauses.

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    Nakamori, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of what has become the standard approach to teaching relative clauses. To overcome the disadvantages, proposes a hierarchical teaching method that begins by introducing noun phrases that contain relative clauses before comparing them with similar structures in the learner's first language. Shows an…

  4. An Overview of Relative Clauses

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    肖飒

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one kind of important modifiers among English grammar. It is a widely used clauses in English con-text. In order to get an overview of relative clause, this essay will analyze it in terms of form, meaning and use.

  5. Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl

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    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1975-01-01

    Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)

  6. Relative Clauses in Classical Nahuatl

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    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1975-01-01

    Jane Rosenthal's paper on relative clauses in Classical Nahuatl is discussed, and it is argued that she misses an important generalization. An alternative analysis to a class of relative pronouns and new rules for the distribution of relative pronouns are proposed. (SC)

  7. RELATIVE CLAUSES FROM ENGLISH TO ALBANIAN

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    Suela Koça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the use of relative clauses in English and Albanian by comparing different clause types. Some theoretical issues addressed in this article include the definition of relative clauses, the relativized elements, and the use of relative pronouns and adverbs in both languages. Distinctions and similarities are identified by analyzing the way in which these clauses are translated from English into Albanian. The theoretical part is illustrated by examples extracted from “Animal Farm” by George Orwell and “Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austin, and their translated versions in Albanian, “Ferma e Kafshëve” and “Krenari dhe Paragjykime”.

  8. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

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    Aliana Lopes CÂMARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional description of the relative clause. In other words, we try to verify as some descriptive aspects can be used in the teaching of relative clause, with the aim of developing reading and writing skills. In order to do that, we take as theoretical framework the different conceptions of grammar proposed in Travaglia (2009, 2011 and Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008. This research points to the need to emphasize the cohesive role established by the relative pronoun that introduces the relative clause, to understand the non-restrictive relative clause from its argumentative function and to review the distinction between subtypes of adjective clause from the criteria of omission of the subordinate clause.

  9. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

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    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  10. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

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    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  11. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

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    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  12. On the "Non-Restricted special Relativity" theory (NRR), and further comments on "Cherenkov vs X-waves"

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    Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Besieris, Ioannis M

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to recall some essential points of "Extended special Relativity", now more correctly called "Non-Restricted special Relativity" theory (NRR), and in particular of the extended Maxwell Equations; as well as to set forth some further comments on the basic differences between Cherenkov Radiation and the so-called X-shaped Waves, met within the more recent realm of the Non-diffracting Waves (also known as Localized Waves). The occasion is furnished by some very recent Seshadri's comments[1] on a previous article of ours, titled "Cherenkov radiation versus X-shaped localized waves" (see[2], and arXiv:0807.4301[physics.optics]), and not less on NRR itself. OCIS codes: 320.5550; 350.7420; 070.7345; 350.5500; 070.0070; 100.7410; 050.050; 000.1600; 000.2690; 000.6800; 250.5530; 260.0260. PACS nos.: 41.60.Bq; 03.50.De; 03.30.+p; 41.20;Jb; 04.30.Db; 42.25.-p; 42.25.Fx; 47.35.Rs. Keywords: Non-diffracing Waves; Localized Waves; Cherenkov radiation; X-shaped waves; Wave equations; Bessel beams; Su...

  13. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.

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    Lakshmanan, Usha

    2000-01-01

    Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

  14. On the phrasing properties of Hindi relative clauses

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    Gryllia, S.; Féry, C.; Kügler, F.; Pandey, P.; The, Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from a production experiment in Hindi, showing that differences in attachment site of object relative clauses result in prosodic differences when the antecedent of the relative clause (RC) is part of a complex NP with the structure N1 of N2. In particular, based on durati

  15. A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.

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    Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

  16. The Acquisition of Chinese Relative Clauses: Contrasting Two Theoretical Approaches

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    Hu, Shenai; Gavarró, Anna; Vernice, Mirta; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension of relative clauses by Chinese-speaking children, and evaluates the validity of the predictions of the Dependency Locality Theory (Gibson, 1998, 2000) and the Relativized Minimality approach (Friedmann, Belletti & Rizzi, 2009). One hundred and twenty children from three to eight years of age were tested by…

  17. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

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    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  18. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

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    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2 data. An…

  19. Predicting and Priming Thematic Roles: Flexible Use of Verbal and Nonverbal Cues during Relative Clause Comprehension

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    Kowalski, Alix; Huang, Yi Ting

    2017-01-01

    Relative-clause sentences (RCs) have been a key test case for psycholinguistic models of comprehension. While object-relative clauses (e.g., ORCs: "The bear that 'the horse' . . .") are distinguished from subject-relative clauses (SRCs) after the second noun phrase (NP2; e.g., SRCs: "The bear that 'pushed' . . ."), role…

  20. Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children.

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    Kas, Bence; Lukács, Agnes

    2012-05-01

    Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11-7;2 and 8;2-11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different word order patterns and different head function relations were observed independently of each other. The structural properties causing difficulties in comprehension were interruption of main clauses, greater distance between the verb and its arguments, accusative case of relative pronouns, and SO head function relations. Importantly, analyses of associations between working memory and sentence comprehension revealed that structural factors made processing difficult by burdening components of working memory. These results support processing accounts of sentence comprehension in a language typologically different from English.

  1. The acquisition of mood selection in Spanish relative clauses.

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    Pérez-Leroux, A T

    1998-10-01

    Although children acquire Spanish subjunctive morphology early in the process of language acquisition, they only master mood selection in a staged process that lasts for several years. This paper examines the possibility that the acquisition of subjunctive mood selection in particular syntactic contexts is constrained by cognitive development in the area of representational theory of mind. Acquisition of the epistemic aspects of the semantics of subjunctive are shown to be associated with the understanding of false beliefs, a landmark development in children's cognition. Twenty-two Spanish speaking children between the ages of 3;5 and 6;11 participated in an elicited production study designed to test whether children's ability to produce subjunctive relative clauses was related to their ability to pass a false belief task. Results indicate a strong correlation between children's ability to use the subjunctive mood in relative clauses and their capacity for understanding false beliefs.

  2. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

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    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  3. WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

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    NEGRÃO Esmeralda Vailati

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP, by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

  4. Learning of relative clauses by L3 learners of English

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    Mansour Koosha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In surveys of third language acquisition (TLA research, mixed results demonstrate that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the advantages and/or disadvantages of bilinguality on TLA. The main concern of the present study was, thus, to probe the probable differences between Persian monolingual and Azeri-Persian bilingual learners of English regarding their syntactic knowledge. It was an attempt to investigate whether they differ significantly in learning relative clauses. To carry out this study, a total of 200 female high school students studying at second grade were randomly selected from two educational districts of Tabriz and Shiraz in Iran. The participants were homogeneous in terms of English proficiency, sex, and age. They attended public high schools they were taught the same materials and had the same number of hours of instruction. A general proficiency test, a language history questionnaire, and two syntactic structure tasks were administered to both groups. Statistical analyses including t-tests and descriptive statistics revealed that monolinguals and bilinguals differ in the comprehension and production of English L3 relative clauses.

  5. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

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    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context.

  6. Processing of Relative Clauses is Made Easier by Frequency of Occurrence

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    Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale corpus analysis indicating that pronominal object relative clauses are significantly more frequent than pronominal subject relative clauses when the embedded pronoun is personal. This difference was reversed when impersonal pronouns constituted the embedded noun phrase. This pattern of distribution provides a suitable…

  7. Acquisition of Zero Relative Clauses in English by Adult Turkish Learners of English

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    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Studies on acquisition of relative clauses by first and second language learners have evoked considerable interest in recent decades. In line with such studies, in this present study we aim to show the possible effect of first language (Turkish) on second language (English) in zero relative clause constructions. English uses certain stranded…

  8. Second Language Relative Clause Acquisition: An Examination of Cross-Linguistic Influences

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    Chang, Yuh-Fang

    2004-01-01

    English is a Right Branching Direction (RBD) language in which relative clauses appear to the right of the head noun. In contrast, Chinese primarily relies on a Left Branching Direction (LBD) in which relative clauses premodify the head. Many studies have provided evidence that the differences in principal branching directions between the two…

  9. The Syntax of Relative Clauses in European Portuguese. Extending the Determiner Hypothesis of Relativizers to Relative que

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    Esther Rinke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the syntax of relative clauses in European Portuguese (EP by focussing on the status of the relativizer 'que 'in restrictive and appositive relative clauses. We propose a unified account of 'que 'in terms of a D-element and discuss the syntactic implications of this assumption for an adequate analysis of relative clauses in EP. We assume that relative 'que 'has properties of demonstrative and interrogative determiners. In restrictive object and subject relative clauses, 'que 'occurs as a transitive determiner [DP 'que '[NP e

  10. The Textual Features of Relative Clauses in the Chinese Sign Language%中国手语关系从句篇章特征考察

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    吕会华; 高立群; 巩卓

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the textual features of relative clauses in the Chinese sign language. Methods The objects of reference were set and the subjects repeated the objects in Chinese sign language.The sign language corpora were transferred into written language and then analyzed. Results The analysis of the corpora showed that sign language users often use relative clauses when telling a story. The subjects tended to define a head noun by a restrictive modifier when it first appeared in their narrations. However, some expressions of spatial location will be used more often to substitute the head noun when it reappeared, that is, the subjects used finger-pointing (a relatively fixed hand gesture) to substitute relative clauses or use digits and direct nomination to refer to the objects. Conclusion The sign language users can use relative clauses in the narrative texts but the frequency is relatively low. They tend to use head-internal relative clauses and the use frequencies of restrictive relative clauses and non-restrictive relative clauses show no significant difference.%  目的探讨中国手语关系从句结构在篇章中的使用情况。方法在语料中设置不同的指称对象,让被试用中国手语复述语料,进行语料转写,再对语料进行分析。结果手语者叙述故事,中心名词首现时,倾向于使用限制修饰;中心名词复现时,倾向于采用空间位置表达,即采用指点手势(位置基本固定)代替关系从句,或采用数字、直接命名等方式指称对象。结论手语者在篇章中能够使用关系从句结构,但使用频率较低。在不同类型关系从句的使用方面,手语者倾向于使用内置中心语关系从句,限定性关系从句与非限定性关系从句使用频率差别不大。此结论与其他国家手语、口语的相关研究一致。

  11. Working memory contributions to relative clause attachment processing: a hierarchical linear modeling analysis.

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    Traxler, Matthew J

    2007-07-01

    An eye-movement-monitoring experiment tested readers' responses to sentences containing relative clauses that could be attached to one or both of two preceding nouns. Previous experiments with such sentences have indicated that globally ambiguous relative clauses are processed more quickly than are determinately attached relative clauses. Central to the present research, a recent study (Swets, Desmet, Hambrick, & Ferreira, 2007) showed that offline preferences for such sentences differ as a function of working memory capacity. Specifically, both English and Dutch participants' preference for the second of two nouns as the host for the relative clause increased as their working memory capacity increased. In the present study, readers' working memory capacity was measured, and eye movements were monitored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine whether working memory capacity moderated readers' online processing performance. The modeling indicated that determinately attached sentences were harder to process than globally ambiguous sentences, that working memory did not affect processing of the relative clause itself, but that working memory did moderate how easy it was to integrate the relative clause with the preceding sentence context. Specifically, in contrast with the offline results from Swets and colleagues' study, readers with higher working memory capacity were more likely to prefer the first noun over the second noun as the host for the relative clause.

  12. Discourse accessibility constraints in children's processing of object relative clauses.

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    Haendler, Yair; Kliegl, Reinhold; Adani, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Children's poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect children's performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of children's language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases.

  13. Searching High and Low: Prosodic Breaks Disambiguate Relative Clauses

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    Fromont, Lauren A.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Biau, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    During natural speech perception, listeners rely on a wide range of cues to support comprehension, from semantic context to prosodic information. There is a general consensus that prosody plays a role in syntactic parsing, but most studies focusing on ambiguous relative clauses (RC) show that prosodic cues, alone, are insufficient to reverse the preferred interpretation of sentence. These findings suggest that universally preferred structures (e.g., Late Closure principle) matter far more than prosodic cues in such cases. This study explores an alternative hypothesis: that the weak effect of prosody might be due to the influence of various syntactic, lexical-semantic, and acoustic confounding factors, and investigate the consequences of prosodic breaks while controlling these variables. We used Spanish RC sentences in three experimental conditions where the presence and position (following the first or second noun phrase) of prosodic breaks was manipulated. The results showed that the placement of a prosodic break determined sentence interpretation by changing the preferred attachment of the RC. Listeners’ natural preference for low attachment (in the absence of break) was reinforced when a prosodic break was placed after the first noun. In contrast, a prosodic break placed after the second noun reversed the preferred interpretation of the sentence, toward high attachment. We argue that, in addition to other factors, listeners indeed use prosodic breaks as robust cues to syntactic parsing during speech processing, as these cues may direct listeners toward one interpretation or another. PMID:28203214

  14. Relative Clauses in Spectroscopic Articles in the "Physical Review, "Beginnings and 1980: Some Changes in Patterns of Modification and a Connection to a Possible Shift in Style.

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    Vande Kopple, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the number of relative clauses and percentages of subordinate clauses in two sets of research reports from "Physical Review." Finds a slight decrease in percentages of relative clauses from the first set (1893-1901) to the second (1980). Finds striking differences in patterns of what relative clauses modify. Suggests a stylistic…

  15. Sentence Integration Processes: An ERP Study of Chinese Sentence Comprehension with Relative Clauses

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    Yang, Chin Lung; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sentence constituent relations, it allows a test of…

  16. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

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    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context. Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English

  17. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

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    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  18. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

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    Otgonsuren, Tseden

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if…

  19. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

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    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to sen

  20. The Role of Working Memory and Contextual Constraints in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses

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    Wieghall, Anna R.; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the…

  1. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

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    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  2. Working Memory Effects in the L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether and how L2 sentence processing is affected by memory constraints that force serial parsing. Monitoring eye movements, we test effects of working memory on L2 relative-clause attachment preferences in a sample of 75 late-adult German learners of English and 25 native English controls. Mixed linear regression…

  3. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroudhan, Hayat Eid

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs), as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2) research. The present study discusses the…

  4. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker,…

  5. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal Acquisition...) USAID is required by law to include language in all its direct contracts and subcontracts ensuring...

  6. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Spontaneous Child Speech in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the developmental trajectory of relative clauses (RCs) in Mandarin-learning children's speech. We analyze the spontaneous production of RCs by four monolingual Mandarin-learning children (0;11 to 3;5) and their input from a longitudinal naturalistic speech corpus (Min, 1994). The results reveal that in terms of the…

  7. Main Verb Versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Investigated how adult learners of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) process sentences containing verbs that are temporarily ambiguous in interpretation between a main verb and a reduced relative clause. Seventeen Chinese, 17 Korean or Japanese, and 17 Romance learners with advanced ESL proficiency and a comparison group of 17 monolingual native…

  8. Unforced Revision in Processing Relative Clause Association Ambiguity in Japanese: Evidence against Revision as Last Resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Arai, Manabu; Hirose, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the…

  9. Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

  10. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  11. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  12. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    OpenAIRE

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be tru...

  13. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  14. Free relative clauses: a new teaching approach for Italian learners of Latin and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertollo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we would like to present a new teaching proposal for free relative clauses, with a comparative perspective. The proposal is addressed to Italian learners of Latin and German with an advanced knowledge of the morpho-syntax of the three languages and tries to combine the theories proposed within the Generative Grammar framework with the needs which emerge from school teaching experiences. In the path we will develop, the students will be led to get familiar with this construction, first in the native language and then in German and Latin. Students will be stimulated to analyze the syntactic constraints, which are different in the three languages, so as to develop a new grammatical awareness and be in a position to correctly handle complex syntactic structures such as free relative clauses. This will be helpful to adequately cope with this specific construction, but it will also improve the overall skills.

  15. Unforced Revision in Processing Relative Clause Association Ambiguity in Japanese: Evidence Against Revision as Last Resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Arai, Manabu; Hirose, Yuki

    2016-11-19

    The current study tackles a long standing question of whether comprehenders perform structural revision when it is not forced by grammar or not. Using an eye-tracking reading paradigm, we addressed this issue by making use of global structural ambiguity in Japanese. Our results show that comprehenders initially associate a relative clause with the first potential head noun and that they revise this analysis when the second noun is lexico-semantically possible as the relative clause head, but do not when it is impossible. The results are incompatible with the Revision as Last Resort hypothesis. Instead, they support the parsing with unforced revision that is immediately sensitive to lexical properties. We argue that our results cannot be accounted for by serial modular processing models but that they can be explained by ranked-parallel interactive processing models. Furthermore, we propose that head-finality is a key factor involved in the availability of unforced revision.

  16. Subject relative clauses are not universally easier to process: Evidence from Basque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavía, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-04-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal relative clauses. A self-paced reading task was used in Experiments 1 and 2, while ERPs were recorded in Experiment 3. We used relative clauses that were ambiguous between an object or subject-gap interpretation and disambiguated later in the sentence. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that SR took longer to read than OR in the critical disambiguating region. In addition, Experiment 3 showed that SR produced larger amplitudes than OR in the P600 window immediately after reading the critical disambiguating word. Our results suggest that SR are not universally easier to process. They cast doubts on universal hypotheses and suggest that processing complexity may depend on language-specific aspects of grammar.

  17. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, Aliana Lopes; Instituto de Biociência, Letras e Ciências Exatas; Abreu-Tardelli, Lília Santos; Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional ...

  18. A view on the development of Relative Clauses in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Undersøgelser har vist, at børn med sprogforstyrrelser har betydelige problemer med at tilegne sig objekt-relative sætninger i modsætnig til subjekt-relative (Schriefers, Friederici & Kuehn, 1995; Håkansson & Hansson, 1998; Friedmann & Novogrodsky, 2004, among others). I denne undresøglese studeres...... dansk børns forståelse og frembringelse af subjekt- og objekt-relative sætninger ved hjælp af to forsøgsparadigmer: a) en opgave, hvor billeder skal matces og b) en opgave, hvor frembringelse af en sætning udløses. Deltagerne var 161 normale, etsprogede dansktalende børn i alderen 5-13 år og 20...... dansktalende voksne. For begge grupper var objekt-relative sætninger vanskeligere at opfatte og frembringe end subjekt-relative. Undersøgelsen viste, at objekt-relative sætninger især er vanskelige at frembringe, selv om børn ret tidligt kan forstå dem. Voksne undgår også tit at bruge objekt-relative sætninger...

  19. Case Markers in Mongolian: A Means for Encoding Null Constituents in Noun Phrase and Relative Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseden Otgonsuren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the capacity of the case markers in the Mongolian language, as a relative element, to generate any finite noun phrase or relative clause based on their syntactic function or relationship. In Mongolian, there are two different approaches to generate noun phrases: parataxis and hypotaxis. According to my early observation, if the noun phrase generated through the parataxis, is the complement of the postpositional phrase, the head word of the relevant noun phrase can be truncated. In other words, since this head noun is governed by case marker in its null form to generate the postpositional phrase, the head noun can be encoded.  The second approach generates two different types of noun phrases in their structures: free structured and non-free structured noun phrases. Of them, the free structured noun phrase allows any syntactic transformations in their internal structure based on the senses of the case markers which denote a relation. That is to say, the null constituents in this type of noun phrases can be encoded to generate an extended alternative of the noun phrase and a relative clause.

  20. Animacy-Based Accessibility and Competition in Relative Clause Production in Hindi and Malayalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, C K; Srivastava, A K

    2016-08-01

    Two studies investigated interaction of animacy-based accessibility and competition processes with language specific constraints in shaping production preferences. Relative clause elicitation tasks (Gennari et al. in Cogn Psychol 65:141-176, 2012) were performed by two groups with 40 participants in each. Significantly more passives were produced with animate question/focus and assigned subject function to them in Malayalam, while the difference was insignificant in Hindi with animacy not equating with grammatical function assignment. Both languages produced active objects with OSV order significantly more with animate question/focus. This indicates animacy effect on word order. Animacy also influenced the expression of the agent phase in both languages as a tendency was found to omit the agent by-phase or to delay its appearance, when the two animate nouns entering into the structure are highly similar. The results point to language specific constraints in relative clause production and variability in the role of animacy-based retrieval order across languages.

  1. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  2. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  3. Cross-linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal…

  4. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  5. A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

  6. On L2 Grammar and Processing: The Case of Oblique Relative Clauses and the Null-Prep Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpinan-Hinarejos, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the acquisition of oblique relative clauses in L2 Spanish by English and Moroccan Arabic speakers in order to understand the role of previous linguistic knowledge and its interaction with Universal Grammar on the one hand, and the relationship between grammatical knowledge and its use in real-time, on the other hand.…

  7. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  8. Discourse accessibility constraints in childrenʼs processing of object relative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair eHaendler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Childrenʼs poor performance on object relative clauses has been explained in terms of intervention locality. This approach predicts that object relatives with a full DP head and an embedded pronominal subject are easier than object relatives in which both the head noun and the embedded subject are full DPs. This prediction is shared by other accounts formulated to explain processing mechanisms. We conducted a visual-world study designed to test the off-line comprehension and on-line processing of object relatives in German-speaking 5-year-olds. Children were tested on three types of object relatives, all having a full DP head noun and differing with respect to the type of nominal phrase that appeared in the embedded subject position: another full DP, a 1st- or a 3rd-person pronoun. Grammatical skills and memory capacity were also assessed in order to see whether and how they affect childrenʼs performance. Most accurately processed were object relatives with 1st-person pronoun, independently of childrenʼs language and memory skills. Performance on object relatives with two full DPs was overall more accurate than on object relatives with 3rd-person pronoun. In the former condition, children with stronger grammatical skills accurately processed the structure and their memory abilities determined how fast they were; in the latter condition, children only processed accurately the structure if they were strong both in their grammatical skills and in their memory capacity. The results are discussed in the light of accounts that predict different pronoun effects like the ones we find, which depend on the referential properties of the pronouns. We then discuss which role language and memory abilities might have in processing object relatives with various embedded nominal phrases.

  9. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.

  10. Four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of relative clauses: a permutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel; Yang, Wenchun; Chang, Franklin; Kidd, Evan

    2017-06-13

    We report on an eye-tracking study that investigated four-year-old Cantonese-speaking children's online processing of subject and object relative clauses (RCs). Children's eye-movements were recorded as they listened to RC structures identifying a unique referent (e.g. "Can you pick up the horse that pushed the pig?"). Two RC types, classifier (CL) and ge3 RCs, were tested in a between-participants design. The two RC types differ in their syntactic analyses and frequency of occurrence, providing an important point of comparison for theories of RC acquisition and processing. A permutation analysis showed that the two structures were processed differently: CL RCs showed a significant object-over-subject advantage, whereas ge3 RCs showed the opposite effect. This study shows that children can have different preferences even for two very similar RC structures within the same language, suggesting that syntactic processing preferences are shaped by the unique features of particular constructions both within and across different linguistic typologies.

  11. Animacy and competition in relative clause production: a cross-linguistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Silvia P; Mirković, Jelena; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2012-09-01

    This work investigates production preferences in different languages. Specifically, it examines how animacy, competition processes, and language-specific constraints shape speakers' choices of structure. English, Spanish and Serbian speakers were presented with depicted events in which either an animate or inanimate entity was acted upon by an agent. Questions about the affected participant in these events prompted the production of relative clauses identifying these entities (e.g., the bag the woman is punching). Results indicated that in English, animacy plays a strong role in determining the choice of passive structures. In contrast, it plays a less prominent role in Spanish and Serbian structure choices, where more active structures were produced to varying degrees. Critically, the semantic similarity between the agent and the patient of the event correlated with the omission of the agent in all languages, indicating that competition resulted in the agent's inhibition. Similarity also correlated with different functional choices in Spanish. The results suggest that similarity-based competition may influence various stages of production planning but its manifestations are constrained by language-specific grammatical options. Implications for models of sentence production and the relationship between production and comprehension are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  13. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  14. The comprehension of Italian relative clauses in poor readers and in children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Arosio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.

  15. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  16. Evaporation of grass under non-restricted soil moisture conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de H.A.R.; Stricker, J.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of various formulas for evapotranspiration of grass in non-restricted soil water conditions is considered. These are the expressions based on the Penman formula, i.e. "old" Penman, Penman-Monteith, Thom-Oliver and the version recommended more recently by the FAO. Moreover, the

  17. 22 CFR 145.48 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate. (b) All contracts... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract clauses. 145.48 Section 145.48 Foreign... Contract clauses. The recipient shall include, in addition to clauses to define a sound and...

  18. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later...

  19. Claus Madsen Retires

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, T.; Walsh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Claus Madsen began at ESO as a photographer in 1980 and recently retired as senior advisor on international relations. During his career he authored several books, the most notable being a history of ESO from the late 1980s to the 50th anniversary in 2012. A brief appreciation of his career is presented.

  20. Working Memory Effects on L1 and L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses by Korean L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the results of two self-paced reading experiments that investigated working memory capacity effects on the processing of globally ambiguous relative clauses by advanced Korean second language (L2) learners of English. Consistent with previous monolingual literature on the processing of temporary ambiguity, we found that…

  1. A Study of the Constraints Affecting Resumption in Turkish and Mandarin Chinese Relative Clauses, and the Transfer of These Constraints to English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitz, John

    2012-01-01

    Odlin (2003) observes that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the importance of L1 transfer in second-language acquisition (henceforth SLA). To test whether L1 transfer is a significant factor in SLA of English relative clauses (RCs), an English-language acceptability judgment task (AJT) with a four-point rating scale was…

  2. Are Subject Small Clauses Really Small Clauses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Miori

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ongoing debate over small clauses concerning the structure of the verb phrase in "I consider Bill smart." It is demonstrated that the subject constituent in question is not a small clause, but a Noun Phrase (NP), following Noun (N). It is shown that some peculiar phenomena under the small clause analysis are natural…

  3. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses: How Do Second Language Learners of Arabic Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algady, Dola

    2013-01-01

    The new developments in syntactic theory under Minimalism reconsiders the relation between the language faculty and general cognitive systems whereby language acquisition is accomplished by the interaction of Chomsky (2005)'s three factors: (F1) a minimally specified UG (Genetic endowment); (F2) Primary Linguistic Data (PLD), i.e., input; and (F3)…

  4. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses: How Do Second Language Learners of Arabic Do It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algady, Dola

    2013-01-01

    The new developments in syntactic theory under Minimalism reconsiders the relation between the language faculty and general cognitive systems whereby language acquisition is accomplished by the interaction of Chomsky (2005)'s three factors: (F1) a minimally specified UG (Genetic endowment); (F2) Primary Linguistic Data (PLD), i.e., input; and (F3)…

  5. The "Fame Effect" or How the syntactic choices of writers can be explained by their assumptions about their addressees' state of knowledge: the case of relevance-oriented, non-restrictive noun modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Loock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we would like to explore, within Vallduví’s (1992, 1993 information packaging theory, how writers’ assumptions about their addressees’ state of knowledge can account for the choice writers make between competing syntactic structures, which we call “allostructures”, to convey the same informational content. The assumed old/new informational status has then an influence on the grammatical choices made by the writers. In particular we investigate here, using the web as corpus, the constraints that govern writers’ choice between the following non-restrictive modifiers of nouns that aim at optimizing the relevance (as defined by Sperber & Wilson of the referents denoted by the nouns they modify: nominal appositives, appositive relative clauses, non-restrictive pre-modifiers.Cet article explore la façon dont les hypothèses de l’énonciateur sur les connaissances de son / ses destinataire(s peuvent avoir une influence sur ses choix entre des structures syntaxiques concurrentes (ou « allostructures » afin de véhiculer un contenu informationnel donné. Le statut informationnel ancien / nouveau supposé aura alors une influence sur les choix grammaticaux effectués par celui-ci. Dans le cadre de la théorie de l’information packaging telle que développée par Vallduví (1992, 1993 et à partir d’une étude de corpus qui utilise l’internet comme source principale, nous étudions en particulier les contraintes qui régissent le choix entre des modifieurs non restrictifs à visée de pertinence (au sens de Sperber et Wilson, à savoir les propositions subordonnées relatives appositives, les appositions nominales, et les prémodifieurs.

  6. English Grammar Education and Generative Grammar : How to Teach Complex-Sentence wh-Questions and Complex-Sentence Relative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    吉本, 靖; Yoshimoto, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Generative grammar is highly abstract,an d it is not designed with its application to language teaching in mind. It is no surprise,then,that generative grammatical analyses of English are mostly of no use in teaching English grammar to learners of English. Nevertheless,there are a few constructions that seem to be better taught using the analysis of generative grammar. This paper shows that complex-sentence wh-questions and complex-sentence relative clauses are such constructions. We will fir...

  7. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  8. PODI AND ODI IN CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION OF KEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals podi and odi in clause construction of Kemak. Specifically, this article is aimed at finding out in what construction  podi and odi appear. Moreover, this article is also aimed at finding out the function of podi and odi in the clause construction of Kemak. Before exploring podi and odi in clause construction, the first discussion will examine the morphology of the verb of Kemak to find out how the verbs are formed in Kemak as they have the main role to fill the predicate. The discussion continues to examine the clause with nonverbal (verbless and verbal predicate. Clause with nonvebral (verbless predicate will begin the discussion on clause construction in Kemak. Then, the discussion goes to clause with verbal predicate. The clause with verbal predicate includes intransitive and transtive. The disscussion of transitive clause covers monotransitive and  ditransitive clause. The  study on transitive clause is related to the presence of podi and odi in the construction.The result shows that all verbs are basic verbs. Verbs in Kemak are morphologically unmarked (no affixes and there is no agreement between the verb and its arguments. The clause with nonverbal predicate in Kemak is filled by  noun, adjective, numeral, and prepositional phrase. Clause with nonverbal predicate requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. As cluase with nonverbal predicate, intransitive clause in Kemak also requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. Meanwhile, monotransitive clause requires two arguments, preverbal and postverbal argument. Ditranstive clause requires three arguments, one preverbal and two postverbal argument. Moreover, it was found that  podi appears in ditransitive clause (applicative/benefactive construction. Podi has the function to increase the verb valence from monotransitive into ditransitive. Meanwhile, odi appears in monotransitive clause  The presence of odi in monotrasitive is as the

  9. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes.

  10. The adjectival subordinate clause in the production of meaning in the text: the prospect of Portuguese textbooks in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliana Lopes Câmara

    2016-12-01

    reflection of the linguistic resource from authentic texts to understand how the effects of sense are produced. On the other hand, these materials have a different view of traditional teaching, because some of them consider pragmatic aspects in the non-restrictive relative clause concept.

  11. 主、宾语关系从句加工难度比较综述%A Review of Comparing the Processing Difficulty between Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邴文铎; 王慧莉

    2013-01-01

      关系从句加工是心理语言学研究的重要课题,主、宾语关系从句的加工难度差异在印欧语言中得到较一致的结论,为主语关系从句的加工优势。但在汉语中,一些研究者得出与之相反的汉语宾语关系从句的加工优势。因此,要想更合理地解释汉语等语言的差异结论,则需要更多手段、更全面的研究论证。%The study of relative clause processing is a significant topic in Psycholinguistics. Universal agreement has been reached about the processing difficulty of subject and object relative in many Indo-European languages, which is subject relative clause preference. However, in languages like Chinese, some researchers have found an opposite conclusion of object relative clause preference. To provide better account for the processing difficulty of subject and object relative clauses in languages like Chinese, more research methods and more comprehensive studies are necessary.

  12. PENALTY CLAUSES WITHIN DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Vitkus

    2013-06-01

    that a liquidated damages clause is used to estimate damages in case of breach, provided that there has been an actual harm to the plaintiff, whereas a penalty clauses is used to establish a penalty to be paid in case of breach with the intent to encourage performance. The latter also does not require proof of any real damage. Practical implications: the article initiates a discussion on the importance of ensuring the legal certainty in contractual relations, particularly in the field of enforceability of penalty clauses, not only on the national but also on the international level. Originality/Value: in the law of contracts the clash of common law and civil law in respect of the treatment of penalty clauses has drawn a lot of attention of scientists and researchers; however, the question of this article, i.e. how to eliminate the clash between two different legal systems and to achieve binding uniform regulation that would control the enforceability of penalty clauses, remains of high importance. Keywords: common law system, civil law system, penalty clause, liquidated damages. Research type: general review.

  13. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and terminatio...

  14. Claus Achton Friis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og...

  15. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limiting its scope or language in any way, a nondiscrimination clause shall contain, where determined to be... acquisition, of real property or an interest in real property to the extent that rights to space on, over, or... care, detention or correctional, or any other institution or facility, insofar as the assurances relate...

  16. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  17. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  18. Claus Dieter Classen, Religionsrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Thielmann, Jörn

    2007-01-01

    Claus Dieter Classen, professor for Public Law, European and International Law at the University of Greifswald (Germany), has written a comprehensive textbook on the relationship of the State and its legal system with religions and religious corporations by public law and religious associations in Germany, intended not only for jurists, but also for theologians and scholars of Religious Studies. The book is clearly structured and well written. It is divided in four main parts. Part One outlin...

  19. Resumptive pronouns in wh-interrogatives and object relative clauses in L2 English: UG access or transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Simoiu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether resumptive pronouns are attested in the English L2 of Romanian learners and whether their presence can be accounted for in terms of direct access to UG or in terms if transfer hypotheses. The results are also analysed in relation to the Interpretability Hypothesis (Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou 2007. Overall, the data provide evidence for transfer of resumptive pronoun use from L1 Romanian to L2 English in the case of object wh-interrogatives and relatives. Resumptives are accepted in the L2 in [d-linked] contexts that mirror the Romanian structures. However, resumptives are also accepted in [non-d-linked] contexts as well, in accordance with the target language. One possible account may be that there is an available position associated with resumptives in the verbal field which can be filled by resumptive material and this position remains available in the L2 as well. Learners have access to L1 and L2 parametric options at the same time, so they accept and produce both L1 and L2 structures. The Romanian data provide support in favour of the Interpretability Hypothesis i.e. there are animacy effects in the Romanian data. The subjects accepted more [-animate] than [+animate] resumptives.

  20. The Acquisition of English Relative Clause by Uyghur College Students%维吾尔族大学生英语限定性关系从句习得研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚丽; 彭金定

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the transfer in the acquisition of relative clause in a second (L2) and third language (L3), focusing specially on the acquisition of English relative clause by native speakers of Uyghur who are L2 learners of Chinese. The results confirmed that the strongest effect comes from L2 Chinese, both positive and negative, and L2 Chinese seems to inhibit L3 English learning in cases when English and Chinese relative clause differ in branching directions and word order. L1 Uyghur was also positively and negatively transferred into L2 Chinese as the word order of the relative clause in the two languages differ. This conclusion may facilitate the English teaching of those Uyghur college students.%文章选取新疆医科大学非英语专业80名维吾尔族民考民大学生,从语言类型学的角度,对其在英语关系从句学习过程中是否能正确地设定中心语位置和关系从句语序以及语言迁移问题进行了考察。结果表明:维吾尔族学生在习得英语关系从句中心语前置参数方面会受到来自母语和二语的负迁移,从而较难习得。与此相比较,维吾尔族学生在习得汉语中心语置后的参数方面会受到来自母语的正迁移从而容易习得。学习者英语语言水平也是影响其关系小句习得的重要因素,高水平英语学习者可以克服语言负迁移进而重设中心语参数。

  1. Modified Claus process probabilistic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Laguna (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    A model is proposed for the simulation of an industrial Claus unit with a straight-through configuration and two catalytic reactors. Process plant design evaluations based on deterministic calculations does not take into account the uncertainties that are associated with the different input variables. A probabilistic simulation method was applied in the Claus model to obtain an impression of how some of these inaccuracies influences plant performance. (orig.)

  2. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    then proceeds by applying the linearisation transformation and solver for linear Horn clauses to a sequence of sets of clauses with successively increasing dimension bound. The approach is then further developed by using a solution of clauses of lower dimension to (partially) linearise clauses of higher......In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...

  3. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  4. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  5. 48 CFR 246.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 246.710 Contract clauses. (1) Use a... Construction (Germany), instead of the clause at FAR 52.246-21, Warranty of Construction, in solicitations and... Germany....

  6. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  7. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...

  8. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.237-70 entitled “Collective bargaining agreements—protective...

  9. 48 CFR 302.201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 302.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions Clause 302.201 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in FAR 52.202-1, Definitions, in solicitations and contracts, except as cited below. This is...

  10. 48 CFR 1842.271 - NASA clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clause. 1842.271 Section 1842.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... NASA clause. Insert the clause at 1852.242-70, Technical Direction, when paragraph 3(m) of the NASA...

  11. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum Requirements, in solicitations and contracts that include FAR clause 52.219-9, Small Business...

  12. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  13. 谈英语关系分句的翻译技巧%Discussion on the translation skills of English relative clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓天英

    2009-01-01

    英语关系分句(定语从句attributive clause)在英语语篇中无处不在,其翻译既是重点又是难点.不论是分译法,还是合译法,不论是前置法,还是后置法都应抓住关系分句深层结构上的问题,弄清楚某个具体关系分句在某个具体上下文中的确切含义、传达的信息、具有的功能、所起的作用.真正体现从语义到文体,在译语中能用最切近而又最自然的对等语来再现原文的信息,进而达到译文的最佳效果.

  14. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence...

  15. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  16. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  17. 汉语关系从句的二语习得实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Second Language Acquisition of Restrictive Relative Clauses in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志刚

    2012-01-01

    母语为英语、俄语和韩语的三组学习者对汉语关系从句三项参数的习得状况表明,母语类型学特征影响二语习得过程的观点仅仅适用于标句词参数的习得结果,而本研究中的二语学习者对中心语方向参数的习得状况并不符合基于类型学视角的预测,汉语关系从句中接应代词方面的习得状况表明母语类型学特征和自然语言共享的句法挽救手段共同影响着二语语法的构建。文章认为,学习者对目标语所持的心理距离也在一定程度上影响着相关二语句法结构的习得。%The acquisitional outcome of the relevant 3 parameters in Chinese relative clauses reveals:the view that typological characteristics of learners' native languages may exert profound influence upon second language rameter of Complementizers,but this view acquisition applies only in the case of the pa- does not predict the aequisitional outcome in thecase of the second ond language proposes that language acquisition of Head Direction Parameter. In terms of the sec- acquisition of Resumptive Pronouns in Chinese relative clauses,this article typological characteristics and the syntactic device (last resort) shared by allnatural languages are both involved in the contruction of L2 grammars. This article holds that the psychological distance leamers feel towards the target language also influences,to a great extent,the course and outcome of their acquisition of the target language.

  18. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  19. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  20. The Thematic Structure of Chinese Clause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓斐

    2013-01-01

    At the beginning of this essay, let me explore what is clause. Clause is elements that has no verb structure, but it con⁃tains the subject-predicate relationship. Clause is the supreme unit in grammar, and it is the starting point of systems such as tran⁃sitivity, mood and theme. It reflects the experiential meaning, interpersonal meaning and textual meaning. For example, in the sen⁃tence "In the summer vacation, I'll go to see my grandparents." is a clause.

  1. Functional Equivalence:Translation Skills of Reduced Relative Clauses in English for Science and Technology%功能对等:科技英语压缩关系从句的翻译技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军

    2012-01-01

    Nominal phrases and their modifications in English for Science and Technology (EST) constitute a unique grammar branch. Statistically, reduced relative clauses (RRCs) take up a high rate of occurrence in terms of frequency and complexity. This paper first introduces the stylistic features of EST, in terms of vocabulary, grammar and discourse, followed by an example - based analysis and illustration of comprehension and translation skills of RRCs under the guidance of Functional Equivalence.%科技英语名词性短语及其修饰成分构成了一个独特的语法分支,统计显示其中的压缩从句的使用频率和复杂度非常高。本文首先介绍了科技英语的文体特点,包括词汇特点、句法特点和篇章衔接特点,然后配以大量的例句,从功能等值理论的视角探讨科技英语中压缩从句的理解和翻译。

  2. Santa Claus ’Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  3. 48 CFR 213.302-5 - Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at 225.1101(2); or (ii) 252.225-7036, Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance of Payments... bilateral purchase orders. (d) When using the clause at FAR 52.213-4, delete the reference to the clause at...

  4. 48 CFR 1316.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reimbursement contracts. (b) Insert a clause similar to 1352.216-71, Level of Effort (Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee, Term Contract), in Cost-Plus-Fixed-Fee, Level of Effort contracts. ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1316.307 Contract clauses. (a) Insert a...

  5. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer must add a statement following the Time of Delivery clause in FAR 52.211-8 that the delivery date...

  6. 48 CFR 3017.9000 - Clauses (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... officer may, in whole or in part (such as after incidents), increase the dollar amounts in the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.217-95(b)(6) and (c)(1) consistent with contract size, inflation, and other... dollar amounts in the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.217-95(b)(6) and (c)(1) consistent with contract...

  7. 48 CFR 2446.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, whenever it is in the Government's interest. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2446.710... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 2446.710 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The contracting...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7503 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Balance of Payments Program 225.7503 Contract clauses. Unless the entire acquisition is exempt from the Balance of Payments Program— (a) Use the clause at 252.225-7044, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material, in solicitations and...

  9. 48 CFR 1424.104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1424.104 Section 1424.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 1424.104 Contract clauses...

  10. 48 CFR 1624.104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1624.104... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 1624.104 Contract clause. Records retained by FEHBP carriers on...

  11. 48 CFR 2124.104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 2124.104 Contract clauses. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clauses. 2124.104 Section 2124.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES...

  12. 48 CFR 24.104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 24.104 Contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 24.104... accomplish an agency function, the contracting officer shall insert the following clauses in solicitations...

  13. On degree phrases and result clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoek, Paulien Dea

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts, one on degree phrases and one on result clauses. Sentence (1) below exemplifies a result clause construction: (1) Zij had zo mooi gezongen dat het publiek er stil van was she has so beautifully sang that the audience there silent of was ‘She had sung so beaut

  14. Sulphur condensation influence in Claus catalyst performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, R L

    2000-12-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H(2)S from acid gas streams and this is widely practised in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulphur recovery from the Claus unit in order to minimise sulphur-containing effluent. The most widely used Claus catalyst in sulphur recovery units is non-promoted spherical activated alumina. Properties associated with optimum non-promoted Claus catalyst performance include high surface area, appropriate pore size distribution and enhanced physical properties. The objective of this paper is to outline a procedure in order to estimate Claus catalyst effectiveness after pore plugging due to sulphur condensation. Catalyst deactivation due to pore plugging by sulphur is modelled employing a Bethe lattice and its corresponding performance is described by means of a modified effectiveness factor. Model results show an improvement in the modified effectiveness factor due to modifications in catalyst porous structure.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of non-restrictive external stent for prevention of vein graft restenosis in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-dong; ZHOU Nai-kang; LI Bo-jun; XIAO Cang-song; LIU Xi; LIANG Chao-yang; ZHANG Tao; GAO Chang-qing

    2010-01-01

    Background Among various treatments preventing vein graft restenosis, external stent is receiving more and more attention. This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-restrictive external stent on the prevention of vein graft restenosis and the potential mechanisms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in the process of restenosis.Methods Thirty-six "New Zealand white rabbits" were randomly divided into two groups, stented group (group S) and control group (non-stented group, group NS). Each rabbit underwent a reversed autologous external jugular vein into common carotid artery bypass grafting. In group S, the vein grafts were surrounded by a non restrictive stent which was 6 mm in diameter (a kind of Dacron vascular prosthesis); and in group NS, there was no stent to support the vein grafts.The grafts were harvested at the first week (1W), second week (2W) and fourth week (4W) after surgery respectively. The dimensions (including the thickness and area of the intima and media, luminal area) were measured by computer-aided image analysis system, and the intimal hyperplasia ratio was defined as the percentage of the area enclosed by the internal elastic lamina occupied by the intima.Results At 1W, the difference of the thickness and area of the intima between groups S and NS was not significant (P >0.05); at 2W and 4W, the thickness and area of the intima and the intimal hyperplasia ratio in group S were less significant than those in group NS (P <0.05); from 1W to 4W, the thickness and area of the media in group S were smaller than those in group NS (P<0.05). Immunocytochemistry staining of PDGF-B showed that the percentage of positive cells of intima in both two groups was peaked at 2W, and a significantly smaller percentage was detected in group S compared with that in group NS at 2W and 4W (P <0.05); the percentage of PDGF-B positive cells of media in both two groups was also peaked at 2W, and that in group S was smaller than that in group NS

  16. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks....

  17. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... Accounting Standards. (b) The following DEAR clauses are standard financial management clauses. The... systems: (1) 970.5232-7, Financial management system. (2) 970.5232-8, Integrated accounting. (c) Any...

  18. Functionalist analysis of the positioning of temporal clauses in reports of Revista Seleções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio André de Souza CAVALCANTE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to analyze, subsidized by the vision functionalist, the motivations discursive in employment of temporal clauses. The investigation if justifies by the need of giving a contribution a description of Portuguese based in functionalist studies. The research is of qualitative nature and quantitative, because it uses techniques of interpretation for the description of the data presented and, beyond the more, considers the number of occurrences as a factor important for the analysis of results. Regarding the corpus, were selected editions published during four years of Revista Seleções, which were: 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009. With the results obtained, it was noted that there was a preference for using clauses developed and also a predilection by anteposition of the temporal clauses in relation to its core or main clause, latter being observed fact in more than half of the occurrences analyzed.

  19. Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia exhibit restricted patterns of impairment of functional morphemes, however, syntactic characterization of the impairment is controversial. Previous studies have focused on functional morphology in clauses only. This study extends the empirical domain by testing functional morphemes in English nominal phrases in aphasia and comparing patients' impairment to their impairment of functional morphemes in English clauses. In the linguistics literature, it is assumed that clauses and nominal phrases are structurally parallel but exhibit inflectional differences. The results of the present study indicated that aphasic speakers evinced similar impairment patterns in clauses and nominal phrases. These findings are consistent with the Distributed Morphology Hypothesis (DMH), suggesting that the source of functional morphology deficits among agrammatics relates to difficulty implementing rules that convert inflectional features into morphemes. Our findings, however, are inconsistent with the Tree Pruning Hypothesis (TPH), which suggests that patients have difficulty building complex hierarchical structures.

  20. 48 CFR 2439.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 2452.239-71, Information Technology Virus Security, in solicitations and contracts under which the contractor will provide information technology hardware, software or data products....

  1. Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin

    We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.

  2. 48 CFR 416.670 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 416.670 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall limit the Government's obligation under a time-and-materials...

  3. A Corpus Analysis of "Would"-Clauses Without Adjacent "If"-Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of a corpus analysis of a grammatical structure taught in intermediate- or advanced-level English-as-a-Second-/Foreign-Language texts: clauses that contain the modal "would" to signify hypothetical and counterfactual meaning. Categorizes the conditional and hypothetical uses of would-clauses in spoken and written corpora…

  4. Expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by causal hypotactic clauses in Brazilian Portuguese=Expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais no português brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by means of causal hypotactic clauses in formal oral discourse (university lectures and interviews with academic researchers in Brazilian Portuguese. The investigation is based on Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST, a theory of text organization which describes the implicit relations that arise from the combination of parts of texts. The identification of these relations was based on a parameter from Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG: layers of representational and interpersonal levels. From interpersonal level, layers move and discourse act were used. From representational level, layers propositional content and states of affairs were employed. Non-volitional cause relations are established by clauses conveying states of affairs, volitional cause relation is established by clauses conveying propositional contents. Justify relation and evidence relation are established by clauses conveying discourse acts (in evidence relation an instance of what was stated in the nucleus portion is provided in the satellite portion. Finally, motivation relation is established by clauses conveying a motivation subsidiary discourse act.O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais em elocuções formais (aulas e entrevistas no português brasileiro. A investigação se baseia na Teoria da Estrutura Retórica do Texto (RST, uma teoria da organização textual que descreve as relações implícitas que surgem da combinação de partes do texto. A identificação dessas relações se baseou em parâmetros da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF: camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal. Do nível interpessoal, utilizaram-se as camadas movimento e ato discursivo. Do nível representacional utilizaram-se as camadas

  5. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  6. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  7. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Germany, use the clause with its Alternate I. (b) Use the clause at 252.229-7002, Customs Exemptions (Germany), in solicitations and contracts requiring the import of U.S. manufactured products into...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  9. 48 CFR 52.241 - Utility Services Provisions and Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility Services Provisions and Clauses. 52.241 Section 52.241 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.241 Utility Services Provisions and Clauses....

  10. 48 CFR 925.901 - Omission of the audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omission of the audit clause. 925.901 Section 925.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Clauses 925.901 Omission of the audit clause...

  11. 78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service. There will be several stations at the... Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will be another...

  12. Cryptographic protocol verification using tractable classes of horn clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidl, Helmut; Neeraj Verma, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    We consider secrecy problems for cryptographic protocols modeled using Horn clauses and present general classes of Horn clauses which can be efficiently decided. Besides simplifying the methods for the class of flat and onevariable clauses introduced for modeling of protocols with single blind...

  13. 48 CFR 1615.470-1 - Investment income clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income clause. 1615.470-1 Section 1615.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470-1 Investment income clause. The clause set forth in...

  14. 48 CFR 2124.104-70 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 2124.104-70 Contract clause. The clause at 2152.224-70 shall be inserted in all FEGLI Program contracts. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 2124.104...

  15. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  16. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources for enforcing the radiation protection standards. This is to assure reasonable consistency in the... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7003 Contract clauses. (a) A... Execution, nor 952.223-72, Radiation Protection and Nuclear Criticality, is to be incorporated in the...

  17. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the clause at 52.216-8, Fixed Fee, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-fixed-fee contract... at 52.216-9, Fixed-Fee—Construction, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-fixed-fee..., Incentive Fee, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is contemplated. (e)(1...

  18. Retrenchment Clauses in Faculty Union Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examination of retrenchment clauses in the faculty union contracts at 42 colleges and universities focused on implications for tenure rights and the roles prescribed for faculty and administrators. Concepts of financial exigency and shared governance are highlighted. Contracts were found to provide faculty with a limited and reactive role during…

  19. 48 CFR 1842.7202 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1842.7202 Section 1842.7202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES NASA Contractor Financial Management...

  20. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Equipment under Performance Specifications or Design Criteria, in solicitations and contracts when performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and... clause at 52.246-19, Warranty of Systems and Equipment under Performance Specifications or...

  1. 48 CFR 13.302-5 - Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirement unless the existing requirement is deleted. Also, do not delete a paragraph without providing for... cannot be set aside for small business concerns and trade agreements apply (see Subpart 25.4), substitute the clause at FAR 52.225-3, Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act, used...

  2. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  3. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  4. Infinitival before and after-clauses in European Portuguese: temporal and aspectual properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Silvano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to discuss temporal and aspectual features of sentences with clauses introduced by the connectives antes de + Infinitivo (‘before’ + Infinitive and depois de + Infinitivo (‘after’ + Infinitive combined with situations in the Pretérito Perfeito in European Portuguese. Our discussion is based on the widespread view that these clauses are locating adverbials (cf. Kamp and Reyle (1993 with temporal information of anteriority, in the case of antes de, and posteriority, in the case of depois de. However, this analysis is not as straightforward as one would expect, because, while before-clauses consistently render the same temporal relation (of anteriority, after-clauses may convey a temporal relation of inclusion, in addition to the standard posteriority relation. We put forward the hypothesis that aspectual characteristics play an important role in these differences, insofar as allowing a temporal reading that at first sight is not predicted from the semantic nature of the connective. In order to maintain a uniform treatment of before and after-clauses with respect to their temporal features, accounting simultaneously for the differences that emerge in their linguistic behaviour, we claim, along with Beaver & Condoravdi (2003 and Condoravdi (2010, that the locating time interval provided by these clauses is bounded to the left, but not to the right, that is, what is focused is the initial frontier of the situation that provides the time interval, leaving the final one undetermined. Furthermore, we show that, although the temporal mechanisms are parallel, the interference of aspectual properties leads to interesting differences in the final interpretation of before and after-sentences.

  5. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause

  6. 48 CFR 970.2703-1 - Purposes of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conducting privately funded technology transfer activities, involving the use of private funds to conduct licensing and marketing activities related to inventions made under the contract in accordance with the Bayh....5227-3. That clause also governs such activities as the distribution of royalties earned...

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK DİLİ SIFAT-FİİLLİ YAPI TİPOLOJİSİNİN JAPON, KORE VE MACAR TİPOLOJİLERİ İLE KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çalışmada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan sıfat-fiilli yapıların tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amacımız, Türk Dili Tipi Sıfat-fiilli Yapı tipolojinsin dünya dilleri arasındaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile karşılaştırmaktır. Türk dili ile akraba olduğu varsayılan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, sıfat-fiil tipolojileri açısında analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Sıfat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönüşümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Bağlama Kuramı’ndan faydalandık. Dilin yapısal olarak incelenmesi gerektiğini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yapı ve yüzey yapı kavramları ile taşınım ve dönüşümün bütün diller için kaçınılmaz bir gerçeklik olduğunu gösterdi. Biz de bu çalışmada ad öbeği taşınımı ve boşluk kuramı ışığında, sıfat-fiilli yapı tipolojilerini kar

  8. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  9. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation...

  10. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation...

  11. What undertakings are protected under Umbrella Clauses of BITs.

    OpenAIRE

    Khasanov, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is discusses what is the scope of Umbrella Clauses. State undertakings must satisfy the condition of being investment. That is the first requirement of applicability of investment regime to state undertakings. Despite state undertakings was seen as wide concept (by some tribunals) the language of the clause and prevailing view support undertakings must be limited to contractual undertakings (in practice some viewed that Umbrella Clause can be extended to municipal law obligations) ...

  12. 75 FR 1788 - General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause AGENCY... approved information collection requirement regarding the packing list clause. A request for public..., Packing List Clause, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael O....

  13. 77 FR 66466 - General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause AGENCY... packing list clause. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information..., Packing List Clause, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  14. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...

  15. Enhancing Extraction of Drug-Drug Interaction from Literature Using Neutral Candidates, Negation, and Clause Dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Diaz, Alberto; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Motivation Supervised biomedical relation extraction plays an important role in biomedical natural language processing, endeavoring to obtain the relations between biomedical entities. Drug-drug interactions, which are investigated in the present paper, are notably among the critical biomedical relations. Thus far many methods have been developed with the aim of extracting DDI relations. However, unfortunately there has been a scarcity of comprehensive studies on the effects of negation, complex sentences, clause dependency, and neutral candidates in the course of DDI extraction from biomedical articles. Results Our study proposes clause dependency features and a number of features for identifying neutral candidates as well as negation cues and scopes. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that the proposed features significantly improve the performance of the relation extraction task combined with other kernel methods. We characterize the contribution of each category of features and finally conclude that neutral candidate features have the most prominent role among all of the three categories. PMID:27695078

  16. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  17. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Copyrights 3427.472 Advertising of awards clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-72, Advertising of Awards, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 970.5222-1, Collective Bargaining Agreements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3...

  19. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technical data to the Government. Do not use the clause when the only deliverable items are computer software or computer software documentation (see 227.72), commercial items (see 227.7102-3), existing works...-engineer and construction contracts. (b)(1) Use the clause at 252.227-7013 with its Alternate I in research...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7007-3 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 225.7007-3 Section 225.7007-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... granted, use the clause at 252.225-7019, Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain,...

  1. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  2. 32 CFR 643.55 - Mandatory revocation clause in lease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory revocation clause in lease. 643.55... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.55 Mandatory revocation clause in lease. Each lease will contain a provision permitting the SA to revoke the lease at any time, unless it is determined that the omission...

  3. 48 CFR 3427.471 - Paperwork Reduction Act clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paperwork Reduction Act... Copyrights 3427.471 Paperwork Reduction Act clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-71, Paperwork Reduction Act, in all solicitations and contracts....

  4. 48 CFR 811.104-71 - Purchase description clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase description... Documents 811.104-71 Purchase description clauses. (a) When a solicitation uses “brand name or equal” purchase descriptions, the contracting officer must include in the solicitation the clause at...

  5. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  6. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  7. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  8. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  9. Linguistic change: the grammatical environment of participial non-finite clauses in Old English and in present-day English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper reports on the final results 1 of the author's study of the use of participial nonfinite clauses and dependent clauses in Old English (OE and in present-day English (PE, in relation to the nature of their respective grammatical environment. It ensues from the research into the early stages of syntactic change, which started as team work at the universities of Ljubljana and Maribor in 1986, under the guidance and coordination of Janez Orešnik.

  10. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  11. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  12. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    , effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves...... corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive change...... in suppliers’ social and environmental performance. Based on the analysis of SCCs’ features and the underlying regulatory framework, the author concludes that while SCCs would not be enforceable by courts in most cases, they can still be successful in regulating global sustainability. Their positive effects...

  13. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.

  14. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  15. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  18. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  19. 48 CFR 339.7103 - Solicitation and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause. 339.7103 Section 339.7103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-72, Security Requirements for Federal Information Technology Resources, in solicitations and contracts that involve contractor access to Federal information or Federal information systems....

  20. Compulsory Arbitration Clauses in Domestic and International Consumer Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D A

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the UK Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations (UTCCR)'s prohibition on clauses in consumer contracts that mandate dispute settlement in an arbitration tribunal as potentially unfair and oppressive as against consumers because it denies their right to civil adjudication. The understanding of UTCCR's unfairness as developed by the UK House of Lords is not necessarily applicable to arbitration clauses because of the lower cost of such proceedings and the availability ...

  1. [Euthanasia and the abuse of conscience clause concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossignol, D

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the Belgian legal framework authorizes the practice of euthanasia, under cer tain clear conditions. All cases have to be reported to the Assessment and Control Commission (ACC). To date, more than 10.000 cases have been reported since 2002. The concept of individual conscience clause is of concern and its use in an institutional dimension is analysed. The role of moral integrity and conscience clause in health care should be downplayed in the field of medicine's core values.

  2. FOSTERING STUDENTS’ CLAUSE AWARENESS ON READING: The Exploration on Transitivity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchamad Adam Basori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to help students easily read English texts by observing content of the texts, which are construed in students’ world experience into limited set of processes type: material, mental, relational, behavioural, verbal and existential has confirmed the necessity of combating misunderstanding clause meanings (process, participant, circumstance. The notion of reading a text is manifested in the processes from a step-by-step lexico-grammatical analysis to contextual description, which are realised as a configuration of transitivity functions which represent the process, the participant situation, the attributes assigned to participant, and the circumstances associated with the process. These are typical patterns of lexico-grammatical realization. This study will examine the transitivity analysis, which provides the recognition of clause awareness on reading English texts. The implication of clause awareness on reading English texts based on the processes is to describe certain feeling, thought, and perception (perceiving through five senses and creating an ordered technical vocabulary and way of classifying the world.

  3. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness. Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  4. Purposeful use of a non-restrictive, asynchronous public Web-based forum for facilitating reflective discourse with preservice science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec Michael

    The purpose of this research has been to investigate the purposeful use of asynchronous telecommunications in a science education methods/curriculum course involving the use of a non-restrictive, public Web based forum for facilitating reflective discourse with preservice science teachers. Thirty-two preservice secondary school science teachers participated in a public science teaching forum on the World Wide Web during their student teaching internship. The forum was designed with NetForum software to be a place where science teachers share ideas, reflections and conversations on teaching and implementation of technology in the classroom and other instructional pedagogy, while also providing support for each other as members of an electronic professional community. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to explore interaction patterns that facilitated collaborative preservice teacher reflective discourse on the forum and participants' attitudes towards using asynchronous telecommunications during their student teaching internship. Data from forum discourse analysis, interviews, and survey instruments illustrate that the use of this asynchronous Web-based forum provided the participants the opportunity to discuss and examine science concepts and reflect on classroom issues that were directly relevant to their student teaching experiences. The findings revealed that most participants had positive attitudes with respect to interacting with the Web-based forum. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in attitude between participants who had access to a networked computer and those who did not have access. An analysis of the forum postings showed that saturation in the discourse can occur with large groups participating in online asynchronous conversations.

  5. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  6. The exceptional clauses in the contractual activity on the public administration: freedom of choice or legislative imposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor David Osorio Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracting activity of public administration in Colombia has generally allowed, by order of constitutional and legislative norms, the application of the principle of autonomy, so that those subjects within a public legal transaction can build and establish the conditions governing their contract. The scope of the principle of autonomy must be analyzed and subjected to reflection, especially considering the institution of exception clauses in common law used by State agencies and their legal relationship with contractors. The existence of exception clauses has been justified by the interests of the State (and in particular the public interest without strictly analyzing the essence of the figure. The application of this institution in contractual relations of the State has advanced greatly, but it is still uncertain if the true nature of the figure is caused by the autonomy of the parties in order to celebrate the contract, or if it comes as privileges conferred and imposed by the legislator as a way to concise the principle of legality. This paper concludes that exception clauses in common law, clearly applied in contractual activity within public administration, consist of special privileges imposed by the legislator to State entities, and are therefore opposed to the essence of the clause and the principle of autonomy.

  7. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  8. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  9. Influence of sulfur physical properties in Claus unit operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H{sub 2}S from acid gas streams and it has been widely practiced in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulfur recovery and high stream factor from the Claus units in order to minimize sulfur-containing effluents. As has been widely reported Claus unit's damages mainly occur during start up and shutdown. These operations involve scheduled warm-up and cool-down of the unit, usually burning refinery fuel-gas, which if not properly made can produce severe pipe and equipment plugging as well as catalyst deactivation. Sulfur products remaining in the unit during a shutdown period can produce dramatic unit corrosion episodes diminishing sulfur recovery unit stream factor. In the present paper some guidelines are given based on sulfur physical properties singularities which help to improve start-up/shut-down procedures. (orig.)

  10. 78 FR 11188 - General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION General Services Administration Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Packing List Clause AGENCY... packing list clause. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 66466, on November 5, 2012...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0246, Packing List Clause, by any of...

  11. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  12. 48 CFR 1823.271 - NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause. 1823.271 Section 1823.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Renewable Energy 1823.271 NASA Solicitation provision and contract clause. Insert the clause at 1852.223-76...

  13. 48 CFR 1836.570 - NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. 1836.570 Section 1836.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 1836.570 NASA solicitation provisions and contract clause. (a) The contracting...

  14. 48 CFR 1649.101-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP termination for convenience clause. 1649.101-71 Section 1649.101-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-71 FEHBP termination for convenience clause. The clause set forth...

  15. Cyclic transfer in the derivation of Complete Parenthetical Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cerrudo Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to show that some parentheticals are indeed syntactic orphans (cf. Haegeman 1988 and that this intuition can be formalized using tools independently motivated in linguistic theory. We concentrate on new data regarding clitic realization in what are commonly called Reduced Parenthetical Clauses (RPCs. We show that these constructions with clitic differ of their reduced counterpart in many aspects; crucially, they behave as root domains. Thus, we argue that they are derived independently from the host clause (in a parallel workspace and their linear interpolation occurs during the Spell-Out process, assuming a dynamic version of cyclic Transfer (cf. Chomsky 2001, Uriagereka 1999.

  16. Relative Clauses and Register Expansion in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explores aspects of linguistic variation and change in written Tok Pisin, an English-based pidgin/creole that is spoken in Papua New Guinea as a second language by over 1,5000,000 people and as a first language by over 20,000 people.(Author/VWL)

  17. 48 CFR 3437.270 - Consulting services reporting clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consulting services reporting clause. 3437.270 Section 3437.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Consulting Services...

  18. 48 CFR 3437.271 - Services of consultants clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services of consultants clause. 3437.271 Section 3437.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Consulting Services...

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  20. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  1. 48 CFR 22.1006 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the incumbent contractor's collective bargaining agreement in effect during this contract's... determinations and contracts subject to contractor collective bargaining agreements (see 22.1002-2 and 22.1002-3... and contract clauses. 22.1006 Section 22.1006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

  2. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Estimated Cost and Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. (c) The contracting officer may insert the clause at 1852.216-75, Payment of Fixed Fee, in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts. Modifications to the... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70...

  3. U.S. Foreign Medical Students: After the "Guadalajara Clause"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The controversial issues surrounding the "Guadalajara Clause" of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 are detailed. At issue is whether Americans studying in foreign medical schools should be admitted to third and fourth year classes if they can pass part one of the National board examinations. (BT)

  4. 37 CFR 401.5 - Modification and tailoring of clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER... business firm or nonprofit organization that it would be in the national interest to acquire the right to... may delete paragraph (g)(2) of the clause and delete the words “to be performed by a small...

  5. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  6. 48 CFR 22.810 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... insert the provision at 52.222-25, Affirmative Action Compliance, in solicitations, other than those for... clause at 52.222-27, Affirmative Action Compliance Requirements for Construction, in solicitations and... provision at 52.222-22, Previous Contracts and Compliance Reports, in the solicitation. (b) The...

  7. 48 CFR 511.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or (ii) Federal Supply Schedules for... contracting officer shall include the clause 552.211-92, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using Passive... Consolidated Products and Services Schedule containing information technology Special Item Numbers; or (2...

  8. 48 CFR 2011.104-70 - NRC Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Firm fixed price; or (2) Indefinite-delivery contracts to be awarded on a time-and-materials or labor-hour basis, or that provide for issuing delivery orders for specific products/services (line items). (c... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules-Contract Clauses 2011.104-70...

  9. 48 CFR 904.404 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause. 904.404 Section 904.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... DOE's security authority is derived from the Atomic Energy Act which contains specific language...

  10. 12 CFR 34.5 - Due-on-sale clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS... State law limitations to the contrary. For the purposes of this section, the term real property includes..., secured by a lien on real property, that includes a due-on-sale clause. Except as set forth in 12...

  11. 48 CFR 3004.470-3 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Government facilities or access to sensitive information. Contracting Officers shall insert the... contractor employee access to sensitive information or Government facilities must be limited to U.S. citizens... recurring access to Government facilities or access to sensitive information. Neither the basic clause...

  12. 48 CFR 2409.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant... reason to believe that the nature of the proposed contract requirements may present an organizational... Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 2452.209-72, Organizational Conflicts of Interest, in all...

  13. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 709.507-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 709.507-2 Contract clause. (a)-(b) (c) In order to avoid problems from organizational conflicts of interest that may be discovered after...

  14. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  15. U.S. Foreign Medical Students: After the "Guadalajara Clause"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1977-01-01

    The controversial issues surrounding the "Guadalajara Clause" of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 are detailed. At issue is whether Americans studying in foreign medical schools should be admitted to third and fourth year classes if they can pass part one of the National board examinations. (BT)

  16. 48 CFR 25.1103 - Other provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses 25.1103 Other provisions..., in solicitations and contracts if anticipating translation into another language. (c) Foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other provisions...

  17. Asymmetry in Temporal and Sequential Clauses in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen W.

    1974-01-01

    Examines several subtypes of the verbal sequency NP-VP1-VP2 in Chinese, especially those involving descriptions of human action, directed motion, and instrumental functions, and finds that these could be subsumed under the heading of "purposive clauses." The VP1 states an action whose goal is fulfilled by the action performed in VP2. (Author/RM)

  18. 48 CFR 235.072 - Additional contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving research on live vertebrate animals. (b) Use the clause at 252.235-7003, Frequency Authorization... 252.235-7011, Final Scientific or Technical Report, in solicitations and contracts for research and... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING...

  19. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead.......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... in this paper. The role of an interpolant tree automaton is to provide a generalisation of a spurious counterexample during refinement, capturing a possibly infinite set of spurious counterexample traces. In our approach these traces are then eliminated using a transformation of the Horn clauses. We compare...

  20. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  1. Consequence clauses with a meaning of measure and degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a new classification of consequence clauses that is based on a category of degree. Based on that parameter, consequence clauses are classified into the ones that have a meaning of degree and the ones that don’t have that meaning. Furthemore, consequence clauses with a meaning of degree can be divided into the clauses with a meaning of measure (Napolju je toliko hladno da smo se odmah vratili iz šetnje./It is so cold outside that we had to return immediately back; On je takav prevarant, da će te sigurno preći/ He is such a chouse - he will cheat for sure. and into excessive clauses (Previše je debela da uđe u tu haljinu/ She is too fat to fit in this dress; Devojčica je premalena da ostane sama kod kuće/ The girl is too small to stay at home alone; Buka je bila dovoljna da natera dete u plač/The noise was loud enough to cause the baby cry. The article provides the arguments that the category of degree in this sentences is grammaticalized with the help of certain modifiers and a conjunction of result da. The author applies the onomasiological method in the analysis and uses the theory of semantic locations. An existence of certain meanings is confirmed by the transformational test. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika, potprojekat: Sintaksa složene rečenice

  2. Claus plant tail gas treatment; Traitement des gaz de queue du procede claus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalley, J.C.; Laperdrix, E. [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, UMR 6506, Lab. Catalyse et Spectrochimie, 14 - Caen (France); Universite Chouaib Doukali, Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Chimie Physique, El Jadida (Morocco)

    2002-07-01

    Tail gas of Claus plants generally contains COS, CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. In order to satisfy the new environmental requirements, COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis have to be improved, whereas the oxidation of H{sub 2}S in sulfur, S{sub n}, appears to be one of the most satisfactory processes for the removal of slight amounts of H{sub 2}S. IR studies evidence that sulfate species are reduced by H{sub 2}S at 320 deg C on TiO{sub 2}, contrary to results obtained on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, explaining why TiO{sub 2} is much more effective than alumina when the CS{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O feed also contains H{sub 2}S and O{sub 2} traces. A CuO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was used for selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S into sulfur at 110 deg C. It is shown that polysulfide species are formed during the reaction, constituting an uniqueness of this catalyst. Elemental sulfur appears from the cleavage of too-long polysulfide chains. Storage of sulfur in the catalyst porosity provokes its deactivation whereas the catalyst ability to form sulfate species is poor. (author)

  3. On the structural position of non-peripheral adjunct clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lobo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the structural position occupied by a subset of adjunct clauses, namely those which can occur in final position without a special intonational break. After a definition of the structures to be considered, it will be shown that the classical assumption according to which they are generated as adjuncts is empirically superior to the adjunct-as-complement analysis (cf. Larson 1988; 1990, and to more recent analyses, which follow an antisymmetric framework (cf. Kayne 1994. It will also be shown that a base generation account of preverbal adverbial clauses is to be preferred over a movement analysis on the basis of empirical data, and in conformity with theoretical economy assumptions (Merge over Move.

  4. A new clause to the Sexual Contract: surrogate pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nuño Gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the debate on the regulation of commercial pregnancies as a revision on the market’s demand and under the fallacy of free will, incorporates a new clause to the Sexual Contract. This debate requires that we analyse the limits of commodification on the one hand and on the other, the ethical requisites of referring to free will in a globalized context of feminization of poverty, sexual inequality and the rearmament of patriarchal neoliberalism.

  5. [Conscience clause in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Ludovica; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cola, Luisanna; Gasparini, Maddalena; Porteri, Corinna; Tarquini, Daniela; Tiezzi, Alessandro; Veronese, Simone; Zullo, Silvia; Pucci, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    The article proposes a critical reflection on issues that appeal to the conscience clause as part of end of life care can produce and what can guarantee freedom of conscience, self-determination of those involved and respect for the dignity of the sick person. After a philosophical and normative analysis, the article is organized on the basis of two important documents for discussion: a position paper of Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) signed by several scientific societies "Grandi insufficienze d'organo end stage: cure intensive o cure palliative?" and the Design of Law currently being debated "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento". In particular, the conscience clause has been discussed in the light of advance care planning (ACP), which represents the instrument to guarantee the shared planning of care and the shared-decision making. In this context, recourse to the clause of conscience brings out critical ethical and deontological issues that the article discusses, using the position paper SIAARTI and the text of law currently being debated, both built on the assumptions of a shared care relationship, where patient has a key-role in medical decisions.

  6. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We......In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which...

  7. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We......In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which...

  8. Analysis of Chinese Sentences without Main Clause Translating into Japanese%浅析汉语无主句日译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友梅

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对汉语无主句和日语无主句的异同对比分析,得出汉语无主句同多异少,而且汉语无主句的情况多于日语,所以在日译汉语无主句时,要区别对待,分类处理。本文认为在日译汉语无主句时,为了使译文的句子结构符合语法规范,译者一般应该采取对应相关日语无主句、增补主语、改变句子结构的方法,同时辅之以其它方法。%Based on the Chinese and Japanese sentences without sentences with no similarities and differences compared and analyzed with multi Sentences Without little different, but without the main clause Chinese than Japanese, so when the Chinese translation of sentences without date, to distinction, classification. This paper argues that the Chinese translation of the day when there is no main clause, sentence structure in order to make the translation grammatical norms, the translator should generally take no correspondence related to the Japanese main clause, add the subject, change the way the sentence structure, but complemented by other methods.

  9. A Competition Law Assessment of Platform Most-Favoured-Customer Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Akman, P

    2016-01-01

    Most-favoured-customer (MFC) clauses adopted by online platforms in their relevant contractual relationships guarantee to an online platform that a supplier will treat the platform as favourably as the supplier’s most-favoured-customer concerning price, availability and similar terms of a given transaction. These clauses are a fundamental aspect of the business models of some of the world’s leading companies such as Apple, Amazon, Expedia, etc. The competition law implications of these clause...

  10. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was

  11. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  12. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  13. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  14. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  15. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  16. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy DPLL search.

  17. 77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ....225-7035, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements-- Balance of Payments Program Certificate; clause... Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program Certificate, as prescribed in 225.1101(10)(i), to comply... the clause at 252.225-7036, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Balance of Payments Program, as...

  18. The Acquisition of Possessive HAVE-Clauses by Turkish and Moroccan Learners of Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland; Corver, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Turkish and Morrocan adults acquire Dutch possessive clauses in which the verb "have" expresses the possessive relationship. The acquisition process is explained within the framework of recent generative theory on which "have-clauses are assumed to be popular locative constructions. (Author/VWL)

  19. 48 CFR 1835.070 - NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses and....070 NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... ensure that the provision at 1852.235-72, Instructions for Responding to NASA Research Announcements, is...

  20. Switch-attention (aka switch-reference in South-American temporal clauses: facilitating oral transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik van Gijn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultures without a written tradition depend entirely on the oral channel to transmit sometimes highly complex information. It is therefore not surprising that in the languages of such cultures linguistic devices evolve that enhance textual coherence, and thus comprehension. These devices should ideally also be economical in terms of morphosyntactic complexity in order to facilitate both production and comprehension. In this paper, I will argue that switch-attention (a term preferred over the traditional switch-reference systems in temporal clauses fulfill these requirements of cohesion and complexity reduction, making them particularly apt for orally transmitting texts. Moreover, switch-reference systems seem to diffuse relatively easily. These features taken together are suggested to be (partly responsible for the widely attested phenomenon in areas without a lengthy written tradition.

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  2. Santa Claus Schedules Jobs on Unrelated Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    One of the classic results in scheduling theory is the 2-approximation algorithm by Lenstra, Shmoys, and Tardos for the problem of scheduling jobs to minimize makespan on unrelated machines, i.e., job j requires time p_{ij} if processed on machine i. More than two decades after its introduction it is still the algorithm of choice even in the restricted model where processing times are of the form p_{ij} in {p_j, \\infty}. This problem, also known as the restricted assignment problem, is NP-hard to approximate within a factor less than 1.5 which is also the best known lower bound for the general version. Our main result is a polynomial time algorithm that estimates the optimal makespan of the restricted assignment problem within a factor 33/17 + \\epsilon \\approx 1.9412 + \\epsilon, where \\epsilon > 0 is an arbitrary small constant. The result is obtained by upper bounding the integrality gap of a certain strong linear program, known as configuration LP, that was previously successfully used for the related Santa...

  3. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  4. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  5. Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxer, G.; Dillon, J. [Parkland Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Subject of Subordinate Clause as Object with Verbs of Perception, Thought, and Communication in Old Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Pichkhadze

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Old Russian construction involving verbs of perception, thought, and communication. In this construction, a single semantic argument corresponds to two syntactic constituents: a direct object and a finite subordinate clause, the subject of which is coreferential with the direct object of the main clause. The Old Russian construction is seen as an instantiation of a cross-linguistic option in the argument structure of these verbs (above all, of the perception verbs, that is, to take the subject of the subordinate clause as the direct object.

  7. Assessing students' epistemic logic using clause topics during problem comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateycik, Fran; Sheaffer, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Physics courses ideally facilitate both students understanding of fundamental physical principles, as well as strengthen students' problem solving repertoire. In this study we look at how students divide and/or aggregate various elements of problem statements and how useful distinct principles and concepts, formulae, and general problem contexts are for pairing problems assigned in the same week. Students in an algebra-based physics course were asked to choose two problems from each of their homework assignments which they found to be most similar. The two problems selected were then explicitly compared and contrasted in writing. The written statements were then divided by clause topics and further categorized into levels of epistemic reasoning. This paper presents the qualitative analysis used and provides observed trends that appear in students' homework responses.

  8. Pharmacist conscience clauses and access to oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, D P

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of conscience clauses after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade allowed physicians and nurses to opt out of medical procedures, particularly abortions, to which they were morally opposed. In recent years pharmacists have requested the same consideration with regard to dispensing some medicines. This paper examines the pharmacists' role and their professional and moral obligations to patients in the light of recent refusals by pharmacists to dispense oral contraceptives. A review of John Rawls's concepts of the "original position" and the "veil of ignorance", along with consideration of the concept of compartmentalisation, are used to assess pharmacists' requests and the moral and legal rights of patients to have their prescriptive needs met.

  9. L2 Acquisition of Complement Clauses by Persian Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research concentrates on the acquisition of complement clauses within Universal Grammar framework which theoretically plays the strongest linguistic role in second language acquisition research in recent years. This study aims to investigate how Persian learners of English at three levels of proficiency acquire complement clauses.  In fact, this study reports the results of the learners’ responses to GJT and specifically investigates the six linguistic variables associated with complement Clauses: using complement in finite/ non-finite clauses, small-clauses, exceptional-clauses, that-trace effect in clauses and subcategorization of two verbs (i. e. want and let.  The responses were given by 50 Persian learners of English divided into three proficiency levels: Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced. The statistical analyses of the data revealed that, by increasing the participants’ level of proficiency their judgment of grammatical and ungrammatical items was improved whereas the differences between groups were also significant. The results can indicate that the development of their complement acquisition is generally systematic.  In addition, by carrying out syntactic analyses of the sentences that the participants produced, we conclude that, as UG predicted, Persian learners do not use any wild grammar at any level of their L2 acquisition.  The above findings are generally in harmony with the view that L2 learners somehow attain the unconscious knowledge that goes beyond what they receive as L2 input.  Finally, our findings may have implications for language teaching by deepening our understanding of the nature of L2 acquisition. Keywords: Second Language Acquisition, Complements, Clauses, Developmental stages, Systematicity, Universal Grammar, Fundamental Different Hypothesis (FDH

  10. The frequency and heterogeneous nature of complex clauses in the literary texts Seta and La luna e i falò

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available yntactically complex clauses are often a vital part of literary language. The aim of this paper is to present the syntactically heterogeneous nature of two longer Italian literary texts selected as being suitable for reading at high school, and to highlight potential difficulties Slovenian learners may have when dealing with them. The analysis focuses on subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions se, anche se and come se which can introduce various subordinate clauses most of which are notorious for Slovenian and other Slavic learners of Italian due to interferences in the area of the appropriate use of verbal forms in subordinates. It was found that all the subordinates dealt with constantly appear in the Italian novels Seta and La luna e i falò, but they cannot all be defined as very frequent. Due to their relatively sporadic appearance but highly heterogeneous nature they can not represent a stable input for learners: successful unconscious acquisition is not very likely. Instead, conscious learning appears to be necessary due to the different principles governing the choice of tenses in the two languages. Accordingly, the most frequent and prototypical syntactic patterns (subordinates should be included in conscious learning/teaching of Italian as a foreign language.

  11. Santa Claus visited CERN on Saturday, 3 December!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised an annual Children’s Christmas Party. This party brings together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. On Saturday, 3 December, the Staff Association welcomed no less than 230 children who attended with joy and enthusiasm a magical clown show presented at 13.30 and 15.30. After the show, they were offered a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their generous contribution, as well as their personnel for their valuable help. Then, Santa Claus himself came to hand out presents to the children. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for despite his busy schedule for the season, he took the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and older ones alike! Finally, we would like to thank all the parents who volunteered to help look after the children. Their presence and contribution are indispensable for the success of the party. This year, the Staff Association’s organ...

  12. Application of‘Division’in E-C Translation of Long and Complex At-tributive Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cen

    2016-01-01

    The attributive clause plays a significant role in E-C translation. Due to the stylistic difference in Chinese and English (Chinese is paratactic while English is hypotactic), complex English attributive clauses cannot be translated literally as awkward-ness may occur. One possible approach to coping with the problem is the adoption of‘Division’in translating long English at-tributive clauses. This essay provides three steps in translating complex English attributive clauses into Chinese (clarifying mean-ing units, restructuring and polishing) and the accompanied techniques such as amplification and omission to make the transla-tion more readable and natural to Chinese readers.

  13. Proportionality And The Limitation Clauses Of The South African Bill Of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IM (Ig Rautenbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986 developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy’s weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the

  14. Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

    2011-01-01

    Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

  15. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete.

  16. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

  17. A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing%A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边宛

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to find out the role of LI transfer on the problems of attributive clauses. By the application of Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis, the study shows, Chinese belongs to the left-branching language, while English is the right- branching one in terms of the structure of attributive clauses.

  18. 8 CFR 204.7 - Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1976. 204.7 Section 204.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.7 Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality...

  19. 14 CFR 91.23 - Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional... January 2, 1973, shall execute a written lease or contract and include therein a written truth-in-leasing...

  20. 46 CFR 308.536 - Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inadvertent, Form MA-314. 308.536 Section 308.536 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Insurance § 308.536 Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. An... sufficient to meet the requirements of Clause 21 of the Policy shall file this Declaration, Form...

  1. Development of Word Order in German Complement-Clause Constructions: Effects of Input Frequencies, Lexical Items, and Discourse Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of word order in German children's spontaneous production of complement clauses. From soon after their second birthday, young German children use both verb final complements with complementizers and verb-second complements without complementizers. By their third birthday they use both kinds of complement clauses with…

  2. 48 CFR 1812.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items. (NASA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorized for use in acquisitions of commercial items when required by the clause prescription: (A) 1852.214... contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items. (NASA supplements paragraph (f)) 1812.301 Section... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Solicitation Provisions and...

  3. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences t...... thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability....

  4. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article...... turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question....

  5. Effects of Charter Party Arbitration Clauses Under the New Turkish Commercial Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Algantürk Light

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Turkish Commercial Code has became effective on 1 July 2012. The new Code covers bareboat charterparty, time charterparty, voyage charterparty and contracts of carriage by sea which is defined in general terms. On the other hand, Turkey is the one of the conracting State of Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention, 1958 as well as European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, 1961. In this study, we will examine the effects of the charter party arbitration clauses under the new Turkish Commercial Code and discuss the characteristics of the clauses to be valid under Turkish Law.

  6. 48 CFR 303.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Misrepresentations or... INTEREST Contingent Fees 303.405 Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees clause. (a) HHS personnel shall promptly report suspected misrepresentations or violations of the...

  7. 48 CFR 719.273-11 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause. 719.273-11 Section 719.273-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The U.S. Agency for...

  8. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC40 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women Inclusion in Contractor Workforce AGENCY: Departmental Offices,...

  9. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a...

  10. A Corpus-based Approach to English Subordinate Clause I dentification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The complex sentence structure of English is a bottleneck to our practical machi ne translation system. The simplification of English subordinate clauses will gr eatly relieves the burden of parsing and other grammatical or semantic analysis of a complex sentence, thus improves the output quality of the MT system. But th ere have not any satisfactory research achievements reported in this field up t o now as we know. In this paper, author's work on a corpus-based approach to English subordinate clause identification is reported. The approach integrate s rule-base d and statistical methods to get the left and right boundaries of the subordinat e clauses. The Penn Treebank corpus is used as the training standard. The precis ion and recall ratios of subordinate clause identification are tested on both cl osed and open corpora. A result of 92.9% precision and 91.26% recall is obtained for the closed test and the open test result is 80.34% precision and 83.93% rec all. This algorithm has been integrated into our machine translation system. The method can also be applied to processing of any other language.

  11. 48 CFR 337.103-70 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Child Abuse, in solicitations, contracts, and orders that require performance on Federal land or in a... clause in 352.237-70, Pro-Children Act, in solicitations, contracts, and orders that involve (a... provided to children under the age of 18 on a routine or regular basis pursuant to the Pro-Children Act...

  12. Trojan Ponies: Undermining the Establishment Clause in the Name of "Child Benefit Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurau-Gray, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases illustrate that whenever the schools or courts abandon the Establishment Clause and embrace "child benefit theory," religious schoolchildren are the only winners. Application of "child benefit theory" has engendered religious strife, increased public funds for religious schools, increased sectarian control of public…

  13. 48 CFR 225.7703-5 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Balance of Payments Program Certificate. (5) 252.225-7036, Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Balance...-7045, Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. (f) Do not use the... 252.225-7024, or the clause at 252.225-7026: (1) 252.225-7000, Buy American Act—Balance of Payments...

  14. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reason to question the status of the prospective contractor as a small business firm, it may file a... BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER GOVERNMENT GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS § 401.3 Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14. (a) Each funding agreement awarded to a small business firm or nonprofit organization...

  15. Clause, Sentence, and Discourse Patterns in Selected Languages of Nepal: Part I, General Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Austin

    This volume, the first in a series of four on the languages of Nepal, contains the following papers: "Toward the Systematization of Display Grammar,""Clause Patterns in Kham,""Tentative Systemic Organization of Nepali Sentences,""Maithili Sentences,""Notation for Simultaneous Representation of Grammatical and Sememic Components in Connected…

  16. 48 CFR 2945.403 - Rental-use and charges clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause. 2945.403 Section 2945.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Contractor Use and Rental of Government Property 2945.403 Rental-use and... property, as prescribed in FAR 45.403(a)....

  17. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mature in (time period). (ii) Early withdrawal penalties We impose a penalty if you withdraw of the... interest will remain on deposit until maturity. A withdrawal will reduce earnings. (iv) Renewal policies (1... for Change in Terms (Section 230.5(a)) B-3—Model Clauses for Pre-Maturity Notices for Time...

  18. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  19. Reaction Mechanism for m-Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed S; Chung, Suk Ho

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation.

  20. An Inplementation of Pure Horn Clause Logic Programming in a Reduction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许满武

    1993-01-01

    Many reduction systems have been presented for implementing functional programming languages.We propose here an extension of a reduction architecture to realize a kind of logic programming-pure Horn clause logic programming.This is an attempt to approach amalgamation of the two important programming paradigms.

  1. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7006-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clause. (a) Use the provision at 252.225-7037, Evaluation of Offers for Air Circuit Breakers, in solicitations requiring air circuit breakers for naval vessels unless— (1) An exception... Breakers, in solicitations and contracts requiring air circuit breakers for naval vessels unless— (1)...

  3. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007-D009) AGENCY: Defense... final rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to revise and combine... disadvantage small businesses. Most of the small businesses participating in these contracts do so as...

  4. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  5. Development and industrial application of catalyzer for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis of Claus tail gas

    OpenAIRE

    Honggang Chang; Ronghai Zhu; Zongshe Liu; Jinlong He; Chongrong Wen; Sujuan Zhang; Yang Li

    2015-01-01

    With the implementation of more strict national environmental protection laws, energy conservation, emission reduction and clean production will present higher requirements for sulfur recovery tail gas processing techniques and catalyzers. As for Claus tail gas, conventional hydrogenation catalyzers are gradually being replaced by low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers. This paper concentrates on the development of technologies for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis catalyzers, prepar...

  6. 48 CFR 227.7009-3 - Additional clauses-contracts except running royalty contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts except running royalty contracts. 227.7009-3 Section 227.7009-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations...—contracts except running royalty contracts. The following clauses are examples for use in patent release and settlement agreements, and license agreements not providing for payment by the Government of a...

  7. 78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... has retained in the final rule the language at 252.244-7000(b), which is the same as FAR 52.244-6(c)(2... Comments Several respondents had editorial comments as to the language within the rule. Comment: One... the clause at 252.225-7008, Restriction on Acquisition of Specialty Metals, as prescribed in...

  8. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING..., development, demonstration or production work to be performed during the course of a management and operating... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause...

  9. The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Tessa L

    2015-01-01

    "All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills." U.S. Const. art. I, § 7, cl. 1 (Origination Clause). "As we have often noted, '[c]onstitutional rights would be of little value if they could be . . . indirectly denied.'" United States Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 514 U.S. 779, 829 (1995) The Supreme Court's opinion in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, upholding the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) as a permissible exercise of Congress's taxing power rekindled an old question about the constitutionality of the Act: Was the Act unconstitutional under the Origination Clause? The bill that became the ACA, H.R. 3590, originated in the House as the Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009. It was gutted by the Senate and replaced with the ACA before being passed and sent back to the House for final passage. The Supreme Court has heard very few cases on the Origination Clause, and Origination Clause challenges have met with little success. Most of these cases have developed over the questions of whether the bill is actually a revenue-raising bill that is constitutionally required to be originate in the House, and, if so, whether the Senate amendments were appropriate. But United States Term Limits v. Thornton provides another angle under which to examine the constitutionality of the ACA: an indirect violation of a constitutional prohibition. In this Article, I will provide an overview of the ACA's passage and analyze it through the lenses of traditional Origination Clause arguments and the Term Limits approach.

  10. 英语定语从句的翻译%Translation of English Attributive Clause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚卓

    2015-01-01

    Attributive clause doesn’t exist in Chinese, but is widely used in English. It is also one of the major obstacles to translators in translation. The structures of the English attributive clauses are simple or complex, translators need to take the appropriate translation skills to translate them flexibly.%定语从句是汉语中没有而英语中却广泛使用的语言现象,也是译者翻译中的重大障碍之一。英语定语从句的结构有简有繁,翻译时需要采取恰当的翻译技巧来灵活处理。

  11. Analysis of Inserted Clauses in the Legal Discourse from the Pragmatic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Karapetyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the given study is to examine the use of inserted clauses in the legal discourse and their unique role in this speech genre.  The investigation of the topic is conducted in line with the principles of Functional Discourse Grammar. In the course of analysis we apply the theory of speech acts, namely performatives, the fundamental tenets of which permit to view the specific combination of shall+inserted clause as a particular feature of legal discourse.  These overcomplicated grammatical structures are shown to fulfill the immediate function of performatives, that of enacting legal acts and doing things in the pragmatic sense of word, to the full extent.

  12. Recent advance in Claus plant tail gas clean-up for air quality improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benayoun, D.; Koskas, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) (France)

    1996-12-31

    Overall sulphur recovery yields of 99.8% can be attained using Clauspol II technology, which is a tail gas treatment process. H{sub 2} S and SO{sub 2} in Claus effluents are removed in a simple, low capital operating cost process that uses no hydrogen and low utilities. The continuous withdrawal of product sulphur explains the high efficiency of the process. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. [The physician's conscience, conscience clauses, and religious belief: A Catholic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    2014-01-01

    This Essay explores how physicians may handle conflicts or conscience facing Roman Catholic Health practitioners regarding "human life" issues, especially through conscience clauses. In five parts, the author examines "first, why conscientious objection is so important in our day; second, the moral grounding for freedom in the exercise of conscience; third, the components of the physician's conscience; fourth, specific conflicts of conscience for Catholic physicians and institutions; and fifth, competing models of conflict resolution".

  14. A technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars is presented. It exploits the fact that the grammar rule notation can be viewed as a state exchange notation. The novel feature of the technique is that it can perform informed as well as blind search. It provides the Prolog programmer with a new technique for application to a wide range of design, scheduling, and planning problems.

  15. Understanding VSIDS Branching Heuristics in Conflict-Driven Clause-Learning SAT Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jia Hui; Ganesh, Vijay; Zulkoski, Ed; Zaman, Atulan; Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Conflict-Driven Clause-Learning SAT solvers crucially depend on the Variable State Independent Decaying Sum (VSIDS) branching heuristic for their performance. Although VSIDS was proposed nearly fifteen years ago, and many other branching heuristics for SAT solving have since been proposed, VSIDS remains one of the most effective branching heuristics. In this paper, we advance our understanding of VSIDS by answering the following key questions. The first question we pose is "what is special ab...

  16. Conversion of Claus plants of Kurkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naman, S.A.; Veziroglu, A. [Duhok Univ., Duhok City (Iraq). Dept. of Chemistry; International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Miami, FL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Two Claus plants in Kirkuk, Iraq, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur at a capacity of 2,200 tons/day. One of the plants is working at a capacity of only 400 tons/day with an old Claus process. The other uses a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 tons/day. Both of the plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance. As such, the agricultural area surrounding Kirkuk is highly polluted. This paper described 2 pilot desulphurization plants that have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant. The first pilot plant is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30 per cent dithanolamine to separate and recycle hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing zeolite 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H{sub 2}S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H{sub 2}S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials. The pilot plants were suitable with cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H{sub 2}S decomposition only. The goal for the second pilot plant was to supply the heat using a solar energy concentrator instead of electricity. It was concluded that a hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas. The pilot plants can produce about 140 tons of hydrogen gas per day from these waste gases.

  17. Reaction Mechanism for m- Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  18. PROMOTION OF NON-SUBJECT NOUN PHRASE TO SUBJECT IN CLAUSE OF SABU LANGUAGE, SABU RAIJUA REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sukendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a descriptive-qualitative one exploring the relation of non subject THAT was promoted to the slot of subject. From the syntactic point of view, two informants were considered adequate in the present study. The reason was that the Sabu language ‘Bahasa Sabu (hereinafter referred to as BS, as a langue, was homogenous in nature. The data needed were collected through observation and interview. The words, phrases, clauses and sentences focused on the topic of the study were note taken. In addition, the data were also collected by recording the speeches made by the BS speakers and the informants using a tape recorder and an electronic recorder. In this manner, it was possible to obtain as many data as possible. From the analysis, it was found that the clausal construction in BS could promote the non subject NP to the subject as the original subject could not be deleted. The other finding was that the promotion of the non-subject NP could be promoted to the slot of subject in the transitive and intransitive clauses. The clausal construction which could allow the promotion of the non-subject NP to the clausal construction was the clausal construction which had semantic roles as the MOTION, AFFECT, and CORPOREAL verbs. The clausal construction which could not allow the non-subject NP to be promoted to the subject was the instrumental clausal construction whose verb was realized by the verb hernabi ‘tutup’ [close].

  19. Frequency and Heterogeneous Nature of Complex Clauses in Italian Non-Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it might seem that syntactically complex clauses rarely appear in everyday language and/or belong to higher language, they are also used in the context of a less demanding and less controlled verbal communication environment. The aim of this paper is to present their syntactically heterogeneous nature in some representative Italian texts, along with potential difficulties Slovenian learners may have when dealing with them. The analysis focuses on subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions se, anche se and come se which can introduce various subordinate clauses, most being notorious for Slovenian (and other Slavic learners. Interference errors occur constantly, in particular as far as the appropriate use of verbal forms is concerned. It was found that all the subordinates in question appear in Italian text constantly, but they are not extremely common; their use is also not correlated to the type of text involved, but to the writer/speaker’s communication  goals. Due to their sporadic appearance and highly heterogeneous nature, they cannot represent a stable input for learners in order to enable their successful unconscious acquisition. That is why at least the prototypical usage of syntactic patterns should be included in the conscious learning of Italian as a foreign language despite their reduced importance attributed by recent tendencies in the field of foreign language methodologies.

  20. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK DİLİNDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN DİLİNDE İLGİ YANTÜMCELERİ: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the Sıfat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe arasında hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin dağılımı konusunda belirleyici farklılıklar vardır. Bu farklılıkların öğrenimde sebep olan zorlukların arasında ana dili Yunanca olanların Türkçe öğrenmelerinde, sıfat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve sıfat-fiillerin kullanımında, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan arasındaki ilişki konusunda karşılaştıkları güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolayıdır ki, iki dil sistemi Karşıtsal İnceleme ve de Yanlışları

  1. Development and reactivity tests of Ce-Zr-based Claus catalysts for coal gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Gi Bo Han; Si Ok Ryu; Tae Jin Lee; Ki Jun Yoon [Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk (Republic of Korea). National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2007-09-15

    Claus reaction (2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} 3/nS{sub n} + 2H{sub 2}O) was used to clean the gasified coal gas and the reactivity of several metal oxide-based catalysts on Claus reaction was investigated at various operating conditions. In order to convert H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas to elemental sulfur during Claus reaction, the catalysts having the high activity under the highly reducing condition with the moisture should be developed. CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Ce{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}O{sub 2} catalysts were prepared for Claus reaction and their reactivity changes due to the existence of the reducing gases and H{sub 2}O in the fuel gas was investigated in this study. The Ce-based catalysts shows that their activity was deteriorated by the reduction of the catalyst due to the reducing gases at higher than 220{sup o}C. Meanwhile, the effect of the reducing gases on the catalytic activity was not considerable at low temperature. The activities of all three catalysts were degraded on the condition that the moisture existed in the test gas. Specifically, the Ce-based catalysts were remarkably deactivated by their sulfation. The Ce-Zr-based catalyst had a high catalytic activity when the reducing gases and the moisture co-existed in the simulated fuel gas. The deactivation of the Ce-Zr-based catalyst was not observed in this study. The lattice oxygen of the Ce-based catalyst was used for the oxidation of H{sub 2}S and the lattice oxygen vacancy on the catalyst was contributed to the reduction of SO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2} added to the Ce-Zr-based catalyst improved the redox properties of the catalyst in Claus reaction by increasing the mobility of the lattice oxygen of CeO{sub 2}. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  2. The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

  3. Non-Trade Concerns in Interpreting General Exception Clauses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    aversion of such dangers seem to require the incorporation of the General exception ... b) Necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health; c) Relating to .... depletion and extinction and rejected the argument of the complainants.24.

  4. Complex Syntax in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Study of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for…

  5. Processing Subject Relative Clauses in English: Evidence from Child Speakers of English-Lexified Creoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clachar, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale continuous migration of speakers from the Anglophone Caribbean to the United States over the past 2 decades has led to an influx of school children who are native speakers of English-lexified Creoles (ELCs). These are oral languages which do not generally occur in formal institutional domains requiring academic registers. Thus,…

  6. 41 CFR 60-741.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., professional meetings, conferences, and other related activities, and selection for leaves of absence to pursue training; viii. Activities sponsored by the contractor including social or recreational programs; and ix... their responsibilities under the act. Such cooperation shall include insuring that the equal...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) to describe the categories of nonpublic personal information about customers and former customers... do not disclose any nonpublic personal information about our customers or former customers to anyone... of § 40.6(a)(5) related to the exception for service providers and joint marketers in § 40.13. If...

  8. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naman, S.A. [Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Duhok, Duhok (Iraq); Veziroglu, A. [International Association of Hydrogen Energy, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H{sub 2}S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H{sub 2}S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H{sub 2}S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO{sub 2} 10% and H{sub 2}S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H{sub 2}S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 {sup o}C. and the solar intensity is about

  9. Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Steen

    2003-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)......Anmeldelse af Claus Friisberg: Ideen om et frit Danmark. Den nationalliberale bevægelses ideologi og politik - især i den formative periode (Varde 2003)...

  10. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  11. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  12. WARMING UP THE “CHILLING EFFECT”: A COMMENT ON THE MOTIVE CLAUSE DISCUSSIONS IN R V KHAWAJA (2010 AND R V KHAWAJA (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Savarese

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, biased surveillance and discriminatory law enforcement approaches gained momentum. In 2003, Reem Bahdi published “No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada‟s War Against Terrorism.” She analyzed the influence that the declaration of a war against terrorism by Western nations, including Canada, was having on Arabs and Muslims. Other scholars critiqued aspects of Canada‟s anti-terrorism response, including the incorporation of a motive clause into the Criminal Code sections prohibiting terrorist offences. In R. v. Khawaja (2006, the Superior Court reviewed the constitutionality of the motive element in the definition of terrorism. It held that the motive clause facilitated the targeted law enforcement practices that Bahdi and others advocated against. This paper reports on a review of the appellate decisions, R. v. Khawaja (2010 and (2012, which held that the motive clause was consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The appellate decisions are critiqued for their failure to adequately promote human dignity and equality in keeping with the Charter‘s spirit. As a result, the paper concludes by arguing for a return to the insights of Bahdi and others who encourage a rethinking of Canadian social policy after 9/11 to ensure commitment to human rights doctrines, particularly in regard to the racial profiling that the motive clause seemed to animate. Dans la foulée des attaques du 11 septembre 2001, des chercheurs ont observé que les activités de surveillance biaisées et les mesures discriminatoires d‟application de la loi se sont intensifiées. En 2003, Reem Bahdi a publié “No Exit: Racial Profiling and Canada‟s War Against Terrorism.” [« Sans issue : Profilage racial et guerre du Canada contre le terrorisme »]. Elle y analysait les répercussions de la déclaration de guerre contre le terrorisme par les pays occidentaux, y compris le Canada, sur les Arabes et les

  13. Les relatives en américain contemporain

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Charlier, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of relatives clauses in a corpus of American English (a contemporary novel).Our first aim was to study whether the syntax of relatives clauses is the same in American English and in British English - and the study shows that the two systems differ in several important ways.Our second aim was to revive a methodology: the idea was to approach the data with an open mind, to gather and analyse all the occurrences in a complete discourse, to ‘listen’ to what the dat...

  14. Santa Claus contra los Reyes Magos: influencias trasnacionales en el consumo infantil en México (1950-1960)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Sosenski

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la inserción de la figura de Santa Claus en la sociedad mexicana a mediados del siglo xx. Santa Claus, en un primer momento, fue visto como un extranjero indeseable, portador de una cultura ajena y una modernidad vinculada estrechamente a la sociedad de consumo. Fue visto como el otro, tuvo que lidiar con las tradiciones católicas mexicanas y se halló confrontado con las figuras de los Reyes Magos. Las discusiones en torno a su figura se centraron en discutir su in...

  15. Role of the direct reaction H2S + SO2 in the homogeneous Claus reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendt, Karina; Haynes, Brian S

    2005-09-15

    Quantum chemical methods at the Gaussian-2 and -3 levels of theory have been used to investigate the reactions between H(2)S, SO(2), and S(2)O such as might occur in the front-end furnace of the Claus process. The direct reaction between H(2)S and SO(2) occurs via a 5-centered transition state with an initial barrier of approximately 135 kJ mol(-1) and an overall barrier of approximately 153 kJ mol(-1) to produce S(2)O and H(2)O. We indicate approximate values here because there are a number of isomers in the reaction pathway that have barriers slightly different from those quoted. The presence of a water molecule lowers this by approximately 60 kJ mol(-1), but the van der Waals complex required for catalysis by water is thermodynamically unfavorable under the conditions in the Claus reactor. The direct reaction between H(2)S and S(2)O can occur via two possible pathways; the analogous reaction to H(2)S + SO(2) has an initial barrier of approximately 117 kJ mol(-1) and an overall barrier of approximately 126 kJ mol(-1) producing S(3) and H(2)O, and a pathway with a 6-centred transition state has a barrier of approximately 111 kJ mol(-1), producing HSSSOH. Rate constants, including a QRRK analysis of intermediate stabilization, are reported for the kinetic scheme proposed here.

  16. 韩语因果复句在汉语中的对应研究%A Correspondence Analysis of the Causational Claus-es in Chinese and Korean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丙刚

    2016-01-01

    Causational clauses exist both in Chinese and Korean, but these two languages belong to different families, resulting in great dif-ferences in techniques of expression and conjunctive devices. Korean causational clauses are correspondent not only to Chinese ones but also to other semantic clauses or forms. Causational clauses are studied widely in the research of general theories. However, few studies are based on Korean-Chinese translated novel corpus. This paper attempts to study causational clauses with actual bilingual examples taken from Korean-Chinese equivalent translational novel corpus. The compara-tive analysis of Chinese corresponding forms of causational clauses “-어서、-니까、-느라고、-므로” frequently used in Korean, is a good reference that may enlighten the study and teaching of Chinese- Koreancausational clauses.%中韩两种语言都存在因果复句,但因这两种语言分属不同语系,所以它们在复句的表现方法及连接手段上都有着很大差异,韩国语的因果复句不仅和汉语的因果复句相对应,而且还能和其他语义关系的复句或其他表现形式相对应。先行研究成果当中极少运用中韩对译小说语料库来研究复句的情况,尝试利用韩中对等翻译小说语料库进行复句研究,运用实际双语例句、使用比较分析法进行考察分析韩国语中使用频率较高的“-어서”、“-니까”、“-느라고”、“-므로”①等因果复句在汉语中的对应形式,这对于中韩复句的研究及教学将是一个很好的启示和参考。

  17. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning…

  18. Exploring and explaining the "Santa Claus effect": cross-sectional study of jollity in 21 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2017-09-04

    Christmas "is the season to be jolly" but, despite many recent studies of happiness and wellbeing, the population distribution of jollity is unknown. To assess levels of jollity across Europe, hypothesising the existence of a "Santa Claus effect" whereby Mr. Claus, a long-established resident of Scandinavia, increases jollity through his social network. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 37 966 participants in the European Society Survey (Round 7, 2014/2015) across 21 European countries. Jollity has independent associations with satisfaction with health and income, male gender, younger age, and country of residence. Each one-point increase in satisfaction with health (on a 5-point scale) corresponds to a 0.79-point increase in jollity (23-point scale); each one-point increase in satisfaction with income (4-point scale) corresponds to a 0.76-point increase in jollity. Switzerland is the jolliest country in Europe. The jolliest European is likely to be a young Swiss male who is satisfied with his income and health. If there is a Santa Claus effect acting to increase jollity, it probably acts not just in Scandinavia but across Mr. Claus's broad network of contacts and admirers in many countries.

  19. Reflections on the Grammatical Category of "Before" "After" and "Since" Introducing Non-Finite "-ing" Clauses: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    English language learners may be confused in identifying the grammatical category of such conjunctive expressions as "before," "after" and "since" introducing non-finite "-ing" clauses. In this article, we will conduct a corpus-based investigation of hypotactic conjunctions and conjunctive prepositions…

  20. On the Interplay between the Semantics of Java's Finally Clauses and the JML Run-Time Checker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Banerjee, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how a subtle interaction between the semantics of Java and the implementation of the JML run-time checker can cause the latter to fail to report errors. This problem is due to the well-known capability of finally clauses to implicitly override exceptions. We give some simple ex

  1. 48 CFR 227.7009-4 - Additional clauses-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. 227.7009-4 Section 227.7009-4 Federal Acquisition... clauses—contracts providing for payment of a running royalty. The clauses set forth below are examples... desired to cover the subject matter thereof and the contract provides for payment of a running royalty....

  2. A media-analytic view on Claus Peymann's film about Heinrich von Kleist's "Hermannsschlacht"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W. Giessen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes interpretations of Heinrich von Kleist's Hermannsschlacht (title in English: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Historically there have been four different types of interpretation: those that praise both content and form, those that express dislike of both con-tent and form, those that praise the content but dislike the form, and those that inversely express dislike for the content but admiration for the form. It is argued here that Claus Peymann's inter-pretation, as seen in his film, goes contrary to these traditional ways of dealing with Hermannsschlacht, since Peymann's interpretation obviously respects Kleist's text but inter-prets Hermansschlacht as a text in favor of peace, not war.

  3. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  4. Henrik Berggren Jessen & Claus Madsen: Ildfast i krydsild – standhaftig skoleledelse i brændpunktet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Hall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available «Å være ildfast – altså å tåle sterk varme gjennom lengre tid uten å krakelere og gå i stykker – må være en viktig egenskap for en skoleleder, eller for den saks skyld for enhver leder» (s. 13. Dette er bokens definisjon av hva som kreves av en leder i kryssilden mellom ulike interesser i læringsorganisasjoner, og der treffer den relativt godt. I boken «Ildfast i krydsild – standhaftig skoleledelse i brændpunktet» redegjør de danske forfatterne Henrik Berg Jessen og Claus Madsen for flere svært ulike perspektiver innen utdanningsledelse og management som har mer eller mindre sentrale i løpet av de siste to decenniene.

  5. Advances in computational modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D.; Lo, J. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Center for Applied Catalysis and Industrial Sulfur Chemistry

    2010-01-15

    This poster session discussed advances in computation modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery, focusing on the hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (S{sub O}2) absorption of non-alumina Claus active metal oxides, such as titanium oxide and vanadium oxide. These metal oxides were chosen because they promote carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) conversion and have a potential use in olefin chemistry. The redox process of H{sub 2}S dissociation on vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can take place in single-site reaction or multiple site reactions. Both mechanisms lead to the production of V{sub 2}O{sub 4}S, water (H{sub 2}O) and other species. The overall process of forming VO{sub 4}S is neutral, but kinetics is a controlling factor. The surface sulfidation to form V{sub 2}O{sub 3}S{sub 2} requires a small energy cost but possesses a huge reaction barrier. The formation of H{sub 2}S{sub 2} is energetically favorable. The silica (SiO{sub 2})-supported V{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyst was described. A proposed mechanism of H{sub 2}S conversion to H{sub 2}O and V=S group was presented along with another reaction route in which the dissociative absorption of H{sub 2}S takes place on O-bridges instead of V=O. Two vanadia catalysts were compared: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. 7 figs.

  6. Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

  7. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  8. An Exploration of the Semantic Organization of English Material Clauses%英语物质小句的语义结构探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉

    2009-01-01

    在系统功能语法中,物质小句表达经验世界里的"做"和"发生",它的语义结构受及物/作格系统的支配.物质小句的中动态或有效态特征又使及物/作格结构得以再次划分.最终英语物质小句的各种语义结构可以概括为两种图示:中介-过程和施动者-过程-受动者.但是假有效态小句不能归于这二者的任何一种,它是一种中心结构向另一种中心结构的隐喻扩展.%In SFG,material clauses are clauses of doing and happening.The semantic organization of material clauses is governed by the transitive/ergative system.The middle or the effective voice of material clauses makes the subdivision of transitive/ergative structure possible.Finally the various semantic organizations of English material clauses can be summarized in two schemata:the Medium-Process schema and the Agent-Process-Affected schema.However,the pseudo--effective clause cannot be generalized into any one of the two schemata;they aye metaphorical extensions from one central structure type to another.

  9. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  10. Variation and Change in the Grammatical Marking of Stance: The Case of That-Complement Clauses in Research Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarolta Godnič Vičič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the genre of research articles has been extensively studied across different disciplines and languages; however, diachronic change and intradisciplinary variation in this academic genre have received less attention. Therefore this paper aims to shed light on change and variation in research articles within a multidisciplinary field of research by focusing on the use of that-complement clause constructions which are known to mark stance. The corpus-based study uses tourism studies as an example, and covers the time span from 1995 to 2010. Diachronic change in the use of that-complement clause constructions was found in instances when they are marked by a verb as well as in the kinds of stance meanings conveyed. Significant intradisciplinary variation was also found across the journals.

  11. Energy efficiency clauses in charter party agreements legal and economic perspectives and their application to ocean grain transport

    CERN Document Server

    Psarros, George Adamantios

    2017-01-01

    This book provides practical solutions for addressing energy efficiency as a clause term within a charter party contract. For this, upon a reflection of the regulatory craft, it analyzes key concepts of case law, and discusses them together with commercial and economic principles. In this way, the book aims at offering a comprehensive, interdisciplinary view of the chartering process, together with a new approach for safeguarding energy efficiency investments. A special emphasis is given to the maritime industry. Here, the newly developed framework, based on game theory, has been successfully applied to demonstrate the importance of including a clause term in contract negotiation to achieve protection against both an uncertain market and an even more challenging shipping environment. The book not only fills a gap in the literature, covering a topic that has been largely neglected to date, yet it offers researchers and practitioners extensive information to change the chartering process radically.

  12. Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

  13. The Acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg Order in Embedded Clauses in Swedish: A Microparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing on Neg-V and V-Neg order. It is proposed that a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in embedded clauses and that the low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed speech obstructs children from…

  14. About the carel legal and civil legal validity of take-or-play clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution; Zur kartell- und zivilrechtlichen Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in Gasliefervertraegen mit Weiterverteilern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegerich, Christine [Eggers Malmendier Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany); Seiferth, Conrad [Kermel und Scholtka Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Gas supply contracts of all market stages contain ToP clauses (ToP = Take or Pay). These clauses obligate the consumers of gas to the payment of a certain minimum quantity of gas independently of the actually removed mass of gas. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the cartel legal and civil legal validity of ToP clauses in gas supply contracts with distribution. These clauses represent a control-free price agreement. A clear substantiation of an inadequate disadvantage of the consumer of gas by ToP clauses is not to be furnished. The ToP clauses do not deviate from legal or contract-typical principles. With the conclusion of a contract, the contracting parties assume that the obligation of payment of the customer corresponds to the obligation of supply by the supplier.

  15. Should she be granted asylum? Examining the justifiability of the persecution criterion and nexus clause in asylum law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Wirth Nogradi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current international asylum regime recognizes only persecuted persons as rightful asylum applicants. The Geneva Convention and Protocol enumerate specific grounds upon which persecution is recognized. Claimants who cannot demonstrate a real risk of persecution based on one of the recognized grounds are unlikely to be granted asylum. This paper aims to relate real-world practices to normative theories, asking whether the Convention’s restricted preference towards persecuted persons is normatively justified. I intend to show that the justifications of the persecution criterion also apply to grounds currently lacking recognition. My main concern will be persecution on the grounds of gender.The first section introduces the dominant standpoints in theories of asylum, which give different answers to the question of who should be granted asylum, based on different normative considerations. Humanitarian theories base their claims on the factual neediness of asylum-seekers, holding that whoever is in grave danger of harm or deprivation should be granted asylum. Political theories base their justifications on conceptions of legitimacy and membership, holding that whoever has been denied membership in their original state should be granted asylum. Under political theories, Matthew Price’s theory will be discussed, which provides a normative justification of the currently recognized persecution criterion. The second section provides a descriptive definition of persecution based on Kuosmanen (2014, and evaluates the normative relevance of the different elements of this definition based on the theories presented previously. The third section is devoted to the examination of the normative justifiability of the nexus clause’s exclusive list of the bases (grounds upon which persons might be persecuted. The section argues that while the clause does not recognize that persecution might be based on gender, in fact many women experience harms based on

  16. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  17. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-10-22

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  18. Benzene destruction in claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-07-02

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are present as contaminants in the H 2S gas stream entering a Claus furnace. The exhaust gases from the furnace enter catalytic units, where BTX form soot particles. These particles clog and deactivate the catalysts. A solution to this problem is BTX oxidation before the gases enter catalyst beds. This work presents a theoretical investigation on benzene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to develop a detailed mechanism for phenyl radical -SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition to phenyl radical after overcoming an energy barrier of 6.4 kJ/mol. This addition reaction is highly exothermic, where a reaction energy of 182 kJ/mol is released. The most favorable pathway involves O-S bond breakage, leading to the release of SO. A remarkable similarity between the pathways for phenyl radical oxidation by O2 and its oxidation by SO2 is observed. The reaction rate constants are also evaluated to facilitate process simulations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Effect of oxygen enrichment in air on acid gas combustion under Claus conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Salisu

    2013-09-01

    Results are presented to examine the combustion of acid gas (H2S and CO2) in hydrogen-fueled flames using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen under Claus conditions (Φ = 3). Specifically the effect of oxygen enrichment in the above flames is examined. The compositions of acid gas examined are100% H2S and 50% H2S/50% CO2 with different percentages of oxygen enrichment (0%, 19.3% and 69.3%) in the oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The results revealed that combustion of acid gas formed SO2 wherein the mole fraction of SO2 increased to an asymptotic value at all the oxygen concentrations examined. In addition, increase in oxygen enrichment of the air resulted in increased amounts of SO2 rather than the formation of more desirable elemental sulfur. In case of 50% H2S/50% CO2 acid gas, carbon monoxide mole fraction increased with oxygen enrichment which is an indicator to the availability of additional amounts of oxygen into the reaction pool. This gas mixture resulted in the formation of other sulfurous–carbonaceous compounds (COS and CS2) due to the presence of carbon monoxide. The results showed that the rate of COS formation increased with oxygen enrichment due to the availability of higher amounts of CO while that of CS2 reduced. The global reactions responsible for this observed phenomenon are presented.

  20. The impact of currency clause and exchange rate on Serbian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In nineties Serbia survived the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, intense UN sanctions, and 1999 78 days of bombing by NATO. This has resulted in a drop in production and hyperinflation. The confidence in the national currency the dinar has been lost. In order to do business in Serbia returned to normal framework the Law on Foreign Exchange imposed the possibility of nomination the loans in foreign currencies. This prompted the business, but it meant a de facto legalization of dual currency system. The logical consequence was the high degree of dollarization. It is important to mention that the dual currency system limited the possibilities of monetary policy of the National Bank of Serbia. Dollarization after the first positive results showed their expected bad sides. Appreciation of the dinar was one of the consequences. The trade deficit and foreign debt grew. Due to the appreciation production rate remained at 40% of its 1989 level, and unemployment has risen to 27%. The benefit of the appreciation had only importers and foreign-owned banks. They take out the capital abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to make changes to the Foreign Exchange Law and abolish foreign currency clause at least for a new loans.

  1. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System Vehicles and Related Services. 52.251-2 Section 52.251-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  2. La posición del sujeto pronominal en las cláusulas no declarativas (The placement of pronominal subjects in non-declarative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la colocación variable del sujeto en español permite observar la relevancia de los factores discursivo-cognitivos en la variación sintáctica y demostrar que todos los efectos comunicativos de una elección formal pueden relacionarse con dichos factores. El presente trabajo analiza los sujetos explícitos de primera y segunda persona en dos tipos de cláusulas no declarativas (interrogativas e imperativas, tomando como base dos corpus textualmente diversificados. Se descubre que la variación formal obedece a principios icónicos muy similares en ambos contextos gramaticales. La posposición del sujeto al verbo es la variante menos marcada, lo que establece una diferencia con la cláusula declarativa, que tiende al orden SVO. Por la misma razón, la anteposición del sujeto en aquellos contextos permite generar valores discursivo-pragmáticos especiales; estos se concretan, sobre todo, en una mayor asertividad o presuposición acerca del contenido del enunciado. Las proyecciones comunicativas de estos valores básicos se ilustran a través de la observación de diversos ejemplos. (The variable placement of Spanish subjects offers an illustration of the relevance of discursive-cognitive factors in explaining syntactic variation, as well as a demonstration of the fact that all communicative effects of formal choices can be related to such factors. In the present paper, first- and secondperson overt subjects are analyzed within two types of non-declarative clauses (interrogative and imperative ones and across two textually diversified corpora. Formal variation is discovered to follow very similar iconic principles in both grammatical contexts. The placing of the subject after the verb is the less-marked variant, which makes a difference with declarative clauses, where SVO is the preferred order. Due to this, subject preposition in the former contexts triggers the generation of special discursive-pragmatic values, particularly of

  3. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. 252.251-7001 Section 252.251-7001 Federal Acquisition... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991...

  4. Development and industrial application of catalyzer for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis of Claus tail gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of more strict national environmental protection laws, energy conservation, emission reduction and clean production will present higher requirements for sulfur recovery tail gas processing techniques and catalyzers. As for Claus tail gas, conventional hydrogenation catalyzers are gradually being replaced by low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers. This paper concentrates on the development of technologies for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis catalyzers, preparation of such catalyzers and their industrial application. In view of the specific features of SO2 hydrogenation and organic sulfur hydrolysis during low-temperature hydrogenation, a new technical process involving joint application of hydrogenation catalyzers and hydrolysis catalyzers was proposed. In addition, low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers and low-temperature hydrolysis catalyzers suitable for low-temperature conditions were developed. Joint application of these two kinds of catalyzers may reduce the inlet temperatures in the conventional hydrogenation reactors from 280 °C to 220 °C, at the same time, hydrogenation conversion rates of SO2 can be enhanced to over 99%. To further accelerate the hydrolysis rate of organic sulfur, the catalyzers for hydrolysis of low-temperature organic sulfur were developed. In lab tests, the volume ratio of the total sulfur content in tail gas can be as low as 131 × 10−6 when these two kinds of catalyzers were used in a proportion of 5:5 in volumes. Industrial application of these catalyzers was implemented in 17 sulfur recovery tail gas processing facilities of 15 companies. As a result, Sinopec Jinling Petrochemical Company had outstanding application performances with a tail gas discharging rate lower than 77.9 mg/m3 and a total sulfur recovery of 99.97%.

  5. Escape Clauses and Targeting of the Real Exchange Rate: The Case of Nominal Exchange Rate Pegging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo González M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    We consider an economy under a fixed exchange rate system, but with bounds (a minimum level or a band on the real exchange rate. The international price of the tradable good is characterized by the continuous arrival of shocks that change its level. In a model with microfoundations, we investigate the effects of targeting the real exchange rate through nominal exchange rate changes that preclude the real exchange from trespassing the imposed bounds.

    A stochastic general equilibrium model with two goods and fixed non-tradable goods price level is developed. We analyze the cases in which a lower bound or a band on the real exchange rate is introduced. The general conclusion is that when bounds are established, then welfare effects can be expected, which are generated at the expense of the levels of consumption that go in the opposite direction than what the policy intended. This short-run effect is present even in the case the targeting policy is never exercised. This result is similar to the one we find in the target zones literature, in the sense that just the existence of this tolerance band changes the behavior of the economy.

    An interesting result is that, in the case in which home goods prices are fixed, the imposition of the band on the real exchange rate does not change its behavior within the band. However, this result is not true of other real variables in the economy. In other words, although the targeted variable within the band behaves identically to the case in which there are no bounds, the rest of the real variables in the economy behave differently, even if the targeted variable remains within the band and the escape clause is not triggered.

  6. THE LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATION OF STUDENTS’ PRESENTATION IN ACCELERATION PROGRAM OF SMA LABSCHOOL JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Drivoka Sulistyaningrum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the kinds of taxis and logico-semantic relation of students’ presentation in Acceleration Program of SMA Labschool Jakarta. The meanings represented in clause complexes are analyzed based on the concept of relationship between clauses suggested by Halliday (1994: 373. The analysis of taxis and logico-semantic relation is necessary in order to present a pattern of the complexity of the acceleration students. The observation video was recorded in class K-12 then transcribed and analyzed by means of analysis of clause complexes proposed by Gerot and Wignell (1994: 21. The finding in the study shows that the clause complexity in the acceleration students’ presentation is varied. In the first group consisting 4 female students, almost all kinds of taxis and logico-semantic are relation found in their presentation, except hypotactic extension. In correspondence with the first group, the second group consisting 4 male students, has produced all kinds of relation except locution. From all groups the type of taxis and logico-semantic relation mostly arises is paratactic elaboration. The analysis of meaning reveals that the dominant meaning is addition which appears from extension.

  7. Appositive Clauses in EST and Their Translation%科技英语中的同位语从句及其翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利蓉

    2013-01-01

    首先从定义、分类、以及同位语从句与定语从句的区别等分析了同位语从句.然后,结合实例探讨了同位语从句的翻译方法,以提高对同位语从句的识别认知能力和翻译技巧.%After describing the appositive clause in EST from its definition,classification and difference from the attributive clause,this paper probes into some ways of its translation with real examples,hoping it will be useful for improving the cognition of appositive clauses in EST and translation skills.

  8. Religion-Related Caselaw Knowledge and Practices of Student Personnel Administrators in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Roma-Mary G.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1992-01-01

    To ascertain the knowledge level and congruent practices among public college and university student-personnel administrators relating to reported court decisions based on the First Amendment religious clauses, questionnaires were sent to a sample of 250 administrators. Responses from 169 (68%) of the administrators are analyzed. (MLF)

  9. Processing of Japanese Cleft Constructions in Context: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masataka; Tateyama, Yuki; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found "subject gap preference" in relative clauses and cleft constructions in English, French, and other languages. In contrast, previous studies have reported "object gap preference" in cleft constructions in Japanese. However, the effect of integrating a filler and its gap may be influenced by the effect…

  10. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE NGÄBÉRE THE SIMPLE CLAUSE IN NGÄBÉRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Murillo Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo hace una descripción inicial de las características más importantes de la oración simple de la variante de la lengua ngäbére (guaymí hablada en el Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Sin embargo, aunque no es un trabajo comparativo propiamente dicho, sí se hacen unas pequeñas menciones de las propiedades de la oración simple en el ngäbére panameño, sobre el cual existen un poco más de estudios.This paper makes a preliminary description of the most important features of simple clause in the variant of the Ngäbére language (Guaymí spoken in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Although not a proper comparative study, it does make some reference to the characteristics of the simple clause in Panamanian Ngäbére, on which there is a bit more of study.

  11. A Legal Analysis of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and Its Impact on Ballot Initiatives and Affirmative Action Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Harold Davon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the controversial issues surrounding affirmative action in higher education. Are anti-affirmative action ballot initiatives in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by restructuring the political process of minorities in such a way that places special burden on their ability to secure…

  12. Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Aizawa Kato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inversion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complements of a third copula distinct from the attributive 'ser' and the stative 'estar', which underlies cleft constructions. The derivation of free small clauses is parallel to canonical cleft sentences.Este artigo examina o que chamamos de mini-orações livres, que, diferentemente de mini-orações dependentes, exibem algumas propriedades peculiares: (a é restrita a ocorrer com adjetivos de indivíduo ou de evento, (b tem que ter o sujeito posposto. Após considerar várias hipóteses sobre a natureza dessa inversão, propôs-se que os adjetivos que nela aparecem são do tipo ergativo. Essas mini-orações podem ser complementos de um tipo especial de cópula, do tipo que aparece com construções clivadas. As derivações das mini-orações livres seriam paralelas à derivação de construções clivadas.

  13. Research progress of application of CLAUS process in sulfur recovery%克劳斯工艺在硫回收中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利波; 董利刚; 王君华; 樊文娟

    2015-01-01

    CLAUS process is an industrial method for conversion of H2S to sulfur. The advantages of applying liquid sulfur to complete H2S conversion lies in the ability to use the soluble H2S existed liquid sulfur,and that the CLAUS process and super-CLAUS process's high-efficiency catalyst can be used. This paper made overview to the research progress of CLAUS reaction in liquid sulfur,and described different detection experiments and their relevant conclusions.%克劳斯工艺是将硫化氢转变为硫磺的工业方法,应用液硫完成H2S的转换优势在于能够利用液硫中溶解的H2S,且可以应用克劳斯工艺和超克劳斯工艺的高效催化剂.文中概述了液硫中的克劳斯反应研究进展,阐述了不同的检测实验及其相关结论.

  14. The Issue of Unilateral Option Clause in Footballer’s Contract%职业足球联赛中单边续约选择条款问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席志文

    2016-01-01

    The Unilateral Option Clause in footballer’s contract is a common practice in the area of football law and management .As a financial and player control mechanism ,the unilateral op‐tion clause is used to reduce the financial risk of the club and to keep the competitive balance . However ,due to the optional clause’s ‘unilateral’ feature ,and in violation of the legal frame‐work of regulations of FIFA ,Dispute Resolution Center of FIFA (DRC ) and Court of Arbitra‐tion of Sports (CAS )are always inclined to declare the unilateral extension option invalid .The guiding criteria for deciding the option clause’s validity is gradually formed by DRC and CAS during the dealing process .Nevertheless ,DRC and CAS show different approaches to deal with the disputed unilateral optional clause ,DRC is more inclined to declare its invalid ,while CAS a‐dopts to take a case by case approach to assess the option clause’s validity and fully checking the background specifics of each case .Football Clubs should rebuilt and transform the unilater‐al optional clause in accordance with the relative criteria ,and at meantime fully respect and pro‐tect the footballer’s right of known and freedom of choice by strictly abiding by the principle of contract law and labor law during the process of performing the contract ,which will contrib‐ute to keep the balance of contractual stability and player mobility in modern football world .%足球球员合同中的单边续约选择条款是足球法律与实务经常面对的问题。单边续约选择条款作为一项财政平衡与球员控制机制,有助于俱乐部降低财政风险,同时保持足球运动的竞争平衡。但是,由于单边选择条款在实践中往往因其仅有利于俱乐部一方的单边性特征,违反了国际足球联合会(以下简称“国际足联”)关于球员合同的基本规则,而被国际足联争议解决庭与国际体育仲裁院认定无效。然而,国

  15. Optimal Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a DC Pension Plan with the Return of Premiums Clauses and Annuity Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Lei Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Defined contribution and annuity contract are merged into one pension plan to study both accumulation phase and distribution phase, which results in such effects that both phases before and after retirement being “defined”. Under the Heston’s stochastic volatility model, this paper focuses on mean-variance insurers with the return of premiums clauses to study the optimal time-consistent investment strategy for the DC pension merged with an annuity contract. Both accumulation phase before retirement and distribution phase after retirement are studied. In the time-consistent framework, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with the optimization problem are established. Applying stochastic optimal control technique, the time-consistent explicit solutions of the optimal strategies and the efficient frontiers are obtained. In addition, numerical analysis illustrates our results and also deepens our knowledge or understanding of the research results.

  16. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  17. It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

  18. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  19. 我國侵害營業秘密與競業禁止違約判決之量化研究 Quantitative Analysis of the ROC Court Decisions on Trade Secret Infringements and Violation of Non-Compete Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    洪榮宗 Oliver Hung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 營業秘密法生效迄今十年,其對於營業秘密的保護是否已周延?實有待觀察。又離職後競業禁止約款之相關實務運作現況為何?亦為探討營業秘密保護議題時,無法切割之問題。 本文利用司法院之系統查詢我國地方法院自1999 年8 月1 日起至2006年6 月30 日止,侵害營業秘密或違反競業禁止約款之民事判決,並以量化分析方式探討司法實務之態度。 本文之量化分析顯示:營業秘密與競業禁止訴訟之勝率均偏低;主張違反競業禁止明顯比主張侵害營業秘密來得容易;兩類訴訟之平均審理時間恐無法因應其急迫性需求;未約定違反競業禁止約款之違約賠償罰則的敗訴機率極高;競業禁止約款之五原則在法院實務上並未被遵守等。本文希望透過上開發現與確認,能期待找出改善之道。 The ROC Trade Secret Act has come into force for 10 years. However, whether it has sufficiently protected the trade secrets remains unanswered. In addition, the current operation and practice of “Non-Compete Clauses after Employment Relationship” are also important issues while discussing the trade secrets issues. Through the database of the ROC Judicial Yuan, we reviewed all the cases in the ROC district courts in connection with infringements on trade secrets and breach of non-compete clauses from August 1, 1999 to June 30, 2006 and conducted quantitative analysis of the courts’ opinions in this regard. The results of our quantitative analysis show that: 1. most of the decisions related to trade secret infringements and breach of non-compete clauses are in favor of defendants; 2. it is easier to claim violation of the non-compete clauses than infringements on trade secrets; 3. the trial period is too long to protect the plaintiffs given that the time is of essence; 4. it is quite probable that plaintiffs will lose the lawsuits if no penalty clause for

  20. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana; Jorge Antonio Villagra Cayamana

    2013-01-01

    Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention ...

  1. 英汉同声传译中定语从句的处理策略%The Treatment of Attributive Clause in English-Chinese Simultaneous Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卉青

    2016-01-01

    定语从句的处理既是英汉同传的重点,也是难点,直接影响到同传的质量。本文依照丹尼尔·吉尔的精力模型和顺句驱动原则,在详细分析各种场合下的定语从句的基础上,总结出定语从句的断句技巧和衔接技巧,希望对口译学习者有所帮助。%Interpretation of the attributive clause are both a key point and a difficult point in English-Chinese simultaneous interpretation ,which directly affect the quality of interpretation. Based on Daniel Gile's Effort Model of SL and the principle of syntactic linearity, this paper does a thorough analysis of attributive clauses in various situations, then summarizes several interpreting skills of the attributive clause,hoping to help interpretation learners.

  2. 基于Aspen Plus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟%Analog of ClausSulfur Recovery Process Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林发现; 丁玲; 陈延林; 李繁荣; 师慧灵; 邹隐文

    2011-01-01

    Adopting Aspen Plus process analog calculation software,process flow for Claus sulfur recovery was simulated,simulated data was good coincident with the data demarcated by analog software used specially for sulfur recovery;on that basis,author has studied the influence of Claus key data on process flow by use of Aspen Plus modular analysis function,its conclusion was coincident with practical production process;result indicates that it has optimizing role for both design calculation and production operation based on the Claus sulfur recovery process analog.%采用Aspen P lus工艺模拟计算软件模拟了克劳斯硫回收工艺过程,模拟数据与硫回收专用模拟软件的标定数据吻合较好;在此基础上,利用Aspen P lus模块化分析功能,研究了克劳斯工艺的关键数据对工艺过程的影响,其结论与实际生产过程相符合;结果表明,基于Aspen P lus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟,对设计计算和生产操作均具有优化作用。

  3. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  4. El "Còdex Miscel‧lani" de l'Arxiu de les Set Claus (Andorra la Vella, Arxiu Històric Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanach i Suñol, Joan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A codicological description and study of ms. 1 of the Archive of the Seven Keys of the National Historical Archive of Andorra, called the Miscellaneous Codex. As its name implies, it is a collection of very heterogeneous material, including historical documents relating to Andorra, along with medical-scientific, doctrinal and literary texts. An analysis of the texts which make up the volume and of the various annotations it contains, clearly indicates that the volume could not have been put together after the end of the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century.

    Descripció codicològica i estudi del ms. 1 de l´Arxiu de les Set Claus de l'Arxiu Històric Nacional d'Andorra, anomenat Còdex Miscel‧lani. Es tracta d'un volum factici de contingut molt heterogeni, que inclou documentació relativa a Andorra, textos medicocientífícs, doctrinals i literaris. L'anàlisi dels textos que el componen i de les intervencions que s’hi poden observar posa de manifest que la constitució del volum no degué ser posterior al pas del segle XV al XVI. [es] Descripción codicológica y estudio del ms. 1 del Archivo de las Siete Llaves, del Archivo Histórico Nacional de Andorra, conocido como Código Misceláneo. Se trata de un volúmen facticio de contenido muy heterogéneo, que incluye documentación relativa a Andorra, textos médicocientíficos, doctrinales y literarios. El análisis de los textos que lo componen y de las intervenciones que se han podido observar ponen de manifiesto que la elaboración de este volúmen no debe ser posterior a la transición de los siglos XV a XVI.

  5. 76 FR 26235 - EPAAR Clause for Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Management (a) Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM) is defined as any planning, budgeting..., collection, creation, use and dissemination of information. IRM includes both information itself and the... other automated information services. (b) General. The Contractor shall perform any IRM related...

  6. Content and Epistemic Relations: A Developmental Study of Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Verbrugge

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the types of coherence relations adults and children can recall after having read a text. We discerned content and epistemic relations (Dancygier, 1998; Sweetser, 1990. Content relations express relations between events in reality. Epistemic relations typically express relations between states of thinking (premise-conclusion relations. The relations between the two parts of a content or epistemic relation is often made explicit by means of connectives. The differences between these types of sentences have been shown in different areas (e.g., reasoning, clause integration, acquisition. However, no clear results could be reached as for recall of these relations and the interaction with connectives. We aim to clarify this debate by means of an experiment involving 539 participants. The experiment revealed that the difficulty associated with epistemic relations decreases as participants get older. Interestingly, connectives play a larger role in participants' ability to recall epistemic compared to content relations.

  7. The continuing rationale for Full and timely recovery of fuel price levels in fuel adjustment clauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Eugene T.; Olson, Wayne P.; Strunk, Kurt

    2008-07-15

    Rate mechanisms that allow for more frequent automatic changes to rates to reflect changing fuel and purchased power costs can reduce the need for full-blown rate cases. With a clear and relatively simple framework, utilities and customers can understand and properly manage their energy costs. (author)

  8. Religious Music, the Public Schools, and the Establishment Clause: A Review of Federal Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmore, Jeff; Fossey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Various issues relating to education and religion continue to appear in federal court. One issue that is most relevant to music educators is the use of religious music in school music curriculum. Although no federal guidelines exist as to what is acceptable usage, a number of federal cases have addressed the various issues, from the use of…

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Text of Employee Notice Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS Definitions, Requirements for Employee Notice, and...” shall consist of the following: “Employee Rights Under The National Labor Relations Act” “The...

  10. Subject Extraction out of Free Relatives in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Hogoboom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an anomalous construction in Norwegian that appears to be leftward extraction of a subject out of a wh island. This extraction seems to be allowed out of a free relative clause in adjunct position, under certain semantic conditions. The range of this construction is tested and reported on. It is found that this extraction is only allowed when the matrix verb and the free relative verb fall into certain categories. In addition, there are also restrictions on the extracted subject. An explanation as to why the components of the sentence in such extractions are restricted in the way they are is put forth.

  11. THE PLEA OF CONFIDENTIALITY CLAUSE IN ‘SMALL CLAIM ́ S COURTS’ ELECTRONICS CASES: ITS NECESSITY ON BEHALF OF THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gaudio Rezende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the reality of the “Small Claim ́s Courts” of Rio de Janeiro with regarding the need to keep the plea of confidential clause in answer to the complaint, in Courts which is applied the electronic system, until the start of the hearing and trial. The foundation of such need is based on the constitutional principle of equality, considering also the existence of procedures that are still physical, in that the plaintiff only has views of the arguments of the defendant in the aforementioned procedural step in accordance with the Law n. 9.099/1995.

  12. K.Schmidtke-Bode: A Typology of Purpose Clauses (2009)%《目的小句类型学研究》述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洪波

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.引言 (A Typology of Purpose Clauses)的作者是德国Jena Friedrich Schiller大学的Karsten Schmidtke-Bode.全书正文共五章.正文前有目录、致谢、缩写及符号表.正文后附有参考文献、作者索引、语言索引和重要概念词语索引,以及"语言类型学研究"系列88部著作的书目.下面分述各章内容,然后做一个简评.

  13. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  14. Incorporation of Jurisdiction and Arbitration Clause in Contract%论合同中管辖及仲裁条款的并入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓琳

    2012-01-01

    在英美法系,合同中管辖及仲裁条款的并入分为将行业标准条款并入合同,把一个合同中的管辖或仲裁条款并入另一个合同,以及把一方当事人的标准条款并入合同三种情形。在中国国际航运中也经常发生并入的情形,但适用标准不统一。%In common -law system, there are three cases in the incorporation of jurisdiction and arbitration clause in contract. They are to incorporate industry standard terms into the contract, to incorporate the jurisdiction or arbitra- tion clause of one contract into another one, and to incorporate standard terms of one party into the contract. There are also incorporations in China' s international shipping, but the standards are not uniform.

  15. Discussion on Stable Operation Factors in Claus Sulfur Recovery%克劳斯硫回收稳定运行因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the national economy, our coal chemical industry has been rapid developed. Meanwhile, in order to make emissions meet the national environmental protection requirements, sulfur recovery process also continues to develop and progress. At present, the main technology is the claus process sulfur recovery. This method is usually used to treat the acid gas containing 15% ~17% hydrogen sulfide. By analyzing Claus sulfur recovery works and process, process control was discussed to improve the sulfur recovery rate and reduce SO2 emissions.%随着我国国民经济的快速增长,我国的煤化工领域也得到了高速发展。同时为了使尾气排放达到国家环保要求,硫回收工艺也在不断的发展进步。目前国内硫回收的主要技术是克劳斯法,此法通常处理含硫化氢为15%~100%的酸性气。本文通过克劳斯硫回收的工作原理、工艺流程,探讨了如何通过工艺控制,进而达到提高硫磺回收率、降低SO2排放的目的。

  16. An fMRI Study Dissociating Distance Measures Computed by Broca’s Area in Movement Processing: Clause boundary vs Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP similar to the dependency head intervene the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca’s area, showing that activity in Broca’s area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca’s area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca’s area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG. Therefore, the involvement of Broca’s area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (ie, NP intervention.

  17. 从顺应论看英文定语从句的汉译%On Translation of Attributive Clause from the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小芳

    2015-01-01

    According to the Adaptation theory, the language use is always accompanied by the selecting and adap-ting effort of the participants.As a matter of fact, a translator also needs to make choices and adaptations in the course of translation in his translating process.When the translation of attributive clause into Chinese is concerned, the translator is supposed to achieve the faithfulness to the source language and the smoothness in the target lan-guage, which requires the adaptation to the Chinese language.This paper probes into the translation of attributive clause from the approach of the adaptation theory.%顺应论认为语言的使用过程始终伴随着交际双方的选择和适应。从本质上来说,翻译的过程也是译者不断进行选择和适应的过程。就定语从句的汉译而言,译者既要忠实于原文,同时要确保译文通顺,这就意味着要顺应汉语的语言习惯和要求。本文拟从顺应论的角度诠释英语定语从句汉译的不同处理手法。

  18. Jelly Views : Extending Relational Database Systems Toward Deductive Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Wojnicki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the Jelly View technology, which provides a new, practical methodology for knowledge decomposition, storage, and retrieval within Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS. Intensional Knowledge clauses (rules are decomposed and stored in the RDBMS founding reusable components. The results of the rule-based processing are visible as regular views, accessible through SQL. From the end-user point of view the processing capability becomes unlimited (arbitrarily complex queries can be constructed using Intensional Knowledge, while the most external queries are expressed with standard SQL. The RDBMS functionality becomes extended toward that of the Deductive Databases

  19. Variation study of the clause in the Chinese translation of English poetry from transitivity perspective -- Case study of She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways and its three Chinese versions%及物性视域下英诗汉译中小句的变异研究——以《她住在人际罕至之地》及其3个中译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立学

    2012-01-01

    Taking She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways and its three Chinese versions as example, the paper carries out discourse analysis on the transmission of clause in the Chinese translation of English poetry from the perspective of the transitivity in Systemic-Functional linguistics. It focuses on the variation of the clause in the Chinese translation of the English poetry, which is found inevitable. This proves that fidelity is relative while variation absolute. The former is a macroscopic description while the latter a microscopic one.%以《她住在人际罕至之地》及其3个中译本为例,用功能语言学及物性理论的6个过程对英诗汉译中小句的传译进行话语分析,重点考察英诗中小句传译的变异,发现英诗汉译中变异的不可避免性。这说明英诗汉译中忠实只是相对的,而变异却是绝对的;忠实只是宏观的描述,而变异是微观的描述。

  20. VALENCY AND SYNTACTICAL RELATION IN BIMANESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sri Satyawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the findings and descriptions of the replies to severalproblems that have not been completely and deeply discussed in the researchespreviously conducted on Bimanese. The problems are related to micro-linguistic factors,namely valency and syntactical relation in Bimanese. Both deductive and inductiveapproaches were applied to obtain satisfactory results. The main theory employed in thisstudy is Role and Reference Grammar Theory (RRG by Van Valin and J. Lapolla. It wasemployed to completely analyze the collected data in accordance with the problemsproposed in this research, and the inductive approach was employed to analyze the datain order to get novelties.In this study, clause structure is given the first priority to discuss, followed by thediscussion on operator, voice markers, nominalizers, and definiteness. Based on thepredicate category, the clause in Bimanese can be constructed with the constituents thatare under the categories of verb, noun, adjective, number, and adverb (prepositionalphrase. Based on the clause analysis, it has been found that in Bimanese there are severaloperators, each of which has different functional boundary in marking the clausemeaning. One operator may only sign nucleus, core (nucleus and argument, or core andperiphery. Bimanese has also been identified to have four linguistic states expressed byverbs that are made to make sense based on state (Aktisontrat, achievement, andaccomplishment. RRG classifies verbs into ten instead of four. However, in this study, tomake the analysis easier, verbs are classified into four. The predicate in Bimanese can beboth serial verbs and secondary verbs. It has also been found that the mechanism ofchange in valency is marked by the attachment of markers to the verbs resulting incausativity, applicativity, and resultivity. From those syntactical constructions, thesyntactical relation in Bimanese can be clearly identified. The discussion on syntacticalrelation

  1. Logic Construction of the Clause Providing That "The State Respects and Protects Human Rights"%“国家尊重和保障人权”条款的逻辑解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦强

    2011-01-01

    The human rights clause contained in the Constitution of PRC refers to the article that provides "The State Respects and Protects Human Rights", which was added in the 2004 revision. Logically, the subject of the human rights clause is the State, the object is the act of respecting and protection, and the content is the human rights. Clarification of the logical structure of the human rights clause and a normative interpretation of this clause constitutes the premise and foundation for its implementation and enforcement.%我国宪法中的人权条款是指2004年修宪时新增加的“国家尊重和保障人权”条款。从逻辑结构上看,人权条款的逻辑主体是“国家”,人权条款的逻辑客体是国家的“尊重和保障”行为,人权条款的逻辑内容是“人权”。厘清人权条款的逻辑结构并对其进行规范解释是落实和实施人权条款的前提和基础。

  2. 中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法探讨%Study on the Shifted Translation of English Attributive Clause into Adverbial for Medical (TCM) English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡倩华; 丁年青

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法.方法:主要结合具体例句分析其语法现象,从而探讨医学英语定语从句翻译的技巧之一——转译法,即译成状语从句,并指出其翻译技巧的指导意义.结果:在英语译成汉语的过程中,应该首先判断主句、从句语义上的逻辑关系,翻译时摆脱英语表达形式的束缚,按照汉语的行文习惯,将定语从句转译成状语从句形式的翻译.结论:定语从句在医学英语中广泛应用,正确理解及翻译定语从句对于学习中医学英语非常重要.%Objective; To study the shifted translation of attributive clause into adverbial for medical (TCM) English. Methods .-This paper analyzed the grammatical phenomena in specific sentences and discussed one of the translation skills of the attributive clause in medical ( TCM) English -- shifted translation, which referred to the translation into adverbial. It also gave instructive significance of this trans-lation skill. Results;In the process of E-C Translation,the semantic logic between the main sentence and the clause should be judged. The translation should get rid of the shackles of the English expression forms,the attributive clause should be translated into the form of adverbial clause in accordance with the language habits of the Chinese. Conclusion: The attributive clause is widely used in medical English, so the correct understanding and translation of attributive clause is very important to study medical (TCM) English.

  3. Detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries using non-restricted post-Newtonian approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Sintes, A M

    2000-01-01

    The set up of matched filters for the detection of gravitational waves from in-spiraling compact binaries is usually carried out using the restricted post-Newtonian approximation: the filter phase is modelled including post-Newtonian corrections, whereas the amplitude is retained at the Newtonian order. Here we investigate the effects of the introduction of post-Newtonian corrections also to the amplitude and we discuss some of the implications for signal detection and parameter estimation.

  4. Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Gouveia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias línguas distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de

  5. Avaluació dels estats financers per determinar els factors claus que afecten a la missió d'Adobinve, S.L.

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Pérez, Maria Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Mitjançant l'anàlisi econòmic-financer de l'empresa, del sector on operar i finalment de les variables macroeconòmiques del seu entorn, es realitza l'avaluació d'una empresa per determinar els factors claus que afecten a la seva missió. L'empresa objecte d'estudi és Adobinve, S.L., una empresa del sector del curtit i la seva missió és ser la ribera d'Europa. Mediante el análisis económico-financiero de la empresa, del sector donde operar y finalmente de las variables macroeconómicas de su ...

  6. Claus工艺硫磺回收装置优化改造%Optimization for operation of Claus sulfur recovery unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀军; 王高兴

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modification for sulfur recovery unit to reduce energy consumption with the help of CRC two-stage Claus process designed by Jiangsu Chengyi. The improvement of liquid sulfur sealing and replacement of abundant industry wind from blower have received good results in operation.%结合江苏晟宜设计CRC两段法超优Claus回收工艺对二期硫回收装置运行中出现问题进行改造优化,以达到节能降耗目的;特别利用管网富余工业风代替鼓风机及液硫封设计缺陷的改造,取得了很好运行效果.

  7. Educació Intercultural i TIC: claus pedagògiques de la innovació i el canvi social en el segle XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article planteja la necessitat d'oferir claus pedagògics de la innovació i canvi social a les universitats i institucions de formació del segle XXI. Per tant, el que subratlla és la importància de promoure l'educació intercultural a través de les TIC (tecnologies de la informació i comunicació com a element d'innovació i projecció positiva de la diversitat cultural. Cooperació en xarxa des d'una perspectiva intercultural i la promoció d'habilitats Interculturals són elements fonamentals per a transformar una societat formació escenaris en permanent canvi social.

  8. On Processing of English Relative Clauses with Attachment Ambiguity%含挂靠歧义的英语关系从句认知处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘欣; 张文鹏

    2007-01-01

    句子加工是心理语言学研究的重要内容,主要关注歧义句的处理过程.本文从分析影响句子加工的几个主要因素入手,讨论以英语为母语者以及其母语与英语为同一语系的ESL学习者处理含挂靠歧义的英语关系从句的认知过程.在总结前人研究的贡献与局限的基础上,本文展望了以中国学生为对象开展相关研究的前景.

  9. The Cumulative-Enhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Suzanne; Foley, Claire; Vinnitskaya, Inna

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that investigation of third language (L3) acquisition by adults and children provides essential new insights about the language learning process that neither the study of first language (L1) nor second language (L2) acquisition alone can provide. The focus of this paper concerns the role the learner's L1 plays in succeeding…

  10. A Study on Chinese Relative Clauses Processing%汉语关系从句加工研究现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓霞; 成晓光

    2011-01-01

    关系从句具有复杂的句法结构和丰富的类型学特征,它在认识人类语言能力及认知机制方面较其他句法结构相比具有更特殊的地位.从语言类型学的角度来看,汉语是唯一结合了SVO语序和中心词居后双重特点的语言,它的关系从句结构在句子加工的研究领域中具有重的作用.本文厘清了目前学界比较重的句子加工理论以及国内外汉语关系从句加工的研究成果,探讨了汉语关系从句独特的类型学特征及研究意义,并对未来在此领域的研究方向提出了建议.

  11. The Strategies of English and Chinese Relative Clauses Processing%英汉关系从句加工策略的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳玲; 李荣宝

    2007-01-01

    本研究通过反应时系统实验来探讨英汉关系从句加工策略问题.两个因素影响关系从句的难度,即:中心词在主句中的位置及中心词在从句中的语法作用.实验结果表明,不同类型语言的不同结构导致不同的加工策略,但是工作记忆是影响母语汉语、英语关系从句的加工的重要原因.

  12. A study of attachment preference in ambiguous relative clause processing%关系从句挂靠偏向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛萌萌; 吴一安

    2007-01-01

    本文重点探讨两个问题:(1)中国英语学习者和母语为英语者在处理具有永久性歧义的英语关系从句(RC)(如:N1-介词-N2-RC)时的挂靠偏向;(2)汉语单语使用者和中国英语学习者在加工汉语中具有此类歧义的关系从句时的挂靠偏向,即RC-N1-的-N2.本文采用英汉"离线"句子接受程度测试和"在线"自控速句子阅读实验方法,通过三项实验来收集数据.研究表明,中国英语学习者和汉语单语使用者在加工汉语关系从句挂靠歧义句时偏向于就近挂靠;母语为英语组受试在加工英语关系从句歧义句时则无明显挂靠偏向;中国英语学习者在汉语句子接受程度测试中表现出和汉语单语组受试相同的就近挂靠偏向;在处理同样的英语句型时,其挂靠偏向则不同于英语为母语者.

  13. On Transformation from Relative Clause to V - ing as Attribute%关系分句与作定语的-ing分词结构转换问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏绍珠

    2003-01-01

    本文讨论了关系分句转换为作后置定语的-ing分词结构、含有-ing分词作前置定语的复合形容词结构,同时讨论了关系分句不能转换为作后置定语的-ing分词结构的几种情况.

  14. The Cumulative-Enhancement Model for Language Acquisition: Comparing Adults' and Children's Patterns of Development in First, Second and Third Language Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Suzanne; Foley, Claire; Vinnitskaya, Inna

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we argue that investigation of third language (L3) acquisition by adults and children provides essential new insights about the language learning process that neither the study of first language (L1) nor second language (L2) acquisition alone can provide. The focus of this paper concerns the role the learner's L1 plays in succeeding…

  15. On the Typological Economy of Syntactic Transfer: Word Order and Relative Clause High/Low Attachment Preference in L3 Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    One central question in the formal linguistic study of adult multilingual morphosyntax (i.e., L3/Ln acquisition) involves determining the role(s) the L1 and/or the L2 play(s) at the L3 initial state (e.g., Bardel & Falk, Second Language Research 23: 459-484, 2007; Falk & Bardel, Second Language Research: forthcoming; Flynn et al., The…

  16. Supporting temporal queries on clinical relational databases: the S-WATCH-QL language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, C; Missora, L; Pinciroli, F

    1996-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous and special nature of time, specially in clinical datábases there's the need of particular temporal data and operators. In this paper we describe S-WATCH-QL (Structured Watch Query Language), a temporal extension of SQL, the widespread query language based on the relational model. S-WATCH-QL extends the well-known SQL by the addition of: a) temporal data types that allow the storage of information with different levels of granularity; b) historical relations that can store together both instantaneous valid times and intervals; c) some temporal clauses, functions and predicates allowing to define complex temporal queries.

  17. CLAUS与ZZ-PRO工艺相结合优化硫磺回收工艺%Optimization of sulfur recovery process by combining CLAUS and ZZ-PRO processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姜维

    2015-01-01

    This paper described technical features of CLAUS and ZZ-PRO processes,analyzed the process reason causing So2 in tail gas out of limit in application of CLAUS process,and based on the specific application example,analyzed that the combination of these two processes can realize up-to-standard emission.%文中阐述了CLAUS和ZZ-PRO硫磺回收工艺的技术特点,分析CLAUS工艺中尾气出现SO2超标的工艺原因,结合具体的应用实例,分析了2种工艺相结合可以实现装置的达标排放。

  18. 《论语》及其英译本中投射语言的语篇功能研究%An Textual-function Approach to Projection Clause Nexus in Analects and its English Versions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红辉

    2013-01-01

    The paper, based on the theory of textual function in Systemic Functional Grammar, explores the projection clause nexus in Analects and its English versions. By applying the theory of thematic structure and cohesion in the analysis of projection clause nexus, we find that the different realization of thematic structure and cohesion in different English versions can present different textual meaning. The research concludes that analyzing textual meaning of the projection clause nexus plays important roles in the translation research of projection clause nexus.%《论语》英译的各种翻译策略已受到越来越多研究者的关注,但《论语》中投射语言翻译研究还未能引起足够的重视。为此,文章运用系统功能语言学的语篇功能分析方法,从主位结构和衔接两方面探讨和比较了《论语》原文及其四个英译本中投射语言语篇意义的实现方式。我们发现,译者在翻译原文投射语言时,采用不同的主位结构及衔接机制,造成译本所表达的语篇意义有所差异。这在不同程度上反映了译者翻译目的的不同及对原文投射语言语篇意义的理解差异,从而采用了不同的翻译策略。

  19. 从“腹”的本义和扩展义看“腹”惯用句的意义%Study of meanings of idiomatic clauses on "Abdomen" through its original and extended meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苍丽影

    2012-01-01

    日本人认为,“腹”中有灵魂的存在,在某种程度上,人是用“腹”来进行思考的。因此在日语中,产生了许多关于“腹”的惯用句,这些惯用句是建立在“腹”的本义和扩展义基础上的,并体现出了日本人的精神现象和日本的社会文化现象。通过分析“腹”的本义和扩展义,可以更加清楚“腹”惯用句所表达的意义及其所体现的日本文化。同时根据学生学习和掌握惯用句的现状对日语教学提出了几点建议。%Japanese believe that there exists soul in "abdomen", and to some extent, people think with "abdomen". Therefore, in Japanese, there arise a lot of idiomatic clauses about "abdomen". And these idiomatic clauses are based on the original meaning and extended meaning of "abdomen" and reflect the spirit phenomenon of the Japanese and the social and cultural phenomenon of Japan. By analyzing the original meaning and extended meaning of "abdomen", we can be clearer to the meanings expressed by these idiomatic clauses of "abdomen" as well as the Japanese culture. Besides, according to the present situation of students'study and grasp of idiomatic clauses, we make some resolutions to the Japanese teaching.

  20. 《国际商事合同通则》之艰难情势制度阐析%Study on Hardship Clauses in the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范笑迎

    2013-01-01

    The hardship clauses are stipulated systemically in the UNIDROIT Principles of Inter-national Commercial Contracts (PICC),which represents the highest achievement of international commercial legislation.Although the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CSIG)does not contain the hardship clauses,which are involved in the PICC can be used by courts and arbitral tribunals as a supplement in specific cases.Moreover,the Chinese Con-tract Law may be improved by drawing lessons from the corresponding stipulation for hardship clauses of PICC.There are a number of precedents of arbitration and j udicature provided by the UNIDROIT, which are of great help to research on the hardship clauses in PICC.%集国际商事合同立法大成的《国际商事合同通则》(以下简称《通则》)系统地规定了艰难情势制度。《联合国国际货物销售合同公约》(以下简称CISG)没有规定艰难情势制度,法院与仲裁庭可以适用《通则》作为补充。我国在《合同法》的修订中可以借鉴《通则》对艰难情势制度的规定。国际统一私法协会提供的仲裁与司法判例对研究《通则》的艰难情势制度大有裨益。

  1. Les clauses environnementales dans les accords de libre échange entre pays développés et pays émergents - Analyse des déterminants

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Arslan Tariq; Saucier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Using World Bank data base 'Global Preferential Trade Agreements' (GPTAD), with a sample of above 268 agreements, the paper analyses environmental clauses that these agreements may contain, with a special view on those implying parties from both advanced and emerging economies. A qualitative approach helps to underline essential characteristics of the observed phenomena. Econometrics, based on logit method, tries to identify the main determinants for the introduction o...

  2. On the Application of Task-Based Teaching Approach to Attributive Clause Teaching%任务型教学法在定语从句教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Attributive clause is an important but difficult item in secondary vocational English grammar teaching. Through intro-ducing the definition and characteristics of task-based teaching approach and the functions of attributive clause, the writer adopts flexible teaching methods to create rich situational activities, and then proposes the specific application of task-based teaching ap-proach to attributive clause teaching, so as to make every student interested in learning and acquire knowledge.%  定语从句是中职英语语法教学中的一个重要却较难的项目,笔者通过对任务型教学法概念、特点及定语从句功能的阐述,采用灵活的教学手段,创设丰富的情景活动,提出任务型教学法在定语从句教学中的具体运用,让每个学生学有兴趣,学有所得。

  3. 聋生书面语言简单复句逻辑关系问题探究%The Logic Study of the Written Simple Clauses by Deaf Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卿

    2011-01-01

    本文采用案例研究方法,对收集到的聋生简单复句书面语料进行统计和分析,结果发现聋生简单复句逻辑关系存在大量缺失和错误.笔者对这些偏误产生的原因进行了探讨.并提出情境化教学、总结归纳关联词语等教学策略,以期为聋生简单复句教学提供参考和借鉴.%This case study analyzed the logic relationships of simple clauses written by deaf students. The results showed there were a lot of errors and absences of logic relationships in these clauses. The author offered the reasons for the errors and introduced relevant teaching strategies, such as situational teaching and summarizing conjunctions. It is desirable that these strategies will facilitate the teaching of simple clauses for deaf students.

  4. 浅谈WTO绿色条款及我国的法律对策%WTO Green Clauses and the Legal Coping Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫

    2012-01-01

    随着世界经济一体化进程的加速,国际贸易不断扩张,环境与贸易的冲突日益显现。近年来不断出现的由国际贸易引发的环境争议基本都具体引用了WTO框架下的绿色条款。研究这些绿色条款,为识别贸易保护手段,积极应对贸易绿色壁垒。为达到国际标准而努力创新,提升本国企业竞争力都有着重要的意义。我国应制定循环经济促进法实施细则,缓解资源短缺与经济发展的矛盾;完善环境标准的制定,提高环境准入门槛,防止污染转移;推进环境标志的国际互认,建立我国绿色贸易预警体系。从而消除绿色壁垒,维护我国的正当利益。%Along with the globalization of world economy, international trade expands consistently, arousing conflicts of interests between environment and trade. In recent years, emerging environmental disputes triggered by international trade all quoted green clauses under WTO framework. To study these green clauses is significant for recognizing trade protective measures, responding actively to the green trade barriers, innovating to meet the international standard, and promoting the competitiveness of domestic enterprises. China should formulate detailed implementation regulations to stimulate circular economy to alleviate the contradiction between resource shortage and economic development; complete environmental standard, elevating environmental entry threshold to prevent the transfer of pollution; propel the international mutual acknowledgement of environmental symbols, and set up a green trade warning system so as to eliminate green bar- tiers and protect the nation's interests.

  5. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  6. A study on the reactivity of Ce-based Claus catalysts and the mechanism of its catalysis for removal of H{sub 2}S contained in coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No-Kuk Park; Dong Cheul Han; Tae Jin Lee; Si Ok Ryu [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Republic of Korea). School of Display and Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    Claus reaction was applied for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S contained in the gasified coal gas, and the characteristics of Claus reaction over the Ce-based catalysts were investigated to propose the reaction mechanism. The Ce-based catalysts showed a high activity on Claus reaction. Specially, Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} catalyst had a higher activity than CeO. On the basis of our experimental results, it was proposed that the selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S was carried out by the lattice oxygen in the Ce-based catalysts and that the reduction of SO{sub 2} was performed by the lattice oxygen vacancy in the reduced catalyst. Since the mobility of the lattice oxygen in Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} composite catalyst was better than the one in CeO{sub 2}, Ce{sub 0.8}Zr{sub 0.2O{sub 2}} provided more lattice oxygen for the selective oxidation of H{sub 2}S. It was presumed that the reaction mechanism to convert H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} into elemental sulphur over our prepared catalysts was different from the mechanism over the solid-acid catalysts. Since the moisture was contained in the major components, CO and H, of the gasified fuel gas, the effects of CO and H{sub 2}O on the catalytic reaction were investigated over a Ce-based catalyst. The conversion of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} was decreased in Claus reaction over the Ce-based catalysts as the concentration of either H{sub 2}O or CO in the gasified coal gas was increased. Under the circumstances of the coexistence of both moisture and CO, however, the conversion was increased as the concentration of CO was increased. The reactivity of Claus reaction was varied in terms of the concentration ratio of CO to H{sub 2}O. The maximum conversion of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} was achieved in the condition of that the concentration of CO contained in the reacting gas was higher than the one of H{sub 2}O. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Alkalis scrubbing vs sulphuric acid production with Claus tail gases%克劳斯尾气碱洗涤与生产硫酸的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAMESHNI; 金苏闽(译)

    2012-01-01

    为使克劳斯硫回收装置的硫回收率达到100%,讨论并比较了碱洗涤与生产硫酸这2种尾气处理技术。这2种技术都可用于满足最苛刻的排放要求,生产硫酸的成本略低。但除了成本之外,还应考虑炼油厂的总体布置、原油类型及硫和氮含量、产品酸的市场需求、所需公用工程的供应等因素。%In order to reach the sulphur recovery of 100% from Claus plants, two technology options for the tail gas treating, caustic scrubbing and sulphuric acid production, are discussed and compared. Both of them can be applied to achieve the most stringent requirements and the cost of sulphuric acid production is slightly lower. Be- sides the cost, the factors of overall refinery configuration, crude type and sulphur and nitrogen contents, market demand for selling acid, availability of required utilities, and so on, should also be considered.

  8. 三级克劳斯工艺的应用及改造%Use of 3-Stage Claus Process and Renovation Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义琴

    2015-01-01

    The sulfur recovery process flow and operation conditions of the unit of conventional 3-stage Claus process are introduced,and the renovation before and after trial production,and revamp situation during first time heavy maintenance are described.The operation for more than 2 years suggests that the sulfur recovery unit can satisfy the demand of continuous production,and theφ(H2 S +SO2 )in exhaust emission can generally meet the design requirement of ≤0.6%.%介绍了普通三级克劳斯硫黄回收工艺流程及装置运行情况,阐述了试生产前期改造、试生产后的改造以及第1次大修时的改造情况。通过2年多的运行,该硫回收装置可满足连续生产的要求,排出的尾气中φ(H2 S +SO2)基本能够达到≤0.6%的设计要求。

  9. Transcending the dilemma of "public interest"-on the meaning of the taking clause in the U.S. Constitution and its significance for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qianfan

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution and recent trends in the development of the constitutional concept of "public use" in the case-law history of the United States starting from the source of US government's taking powers and the original meaning of the Taking Clause in the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution. Since the concepts of "public use" and "public interest" are extremely difficult to be defined, it is very hard for the US courts to develop a relevant operative criterion. In the United States, the safeguard of "public interest" in taking mainly lies legislative rather than judicial control.In a democratic society, legislative judgment is highly respected by the courts and the entire takeovers that conform to public use as determined by the Congress are usually deemed constitutional. In this sense, the Congress is a "public interest machine", which automatically generates laws and decisions on behalf of public interests through the democratic representative process. The paper eventually suggests that China should divert its attention from the theoretical definition of "public interest" to institutional construction, and should make the National and Local People's Congresses and their standing committees to play major roles in deciding taking and compensation schemes.

  10. The social clause in the OMC: for a permanent interrelation between OMC and OIT and the respect to the basic rights of the workers A cláusula social na OMC: por uma inter-relação efetiva entre OMC e OIT e o respeito aos direitos fundamentais dos trabalhadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Azevedo de Queiroz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of social clause in the scope of the OMC, as form to eliminate lower conditions of work in the developing countries, is subject that comes exhaustingly being argued inside of the international relations of the commerce. The developed countries accuse the social developing countries with “dumping” and advocate for restrictions in the international trade to the countries that do not consecrate a minimum standard of requirements for the working class. The developing countries accuse the developed countries of waking use of this speech as form to protect their domestic markets. The arguments of both are reasonable, therefore, it is necessary to find an term intermediate, that interrelates OIT and OMC in the direction of protecting the involved workers in the process of production for the international market, at the same time, that it hinders the developed countries of tanking advantage of the social clause to impose protectionistic barriers, harming the developing countries.A inclusão de cláusula social no âmbito da OMC, como forma de eliminar condições de trabalho degradantes nos países em desenvolvimento, é tema que vem sendo exaustivamente discutido dentro das relações internacionais do comércio. Os países desenvolvidos acusam os países em desenvolvimento de “dumping social” e propugnam por restrições no comércio internacional aos países que não consagram um padrão mínimo de exigências para a classe trabalhadora. Os países em desenvolvimento acusam os países desenvolvidos de se utilizarem desse discurso apenas como forma de proteger seus mercados internos. Os argumentos de ambos são plausíveis, por isso, é necessário encontrar um termo médio, que inter-relacione OIT e OMC no sentido de se proteger os trabalhadores envolvidos no processo de produção para o mercado internacional, ao mesmo tempo, que impeça os países desenvolvidos de se aproveitarem da cláusula social para imporem barreiras

  11. SWITCHING-ALGEBRAIC ANALYSIS OF RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhammad Ali Rushdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an established equivalence between relational database Functional Dependencies (FDs and a fragment of switching algebra that is built typically of Horn clauses. This equivalence pertains to both concepts and procedures of the FD relational database domain and the switching algebraic domain. This study is an exposition of the use of switching-algebraic tools in solving problems typically encountered in the analysis and design of relational databases. The switching-algebraic tools utilized include purely-algebraic techniques, purely-visual techniques employing the Karnaugh map and intermediary techniques employing the variable-entered Karnaugh map. The problems handled include; (a the derivation of the closure of a Dependency Set (DS, (b the derivation of the closure of a set of attributes, (c the determination of all candidate keys and (d the derivation of irredundant dependency sets equivalent to a given DS and consequently the determination of the minimal cover of such a set. A relatively large example illustrates the switching-algebraic approach and demonstrates its pedagogical and computational merits over the traditional approach.

  12. 关系从句加工优势及局部句法复杂性解释——以汉语主宾语位置的关系从句加工为例%Preference in Relative Clause Processing as Explained by Local Syntactic Complexity:Evidences from the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 江火

    2010-01-01

    前人关系从句的加工研究往往忽略了中心语句法位置对优势效应的影响.本文采用事件相关电位技术(ERP)考察了汉语中宾语位置上的主,宾语关系从句加工过程,发现与主语位置的汉语关系从句不同的是,宾语位置上的关系从句在加工中表现出主语关系从句的加工优势.针对汉语不同位置上的关系从句加工优势效应的不同,本文结合前人的研究成果,指出普遍共性论和类型学差异论均不能很好地解释关系从句的加工优势,而局部句法复杂性解释才是具有普遍意义的解释.

  13. An Interpersonal-function Approach to Projection Clause Nexus in Analects and its English Versions%《论语》及其英译本中投射语言的人际功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红辉; 曾蕾

    2012-01-01

    《论语》英译的各种翻译策略已受到越来越多研究者的关注,但《论语》中投射语言翻译研究还未能引起足够的重视。因此,本文运用系统功能语言学的人际功能分析方法,从语气、语气成分、人称等角度探讨与比较了《论语》原文及其四个英译本中投射语言人际意义的实现方式。我们发现,不同译者对投射语言的相关翻译策略不尽相同,这在不同程度上反映了译者由于翻译目的的不同及对原文投射语言人际意义的理解差异.产生了对原文相关投射语言人际意义的认知程度的差异,从而采用了不同的翻译策略。%The paper, based on the theory of interpersonal function in Systemic Functional Grammar, explores the projection clause nexus in A nalects and its English versions. By applying the theory of interpersonal function in the analysis of projection clause nexus, we find that the different realization of Mood, mood elements and personal system in different English versions can present different interpersonal meaning. The research concludes that analyzing interpersonal meaning of the projection nexus plays important roles in the translation research of projection clause nexus.

  14. La “clause auteur” : l’écrivain, l’ethos et le discours littéraire The “clause author”: The writer, ethos, and literary discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melliandro Mendes Gallinari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article élabore une réflexion sur la question de l’auctorialité, plus précisément sur les conceptions variables de l’auteur et ses espaces de production, en prenant en considération le discours littéraire, mais aussi d’autres discours sociaux. Le terme d’« auteur » est compris ici comme un accord entre sujets sociaux, c’est-à-dire comme une convention qui varie perpétuellement en fonction des moments historiques et des espaces institutionnels. Pour développer ce point de vue, on s’appuie sur des catégories centrales de l’analyse du discours comme le contrat de communication et l’ethos. Par rapport à ce concept, on examine comment le discours littéraire présente un ethos auctorial qui lui est particulier, et qui n’est pas à confondre avec la production d’images de l’auteur dans d’autres dispositifs comme les médias ou la critique. En fin de parcours, on s’interroge sur la construction moderne et spectaculaire de l’auteur - célébrité dans son rapport problématique à l’ethos auctorial et à la lecture de l’œuvre.This essay develops a reflection on the question of authorship, more specifically on the various conceptions of authorship and its places of production, by investigating literary discourse, but also other kinds of social discourses. The term “author” is here understood as the result of an agreement between social subjects, namely as a convention endlessly varying according to historical moments and institutional spaces. In order to develop this point of view, we will draw on central categories of discourse analysis like communication contract or ethos.  We show how literary discourse constructs a peculiar “authorial ethos”  not to be confused with the production of authorial images in other frameworks like the media or literary criticism. Eventually, we question the modern and spectacular construction of the celebrity-author in its problematic relation to the authorial

  15. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-02-15

    Concerning the european community, two meetings occurred during october 2008, the group on the nuclear safety and the waste management at Brussels and the meeting of W.E.N.R.A. (Western european nuclear regulator association). At the international level, the commission on safety standards took place in september 2008 at Vienna, a general conference of IAEA and the senor regulator meeting in september at Vienna. The worldwide conference of radiation protection (International radiation protection association -I.R.P.A.) took place under IAEA aegis at Buenos Aires in october 2008. Bilateral relations between France and South Africa, Germany, China, United States and Japan took place in october 2008 and were about information exchanges. (N.C.)

  16. Relativity without Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Barbour, J C; Murchadha, N O; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall \\'O

    2002-01-01

    We give a new derivation of general relativity based entirely on three dimensional principles. We start with a parametrisation invariant, Jacobi-type action on superspace. This will be the product of a square root of a potential times the square root of a kinetic energy term. All we demand is that the action have nontrivial solutions. We find that the only viable action is the Baierlein, Sharp, Wheeler Lagrangian and thus we recover G.R. We impose no spacetime conditions whatsoever. We extend this to include scalar and vector fields. We recover causality (everything travels at the same speed), Maxwellian electrodynamics, and the gauge principle. Thus we derive a large part of modern physics from a purely three dimensional point of view.

  17. Children's understanding of first- and third-person perspectives in complement clauses and false-belief tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Buttelmann, David; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-11-01

    De Villiers (Lingua, 2007, Vol. 117, pp. 1858-1878) and others have claimed that children come to understand false belief as they acquire linguistic constructions for representing a proposition and the speaker's epistemic attitude toward that proposition. In the current study, English-speaking children of 3 and 4years of age (N=64) were asked to interpret propositional attitude constructions with a first- or third-person subject of the propositional attitude (e.g., "I think the sticker is in the red box" or "The cow thinks the sticker is in the red box", respectively). They were also assessed for an understanding of their own and others' false beliefs. We found that 4-year-olds showed a better understanding of both third-person propositional attitude constructions and false belief than their younger peers. No significant developmental differences were found for first-person propositional attitude constructions. The older children also showed a better understanding of their own false beliefs than of others' false beliefs. In addition, regression analyses suggest that the older children's comprehension of their own false beliefs was mainly related to their understanding of third-person propositional attitude constructions. These results indicate that we need to take a closer look at the propositional attitude constructions that are supposed to support children's false-belief reasoning. Children may come to understand their own and others' beliefs in different ways, and this may affect both their use and understanding of propositional attitude constructions and their performance in various types of false-belief tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  19. URUTAN KLAUSA DALAM KALIMAT MAJEMUK SUBORDINATIF BAHASA INDONESIA: KAJIAN DARI PERSPEKTIF SINTAKSIS DAN WACANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Praptomo Baryadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the research result on the order of clauses in subordinative compound sentences in Indonesian from the syntactic and discourse perspectives. There are two types of clause orders in the subordinative compound sentences, namely, (i lower clauses on the right side of the main clauses, and (ii lower clauses on the left side of the main clauses. From the syntactic view, lower clauses on the right side of the main clauses may occupy the syntactic functions of O, Complement, S, and Adverbial, while the lower clauses on the left of the main clauses only occupy the function of Adverbials. From the discourse level, lower clauses on the right side of the main clauses only contain information related to the information of the main clauses and not directly connected to the information of the preceding sentence. On the other hand, lower clauses on the left side of the main clauses contain textual presupposition, i.e containing repeated information from the preceding sentence Thus, lower clauses on the left side of the main clause contain old information. The result of the study also proves the truth of Ramsey hyphotesis (1987:385 stating that lower clauses preceding the main clauses have a broader scope as compared to the preceding uterance while those following the main clauses have a more localized scope, i.e, merely related to the main clause.

  20. The arbitration clause of the American International Petroleum Negotiators - AIPN; A clausula compromissoria do modelo AIPN 2002 (American International Petroleum Negotiators) para 'joint operating agreement' a luz da legislacao brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroli, Carla [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    After the Brazilian Petroleum Act (Lei n. 9.478/97) was enacted and the monopoly over the conduct of E and P activities in Brazil was made flexible, in addition to PETROBRAS, other national and foreign companies could participate in such activities. This participation of different players is increasing, specially by the formation o joint ventures constituted in order to the parties to jointly explore and produce hydrocarbons. Under these new circumstances and considering that it is important to develop efficient contractual rules to discipline the E and P operations, the 2002 AIPN Model Form for Joint Operating Agreement has been often used in Brazil. However, the effectiveness of the arbitration clause provided therein must be analyzed under the applicable law to the contract. Besides, since the operations are to be conducted in Brazil, sometimes the Brazilian Law will apply or decisions rendered by an arbitral tribunal may have to be executed in Brazil. Therefore, this paper intends to analyze how the arbitration clause provided by the 2002 AIPN Model Form may be adapted to fit the Brazilian Law. (author)

  1. Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced

  2. Santa Claus Coming to Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ A Beijing netizen using the online screen name Da Qi and a group of his Web friends had big plans to celebrate the holiday season-an evening of singing and laughing at a karaoke club the night before Christmas.But before Da Qi's Christmas festivities could begin,the plan fell through.While a karaoke room at the club usually costs 300 yuan($44.10)for four hours,the price had been jacked up to 1,200 yuan($176.50)for three hours for the Christmas,season,forcing Da Qi and his friends to cancel their plans.

  3. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  4. 宪法“人格尊严”条款的规范地位之辨%Debates on the Normative Status of the"Personal Dignity" Clause under Constitutional Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤君

    2012-01-01

    规范地位是指某一条款在基本权利内部乃至宪法规范体系中的效力,取决于该条款在特定宪法秩序中的法律属性。尊严条款因其法理基础、宪法文本表述及宪法解释实践的差异在各国宪法上享有不同的地位,归纳起来可分为宪法原则、基础价值、规定功能的宪法概念。我国宪法第38条人格尊严的哲学基础不同于其他国家的人是目的、人格发展、交往理论,而是着重于个人的名誉与荣誉保护;宪法文本表述并非人的尊严、人性尊严,而是人格尊严,且该条既未规定在总纲中,亦未置于"公民的基本权利和义务"一章之首,即使与"国家尊重与保护人权"一款结合起来阅读,亦无法取得与其它国家宪法上的规范地位。人格尊严在我国宪法上属于独立条款,也是公民的一项基本权利,具有具体的法律内容,在宪法解释过程中可作为规范与特定宪法事实相涵摄,证明公民的人格尊严受到了侵犯。%The normative status refers to the effect of a clause in the internal part of basic rights and even in the constitutional normative system,which depends on its legal nature in the certain constitutional order.Dignity clause has different statuses in different countries' constitutional laws due to the differences in its basis of legal theory,text expression of constitutional law and the interpretation practice of constitutional law.To summarize,the statuses can be divided into constitutional principle,basic value and constitutional concept defining functions.The philosophic basis of the article 38 concerning personal dignity under the Chinese Constitution,different from human is objective,the development of personality,communication theory in other countries,attaches great importance on protection of personal reputation and honor;its written expression in constitutional law is personal dignity instead of human's dignity or humanity dignity and it is not

  5. 风险社会视域下产品经营者行政责任条款之拾缺补遗--以《产品质量法》第五十五条款为研究对象%Complementing the Production Operators’administrative Responsibilities Clauses in the Risk Society--Researching the Fifty-iffth Clause of Product Quality Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石珍; 戴乔

    2014-01-01

    风险社会管制中效率原则根本不可能要求所有经营者对产品质量做最终的确认,而只能要求经营者在购进产品之时能够确保货源的正当且有据可溯、货质有相关合格检验单据。即虽然经营者与生产者均宽泛性地负有产品安全保障的义务,但出于市场效率以及手段能力大小的考量,经营者与生产者在安全注意义务的程度上并非毫无轩轾,经营者与生产者所应承担的行政责任也应有所差异。一方面,若经营者销售《产品质量法》第四十九条至第五十三条规定禁止销售的产品,且该经营者应当知道却未知道此产品属于禁止销售的产品,同时还有充分证据证明该经营者确实不知道该产品为禁止销售的产品并如实说明其进货来源的,此时,可将该经营者的主观过错定位于过失过错,从而可以从轻或者减轻处罚。另一方面,若经营者销售了《产品质量法》第四十九条至第五十三条规定禁止销售的产品,且该经营者已经尽到了合理的安全注意义务,该经营者难以预见产品为禁止销售的产品,则应以无过错为由免除对经营者的行政处罚责任。%Because of the principle of efifciency in the risk society, it is impossible to ask all the operators conifrming the product qualities. However, the operators would be asked ensuring the legitimate sources of goods which can be looked for the roots and certiifcating the compliance certiifcation which can prove the product qualities. Though the operators have broad obligations to ensure the products’ safety, the extent of the obligations to ensure the products’ safety and the administrative responsibilities would be different between operators and producers based on the market efifciency and abilities. On the one han d, the operators sell the products which are abandoned by the forty-ninth and the the iffty-third clauses of product quality law

  6. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  7. Information Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya.Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article organizes information relations. The article explores the implicative, quantitative, qualitative, logical and situational information relations. The article introduces the concept of implicative and situational relations. Article clarifies the definition of information relations. The article describes examples of information relations. The article shows the difference between the information field and information space. The article uses the concept of Aristotle "logical square" to explain the logic of information relations. This work combines scientific fields of linguistics, philosophy, logic, computer science, artificial intelligence.

  8. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  9. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  10. Quantum relations

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2010-01-01

    We define a "quantum relation" on a von Neumann algebra M \\subset B(H) to be a weak* closed operator bimodule over its commutant M'. Although this definition is framed in terms of a particular representation of M, it is effectively representation independent. Quantum relations on l^\\infty(X) exactly correspond to subsets of X^2, i.e., relations on X. There is also a good definition of a "measurable relation" on a measure space, to which quantum relations partially reduce in the general abelian case. By analogy with the classical setting, we can identify structures such as quantum equivalence relations, quantum partial orders, and quantum graphs, and we can generalize Arveson's fundamental work on weak* closed operator algebras containing a masa to these cases. We are also able to intrinsically characterize the quantum relations on M in terms of families of projections in M \\otimes B(l^2).

  11. Another(’s perspective on subjectivity in causal connectives: a usage-based analysis of volitional causal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninke Stukker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans une hypothèse de catégorisation linguistique, les connecteurs de cause sont pris comme des outils de catégorisation. En effet, des études sur corpus suggèrent que les connecteurs sont fortement spécialisés dans une seule catégorie de causalité spécifique, mais aussi que leur usage n'est pas limité aux catégories de causalité auxquelles ils sont prototypiquement associés. Si nous supposons que le sens des connecteurs causaux peut être adéquatement décrit en référence à des catégories conceptuelles bien définies, comment pouvons-nous expliquer qu’il y ait une variation dans leur usage réel? Nous mettons l'accent sur les relations de cohérence causale volitionnelle, qui constituent le contexte d'usage prototypique du connecteur néerlandais daarom ‘c'est pourquoi’. Un autre moyen d’expression des relations causales volitionnelles est le recours au connecteur dus ‘alors/donc’ qui est prototypiquement utilisé dans les relations de causalité épistémique. Notre hypothèse est que les relations de causalité volitionnelle exprimées par daarom vs dus diffèrent systématiquement en termes de subjectivité. Nous proposons un modèle d'analyse qui contient de multiples opérationnalisation de la notion de subjectivité et une distinction entre différents niveaux de complexité (sous-clause, clause, et discours. Nous constatons que les relations causales volitionnelles en dus contiennent plus souvent des éléments subjectifs que les relations causales volitionnelles en daarom. Nous interprétons cette distribution au sein d'un cadre théorique fondé sur l'usage (usage-based framework, et nous proposons d'analyser les cas volitionnels de dus comme des instanciations non-prototypiques du sens de dus,qui est donc intrinsèquement subjectif et prototypiquement épistémique.Under a linguistic categorization hypothesis causal connectives are taken as categorization devices. Indeed, corpus studies suggest that

  12. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  13. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  14. Les relations économiques et financières franco-allemandes, 1932-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmann, Sylvain; Poidevin, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Malgré les clauses du traité de Versailles, le Reich a réussi, à la fin des années 20, son redressement économique. Mais la crise de 1929 révèle la fragilité financière de cette renaissance. La France, dont le stock d’or est important, refuse son concours à l’Allemagne et c’est alors que les deux pays se replient sur leurs espaces nationaux, dès avant l’arrivée au pouvoir d’Hitler. L’installation du régime nazi pose un problème crucial. Faut-il envisager avec lui des relations économiques et ...

  15. Les relations économiques et financières franco-allemandes, 1932-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmann, Sylvain; Poidevin, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Malgré les clauses du traité de Versailles, le Reich a réussi, à la fin des années 20, son redressement économique. Mais la crise de 1929 révèle la fragilité financière de cette renaissance. La France, dont le stock d’or est important, refuse son concours à l’Allemagne et c’est alors que les deux pays se replient sur leurs espaces nationaux, dès avant l’arrivée au pouvoir d’Hitler. L’installation du régime nazi pose un problème crucial. Faut-il envisager avec lui des relations économiques et ...

  16. Contractual Control and Labour-Related CSR Norms in the Supply Chain: Dutch Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Vytopil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational companies attempt to gain contractual control of their supply chain, in the face of possible reputational and legal risks with regard to corporate social responsibility. This article sets out the choices that fourteen Dutch multinational companies make: do they choose contracts, general terms and conditions and/or codes of conduct to regulate CSR in their supply chains? Furthermore, it explores the possibilities and limitations of these choices in terms of contract law. A model with three possible options that companies may choose is proposed. It is concluded that most Dutch multinationals do not rely on codes of conduct alone; nearly all anchor their codes of conduct by means of contractual mechanisms. Furthermore, nearly all 'strong' choices include perpetual clauses in relation to sub-tier suppliers.

  17. Contractual Control and Labour-Related CSR Norms in the Supply Chain: Dutch Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Vytopil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational companies attempt to gain contractual control of their supply chain, in the face of possible reputational and legal risks with regard to corporate social responsibility. This article sets out the choices that fourteen Dutch multinational companies make: do they choose contracts, general terms and conditions and/or codes of conduct to regulate CSR in their supply chains? Furthermore, it explores the possibilities and limitations of these choices in terms of contract law. A model with three possible options that companies may choose is proposed. It is concluded that most Dutch multinationals do not rely on codes of conduct alone; nearly all anchor their codes of conduct by means of contractual mechanisms. Furthermore, nearly all 'strong' choices include perpetual clauses in relation to sub-tier suppliers.

  18. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  19. Relational Blackboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-11

    The Relational Blackboard (RBB) is an extension of the H2 Relational Database to support discrete events and timeseries data. The original motivation for RBB is as a knowledge base for cognitive systems and simulations. It is useful wherever there is a need for persistent storage of timeseries (i.e. samples of a continuous process generating numerical data) and semantic labels for the data. The RBB is an extension to the H2 Relational Database, which is open-source. RBB is a set of stored procedures for H2 allowing data to be labeled, queried, and resampled.

  20. Discourses of relations and relational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosking, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is a story of relations and relating. There is no wolf, no Little Red Riding Hood; there are no bears, nor little piggies. It is not a heroic tale of how one particular discourse proves its superiority by vanquishing other discourses; it is not a tale told from behind the wings, the modernist a

  1. 试用系统功能模式分析论证叙述句和叙述体语篇——读《老人与海》后的感想%On Narrative Clauses and Narrative Texts within Systemic Functional Framework --After Reading The Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟清

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between the narrative clauses and narrative texts, and the characteristics of narrative texts The relationship between the narrative clauses and narrative texts is studied within a multi-leveled approach. The research work about the characteristics of narrative texts and narrative clauses is not only carried out within a multi-leveled approach but also from the perspective of Halliday's three metafunctions.%本文主要研究叙述句与叙述体语篇体裁之间的关系,并试图通过对叙述句特点的研究来探讨叙述体语篇体裁的特点.叙述句与叙述体语篇体裁之间的关系是多层次的,对其特点的研究也是多层次的,从韩礼德的三大元功能理论入手进行探讨,是最佳途径.

  2. Was abandonment of the review clause a mistake? Evaluation of management flexibility in the German coal mining industry on the basis of real options; War die Aufgabe der Revisionsklausel ein Fehler? Beurteilung unternehmerischer Flexibilitaet im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau auf Basis von Realoptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendiek, Ansgar [Hochtief Concessions AG, Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The author analyses the decision to abandon the co called ''review clause'' (which was the right to revisit the decision to close German hard coal mines in 2012), and thus management flexibility on the basis of the option price theory and use of hedging instruments (derivatives) in coal trading. Only the case of coal production without any subsidies will be taken into account. The original intention of the review clause to subsidise coal production for further years will be left aside. Abandonment of the review clause destroyed a value of the real option of approx. 819 Mio. EUR. It should be agreed with the politicians that the decision concerning potential extension of coal production without subsidies should be made at the end of 2015. At this point in time the coal price for 2019 to 2021 can be locked in by forward contracts. A prerequisite for coal mining without subsidies would be an increase in the coal price of 3.1% p.a., which is only slightly above the inflation rate and seems to be realistic against the background of rising oil prices and increased scarcity of natural resources. (orig.)

  3. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  4. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Animacy Effect of the Head Nouns in Chinese Relative Clause Processing%汉语主、宾关系从句加工难度及其核心名词生命性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文广; 陈宝国

    2016-01-01

    采用眼动追踪实验技术,考查了核心名词生命性取向对汉语主、宾关系从句加工难度调节效应.结果显示:(1)核心名词生命性格局对汉语主、宾关系从句的加工难度有着显著调节作用,具体表现为:当主、从句中的核心名词为“生命性-非生命性”格局时,在主句核心名词、核心动词位置,宾语关系从句加工较为容易;当主、从句中的核心名词为“非生命性-生命性”格局时,在上述位置,两种关系从句加工难度差异不显著;(2)汉语主、宾关系从句加工中核心名词生命性效应主要发生在语义信息提取、论元关系建构阶段,体现出汉语语言的特异性.上述结果支持了题元切适性理论.

  6. Employee relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demann, Eric T K; Stein, Pamela S; Levitt, Christine; Shelton, Keith E

    2008-07-01

    This review highlights some of the more important employee relation aspects involved in starting, establishing, or expanding an existing dental practice. Despite a competitive compensation package, staff-related conflicts can sometimes hamper the progress of a dental practice. Such conflicts can be reduced by having policies and procedures in place for each employee that set expectations concerning the hours of operation, professional manner, dress code, job tasks, performance evaluations, disciplinary actions, and termination if violations occur. Understanding the legal requirements set by various governmental agencies such as OSHA can help ensure that the rights and well-being of every employee are protected.

  7. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  8. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    2003-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  9. 对《保险法》(09年修订)自杀条款和重复保险条款的思考%Analysis on Suicide and Double Insurance Clauses of Insurance Law ( 2009 revision)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兵

    2012-01-01

    2009年,《中华人民共和国保险法》进行了第二次修订,文章分别对比分析了自杀条款和重复保险条款修订前后的差异,认为修订后的自杀条款与重复保险条款仍然存在着缺陷和不足,会引发保险争议和道德风险,以对保险法相关条款进一步修订完善提供启示。%The Insurance Law of the People's Republic of China was amended the second time in 2009, this article analyses the differences before and after amendments of suicide and double insurance clauses, and points out the shortcomings and deficiencies after amendments, which can cause insurance dispute and moral risk, so as to provides the relevant reference for further improvement of insurance law.

  10. 硫磺回收超级克劳斯工艺设备常见故障的处理%Common Fault Disposal of the Equipment on Sulfur Recovery with Super Clause Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利亚; 宋文中; 张秀英

    2012-01-01

    @@%忠县天然气净化厂硫磺回收装置采用了超级克劳斯(Super Claus)工艺,该工艺由1个热反应段,3个常规克劳斯加1个超级克劳斯催化反应段,液硫脱气和尾气焚烧及排放系统组成,设计硫磺回收率大于99.2%.装置仪表失灵的可能原因包括点火枪损坏、在线分析仪失灵、联锁阀调节阀故障、测量仪表偏差过大或失灵.结合忠县天然气净化厂超级克劳斯工艺装置投产以来的运行情况,就超级克劳斯工艺日常操作和开停车过程中常见故障进行分析,并提出相应的解决措施.

  11. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    contribute to and learn from entrepreneurship research. In a number of workshops sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation and the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, a group of international scholars, practicing artists, and representatives of funding organizations have addressed issues such as opportunity......) Entrepreneurship on the art arena - An ecological perspective (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) Distant relations - Art practice in a global culture (Morten Søndergaard) Art entrepreneurship - A commentary (Daved Barry) Summary and policy implications (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander)...

  12. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  13. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  14. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Art EntrepreneurshipIvo Zander Mikael Scherdin This project is funded and sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, and the Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University2008-2009This cutting edge project asks what art and artistic processes can contri......) Entrepreneurship on the art arena - An ecological perspective (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) Distant relations - Art practice in a global culture (Morten Søndergaard) Art entrepreneurship - A commentary (Daved Barry) Summary and policy implications (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander)...

  15. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  16. Thermal Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵柳

    2011-01-01

    The group G of general coordinate transformations on the thermodynamic configuration space ε spanned by all the extensive variables keeps the first law of thermodynamics invariant. One can introduce a metric with Lorentzian signature on the space ε, with the corresponding line element also being invariant under the action of G. This line element is identi6ed as the square of the proper entropy. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is also formulated invariantly and this lays down the foundation for the principle of thermal relativity.

  17. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khriplovich, I. B

    2005-01-01

    This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...

  18. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  19. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  20. LA ENSEÑANZA DEL SUBJUNTIVO EN EE.UU: EL SUBJUNTIVO EN CLÁUSULAS NOMINALES TEACHING THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN THE UNITED STATES: THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jörg Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es proporcionar una descripción sistemática, coherente, práctica y didáctica del subjuntivo en cláusulas nominales para libros de texto o manuales de español intermedio y avanzado para anglohablantes. El hilo conductor de todos los usos es la definición del significado o del valor del subjuntivo dentro del sistema de la lengua española como [+ alternativa]. La clasificación se basa en una revisión crítica de la literatura sobre el valor del modo subjuntivo y sobre la metodología de la enseñanza de este fenómeno de la gramática española. También se incluyen recomendaciones prácticas para la enseñanza del subjuntivo a hablantes no nativos.The purpose of this article is to give a systematic, coherent, practical and didactic description of the subjunctive in noun clauses for use in intermediate and advanced Spanish textbooks for English speakers. All uses of the subjunctive can be reduced to a basic value, which can be seen as [+alternative]. This classification is based upon a critical discussion of the literature regarding the value of the subjunctive mood as well as the teaching methodology of this aspect of the Spanish grammar. We have also included practical recommendations for the teaching of the subjunctive to non-native speakers.

  1. Contact-induced change or dialectal relic in heritage American-Danish? The use of the indefinite article in copula clauses with person-identifying subject predicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård, Jan

    2016-01-01

    dialects the article shows that there is a clear indication of English influence with nouns denoting profession and social status, whereas with nouns that denote an inhabitant it cannot be decided whether American Danish is influenced by English or shows a dialect relic. The article shows......The article analyses the use and non-use of the indefinite article in the identifying copula construction with bare noun as the subject predicate in American Danish. With a point of departure in the semantics associated with use and non-use of the indefinite article in Standard Danish and Danish...... that there is a tendency for Danish immigrants in North America born in Denmark to use the Danish pattern and for descendants of immigrants to use the English pattern but also that the pressure from English has different outcomes related to the individual speaker’s inclination for using the English vs. the Danish pattern....

  2. 匹配关系在儿童故事中的应用%Matching Relations in Children's Stories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫金玲; 于娜

    2011-01-01

    语篇分析是一个对于语言研究和语言教学来说都具有重要意义的语言学领域。对语篇的分析方法有很多,而由Winter和Hoey提出的语义单位关系理论就是其中很有创见的分析方法之一。从介绍语义单位关系这一理论开始,通过实例分析语义单位关系中的匹配关系在儿童故事中的应用,尝试从认知过程的角度对儿童故事中匹配关系的高出现率这一现象进行探讨。%As it is well known,discourse analysis has been a flourishing area of linguistic study which is recognized as making a valuable contribution to our understanding of how language works.Among the contribution made by discourse analysts,one of the most thoughtful ways of viewing discourse has been the clause-relational approach by Eugene Winter and Michael Hoey.This paper will introduce the theory of clause relations and make analysis on the application of matching relations in the children's stories and then discuss the matching relations in the children's stories from the perspective of cognitive process.

  3. Classification of Subjective and Objective Clauses Based on Adaboost Algorithm%基于Adaboost算法的主客观句分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑾娉; 陶杰

    2015-01-01

    中文语句的语义表达复杂,使用单一分类器进行主客观句分类的效果一般. 该文提出一种基于Adaboost算法进行主客观句分类的方法. 首先介绍了主客观分类的研究现状及一般流程;然后引入Adaboost集成学习算法,并针对算法的退化现象进行了相关的改进;最后在实验中使用了词汇线索特征和2-POS特征作为输入对短文本进行分类,结果表明Adaboost在主客观分类应用中效果良好.%Because the semantic expression of Chinese sentences is complex, the effect is not good to classify subjective and objective sentences by using a single classifier. In this paper, a method based on Adaboost algorithm is proposed for the classification of subjec-tive and objective sentences. The research status and general process of the subjective and objective classification are introduced. Then Adaboost algorithm is introduced and some related improvements are done to avoid the degeneration phenomenon. Finally, lexical fea-ture and 2-POS feature are taken as an input to classify short texts. The experimental results show that Adaboost has a good effect in the application of the subjective and objective classification.

  4. Fotografia i diversitat cultural. Claus interpretatives Photography and cultural diversity. Clues for interpretation Fotografía y diversidad cultural. Claves interpretativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Bertran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La fotografia com a mitjà de comunicació té una sèrie de codis i principis bàsics sobre els quals es regeix. Quan la fotografia la trobem dins de la pàgina d’un diari, ja no podem valorar-la individualment i cal tenir en compte la relació que s’estableix entre fotografia i text. En aquest article veurem com establim les relacions visuals entre immigrant i autòcton, com tractem els estereotips i com podem normalitzar la immigració a través de la fotografia. ____________________________________ La photographie en tant que moyen de communication est régie par un ensemble de codes et de principes de base. Celle que l’on trouve dans les pages d’un journal ne peut pas être évaluée individuellement, il faut en effet tenir compte de la relation qui existe entre la photo et le texte. Dans cet article, nous verrons comment on établit des relacions visuelles entre immigrant et autochtone, comment on traite les stéréotypes et comment on peut «normaliser» l’immigration au travers de la photographie.Photography as a means of communication is based on a series of codes and principles. When we see a photograph on a newspaper page, we can no longer judge it individually; we have to consider the relationship between the photograph and the text. This article describes how the visual relationships between immigrants and locals are established, how we deal with stereotypes, and how we can ‘normalize’ immigration through photography.La fotografía como medio de comunicación, tiene una serie de códigos y principios básicos sobre los que regirse. Cuando encontramos la fotografía dentro de la página de un diario, ya no podemos valorarla individualmente, porque hay que tener en cuenta la relación que se establece entre fotografía y texto. En este artículo veremos cómo establecemos las relaciones visuales entre inmigrante/autóctono, cómo tratamos los estereotipos y cómo podemos “normalizar” a la inmigración a través de la

  5. 著作權法「防盜拷措施」條款例外規定要點之檢討 The Review of Regulations Concerning the Exceptions of Anti-piracy Measures Clauses in Taiwan Copyright Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    章忠信 Chung-Hsin Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 「科技保護措施」是著作權人在數位網路環境下,以技術保護其權利的重要手段,國際著作權法制對於這些「科技保護措施」,再以法律保護,使其不被任意破解或規避。然而,這些規定對於廣大的公眾利益究竟有何負面影響,非無疑義。我國著作權法在2004 年9 月1 日增訂「防盜拷措施」條款後,主管機關終於在2006 年3 月23 日發布「防盜拷措施」排除適用範圍之認定要點,即「著作權法第80 條之2 第3 項各款內容認定要點」,本文針對此一要點的訂定背景與內容作簡要介紹與分析,期望引起各界的關注,也可以為本要點下一次的檢討修正作準備。 Technological Protection Measures (TPMs is an important method for copyright owners to employ technology to protect his right under digital internet environment. International copyright treaty establishes legal regime to prevent those TPMs from crack or circumvention. However, what negative side effects those regulations may cause to the public interest needs to be evaluated. Taiwan amended its Copyright Law and introduced so-call Anti-piracy Measures clauses on Sep. 1, 2004. In addition, the Competent Authority released the regulations concerning the details of exceptions and limitations set forth in Paragraph 3 of Article 80ter on Mar. 23, 2006. This Article summarizes the background and analysis the details of the regulations. The purpose of this Article is to raise the public concern to this issue. It may also make a preparation to amend the Regulation.

  6. Superficial ecosystem similarities vs autecological stripping: the "twin species" Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus and Thermocyclops oithonoides (Sars - seasonal habitat utilisation and life history traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Birger WÆRVÅGEN

    2000-08-01

    showed sediment diapause in all types of localities, even the deepest lakes, usually in the upper littoral region. In more shallow lakes, deeper diapause sites were observed. T. oithonoides diapaused in either the lower littoral, or the profundal regions. M. leuckarti showed different life cycles in localities within the same geographical region, especially in its southern range. In the shallow part of Bodensee in Germany it entered sediment diapause, whereas in the much deeper main basin it showed plankton diapause (also called "active diapause". The period of diapause for M. leuckarti (especially in the sediment decreased from north to south. At about 45º N, sediment and plankton diapause were non-existent, and the species exhibited continuous development, even with relatively low winter temperatures (in Lago Maggiore. T. oithonoides, whose southern distribution in western Europe extends to about 50º N, showed winter sediment diapause throughout its distribution, but frequently with a fraction of the local population in plankton diapause. The combined effects of these different abiotic and biotic parameters help explain the variations of life histories observed in the field.

  7. Review of arbitration clauses in contracts of concession of the 10th. bidding round of the ANP - Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustives; Analise das clausulas de arbitragem nos contratos de concessao da 10a. rodada de licitacoes da Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seixas, Luiz Felipe Monteiro [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis

    2010-01-15

    The use of arbitration as an instrument of conflict resolution has been consolidated in business practices, in particular due to its efficiency and dynamism to the current situation facing the national legal system. In this sense, distinguished the use of arbitration in the oil and natural gas industry, with peculiarities that is already being studied by several researchers in the field of law. This research will analyze the arbitration clauses that comprise the Model Concession Agreement for the 10th Round of ANP, bringing, a brief explanation on the prevision of the use of arbitration in Petroleum Law (Law no. 9.478/97), and as such has influenced the making of the prevision arbitration clauses of concession contracts.Thus, the research, contributed to the study of arbitration in a generic way, and in particular in the oil activity. Finally, some considerations about the rules of arbitration of International Chamber of Commerce shall be plotted in order to reflect the same on the arbitration procedures adopted in the industry of petroleum and natural gas.

  8. 48 CFR 352.270-8 - Prostitution and related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prostitution or sex trafficking. (Note: The term “contract” includes “order” wherever it appears in this clause... shall have a policy explicitly opposing prostitution and sex trafficking. The preceding sentence shall...) “Prostitution” means procuring or providing any commercial sex act. (3) “Sex trafficking” means the...

  9. 29 CFR 5.5 - Contract provisions and related matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include watchmen and guards. (1) Overtime requirements. No contractor or subcontractor contracting for any..., including watchmen and guards, employed in violation of the clause set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this... guards and watchmen, working on the contract. Such records shall contain the name and address of...

  10. 48 CFR 2152.070 - Applicable clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Asset Reversions 52.215-16Facilities Capital Cost of Money 52.215-17Waiver of Facilities Capital Cost of Money 52.215-18Reversion or Adjustment of Plans for Postretirement Benefits (PRB) Other Than Pensions 52....249-8Default (Fixed Price Supply and Service) 52.249-14Excusable Delays 52.251-1Government Supply...

  11. 48 CFR 42.1305 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of..., Government Delay of Work, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price contract is contemplated for...

  12. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  13. 48 CFR 3009.171-9 - Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective... Service guard services contracts with business concerns owned, controlled, or operated by an individual...

  14. 48 CFR 1652.000 - Applicable clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Influence Certain Federal Transactions. 52.209-6Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting...-Owned Small Business Concerns. 52.222-1Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes. 52.222-3Convict Labor...-17Interest. 52.232-23Assignment of Claims. 52.232-33Mandatory Information For Electronic Funds Transfer...

  15. 48 CFR 27.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Variations in size, shape, or capacity of conventional structures; or (ii) Purely artistic or aesthetic (as... intelligence or counterintelligence activities, determines that restriction or elimination of the right to retain any subject invention is necessary to protect the security of such activities; or (iv) The...

  16. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies...... but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...

  17. Flattening, generalizations of clauses and absorption algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn predicate logic, flattening can be used to replace terms with functions by variables. It can also be used for expressing absorption in inverse resolution. This has been done by Rouveirol and Puget. In this article three kinds of absorption algorithms are compared.

  18. 78 FR 22795 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... city, county, town, school district or special district with a population of less than 50,000; and (3... plate or image to be used in the production of printing or microform. ``Camera copy'' (or ``camera-ready... produced in a miniaturized image format, for mass or general distribution and as a substitute...

  19. 48 CFR 811.107 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests for proposals for technical medical and other technical equipment and devices issued by a field... mechanical equipment (other than technical medical and other technical equipment and devices) issued by a field station....

  20. Spatial Relation Resolution and Spatial Relation Abstraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tinghua; LIU Yaolin

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts toregard spatial relation transformationas an important process in map gener-alization. The spatial relation generali-zation can be divided into the compo-nents of abstraction: topology, dis-tance and orientation. The concept‘ spatial relation resolution' is intro-duced to describe the constraints ofrelative spatial relation. On the basisof nine intersection models, the cardi-nal direction models and the iso-dis-tance-relation models, this paper givesthree sorts of relation resolution repre-sentations for topological, distance andorientation relation, respectively. Twomapping implementations in map gen-eralization is discussed.